(CVE-104: dp. 7,800, 1. 512'3", b. 65', ew. 108'1", dr. 22'e", a. 19 k., cpl. 860, a. 1 5", 16 40mm., 20 20mm.
28 ac; cl. Casablanca; T. S4-S2-BB3)
Munda, laid down 29 March 1944 under Maritime Commission contract as MC hull 1141 by the Kniser Shipbuilding Corp., Vancouver, Wash., was originally designated ACV-104; redesignated C,V~104, 15 July 1943; named Tonotcek Bay, 23 September 1943; renamed Munda, 6 November 1943; launched 27 May 1944; sponsored by Mrs. James E. Dyer, and accepted and commissioned 8 July 1944, Capt. T,. A. Pope in command.
After a west coast shakedown, Munda, assigned to Carrier Transport Squadron, Pacific Fleet, got underway independently l6 August 1944 on her maiden voyage. With 71 planes and 202 passengers aboard, she arrived at Espiritu Santo 1 September. Proceeding next to Finschnien and Manus, she returned to Alameda, Callif., for brief availability before setting out again to carry replacement planes and personnel to forward areas. Returning from her second supply run 5 December, she was underway again on the 12th. She completed three more runs to various islands in the Pacific before midyear, 1945, when she sailed for Eniwetok (3 July). There she Joined TG 30.8 and commenced supplying planes pilots, and aviation stores to the fast carriers of TF 38.
She rendezvoused with that force on 20 July, aa it blasted the enemy's home islands, nod remained in the area through the 26th, when she returned to Guam for replenishment. At sea again by the end of the month, she reJoined TF 38 on 3 August, resupplying the carriers then, and again on the 7th and the 11th. On 13 August she departed the formation and was en route back to Guam when she received word of the Japanese surrender. ReJoining T() 30.8, she remained off Japan through the first week of the occupation and on 10 September steamed into Tokyo Bay.
Departing Tokyo 2 October, she Joined the ships assigned to operation "Magic Carpet," and, into the next year, ferried servicemen back to the United States. After completion of that duty, 18 January 1946, Munda prepared for inactivation at Port Angeles. Decommissioned 18 September 1946, she joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet, berthing at Tacoma. Redesignated CVIJ-104, 12 June 1955, she was shifted to Bremerton 29 April 1968. Munda was struck from the Naval Register 1 September 1958 and sold, 17 June 1960, to the General Ore Co., New York.
Munda received one battle star for her service in World War II.
The carrier had a crew of 860 men and could carry 28 aircraft. The dimensions were 156 meters long, 33 meters maximum width and 19.9 meters high. With a displacement of 7800 tons, it was able to achieve a top speed of 20 knots with two drive shafts and four engines with a total of 9000 hp.
She was assigned to the Carrier Transport Squadron of the US Pacific Fleet and brought material to the Pacific and ran after the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay . Then she transported troops back to the USA ( Operation Magic Carpet ).
Munda CVE-104 - History
At this date Taluga's available log reported 75 REP's while moored and  UNREP's while underway.
DESCRIPTIONS of Ships Refueled are linked on the UNREP RECORD Page
0000 Steaming in TU 30.8.65 CTU in USS Munda CVE-104. Fleet course is 260 Â° t. Spd 8 knts. Ship burning dmmd sd lgts.
0416 Changed course to 170 Â° t. In 7 min 080 t. 0430 Set Fueling at Sea Detail.
0535 USS Collett DD-730  came alongside strbd. 0605 Cast off having recvd. 255 brls of fuel oil.
0535 USS Atlanta CL-104  came alongside Port. 0730 Cast off recvd 7,229 brls. fuel oil & 1,700 gal. Av Gas.
0615 USS Higbee DD-806 [226 3] came alongside strbd. 0725 Cast off having recvd. 240 brls. of fuel oil.
0735 USS Robert K. Huntington DD-781  came alongside strbd. 0803 Cast off recvd. 366 brls. of fuel oil.
0754 USS Yorktown CV-10  came alongside Port. 1058 Cast off recvd. 12,189 brls. fuel oil & 83,580 gal. Av. Gas.
and delivered 110 passengers on board.
0813 USS Heermann DD-532  came alongside strbd. 0833 Cast off recvd. 312 brls. of fuel oil.
0849 USS Taussig DD-746  came alongside strbd. 0923 Cast off recvd. 240 brls. of fuel oil.
1125 Sighted Oaga Island [in IZU Islands] bearing 060 Â° t.
1624 USS Carlson DE-9 came alongside strbd. 1634 Cast off having recvd. U.S. Mail.
1652 Changed speed to 6 knts. 17 00 - 2400 log hours not available.
Blue Water’ Navy veterans are fighting for Agent Orange benefits
Posted On April 29, 2020 15:46:55
On Jan. 29, 2019, attorney and retired Navy Cmdr. John B. Wells sat in the office of Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah), ready to meet with staff regarding Lee’s opposition to Blue Water Navy legislation, when his cell phone dinged and brought surprising news from the nearby U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
A lawsuit that Wells and a team of appellant attorneys had argued Dec. 7, 2018, before a full panel of judges on the appeals court had resulted in a stunning 9-2 victory for roughly 70,000 Blue Water Navy veterans.
For Wells, the court’s ruling delightfully deflated the importance of his visit to try to persuade Lee not to again block legislation to extend disability compensation and Department of Veterans Affairs medical care to Navy veterans who deployed decades ago to territorial waters off Vietnam and now are ill, or dead, of ailments associated with Agent Orange and other defoliants used in the war.
Large stacks of 55-gallon drums filled with Agent Orange.
Unless the VA successfully petitions the U.S. Supreme Court to reverse the decision in Procopio v. Wilkie, Blue Water veterans have won a victory denied them for two decades, both in the courts and Congress.
Wells is executive director of Military-Veterans Advocacy of Slidell, La., a non-profit corporation that litigates and advocates for veterans. He said he looked for years for the right case to challenge an appeals court decision that kept Agent Orange benefits from sailors whose ships steamed off Vietnam during the war.
Alfred Procopio Jr., suffers from prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes, two conditions on the VA list of ailments associated with Agent Orange exposure and that trigger benefits if veterans served in Vietnam for a time between Jan. 9, 1962, and May 7, 1975, when U.S. involvement in the war officially ended.
Procopio was aboard the aircraft carrier Intrepid when, in July 1966, ship logs confirm it deployed to territorial waters off South Vietnam. The VA declined in April 2009 to find service connection for his ailments diagnosed a few years earlier. The Board of Veterans’ Appeals also denied service connection, in March 2011 and in July 2015, because Procopio had not gone ashore.
In denying such appeals, boards and judges routinely cite the 2008 appeals court ruling in Haas v. Peake, which affirmed the VA’s interpretation of the Agent Orange Act to exclude veterans from benefits if they didn’t come ashore, even if their ships steamed through Vietnam’s territorial sea, defined as within 12 nautical miles of the coastline.
To prepare for Procopio’s appeal, Wells said he interviewed lawyers at three firms offering pro bono expertise on briefs and arguments before appellate courts. He chose Melanie Bostwick of Orrick, Herrington and Sutcliffe LLP, in Washington, D.C., in part because of her plan to refine the challenge to Haas, focusing on what Congress meant in the Agent Orange Act by presuming exposure to defoliants if veterans served “in the Republic of Vietnam.”
Bostwick pushed the significance of the Act’s reference to the Republic of Vietnam “a step further than we had taken it and she was brilliant,” Wells said.
For Procopio, his lawyers didn’t argue that, given his ship’s location, he must have been exposed at some point to deadly defoliants just like veterans who served ashore. Instead they contended that Congress, in writing the law, intentionally used the formal name for the sovereign coastal nation. Under international law and based on the Act’s legislative history, they argued, “service in the Republic of Vietnam” must be read by the court to include naval service in its territorial waters.
Eight of 11 judges who heard the appeal accepted that argument. Another judge decided in favor of Procopio and Blue Water Navy veterans on other grounds. Two judges dissented.
With Procopio, the appeals court reversed its ruling in Haas. It disagreed that the Agent Orange law is ambiguous as to whether the list of presumptive diseases tied to defoliants should apply to sailors who supported the war from the sea.
Haas had let stand VA regulations that limited access to Agent Orange benefits to veterans who went ashore in Vietnam or patrolled its inland rivers and waterways. In Procopio, the court said what those judges missed a decade ago was the significance of the law granting presumption of service connection for certain diseases to veterans who “served in the Republic of Vietnam.” By using the formal name of that country, explained Judge Kimberly Ann Moore in writing the majority opinion, the Act extended benefit coverage to service in Vietnam’s territorial sea.
The court in Haas “went astray when it found ambiguity” in the plain language of the Act after reviewing “competing methods of defining the reaches of a sovereign nation,” wrote Moore. It should have recognized that Congress unambiguously defined the pool of veterans eligible for benefits as any veteran who had served anywhere in Vietnam, including the territorial sea.
“Congress has spoken directly to the question of whether those who served in the 12-nautical-mile territorial sea of the ‘Republic of Vietnam’ are entitled to [the Act’s] presumption if they meet [its] other requirements. They are. Because ‘the intent of Congress is clear, that is the end of the matter,’ ” Moore wrote, citing a 1984 Supreme Court decision that found a government agency must conform to clear legislative statements when interpreting and applying a law.
Defoliant spray run during the Vietnam War.
Judge Raymond T. Chen dissented in Procopio and was joined by Judge Thomas B. Dyk. Chen’s arguments are likely to be echoed by government attorneys if VA decides to seek Supreme Court review the case.
Chen wrote that, in his view, the Agent Orange Act is ambiguous as to whether benefits should apply to veterans who served offshore. The court majority, he said, “inappropriately pre-empts Congress’s role in determining whether the statute should apply in these circumstances — an issue which Congress is grappling with at this very time.”
By “repudiating a statutory interpretation from a 10-year old precedential opinion, without any evidence of changed circumstances,” Chen wrote, the majority “undermines the principle of stare decisis,” a doctrine that obligates courts to follow precedents set in previous decisions unless they can show clearly the previous decisions were wrongly decided.
Chen did “not find persuasive the majority’s conclusion that international law dictates its interpretation. The Haas court considered similar sources of evidence but still concluded that the statutory phrase was ambiguous,” he wrote.
Chen noted that Congress, in debating whether to extend Agent Orange benefits to Blue Water veterans, found it will require the allocation of billion in fiscal 2019 and .7 billion over 10 years. With so much at stake and without “more compelling” evidence Haas got it wrong, he wrote, the court majority should have left the issue for Congress to settle.
“It is not for the Judiciary to step in and redirect such a significant budget item,” Chen wrote.
Wells said he expects the government to decide within a few weeks whether to petition the Supreme Court to review the case. Meanwhile, he said, “we are very happy with the way the case came out.”
Wells said the Haas case was ripe for reconsideration in part because “the court has been taking an increasingly jaundiced look at the VA and some of the stuff they’ve done” to deny benefits. Also, other cases had “drilled down” on weaknesses in the VA’s regulatory decisions excluding veterans from Agent Orange benefits.
“Frankly, when the VA stripped the benefit [from sailors] back in 2002, we believed that they had nobody in their general counsel’s office competent to understand” the Act and the legal definition of Republic of Vietnam, he said.
Here are the changes to the M16 since ‘Black Hawk Down’
About the time this issue hits the newsstands, the U.S. Special Operations community will likely be taking a look back at one of the most high-profile operations in their history: Operation Gothic Serpent, which included the infamous Battle of the Black Sea, made famous by the book-slash-movie Black Hawk Down. That mission, which took place in October of 1993, is officially 25 years old this fall.
Several veterans of that operation are currently active in the firearms industry and have given their historical accounts of the mission to various media outlets. Instead of trying to retell someone else’s war story, we wanted to take this anniversary to examine the progress of America’s everyman rifle over the ensuing two-and-a-half decades, and perhaps reflect on just how good we have it now.
Blast from the past
As the rise of the retro rifle continues to gain momentum, several companies are now producing period-themed AR-pattern rifles to commemorate past iterations of Stoner’s most famous design. Troy Industries was one of the first to offer an out-of-the-box solution to collectors and enthusiasts wanting a “period” rifle with their My Service Rifle line, commemorating famous military operations, and the associated rifles used to win the day.
Their recent release of the M16A2 SFOD-D carbine made an all-too-appropriate cornerstone for this project. This no-frills rifle was state of the art at the time it was used by small-team elements of the U.S. Army and Air Force in the late s and early s. It’s a 14.5-inch barrel, carbine-length gas system affair with traditional CAR handguards, iron sights, and an A2 carry handle upper. The gun ships with a length of rail mounted on both the carry handle and the 6 o’clock position at the forward end of the handguard.
This carbine was considered state-of-the-art around the time Meatloaf topped radio charts with “I’d Do Anything For Love (But I Won’t Do That).” If that doesn’t make you feel old …
As a preface to all of you firearm historians out there, please note that this was an “in the spirit of” build and does features accessories in the style of this period, as opposed to the actual items. Attempting to procure the actual lights, sights, and mounts from two-plus decades ago was hardly conducive to deadlines or production budgets. So, in several cases, we had to make do with “close enough.” Good enough, as the saying goes, for government work. This particular Gothic Serpent sample is outfitted with a SureFire 6P, complete with a whopping 60-lumen incandescent bulb, mounted on a single scope ring with their push-button tactical tail cap. The optic is an Aimpoint 9000, which uses the longer tube style of the older 5000 with updated electronics.
While the idea of mounting a light to a weapon isn’t exactly new, the technology to do so in a manner that’s both convenient and ergonomic is a relatively recent development. As late as the early years of Operation Iraqi Freedom, line units were using duct tape and hose clamps to hold D-cell mag lights onto their rifles. The SOF community, having a larger budget and more time dedicated to RD, found that you could use weaver scope rings to mount the then-new smaller lights made by SureFire onto their guns. Certainly better than the methods used by conventional units even a decade later, this small measure of convenience came with two primary pitfalls — actuating the light and lumens.
Though night vision, and the earlier starlight technology, dates back to Vietnam and somewhat before, dedicated night-fighting gear isn’t a catchall for “intermediate” lighting situations. Think about entering a dark room in the middle of a bright desert afternoon in Africa. You need some kind of artificial light to see your target, but early night vision goggles — prone to washout or permanent damage from ambient light through a window or hole in the ceiling — were the wrong answer. So weapon lights became the best compromise.
Even though any advantage is better than no advantage, less than 100 lumens doesn’t buy you much reaction time. As your eyes are rapidly adjusting from bright light, to no light, to a little bit of light the “increased” ability to identify friend from foe is marginal at best. Tape switches were available at the time, but far from universal and far from reliable. They had to be taped on and, if you’ve ever had a piece of tape peel off something in the heat, you know that taping things together isn’t the most ironclad attachment method.
Once you get the light mounted, you have to be able to actually turn it on. With the light at the bottom of the handguard, thumb activation is out of the question. To make this placement work, we had to shift our support handgrip to just past the magwell and use the index knuckle of that hand to trip the light. It works, but not well. While firing, we had trouble keeping enough pressure on the switch to keep it on. The other option is to twist the tailcap for constant-on, but then you run into the fairly obvious issues of battery life, and of giving away your position between engagements.
Synergistic advances in handguards, lights, and forward grips provide a support-hand hold that’s more ergonomic and offers better control over the weapon.
Once you can see your target, you gotta hit it. The early electro-optical sights, also of Vietnam vintage, were a huge boon for rapid shots under tight constraints. The optics themselves, to include the Aimpoint 3000s and 5000s of the Black Hawk Down era, didn’t have the kind of battery life or reliability that we now expect from any red dot worth its salt. But mounting them on an A2-style receiver created an additional issue: height over bore.
For the uninitiated, height over bore is exactly what it sounds like. Mounting your scope several inches above your barrel creates the need for both mechanical offset when you zero as well as for manual holdover when trying to make precise shots — like headshots, which are a common point of training for hostage rescue units. Furthermore, these high-mounted optics require a “chin weld” on the stock, which is unnatural, uncomfortable, and offers a floating sight picture at best, particularly while shooting on the move.
Latest and greatest
As a demonstration of the technical progress that’s been made in configuring the AR or M4-style rifle, we contrast Troy’s My Service Rifle SFOD-D gun to their own cutting-edge carbine, the SOC-C. The SOCC (Special Operations Compatible Carbine) also sports a 14.5-inch barrel chambered in 5.56mm — which is squarely where the similarities end. The SOC-C features a mid-length gas system. Recent testing by USSOCOM has proven what the commercial market has known for years —that the longer gas tube makes for a cleaner and softer shooting weapon.
The SOCC covers that gas tube with a 12-inch M-LOK handguard. This single feature offers the warfighter a level of modularity that hasn’t been known since the M16’s introduction six decades ago. Now you can mount your lights and any other accessory wherever you want. In our case, we used SureFire’s new 600DF weaponlight attached to the rifle by way of an Arisaka Defense inline mount. The 600DF produces 1,500 lumens, which not only restores small rooms to broad daylight conditions at the push of a button, but can probably be used to signal low-flying aircraft or heat up your MRE.
When Super 6-4 went down near the Bakara Market in Mogadishu, soldiers had to mount a rail to the handguard, a scope ring to the rail, and the light into the scope ring. This system creates poor ergonomics and multiple points of failure for your light to shoot loose or fall off completely. With the 600DF/Arisaka combo, the mount is screwed directly into the body of the flashlight, and then attached directly to the handguard. Not only is this a simpler system less prone to mechanical failure, but the advent of modular handguards provides adjustability in where the light is placed, both lengthwise along the fore-end and around its circumference. The biggest single benefit to come from this advancement is that, now, you can configure the gun around the operator’s natural stance and hand placement instead of changing how you fight just to accommodate a flashlight.
Things like lower height-over-bore and shorter overall length give the SOCC carbine a distinct edge over its partner. Internals and fire controls are also highly improved over Mil-spec.
Optics have gotten smaller, smarter, tougher, and more diverse in the last 25 years. Our SOCC sports an Aimpoint Comp M5. It’s their smallest and most efficient rifle-mounted red dot. With battery life measured in years and a slew of brightness settings that include night vision compatibility. The move from carry-handle upper receivers to full-length top rails provide a laundry list of benefits on a fighting rifle. The aforementioned height-over-bore issue all but disappears. This simplifies zero. It also simplifies unconventional shooting positions like shooting over or under a barricade and allows a proper cheek weld. Additionally, the full-length top rail allows end users to utilize different types of optics. The vast increase in mounting space means that force multipliers like variable-power glass and clip-on thermal or night-vision units can be mounted quickly and securely with no tools, as the mission changes.
All the small things
While lights and sights were our two most obvious observations, there are other less prominent improvements that are equally important. One is the advent of ambidextrous controls. While, statistically, the number of left-handed shooters is pretty low throughout the ranks, if you happen to have one on your team you want them to reap all the same benefits everyone else in the stack does. Ambi selector levers, charging handles, and mag and bolt releases all create a perfectly mirrored manual of arms, regardless of which hand is pressing the trigger. But it’s not only southpaws who get something out of it.
The advent of urban warfare has forced U.S. soldiers to enter a battle space full of walls, windows, and hard angles. Being able to transition your carbine from strong side to support side as you adapt to available cover offers a very real increase in soldier survivability. Ambidextrous buttons and switches allow all shooters to switch-hit off of barriers without having to change anything about how they drive their gun.
Things like lower height-over-bore and shorter overall length give the SOCC carbine a distinct edge over its partner. Internals and fire controls are also highly improved over Mil-spec.
The last, but perhaps most critical upgrades we’ll discuss come in the form of the almighty bang switch. After executing proper stance/grip/sight alignment/sight picture, trigger press is the shooter’s last physical input into the weapon before that round leaves the barrel. Sloppy or harsh trigger press can throw a shot even if you do everything else right. This becomes a literal matter of life and death for units that fight in very close quarters where hostages and innocents are all in play.
The M16A2 SFOD-D sports a standard Mil-spec trigger that was delightfully rocky and inconsistent. By comparison, the SOCC comes out of the box with a Geissele G2S trigger. While not marketed as a match trigger per se, it offers a gliding smooth take-up with a consistent break that snaps like a carrot each and every time. It’s this consistency and predictability that gives a shooter an opportunity to improve their marksmanship more quickly, as well as imparting a confidence that the trigger will do exactly what you want it to every single time — a not insignificant comfort when entering situations measured in tenths of a second.
Newer shooters, and older ones who have embraced progress, get quickly adjusted to the ease with which a modern, properly configured rifle can be run hard under demanding conditions. While the events of Operation Gothic Serpent can be labeled as both tragic and heroic, the lessons learned from those units and their experience cobbling together a “best possible” solution with the parts they had set in motion a ripple effect that helped birth the cutting-edge carbines we now use to defend our country and our homes.
This article originally appeared on Recoilweb. Follow @RecoilMag on Twitter.
In 45BC, the Roman Civil War, which had been raging for four years between the forces of Pompey's Republic and Julius Caesar, was brought to an end when Caesar conquered his opponent at the Battle of Munda. (On his return to Rome, Caesar was named Dictator, although he was murdered soon after, and later the Roman Empire was founded.)
The site of the Romano-Spanish town of Munda is open to some doubt, but some, including the inhabitants of Monda itself, are convinced that Roman Munda and modern-day Monda are the same place. It is posible the battle was fought near to present day Montilla (in Cordoba province), or more likely near Lantejuela between of Ecija and Osuna (in Seville province), but Monda likes the story and clings tenaciously to it.
Just outside the village, after Calle Malaga on a sharp bend of the A-7101, a sign indicates 100m down a track past some houses. Fork right and you will soon reach the old cobbled surface of the Roman road from Monda to Cartama. A 100m stretch can be seen as it descends steeply to the Arroyo Casarín. The sign and other literature also refers to a (mythical) 'Puente del Arroyo de la Teja'
When the Romans left, the settlement fell into decline until the Moors arrived and built a fortress.
Con tàu nguyên mang cái tên Tonowek Bay, nhưng được đổi tên thành Munda vào ngày 6 tháng 11 năm 1943 trước khi được đặt lườn tại Xưởng tàu Vancouver của hãng Kaiser Company, Inc. ở Vancouver, Washington vào ngày 29 tháng 3 năm 1944. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 1944 được đỡ đầu bởi bà James E. Dyer, rồi được hải quân sở hữu và nhập biên chế vào ngày 8 tháng 7 năm 1944 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Đại tá Hải quân L. A. Pope.
Sau chuyến đi chạy thử máy dọc theo vùng bờ Tây, Munda được phân về Hải đội Tàu sân bay Vận chuyển trực thuộc Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương, làm nhiệm vụ vận chuyển máy bay thay thế, thiết bị và nhân sự đến các căn cứ tiền phương tại Mặt trận Thái Bình Dương. Nó lên đường vào ngày 16 tháng 8 năm 1944 cho chuyến hải hành đầu tiên, vận chuyển 71 máy bay và 202 hành khách và đi đến Espiritu Santo vào ngày 1 tháng 9. Con tàu tiếp tục đi sang Finschhafen và đảo Manus trước khi quay trở về Alameda, California để bảo trì. Nó hoàn tất chuyến đi thứ hai vào ngày 5 tháng 12 trước khi lại lên đường vào ngày 12 tháng 12, hoàn tất thêm ba chuyến đi khác đến các đảo tại Thái Bình Dương cho đến giữa năm 1945.
Munda khởi hành đi Eniwetok vào ngày 3 tháng 7, nơi nó gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 30.8 trong vai trò cung cấp máy bay thay thế, phi công và hàng tiếp liệu không quân cho các tàu sân bay nhanh thuộc Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38. Nó gặp gỡ lực lượng đặc nhiệm vào ngày 20 tháng 7, khi đơn vị này không kích xuống các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản, và đã ở lại khu vực cho đến ngày 26 tháng 7, khi nó rút lui về Guam để tiếp liệu. Con tàu lại ra khơi vào cuối tháng 7, gặp gỡ Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 38 để tiếp liệu vào ngày 3 tháng 8, và hoạt động tương tự trong các ngày 7 và 11 tháng 8. Nó lên đường quay trở về Guam vào ngày 13 tháng 8, khi nhận tin tức về việc Nhật Bản đầu hàng kết thúc cuộc xung đột. Nó lại gia nhập Đội đặc nhiệm 30.8 để hoạt động ngoài khơi Nhật Bản trong những tuần lễ đầu tiên của cuộc chiếm đóng, và đã tiến vào vịnh Tokyo vào ngày 10 tháng 9.
Munda rời Tokyo vào ngày 2 tháng 10, tham gia các chuyến đi trong khuôn khổ Chiến dịch Magic Carpet để hồi hương những cựu chiến binh phục vụ ở nước ngoài. Hoàn tất chuyến đi cuối cùng vào ngày 18 tháng 1 năm 1946, nó được chuẩn bị để ngừng hoạt động tại Port Angeles, Washington, và được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 13 tháng 9 năm 1946, được đưa về Hạm đội Dự bị Thái Bình Dương neo đậu tại Tacoma, Washington. Đang khi trong thành phần dự bị, nó được xếp lại lớp như một tàu sân bay đa dụng với ký hiệu lườn CVU-104 vào ngày 12 tháng 6 năm 1955 rồi được chuyển đến Bremerton, Washington vào ngày 29 tháng 4 năm 1958. Tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 1 tháng 9 năm 1958 và con tàu bị bán cho hãng General Ore Company ở New York vào ngày 17 tháng 6 năm 1960 để tháo dỡ.
Munda được tặng thưởng một Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.
Munda CVE-104 - History
Greetings, admirals and ship designers! Do you want to historically design and build the warships to represent the strength of the US Navy in vanilla Hearts of Iron IV? Say no more, I am introducing the list of the templates I designed to represent all classes of warships right in the beginning of 1936 and ending of 1945. The naval templates are including aircraft carriers (CV), light aircraft carriers (CVL), escort aircraft carriers (CVE), battleships (BB), battlecruisers (BC), heavy cruisers (CA), light cruisers (CL), cruiser minelayer (CM), destroyers (DD), destroyer escorts (DE), destroyer minelayers (DM), minesweepers (AM), and submarines (SS). The list includes general specifications in real life, modules, production, and brief history. Please note that all of the templates are designed in the vanilla game. I cannot speak for the mods.
The US Navy had 3 new fleet carrier classes. There were 28 new CVs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 70,000hp, 29.5 knots, 8 x 5in guns, 16 x 1.1in AA guns, 24 x .50 cal AA guns, and 100 airplanes.
Modules in game: 3 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air II, Radar II, Engine I, Secondary Battery II
Buildup: 1 Wasp USS Wasp (CV-7).
Historical Service: Constructed and commissioned in 1940. Deployed to the Atlantic Ocean for patrols and convoying to Malta until after the Battle of Midway. She was transferred to Pacific. She was heavily inflicted by a Japanese submarine at Guadalcanal sea. She proceeded to get torpedoed by her escorts in September 1942.
General Specifications: 150,000hp, 33 knots, 12 x 5in/38 cal guns, 32-72 x 40mm AA guns, 55-76 x 20 mm AA guns, and 100 airplanes.
Modules in game: 4 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air III, Radar III, Engine III, Dual-Purpose Secondary Battery
**Refit to get all modules upgraded to tier IV for absolute modernization after World War II**
Buildup: 24 Essexes USS Essex (CV-9) . … … USS Philippine Sea (CV-47).
Historical Service: First launched in July 1942. All warships were deployed and had survived in the Pacific War. The last Essex-class aircraft carrier of USS Philippine Sea (CV-47) to launch was in September 1945.
General Specifications: 212,000hp, 33 knots, 18 x 5 in/54 cal guns, 21 x quad 40mm AA guns, 28 x 20mm AA guns, and 100-130 airplanes.
Modules in game: 4 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air IV, Radar IV, Engine IV, Dual-Purpose Secondary Battery
Buildup: 3 Midways USS Midway (CV-41) USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42) USS Coral Sea (CV-43).
Historical Service: First launched in March 1945. All ships were commissioned too late to see the conclusion of the War over Japan.
US Navy had two new classes of Light Aircraft Carriers. There were 11 new CVLs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 100,000hp, 31.5 knots, 26 x 40 mm AA guns, and 34 airplanes.
Modules in game: 2 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air III, Radar III, Engine II
Air wing: 24 F6Fs, 10 TBFs
Buildup: 9 Independences USS Independence (CVL-22) . USS San Jacinto (CVL-30).
Historical Service: First launched in August 1942 and commissioned in January 1943. All were deployed to the Pacific Ocean. All, except USS Princeton (CVL-23), had survived the Pacfic War. USS Princeton (CVL-23) was torpedoed by her escorts after being inflicted by the Japanese air attack in October 1944.
General Specifications: 120,000hp, 33 knots, 42 x Bofors 40 mm guns, 16 x 20 mm guns AA, and 42-50 airplanes.
Modules in game: 3 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air III, Radar IV, Engine II
Air wing: 18 F6Fs, 12 SB2s, 12 TBFs
Buildup: 2 Saipans USS Saipan (CVL-48) USS Wright (CVL-49).
Historical Service: USS Saipan (CVL-48) launched in July 1945, and USS Wright (CVL-49) launched in September 1945. They both were commissioned postwar.
The US Navy had five new classes of escort carriers. There were 116 new CVEs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 8,500hp, 16.5 knots, 1 x 5 in/51 cal gun, 2 x 3 in/50 cal guns, and 30 airplanes.
Modules in game: 2 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air I, Radar II, Engine I, Secondary Battery I
Buildup: 2 Long Islands USS Long Island (CVE-1) HMS Archer (D78).
Historical Service: USS Long Island (CVE-1) was launched in January 1940 and commissioned in June 1941. HMS Archer (D78) was commissioned in November 1941 and lend-leased to the Royal Navy.
General Specifications: 8,500hp, 18 knots, 8 x 40mm AA guns, 10-35 x 20mm AA guns, and 24 airplanes max.
Modules in game: Deck Space, Anti-Air III, Radar III, Engine I
Air wing: 12 F4Fs, 10 TBFs
Buildup: 45 Bogues (34 lend-leased to Royal Navy) USS Bogue (CVE-9) … USS Prince William (CVE-31).
Historical Service: USS Bogue (CVE-9) was launched in April 1942 and commissioned in November 1942. Only 11 Bogues were under American service. Served as anti-submarine hunter-killer in the Atlantic Ocean. The remaining of American Bogues were moved to the Pacific Ocean. USS Block Island (CVE-21) was only the American carrier that sank in the Atlantic Ocean in May 1944. She was torpedoed by the German submarine.
General Specifications: 13,500hp, 2 x 5in/51 cal guns, 18 knots, 8 x 40mm AA guns, 12 x 20mm AA guns, and 32 airplanes.
Modules in game: 2 x Deck Space, Anti-air III, Radar III, Engine I, Secondary Battery II
Buildup: 4 Sangamons USS Sangamon (CVE-26) USS Suwannee (CVE-27) USS Chenango (CVE-28) USS Santee (CVE-29).
Historical Service: Starting from late 1942 until the end of the war, the ships served in the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Pacific Campaigns. Sangamons were the only escort carriers to carry dive bombers. All ships had survived in World War II.
General Specifications: 9,000hp, 19 knots, 5in/38 cal gun, 8 x 40mm guns, 12 x 20mm guns, and 27 airplanes.
Modules in game: 2 x Deck Space, Anti-air III, Radar III, Engine I, Dual-Purpose Secondary Battery
Buildup: 50 Casablancas USS Casablanca (CVE-55) … … … USS Munda (CVE-104).
Historical Service: First launched in April 1943, and last launched in July 1944. Extensively served at the Pacific War. USS Liscome Bay (CVE-56), USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), USS St. Lo (CVE-63), USS Ommaney Bay (CVE-79), and USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95) were sunk in the action.
General Specifications: 16,000hp, 19 knots, 2 x 5in/38 caliber guns, 36 x 40mm AA guns, 20 x 20mm Oerlikon guns, and 34 airplanes.
Modules in game: 2 x Deck Spaces, Anti-Air III, Radar IV, Engine I, Dual-Purpose Secondary Battery
Buildup: 16 Commencement Bays USS Commencement Bay (CVE-105) … USS Tinian (CVE-123).
Historical Service: First launched in May 1944, and last launched in September 1945. All ships never had got any operational service except as training ships.
There were three new classes of battleships in the US Navy. There were 10 new BBs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 121,000hp, 28 knots, (3 x 3) 16in/45 cal Mk 6 guns, dual-purposes guns, 40mm + 20mm AA guns, and 12in belt.
Modules in game: 3 x Batteries III, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Aircraft Facility II, Anti-Air II, Fire Control, Radar II, Engine II, Battleship Armor II
Buildup: 2 North Carolinas USS North Carolina (BB-55) USS Washington (BB-56).
Historical Service: USS North Carolina (BB-55) launched (June 1940) and commissioned in April 1941. USS Washington (BB-56) launched (June 1940) and commissioned in May 1941. All deployed in Pacific Ocean and survived.
General Specifications: 130,000hp, 27.5 knots, (3 x 3) 16in guns, dual-propose turrets, 40mm AA guns, and 12.2in belt.
Modules in game: 3 x Batteries III, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Aircraft Facility II, 2 x Anti-Airs IV, Fire Control II, Radar III, Engine III, Battleship Armor II
Buildup: 4 South Dakotas USS South Dakota (BB-57) USS Indiana (BB-58) USS Massachusetts (BB-59) USS Alabama (BB-60).
Historical Service: First launched in June 1941. All deployed to Pacific Ocean and survived.
General Specifications: 212,000hp, 33 knots, (3 x 3) 16in/50 cal guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 12.1in belt.
Modules in game: 3 x Batteries IV, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Aircraft Facility II, 2 x Anti-Airs IV, Fire Control III, Radar IV, Engine IV, Battleship Armor II
Buildup: 4 Iowas USS Iowa (BB-61) USS New Jersey (BB-62) USS Missouri (BB-63) USS Wisconsin (BB-64).
Historical Service: First launched in August 1942. All deployed to Pacific Ocean and survived.
This is the non-existent historical class if the US Navy had to resume and construct the Montana-class battleships.
Specifications: 172,200hp, 28 knots, (4 x 3) 16in 50 cal Mk 7 guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 16.1 in belt.
Modules in game: 4 x Super-heavy batteries, 4 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, 2 x Anti-AIrs IV, Fire Control III, Radar IV, Engine IV, Super-Heavy Armor
Buildup: Was planned to have five Montanas in real life USS Montana (BB-67) USS Ohio (BB-68) USS Maine (BB-69) USS New Hampshire (BB-70) USS Louisiana (BB-71).
Historical Service: The Montana battleship project was canceled before any ship ever got laid down.
Historically, it was officially Large Cruiser (CB) in the US Navy. The US Navy had its authorized only large cruiser class. There were 2 new BCs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 150,000hp, 33 knots, (3 x 3) 12in/50 cal Mk 8 guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 9in belt.
Modules in game: 3 x Batteries I, 3 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Anti-Air IV, Aircraft Facility II, Fire Control III, Radar IV, Engine III, Battlecruiser Armor II
Buildup: 2 Alaskas USS Alaska (CB-1) USS Guam (CB-2).
Historical Service: First launched in August 1943 and commissioned in June 1944. Both ships deployed to the Pacific Ocean and survived.
The US Navy had two new classes of heavy cruisers. There were 18 new CAs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 120,000hp, 33 knots, (3 x 3) 8in guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, 4-6in belt.
Modules in game: 3 x Medium Batteries III, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, 2 x Anti-Airs IV, Aircraft Facility II, Fire Control II, Radar III, Engine II, Armor III
Buildup: 14 Baltimores USS Baltimore (CA-68) . USS Chicago (CA-136).
Historical Service: First launched in July 1942 last launched in August 1944. Deploying to Pacific Ocean, all had survived.
General Specifications: 120,000hp, 32.4 knots, (3 x 3) 8in cal guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns.
Modules in game: 3 x Medium Batteries IV, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, 2 x Anti-Airs IV, Aircraft Facility II, Fire Control IV, Radar IV, Engine IV, Armor IV
Buildup: 4 Oregon Cities USS Oregon City (CA-122) USS Albany (CA-123) USS Rochester (CA-124) USS Northampton (CA-125).
Historical Service: First launched in June 1945 and commissioned in February 1946. All never had seen the action at the Pacific War.
The US Navy had four new classes of light cruisers. There were 29 new CLs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 75,000hp, 32.5 knots, 12 x 5in/38 cal guns, 40mm AA guns, and 1.1-3.75in belt.
Modules in game: 6 x Dual-Purpose Main Batteries, Anti-Air III, Fire Control II, Radar III, Engine I, Armor I
Buildup: 8 Altantas USS Atlanta (CL-51) … USS Tucson (CL-98)
Historical Service: First launched in September 1941 last launched in September 1944. USS Atlanta (CL-51) and USS Juneau (CL-52) were sunk in the Battle of Guadalcanal, November 1942. The remaining Altantas served and survived during the Pacific War.
General Specifications: 100,000hp, 32.5 knots, (4 x 3) 6in/47 guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 3.25-5in belt.
Modules in game: 4 x Light Cruiser Batteries III, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Anti-Air III, Aircraft Facility II, Fire Control II, Radar III, Engine II, Armor II
Buildup: 27 Clevelands USS Cleveland (CL-55) … USS Dayton (CL-105).
Historical Service: First launched in November 1941 last launched in March 1944. Mainly served in the Pacific Ocean. Some of the ships served in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean
Sea. No single Cleveland ship was ever lost in the action.
General Specifications: 100,000hp, 32.5 knots, 4 x 3 6in/47 guns, dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 1.5-5in belt.
Modules in game: 4 x Light Cruiser Batteries IV, 2 x Dual-Purpose Secondary Batteries, Anti-Air IV, Aircraft Facility II, Fire Control III, Radar IV, Engine III, Armor III
Buildup: 2 Fargoes USS Fargo (CL-106) USS Huntington (CL-107).
Historical Service: Both were launched in February and October 1945 and commissioned after the conclusion of World War II.
General Specifications: 78,749hp, 32.7 knots, 12 x 5 5in/38 cal dual-purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, and 1.1-3.75in belt.
Modules in game: 6 x Dual-Purpose Main Batteries, Anti-Air IV, Fire Control III, Radar IV, Engine II, Armor I
Buildup: 2 Juneaus USS Juneau (CL-119) USS Spokane (CL-120).
Historical Service: Based on Atlanta class and improved, the Juneau ships continued to serve as anti-air cruisers. Both were launched in the summer of 1945 and commissioned after the conclusion of World War II.
The US Navy had authorized only true fleet minelayer.
General Specifications: 22,000hp, 20.3 knots, 4 x 5/38 cal guns, 1.1in cal AA guns, and mines.
Modules in game: 4 x Light Batteries II, Anti-air II, Fire Control, 2 x minelaying rails, Engine I
Buildup: 1 Cruiser Minelayer USS Terror (CM-5).
Historical Service: Launched in June 1941. She was only one that was designed and completed as the cruiser minelayer. She served in the North Africa campaign and the Pacific War and survived.
The US Navy had 12 new classes of destroyers. There were 492 new destroyers in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 47,000hp-52,000hp , 37 knots at average, 5in/38 cal guns, .50 cal - 1.1in AA guns, 21 in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
This ship template will represent seven classes simultaneously since the classes shared similar attributes.
Modules in game: Light Battery II, Anti-Air II, 2 x Torpedo Tubes II, Depth Charges II, Fire Control I, Radar III, Engine II
Buildup: 8 Porters, 18 Mahens, 4 Gridleys, 8 Bagleys, 5 Somers, 10 Benhams, and 12 Sims. Total ships: 65.
Historical Service: Launched of all ships in 1936 to early 1939. Porter class lost 1 destroyer Mahan class lost 6 Bagley class lost 3 Somers class lost 1 Benham class lost 2 Sims class lost 5.
General Specifications: 50,000hp, 33-37.5 knots, 5in dual purpose guns, .50 cal AA guns, 21in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
This ship template will represent two classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: 2 x Light Batteries, Anti-Air III, Torpedo Tubes III, 2 x Depth Charges II, Fire Control II, Radar III, Engine III
Buildup: 30 Bensons and 66 Gleaves. Total ships: 96.
Historical Service: Launched in winter of 1939 and commissioned in the 1940s. Last ships of both classes were completed in early 1943. Total loss of ships in Benson class: 3, total loss of ships in Gleaves: 14.
General Specifications: 60,000hp, 36.5 knots, 5in/38 cal dual purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, 21in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
Modules in game: 2 x Dual-Purpose Main Batteries, Anti-Air III, 2 x Torpedo Tubes III, Depth Charges III, Sonar I, Radar III, Engine III
Buildup: 175 Fletchers USS Fletcher (DD-445) … … … USS Rooks (DD-804).
Historical Service: Launched and commissioned in 1942-1944. 25 Fletchers were lost in the action.
General Specifications: 60,000hp, 34 knots, 5in/38 cal dual purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, 21in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
This ship template will represent two classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: 3 x Dual-Purpose Main Batteries, Anti-Air IV, 2 x Torpedo Tubes IV, Depth Charges III, Sonar II, Radar IV, Engine IV
Buildup: 58 Sumners and 98 Gearings. Total ships: 156.
Historical Service: Completed and launched in 1943-1945. Four Sumners were lost during the Pacific War.
The US Navy had six new classes of destroyer escorts. There were 551 new destroyer escorts in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 19 knots, 3in/50 guns, 20mm AA guns, and depth charges (160 total).
Modules in game: 2 x Depth Charges III, Light Battery I, Anti-Air II, Sonar II, Radar III, Engine I
Historical Service: First launched in December 1942 last launched in November 1943. Served as convoy escort and ASW. None of Evarts ships was lost in the action.
General Specifications: 21-24 knots, 3in/50 guns, 40mm AA guns, 21in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
This ship template will represent three classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: Depth Charges III, Light Battery I, Anti-Air III, Sonar II, Radar III, Torpedo Tubes I, Engine I
Buildup: 148 Buckleys, 116 Cannons, and 85 Edsals Total ships: 349.
Historical Service: First launched in January 1943 last launched in August 1944. Buckley class lost four ships, and Edsall class lost 5 ships.
General Specifications: 24 knots, 5inch/38 dual purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, 21in torpedo tubes, and depth charges.
This ship template will represent two classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: 2 x Depth Charges III, Dual-Purpose Main Battery, Anti-Air III, Sonar II, Radar IV, Torpedo Tubes I, Engine I
Buildup: 22 Rudderows and 83 John C Butlers. Total ships: 105.
Historical Service: First launched in October 1943 last launched March 1944. John C. Butler class only lost three ships in the action.
The US Navy authorized the only class of destroyer minelayers. There were 12 new DMs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 60,000hp, 34 knots, 5in/38 cal dual purpose guns, 40mm AA guns, depth charges, and mines (total 80).
Modules in game: 3 x Dual-Purpose Main Batteries, Anti-Air IV, 2 x minelaying rails, Fire Control 0, Radar IV, Engine IV
Buildup: 12 Robert H. Smiths.
Historical Service: Originally laid down as Sumner class, the first was launched in May 1944, and the last was launched in August 1944. No ships ever had laid a mine in the action. All ships served in the Pacific Ocean and survived.
The US Navy had three new classes of minesweepers. There were 220 new AMs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 18 knots, 3in/50 cal gun, and 40mm AA guns.
Modules in game: Light Battery 1, Anti-Air III, Minesweeping Gear, Engine I
Buildup: 2 Ravens USS Raven (AM-55) USS Osprey (AM-56).
Historical Service: Launched in August 1940. USS Raven AM-55 served as coastal escorts in Atlantic Ocean. She cleared the mines off Normandy in June 5, 1944 and Naples in August 1944. She survived. USS Osprey patrolled in the Atlantic Ocean. She became the first victim of D-Day in June 5, 1944 when she hit a mine and sank.
General Specifications: 12 knots, 3in/50 cal gun, 40mm AA guns, and depth charges.
Modules in game: Light Battery 1, Anti-Air III, Radar III, Depth Charges I, Minesweeping Gear, Engine I
Historical Service: First launched in August 1941 last launched in April 1945. 23 Auks were lost in the action.
General Specifications: 15 knots, 3in/50 cal gun, 40mm AA guns, and depth charges.
Modules in game: Light Battery 1, Anti-Air III, Radar III, Depth Charges III, Minesweeping Gear, Engine I
Buildup: 123 Admirables.
Historical Service: First launched in October 1942 last launched in June 1944.
The US Navy had 7 new classes of submarines. There were 278 new SSs in the US Navy.
General Specifications: 18-21 knots and 21in torpedo tubes.
This ship template will represent three classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: 2 x Torpedo Tubes II, Engine II
Buildup: 6 Salmons, 10 Sargos, 12 Tambors. Total submarines: 28.
Historical Service: First launched in June 1937 last launched in January 1941. Sargo class lost 4 submarines Tambor lost 7 submarines. All served during the Pacific War.
General Specifications: 16-21 knots and 21in torpedo tubes.
This ship template will represent three classes simultaneously.
Modules in game: 2 x Torpedo Tubes III, Radar III, Engine II
Buildup: 2 Mackerels 77 Gatos 120 Balos. Total submarines: 199.
Historical Service: First launched in September 1940 last launched in April 1496. The Gato class lost 20 submarines, and the Balao class lost 11 submarines.
General Specifications: 5,400hp (surfaced), 20 knots, and 21in torpedo tubes.
Modules in game: 2 x Torpedo Tubes IV, Radar IV, Engine IV
Historical Service: First launched in July 1944 last launched in May 1948. All submarines had survived in World War II.
Combining all of the listed ships on this guide, you have 1,772 possible warships to field in Hearts of Iron IV, excluding the British-made ships and Montana class. This is your grand challenge to meet the production of a total 1,772 warships from 1936 to 1945.
This concluded my comprehensive guide to the US Navy’s warships in World War II. I hope you have enjoyed and learned the history of US Navy’s warships during World War II. I used Wikipedia as the source to describe the general specifications for each ship. I am aware that Wikipedia may not be the best source to use to describe the ships. Regardlessly, please leave constructive, thoughtful comments if you find this guide useful or interesting. Alternatively, leave the comments if you disagree with some of templates due to the incorrect modules or incorrect information regarding the ship.
Munda Rebellion is one of the prominent 19th century tribal rebellions in the subcontinent. Birsa Munda led this movement in the region south of Ranchi in 1899-1900. the ulgulan, meaning 'Great Tumult', sought to establish Munda Raj and independence. The Mundas traditionally enjoyed a preferential rent rate as the khuntkattidar or the original clearer of the forest. But in course of the 19th century they had seen this khuntkatti land system being eroded by the jagirdars and thikadars coming as merchants and moneylenders.
This process of land alienation had begun long before the advent of the British. But the establishment and consolidation of British rule accelerated the mobility of the non-tribal people into the tribal regions. The incidence of forced labour or beth begari also increased dramatically. Unscrupulous contractors, moreover, had turned the region, into a recruiting ground for indentured labour. Yet another change associated with British rule was the appearance of a number of Lutheran, Anglican and Catholic missions. The spread of education through missionary activities made the tribals more organised and conscious of their rights. Tribal solidarity was undermined as the social cleavage between the Christian and non-Christian Mundas deepened. The agrarian discontent and the advent of Christianity, therefore, helped the revitalisation of the movement, which sought to reconstruct the tribal society disintegrating under the stresses and strains of colonial rule.
Birsa Munda (1874-1900), the son of a sharecropper who had received some education from the missionaries came under Vaishnava influence and in 1893-94 participated in a movement to prevent village wastelands from being taken over by the Forest Department. In 1895 Birsa, claiming to have seen a vision of god, proclaimed himself a prophet with miraculous healing powers. Thousands flocked to hear the 'new word' of Birsa with its prophecy of an imminent deluge. The new prophet became a critic of the traditional tribal customs, religious beliefs and practices. He called upon the Mundas to fight against superstition, give up animal sacrifice, stop taking intoxicants, to wear the sacred thread and retain the tribal tradition of worship in the sarna or the sacred grove. It was essentially a revivalist movement, which sought to purge Munda society of all foreign elements and restore its pristine character. Christianity influenced the movement as well and it used both Hindu and Christian idioms to create the Munda ideology and worldview.
An agrarian and political note was then injected into what initially was a religious movement. From 1858 onwards, Christian tribal raiyats had been on the offensive against alien landlords and beth begari through lawsuits. This was the mulkai ladai or the struggle for land, also known as the Sardari ladai. The complexion of Birsa Munda's religious movement changed through its contact with the Sardar movement. Initially the Sardars (tribal chiefs) did not have much to do with Birsa, but once his popularity swelled they drew on him to provide a stable base for their own weakened struggle. Though influenced by the Sardars, Birsa, however, was not their mouthpiece and despite the common agrarian background of the two movements, there were considerable differences between them. The Sardars initially professed loyalty to the British and even to the Raja of Chhotanagpur and only wanted the elimination of intermediary interests. Birsa, on the other hand, had a positive political programme, his object being the attainment of independence, both religious and political. The movement sought the assertion of the rights of the Mundas as the real proprietors of the soil. This ideal agrarian order, according to Birsa, would be possible in a world free from the influence of European officials and missionaries, thus necessitating the establishment of the Munda Raj.
The British, who feared a conspiracy, jailed Birsa for two years in 1895, but he returned from jail, much more of a firebrand. A series of nocturnal meetings were held in the forest during 1898-99, where Birsa allegedly urged the killing of thikadars, jagirdars, rajas, hakims and Christians.
The rebels attacked police stations and officials, churches and missionaries, and though there was an undercurrent of hostility against the dikus, there was no overt attack on them except in a couple of controversial cases. On Christmas Eve 1899, the Mundas shot arrows and tried to burn down churches over an area covering six police stations in the districts of Ranchi and Singhbhum. Next, in January 1900, the police stations were targeted and there were rumours that Birsa's followers would attack Ranchi on 8 January, leading to panic there. On 9 January, however, the rebels were defeated. Birsa was captured and died in jail. Nearly 350 Mundas were put on trial and of them three were hanged and 44 transported for life.
The government attempted to redress the grievances of the Mundas through the survey and settlement operations of 1902-10. The Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act of 1908 provided some recognition to their khuntkatti rights and banned beth begari. Chhotanagpur tribals won a degree of legal protection for their land rights. [Sanjukta Das Gupta]
Munda, Western Province
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Munda is the largest community on the island of New Georgia in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands, and is comprised of a number of villages. Munda is located at Munda Point, at the southwestern tip of the western end of New Georgia Island, with the large Roviana Lagoon just offshore. Munda is a 1-2 hour boat journey or 15 minute flight to Gizo and a one hour flight to Honiara with Solomon Airlines.
Munda Airport was initially built by the Japanese in 1942. It was taken over by the Americans in 1943 as a precursor to securing Rabaul, the key control base for the Japanese in the region. Air Solomons still use the same airstrip today. Munda Airstrip is the second biggest in the Solomon Islands and has hosted much bigger aircrafts in past years.
Roviana Lavata was once home to the most notorious head hunters in the Solomon Islands. It is also where Alick Wickham, son of one of the first English Traders to set up in the area, perfected the taptapala, a distinct swimming style used in Roviana. Sent to Newington College in Sydney by his Father, admist fears of his son becoming a headhunter, Alick broke many Australian swim records using the unique stroke. This was later perfected and is now known as the Australian Crawl.