Battle of Sacriportus, 82 BC

Battle of Sacriportus, 82 BC

Battle of Sacriportus, 82 BC

The battle of Sacriportus (82 BC) was a key battle of Sulla's Second Civil War, and saw him defeat the army of the consul Marius the Younger. In the aftermath Marius was besieged in Praeneste, while Sulla was able to occupy Rome without a fight.

At the start of the campaign of 82 BC both sides split their armies. Sulla sent Metellus Pius and Pompey to campaign in the north, where the Marians had strong support in Cisalpine Gaul. Sulla himself advanced north from Campania to attack Rome.

The consuls for 82 BC also split up, with Gnaeus Papirius Carbo heading north, while Marius the Younger, son of the great general Gaius Marius, moved south to deal with Sulla.

Very few details of Sulla's advance north have survived, but he must have encountered some resistance. We first encounter him attacking Setia (Sezze), a town on the edge of the mountains that bordered the Pontine Marshes, about 40 miles south of Rome. Marius advanced south to try and save the town, and was camped nearby when it fell. He retreated north, across the hills, towards Signia (modern Segni), 13 miles to the north. Sulla pursued him, and the two sides clashed at Sacriportus. Unfortunately we don’t know exactly where this was, but from the context it was probably somewhere between Signia and Praeneste, another 12 miles to the north-west of Signia.

Plutarch provides the most details of the battle. He locates it at Signia, and gives Marius eighty-five cohorts (just over 40,000 men). Sulla had a dream in which he saw the older Marius warn his son not to fight on the following day, and was determined to fight on that day. However his army was split in two, with a section under Dolabella (father of the Dolabella of Caesar's era). Sulla tried to summon Dolabella to join him, but Marius blocked the roads. Sulla's men attempted to fight their way through, but a combination of fierce resistance and heavy rain wore them out. Sulla's military tribunes came to him and asked him to postpone the battle to the following day, as the troops were exhausted. Sulla reluctantly agreed, and ordered his men to pitch camp.

Marius attempted to take advantage of this by attacking while Sulla's men were digging the trench outside the camp. Although he wasn't as successful as his father, the younger Marius didn't lack courage, and on this occasion Plutarch has him leading from the front (Plutarch does also mention that some writers claimed that he actually slept through the battle. Sulla was angered by this attack, and his troops picked up his anger and used it to inspire their resistance. After a brief period of close quarters fighting, Marius's men broke and fled, suffering heavy casualties.

Appian provides very few details of the course of the battle, but does add to our knowledge of its end. Marius's left wing began to give way. Five cohorts of infantry and two cohorts of cavalry decided to desert to Sulla, and this triggered a more general collapse of Marius's line.

Both sources agree that Marius fled to Praeneste. The first refuges were let into the city, but the gates were closed before Marius arrived, and he had to be hauled up the walls on a rope (or in a basket).

Plutarch reports that Sulla claimed to have killed 20,000 of Marius's men and taken 8,000 prisoners, while only losing 23 men himself. Appian reports that there was more fighting around the walls of Praeneste, in which more of Marius's men were killed. Amongst the prisoners were a large number of Samnites, who had supported the Marian cause since Sulla's First Civil War (88-87 BC). Sulla had all of the Samnites killed, something that he would repeat after the battle of the Colline Gate later in the year.

The siege of Praeneste lasted for the rest of the war. Carbo made several attempts to lift the siege, each of which failed. His Samnite allies also attempted to break through Sulla's siege lines, again without success. Towards the end of the war the main Marian leaders fled into exile, and the Samnites decided to abandon their attempts to help Marius and instead attacked Rome. They were defeated after heavy fighting outside the Colline Gate, and in the aftermath of this defeat the defenders of Praeneste finally gave up. Marius committed suicide before he could be captured.


Battle of Sacriportus, 82 BC - History

By Peter L. Boorn

When Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix was governor of Cilicia in 95 bc, he received an embassy from the Parthians. “One of the ambassadors, a Chaldean soothsayer, studied Sulla long and intently and finally proclaimed, ‘This man must, of necessity, become the greatest in the world,’” wrote Greek historian Plutarch. This prediction had a profound effect on Sulla, who already was convinced that his own night dreams were a faithful guide to an ever-expanding destiny. Seventeen years later, just two days before his death, Sulla noted in his memoirs that the Chaldean also had prophesied that the Roman governor would die at the pinnacle of his good fortune.

Sulla was born of a noble but impoverished family in 138 bc. Until he was 31 years old, he lived a life of debauched penury, renting cheap lodgings in Rome and always consorting drunkenly with actors, musicians, dancers, and comics. His vices remained with him until he died. Plutarch, who became a Roman citizen, gives a vivid physical description, emphasizing Sulla’s shock of golden hair, his fierce blue-gray eyes, and a face that was covered in coarse red blotches set against pale white skin.

A bust of Lucius
Cornelius Sulla Felix

The first turning of Sulla’s fate came in 107 bc when he inherited two fortunes in rapid succession. One came from an aging mistress, and the other came from a stepmother who adored him. Armed with this lifeblood of politics, Sulla embarked on a late career in the Senate. In 107 bc, he became quaestor to Rome’s foremost general, Gaius Marius.

At the time, Rome was at war with the Berber king, Jugurtha of Numidia, in what is now northern Algeria. Romans had bungled the war, which began in 112 bc. This was because Jugurtha not only had acquired considerable knowledge of Roman tactics, organization, and discipline as a mercenary cavalry commander under the Romans in Spain, but also because he took advantage of the fact that anyone in Rome could be bribed.

When an army invaded Numidia circa 110 bc, Jugurtha bribed several centurions to throw the battle. The Berber king then defeated the army in battle with his light cavalry.

When a frustrated Rome gave Marius the supreme command, Jugurtha had joined forces with his father-in-law, Bocchus, the king of Mauretania, in modern-day Morocco. When Sulla arrived in Africa with a formidable complement of cavalry, he was inexperienced and ill disciplined in the art of war, noted Roman historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus, known as Sallust. “Although he was without previous experience and untrained in war, [he] soon became the best soldier in the whole army,” wrote Sallust.

Sulla put his hedonistic ways aside for a time and adopted an intensely practical concentration, according to Sallust. Yet Sulla’s sordid past also worked to his advantage because he was able to relate to the common soldiers. He conversed with them in a serious or jocular manner as circumstances dictated. He did this whether in the works, on guard, or on the march.

Marius defeated Jugurtha in several minor battles. The defeats compelled Jugurtha to resort to guerrilla tactics, which deeply frustrated the Romans, who were in need of a final victory. Further complicating the situation, Jugurtha had fled Numidia to seek refuge with Bocchus in Mauretania.

The Romans needed a quick resolution to the conflict in order to meet a major threat from the north. The Cimbrian War, which began in 113 bc, marked the first time that Italia and the city of Rome had been threatened since the Second Punic War. As the war progressed, the approach of the Cimbri and Teutones had put Rome’s northern front under tremendous pressure. These two Germanic tribes, which originally hailed from Jutland, numbered approximately 500,000 people.

At that point, Sulla proposed an audacious plan. At considerable risk to himself, Sulla offered to negotiate with Bocchus for the surrender of Jugurtha in exchange for the western part of the latter’s domain. Bocchus debated whether he should turn over Sulla to Jugurtha, but ultimately the Roman’s extraordinary luck prevailed. Jugurtha was led in chains to Marius. He was then taken to Rome where he was paraded in triumph. He was then placed in a pit under the Tullianum in Rome where he died of starvation in 104 bc.

The capture of Jugurtha marked the beginning of a falling out between Sulla and Marius, both of whom were supremely ambitious. Even though Marius received official recognition and a triumph for ending the war, it was widely known that Sulla had brought resolution to the conflict. A period coin shows Jugurtha kneeling in chains before Sulla, who is on a raised seat. As Sulla looms over Jugurtha, Bocchus offers him an olive branch.

At that time in Rome, the people were in a panic because the Cimbri and Teutones seemed unstoppable. Marius received supreme command of the Roman forces, and he chose as his co-consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus. Marius selected Catalus more for his malleability than his military skills for Catalus had a reputation as a poor general. Marius’s army shadowed the Teutones, and Catulus’s army observed the Cimbri. Sulla initially served as legate to Marius, but he swiftly realized that any independent move he might make would be checked by his jealous commander. For that reason, Sulla arranged to be transferred to Catulus’s army.

Quaestor Sulla negotiated an agreement with King Bocchus of Mauretania in which the Romans received captured Berber King Jugurtha, a bothersome foe who had waged guerrilla war against the Romans.

Marius annihilated the Teutones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 bc. Marius and Catalus joined forces to confront the Cimbri on July 30, 101, near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul. At Vercellae, Marius commanded the left wing, Catalus the center, and Sulla the right. Sulla’s wing was composed of both Roman and allied cavalry.

The reflection of the rising sun on the sea of Roman armor was so overwhelming that the Cimbri believed the sky was on fire. As they stood riveted in awe, a great cloud of dust enveloped their army, as well as that of the Roman left and center. The Cimbri cavalry hesitated, whereupon Sulla charged and routed them. The fleeing Cimbri cavalry subsequently disrupted the densely packed Cimbri infantry. The Roman infantry then waded into the disordered enemy infantry and hacked it to pieces. The two victories removed the threat posed by the Germanic tribes.

Once again, Marius received the honor of a triumph. Yet it was obvious to many that the foundation for the victory at Vercellae was the masterful performance by Sulla and his well-led cavalry.

At that time in Rome two powerful political factions existed: the Populares and the Optimates. The former relied on the support of the plebeians, while the latter derived its power from the affluent caucus that dominated the Senate. Marius threw in his lot with the Populares, and by means of bribery, riots, and assassinations was elected consul an unprecedented sixth time in 101 bc.

As for Sulla, he became governor of Cilicia in 96 bc. While serving in that capacity, he repulsed a reconnaissance-in-force by the king of Armenia. When he returned to Rome in 92 bc, Sulla joined the Optimates.

Marius, who was a far less skillful politician than he was a soldier, managed to offend both factions during his sixth consulship. During a coup in 99 bc three consular candidates were murdered and widespread rioting erupted. In response, the Senate issued the Senatus consultum ultimum, a decree enabling the appointment of a dictator for a short term to resolve an emergency. This gave Marius the power he needed to crush the rebellion.

Sensing that his political position was untenable in the aftermath of the rebellion, Marius undertook voluntary exile. He journeyed to the east, stating that he wished to honor a vow he had made to the goddess Bona Dea, according to Plutarch.

At that point, the tide of political fortune flowed in favor of the Optimates. But by 91 bc the Populares gained complete control of the courts and appointed a wealthy politician, Marcus Livius Drusus, as tribune. Upon his appointment, Drusus extended citizenship to the entire population of Italia. The Senate immediately annulled this legislation and conspired to have Drusus assassinated.

Sulla’s legionnaires battle the Marians in Rome during Sulla’s First Civil War. At the outset of his journey east to wage war against Mithridates of Pontus, Consul Sulla turned back to Rome to quell disturbances by force.

When the Italians heard the news they “decided to revolt from the Romans altogether and to make war against them with all their might,” according to Greek historian Appian. Thus began the Social War of 91-88 bc, which was caused by resentment among Rome’s allies who were aggrieved because they were denied citizenship even though they had shed blood for the republic.

The Italians raised 100,000 troops and established the rival state of Italia. Both sides fielded armies that were virtually identical in composition. At one point, Rome came dangerously close to defeat. With its forces depleted, Rome was forced to conscript slaves to replenish its armies.

Sulla led a successful campaign in southern Italia that overwhelmed enemy strongholds and defeated the forces sent against him, covering him in glory. Meanwhile, other Roman forces stabilized the situation in the north.

One of Sulla’s key victories occurred at Nola, just east of Naples, where he defeated an army of Samnites and Gallic auxiliaries. He then conducted a successful pursuit in which his forces killed 3,000 of the enemy.

The garrison of Naples was only willing to open one gate to the retreating rebels in an effort to reduce the chance that Sulla’s troops, who were following closely on their heels, could rush in behind the refugees. This enabled Sulla’s troops to slaughter 20,000 more enemy troops outside the city walls.

In the aftermath of his victory at Nola, Sulla was awarded the Grass Crown, the highest decoration that Rome bestowed on a general. The Grass Crown was given to a commander who had rescued an army that was in danger of capture or annihilation. Only seven other individuals received the Grass Crown in the entire 482-year history of the republic.

While the rebellion was winding down, Mithridates IV “The Great” of Pontus in Asia Minor took the opportunity to invade Rome’s client states. To the delight of the commoners, Mithridates massacred thousands of tax gatherers and money lenders. After clearing the Romans from Asia Minor, Pontic forces advanced into Greece.

The Roman Senate entrusted Sulla with prosecuting the war against Mithridates, but Marius derailed those plans. Marius returned from Africa in 88 bc with an army and entered Rome. To obtain command in the east, Marius resorted to bribery. This touched off Sulla’s First Civil War.

Sulla subsequently received orders to relinquish command to Marius. At that point, though, the Marian reforms rebounded on their maker. Sulla not only refused, but he undertook an action so audacious that all but one of his senior commanders refused to join him. Confident in the loyalty of his troops, Sulla turned his six legions back toward Rome. No other Roman commander had ever dared do that.

Sulla also returned to Rome in 88 bc. He encountered chaos and disorder, but there was no fighting. Marius, who had gone into hiding, was declared an enemy of the people. So eager was Sulla to finish his diplomatic business with Mithridates that he appointed as consul L. Cornelius Cinna, of whom he was suspicious, to carry on the war so that he could return to Greece.

At that point, Marius came out of hiding, raised an army of slaves, and cooperated with Cinna to capture Rome. The Senate reversed the decree outlawing Marius, who turned his troops upon the city. For five days Rome endured a reign of terror.

When Cinna and Marius declared themselves co-consuls in 86 bc, it was Sulla’s turn to be outlawed. His property was seized and his family fled for their lives. This was the last act of 70-year-old Marius who, 17 days into his seventh consulship, died in his bed of natural causes.

Having returned to Greece, Sulla again turned his attention to defeating Mithridates. Advancing into Boeotia, he defeated two of Mithridates’ generals. He then besieged and sacked Athens. He then vanquished another Pontic army at Chaeronea in 86 bc. The following year Sulla crushed yet another Pontic army at Orchomenus. With Greece lost, Mithridates sued for peace in 85 bc.

Once order was restored in the east, Sulla composed a letter to the conscript fathers informing them that he would soon return to Rome to punish those who had acted against him, but that those who were innocent had no reason to be fearful.

Sulla crushed the rebellious Marians at Rome’s Colline Gate in Sulla’s Second Civil War. After Marcus Licinius Crassus struck the Marians’ flank, Sulla launched a devastating attack that swept the enemy away.

A cowed Senate attempted negotiation, but Cinna and his colleague C. Papirius Carbo prepared for war. In the spring of 84 bc, Cinna tried to embark his army for Greece, but his soldiers mutinied and murdered him. In 83 bc Sulla crossed the Adriatic Sea from Patrae in western Greece, landing at Brundisium. Although the road to Rome was open, Sulla decided instead to consolidate his position and raise additional troops.

The consuls for 82 bc were Carbo and the 26-year-old son of Marius, known as Marius the Younger. Between them they raised large numbers of troops to prosecute what would be known as Sulla’s Second Civil War.

Sulla routed Marius the Younger at the Battle of Sacriportus. The youthful commander eventually killed himself. After securing Rome, Sulla marched north where he met Gnaeus Papirius Carbo in battle at Clusium. Clusium proved to be an indecisive affair, but afterward Carbo’s men became demoralized. As a result, Carbo himself lost heart. He abandoned his men to their own fate and fled to Sicily where he was later slain.

The stage was now set for the final act of Sulla’s Second Civil War. A huge army of Samnites and Lucanians, numbering upward of 70,000, descended on Rome. On November 1, 82 bc, they clashed with Sulla’s army north of the city at the Colline Gate. Sulla’s troops arrived following forced marches. Sulla and Marcus Licinius Crassus commanded the legions of the left and right wings, respectively.

Although his troops were greatly fatigued, Sulla attacked. Ferocious fighting ensued that lasted well into the night. Although Sulla was driven back in disorder against the city wall, Crassus prevailed. He led one of his units around the flank of the Samnite army and attacked it from behind. This enabled Sulla to launch a fresh attack and clinch the victory.

Sulla showed no mercy. The following day his army butchered 4,000 Samnite prisoners within earshot of the assembled Senate. The proscriptions that followed were more sustained, widespread, and thorough than those of Marius. The names of 6,000 victims were published in the official list. The list included the names of 90 senators, 15 of consular rank, and 2,600 equestrians, according to Appian. The property of those on the list was seized in order to provide allotments for 120,000 discharged soldiers.

To maintain order in Rome and to protect himself, Sulla recruited a servile version of the future Praetorian Guard that he named the Cornelii. He freed 10,000 virile slaves of the proscribed, armed them, and stationed them within the city walls.

Sulla was elected dictator for life in 82 bc and all his acts were ratified in advance. He was, in all but name, a king. He made no attempt to solve the problems that beset the nation. His policy was purely reactionary: it was done to restore the Senate to its ancient authority by suppressing all possible dissent.

Sulla’s almost preternatural intuition is exemplified by an incident in which then 18-year-old Gaius Julius Caesar ran afoul of the dictator and was nearly proscribed. When Caesar’s family and the Vestal Virgins appealed to Sulla for his salvation, the dictator relented. “This man, for whose safety you are so extremely anxious, will, someday or other be the ruin of the party of the nobles, for in this one Caesar, you will find many a Marius,” said Sulla.

In 79 bc, Sulla abdicated his dictatorship confident in the loyalty of the Cornelii. The following year he died suddenly at the age of 60 just as he was on the verge of completing his memoirs. Engraved on his tomb were some of his own words: “No friend has ever served me, no enemy has ever wronged me whom I have not repaid in full.”


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Gaius Marius Minor from "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum "

Marius the Younger was the son ΐ] of the Gaius Marius who was seven times consul and a famous military commander. Α] Β] His mother, Julia, was an aunt of Julius Caesar. Γ]

In his youth, Marius was educated with Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius Cicero by Greek tutors. Like his father, Marius advanced his political career through popularist tactics. During the Social War, he served under Lucius Porcius Cato, whom one source claims Marius killed at the Battle of Fucine Lake over Cato's claims that Cato's achievements were on par with the elder Marius's victory over the Cimbri. Δ] Seeking to strengthen his political alliances, the elder Marius married his son to Mucia Tertia, daughter of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex.

In the political turmoil launched by his father in 88 BC to strip his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla of command of the Roman forces in the First Mithridatic War, the Younger Marius accompanied his father into exile when Sulla unexpectedly marched on Rome, forcing them both to flee. At Ostia, young Marius went on ahead of his father and sailed to Africa. Ε] There he went to the court of Hiempsal II of Numidia to seek his help against Sulla, but the king decided to hold him captive instead. Ζ] He managed to escape with the help of one of Hiempsal’s concubines whom the young Marius had seduced. He then joined up with his father who had also come to Africa, and they escaped to the Kerkennah Islands. Learning of Cinna’s fight to retain his consulship in 87 BC, father and son returned to Rome, where Marius the elder took control of the situation, gathering an army of slaves and gladiators, and murdering his enemies, both real and imagined. Η] According to Cassius Dio, the younger Marius inaugurated his father’s seventh consulship by murdering one Plebeian Tribune and sending his head to the newly installed consuls, while having another tribune thrown from the heights of the Capitoline Hill. He also banished two praetors, ordering that neither should receive fire or water from any Roman citizen. ⎖]

When his father died in 86 BC, the young Marius assumed leadership of his father’s adherents and clients, although overall control of the Marian faction was held by Cinna, who was elected consul on consecutive years until his death in 84 BC. The young Marius is said to have lacked his father's charisma and sought to achieve popularity on the family name.

Young Marius was elected to the consulship for 82 BC. ⎗] ⎘] This was a political move by Carbo, his consular colleague, to drum up popular support and enthusiasm for the war against Sulla Marius was much too young to be a legally elected consul. Two talented and better-qualified men among the Marian faction, his cousin Marius Gratidianus and Quintus Sertorius, were passed over in favor of the younger Marius's symbolic value. ⎙] However, many of the old veterans from the elder Marius’s former armies came out of retirement and flocked to the younger Marius’s side, and by the battle of Sacriportus, his army numbered 85 cohorts. ⎚]

In the subsequent civil war in 82 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his army defeated the armies of Marius at the battle of Sacriportus, after which he retreated with around 7000 surviving troops to the fortress city of Praeneste, along with the treasury of the Capitoline temple. ⎛] Sulla's prefect Quintus Lucretius Ofella conducted the siege, ⎜] throttling the town with a ring of rapidly constructed earth and tuff barricades. Marius gave orders to Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus, the Urban Praetor to kill all those who were likely to support Sulla’s return, including his father-in-law, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, the ex-consul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius and Papirius Carbo among others. ⎝] Although both Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus attempted to break the siege, they were unsuccessful. Towards the end of the siege Marius made one final attempt to escape, this time by digging a tunnel under the walls, but the attempt was uncovered. Marius committed suicide so as not to fall into enemy hands.


Biography [ edit ]

Marius the Younger was the son [lower-alpha 2] of the Gaius Marius who was seven times consul and a famous military commander. Α] Β] His mother, Julia, was an aunt of Julius Caesar. Γ]

In his youth, Marius was educated with Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius Cicero by Greek tutors. During the Social War, he served under Lucius Porcius Cato, whom one source claims Marius killed at the Battle of Fucine Lake over Cato's claims that Cato's achievements were on par with the elder Marius's victory over the Cimbri. Δ] Seeking to strengthen his political alliances, the elder Marius married his son to Licinia, a daughter of Lucius Licinius Crassus. Ε]

In the political turmoil launched by his father in 88 BC to strip his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla of command of the Roman forces in the First Mithridatic War, the Younger Marius accompanied his father into exile when Sulla unexpectedly marched on Rome, forcing them both to flee. Ζ] At Ostia, young Marius went on ahead of his father and sailed to Africa. Η] There he went to the court of Hiempsal II of Numidia to seek his help against Sulla, but the king decided to hold him captive instead. ⎖] He managed to escape with the help of one of Hiempsal's concubines whom the young Marius had seduced. He then joined up with his father who had also come to Africa, and they escaped to the Kerkennah Islands.

Learning of Cinna's fight to retain his consulship in 87 BC, father and son returned to Rome, where Marius the elder took control of the situation, gathering an army of slaves and gladiators, and murdering his enemies, both real and imagined. ⎗] According to Cassius Dio, the younger Marius inaugurated his father's seventh consulship by murdering one plebeian tribune and sending his head to the newly installed consuls, while having another tribune thrown from the heights of the Capitoline Hill. He also banished two praetors, ordering that neither should receive fire or water from any Roman citizen. ⎘]

When his father died in 86 BC, the young Marius assumed leadership of his father's adherents and clients, although overall control of the Marian faction was held by Cinna, ⎙] who was elected consul on consecutive years until his death in 84 BC. The young Marius is said to have lacked his father's charisma and sought to achieve popularity on the family name.

Young Marius was elected to the consulship for 82 BC. ⎚] [lower-alpha 3] This was a political move by Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, his consular colleague and the new leader of the Marians after Cinna died, to drum up popular support and enthusiasm for the war against Sulla Marius was much too young and had not held the prerequisite magistracies to be a legally elected consul. ⎛] Two talented and better-qualified men among the Marian faction, his cousin Marius Gratidianus and Quintus Sertorius, were passed over in favor of the younger Marius's symbolic value. ⎜] Many of the old veterans from the elder Marius's former armies came out of retirement and flocked to the younger Marius's side, and, by the battle of Sacriportus, his army numbered 85 cohorts. ⎝]

At the Battle of Sacriporto, in 82 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his army defeated the army of Marius the Younger. Marius with around 7000 surviving troops retreated to the fortress city of Praeneste, along with the treasury of the Capitoline temple. ⎞] Sulla's prefect Quintus Lucretius Ofella, conducted the siege, ⎟] throttling the town with a ring of rapidly constructed earth and tuff barricades.

Upon the defeat of his forces, Marius gave orders to kill a number of Sullan supporters before Rome was captured by Sulla, ⎛] including his father-in-law, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, the ex-consul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius and Gaius Papirius Carbo. ⎠] Although both Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus attempted to break the siege, they were unsuccessful, with relief forces being intercepted and destroyed en route. ⎡] Towards the end of the siege Marius made one final attempt to escape, this time by digging a tunnel under the walls, but the attempt was uncovered. Marius committed suicide so as not to fall into enemy hands. ΐ]

In 45 BC, a man referred to as Amatius appeared in Rome, claiming to be the son of the younger Marius. ⎢]


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Command Magazine was a bi-monthly magazine devoted to Military History, Strategy and Analysis. The magazine's emphasis was on why commanders have made certain decisions combined with an account of a campaign or battle. Heavy emphasis was placed on the use of color maps and orders-of-battle. Command was available by subscription and at bookstores.

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Biography

Marius the Younger was the son [2] of the Gaius Marius who was seven times consul and a famous military commander. [3] [4] His mother, Julia, was an aunt of Julius Caesar. [5]

In his youth, Marius was educated with Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius Cicero by Greek tutors. Like his father, Marius advanced his political career through popularist tactics. During the Social War, he served under Lucius Porcius Cato, whom one source claims Marius killed at the Battle of Fucine Lake over Cato's claims that Cato's achievements were on par with the elder Marius's victory over the Cimbri. [6] Seeking to strengthen his political alliances, the elder Marius married his son to Mucia Tertia, daughter of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex.

In the political turmoil launched by his father in 88 BC to strip his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla of command of the Roman forces in the First Mithridatic War, the Younger Marius accompanied his father into exile when Sulla unexpectedly marched on Rome, forcing them both to flee. At Ostia, young Marius went on ahead of his father and sailed to Africa. [7] There he went to the court of Hiempsal II of Numidia to seek his help against Sulla, but the king decided to hold him captive instead. [8] He managed to escape with the help of one of Hiempsal’s concubines whom the young Marius had seduced. He then joined up with his father who had also come to Africa, and they escaped to the Kerkennah Islands. Learning of Cinna’s fight to retain his consulship in 87 BC, father and son returned to Rome, where Marius the elder took control of the situation, gathering an army of slaves and gladiators, and murdering his enemies, both real and imagined. [9] According to Cassius Dio, the younger Marius inaugurated his father’s seventh consulship by murdering one Plebeian Tribune and sending his head to the newly installed consuls, while having another tribune thrown from the heights of the Capitoline Hill. He also banished two praetors, ordering that neither should receive fire or water from any Roman citizen. [10]

When his father died in 86 BC, the young Marius assumed leadership of his father’s adherents and clients, although overall control of the Marian faction was held by Cinna, who was elected consul on consecutive years until his death in 84 BC. The young Marius is said to have lacked his father's charisma and sought to achieve popularity on the family name.

Young Marius was elected to the consulship for 82 BC. [11] [12] This was a political move by Carbo, his consular colleague, to drum up popular support and enthusiasm for the war against Sulla Marius was much too young to be a legally elected consul. Two talented and better-qualified men among the Marian faction, his cousin Marius Gratidianus and Quintus Sertorius, were passed over in favor of the younger Marius's symbolic value. [13] However, many of the old veterans from the elder Marius’s former armies came out of retirement and flocked to the younger Marius’s side, and by the battle of Sacriportus, his army numbered 85 cohorts. [14]

In the subsequent civil war in 82 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his army defeated the armies of Marius at the battle of Sacriportus, after which he retreated with around 7000 surviving troops to the fortress city of Praeneste, along with the treasury of the Capitoline temple. [15] Sulla's prefect Quintus Lucretius Ofella conducted the siege, [16] throttling the town with a ring of rapidly constructed earth and tuff barricades. Marius gave orders to Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus, the Urban Praetor to kill all those who were likely to support Sulla’s return, including his father-in-law, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, the ex-consul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius and Papirius Carbo among others. [17] Although both Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus attempted to break the siege, they were unsuccessful. Towards the end of the siege Marius made one final attempt to escape, this time by digging a tunnel under the walls, but the attempt was uncovered. Marius committed suicide so as not to fall into enemy hands.


Samnite

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Samnite, a member of the ancient warlike tribes inhabiting the mountainous centre of southern Italy. These tribes, who spoke Oscan and were probably an offshoot of the Sabini, apparently referred to themselves not as Samnite but by the Oscan form of the word, which appears in Latin as Sabine (q.v.).

Four cantons formed a Samnite confederation: Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri. The league probably had no federal assembly, but a war leader could be chosen to lead a campaign. Although allied with Rome against the Gauls in 354 bc , the Samnites were soon involved in a series of three wars (343–341, 327–304, and 298–290) against the Romans. Despite a spectacular victory over the Romans at the Battle of the Caudine Forks (321), where a Roman army was forced to march under the yoke, the Samnites were eventually subjugated. The Romans surrounded Samnite land with colonies and then split it with colonies at Beneventum (268) and Aesernia (263).

Although reduced and depopulated, the Samnites later helped Pyrrhus and Hannibal against Rome. They also fought from 90 bc in the Social War and later in the civil war against Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who defeated them at the Battle of the Colline Gate (82 bc ).

The longest and most important inscription of the Samnite dialect is the small bronze Tabula Agnonensis, which is engraved in full Oscan alphabet. In June 2004, archaeologists in Pompeii discovered the remains of a wall from a temple built by Samnites.


Social War

The Social War (91–88 BC) resulted from Rome's intransigence regarding the civil liberties of the Socii, Rome's Italian allies. The Socii were old enemies of Rome that submitted (such as the Samnites) whereas the Latins were confederates of longer standing with Rome therefore the Latins were given more respect and better treatment. [11] Subjects of the Roman Republic, these Italian provincials might be called to arms in its defence or might be subjected to extraordinary taxes, but they had no say in the expenditure of these taxes or in the uses of the armies that might be raised in their territories. The Social War was, in part, caused by the continued rebuttal of those who sought to extend Roman citizenship to the Socii and to address various injustices inherent in the Roman system. The Gracchi, Tiberius and Gaius, were successively killed by optimate supporters who sought to maintain the status quo. The assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus the Younger, whose reforms were intended not only to strengthen the position of the Senate but also to grant Roman Citizenship to the allies, greatly angered the Socii. In consequence, most allied against Rome, leading to the outbreak of the Social War.

At the beginning of the Social War, the Roman aristocracy and Senate were beginning to fear Gaius Marius's ambition, which had already given him 6 consulships (including 5 in a row, from 104 BC to 100 BC). They were determined that he should not have overall command of the war in Italy. In this last rebellion of the Italian allies, Sulla outshone both Marius and the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (the father of Pompey). In 89 BC Sulla captured Aeclanum, the chief town of the Hirpini, by setting the wooden breastwork on fire. As a result of his success in bringing the Social War to a successful conclusion, he was elected consul for the first time in 88 BC, with Quintus Pompeius Rufus (soon his daughter's father-in-law) as his colleague.

Sulla served exceptionally as a general during the Social War. At Nola he was awarded a Corona Obsidionalis (Obsidional or Blockade Crown), also known as a Corona Graminea (Grass Crown). This was the highest Roman military honour, awarded for personal bravery to a commander who saves a Roman legion or army in the field. Unlike all other Roman military honours, it was awarded by acclamation of the soldiers of the rescued army, and consequently very few were ever awarded. The crown, by tradition, was woven from grasses and other plants taken from the actual battlefield. [12]


Undiscovered Scotland

3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Scáthach, or Sgathach, at her fortress Dún Scáith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation. The battle is later depicted on a cross slab at Aberlemno Kirk.

20 March 687: The death on Inner Farne Island of St Cuthbert, the a monk, bishop and hermit regarded as the patron saint of northern England.

23 September 704: The death of Adomnán of Iona, also known as Saint Adomnán. He was Abbot of Iona, the author of the Life of Columba and the promoter of the hugely influential Law of Adomnán.

6 March 757: The death on Bass Rock of Saint Baldred of Tyninghame.

8 June 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne suffers its first raid by Vikings. Others will follow, leading to the abandonment of the monastery in 875.

795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.

839: The Picts, who have controlled all of Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde except for Argyll, suffer a heavy defeat at the hands of the Vikings. Most of the Pictish nobility is wiped out in the defeat, including King Bridei VI.

843: Kenneth Mac Alpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.

850: Viking pressure leads to the relocation of the capital of Alba from Argyll to Scone, near Perth. The religious centre, and the relics of St Columba, moves from Iona to Dunkeld.

850: Kenneth Mac Alpin, also known as Kenneth I, raids Northumbria six times in the 850s.

870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.

872: Constantine I arranges the death of the King of Strathclyde in 872. He replaces him with his own brother in law, Rhun: effectively making Strathclyde a subordinate kingdom to Alba.

878: King Aedh is succeeded by the joint rule of Kings Eochaid and Giric.

890: The Vikings capture the Pictish fortress at Dunnottar, near Stonehaven.

900: Constantine II succeeds Donald II and helps incorporate Viking settlers into the emerging Kingdom of Scotland.

937: A joint army comprising Constantine II's Scots and Olaf III Guthfrithson's Vikings is defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh by King Athelstan of England in 937: largely securing the future of what is to become England.

945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.


Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.

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PRAENESTE

Yet the very next year the Praenestines were again in arms, and stimulated the other Latin cities against Rome. ( Liv. 6.30 .) With this exception we hear no more of them for some time but a notice which occurs in Diodorus that they concluded a truce with Rome in B.C. 351, shows that they were still acting an independent part, and kept aloof from the other Latins. ( Diod. 16.45 .) It is, however, certain that they took a prominent part in the great Latin War of B.C. 340. In the second year of that war they sent forces to the assistance of the Pedani, and, though defeated by the consul Aemilius, they continued the contest the next year together with the Tiburtines and it was the final defeat of their combined forces by Camillus at Pedum (B.C. 338) that eventually terminated the struggle. ( Liv. 8.12 - 14 .) In the peace which ensued, the Praenestines, as well as their neighbours of Tibur, were punished by the loss of a part of their territory, but in other respects their position remained unchanged: they did not, like the other cities of Latium, receive the Roman franchise, but continued to subsist as a nominally independent state, in alliance with the powerful republic. They furnished like the other “socii” their quota of troops on their own separate account, and the Praenestine auxiliaries are mentioned in several instances as forming a separate body. Even in the time of Polybius it was one of the places which retained the Jus Exilii, and could afford shelter to persons banished from Rome. (Pol. 6.14.)

On the arrival of Pyrrhus in Italy the fidelity of the Praenestines seems to have been suspected, and the Romans compelled them to deliver hostages. ( Zonar. 8.3 .) Shortly afterwards Praeneste was the point from whence that monarch turned back on his advance to Rome. There is no probability that he took the town. Eutropius says merely that he advanced to Praeneste and the expression of Florus that he looked down upon Rome from the citadel of Praeneste is probably only a rhetorical flourish of that inaccurate writer. ( Flor. 2.18 Eutrop. 2.12 .) In the Second Punic War a body of Praenestine troops distinguished themselves by their gallant defence of Casilinum against Hannibal, and though ultimately compelled to surrender, they were rewarded for their valour and fidelity by the Roman senate, while the highest honours were paid them in their native city. ( Liv. 23.19 , 20 .) It is remarkable that they refused to accept the offer of the Roman franchise and the Praenestines in general retained their independent position till the period of the Social War, when they received the Roman franchise together with the other allies. (Appian, App. BC 1.65 .)

In the civil wars of Marius and Sulla, Praeneste bore an important part. It was occupied by Cinna when he was driven from Rome in B.C. 87 (Appian, App. BC 1.65 ) and appears to have continued in the hands of the Marian party till B.C. 82, when it afforded a shelter to the younger Marius with the remains of his army, after his defeat by Sulla at Sacriportus. The natural strength of the city had been greatly increased by new fortifications, so that Sulla abandoned all idea of reducing it by force of arms, and was content to draw lines of circumvallation round it, and trust to the slower process of a blockade, the command of which he entrusted to Lucretius Ofella, while he himself carried on operations in the field against the other leaders of the Marian party. Repeated attempts were made by these generals to relieve Praeneste, but without effect and at length, after the great battle at the Colline Gate and the defeat of the Samnite general Pontius Telesinus, the inhabitants opened their gates to Ofella. Marius, despairing of safety, after a vain attempt to escape by a subterranean passage, put an end to his own life. (Appian, App. BC 1.87 - 94 Put. Mar. 46, Sull. 28, 29, 32 Vell. 2.26 , 27 Liv. Epit. lxxxvii., lxxxviii.) The city itself was severely punished all the citizens without distinction were put to the sword, and the town given up to plunder its fortifications were dismantled, and a military colony settled by Sulla in possession of its territory. (Appian, l.c. Lucan 2.194 Strab. v. p.239 Flor. 3.21 .) The town seems to have been at this time transferred from the hill to the plain beneath, and the temple of Fortune with its appurtenances so extended and enlarged as to occupy a great part of the site of the ancient city. (Nibby, Dintorni, vol. ii. p. 481 but see Bormann, Alt. Lat. Chorogr. p. 207, note 429.)

But the citadel still remained, and the natural strength of the position rendered Praeneste always a place of importance as a stronghold. Hence, we find it mentioned as one of the points which Catiline was desirous to occupy, but which had been studiously guarded by Cicero ( Cic. in Cat. 1.3 ) and at a later period L. Antonius retired thither in B.C. 41, on the first outbreak of his dispute with Octavian, and from thence endeavoured to dictate terms to his rival at Rome. Fulvia, the wife of M. Antonius took refuge there at the same time. (Appian, App. BC 5.21 , 23 , 29 .) From this time we hear but little of Praeneste in history it is probable from the terms in which it is spoken of both by Strabo and Appian, that it never recovered the blow inflicted on its prosperity by Sulla (Strab. l.c. Appian, App. BC 1.94 ) but the new colony established at that time rose again into a flourishing and considerable town. Its proximity to Rome and its elevated and healthy situation made it a favourite resort of the Romans during the summer, and the poets of the first century of the Empire abound in allusions to it as a cool and pleasant place of suburban retirement. ( Juv. 3.190 , 14.88 Martial, 10.30. 7 Stat. Silv. 4.2. 15 Plin. Ep. 5.6.45 Flor. 1.11 .) Among others it was much frequented by Augustus himself, and was a favourite place of retirement of Horace. ( Suet. Aug. 72 Hor. Carm. 3.4.23 , Ep. 1.2. 1.) Tiberius also recovered there from a dangerous attack of illness (Gell. N. A. 16.13) and Hadrian built a villa there, which, though not comparable to his celebrated villa at Tibur, was apparently on an extensive scale. It was there that the emperor M. Aurelius was residing when he lost his son Annius Verus, a child of seven years old. (Jul. Capit. M. Ant. 21.)

Praeneste appears to have always retained its [p. 2.665] colonial rank and condition. Cicero mentions it by the title of a Colonia ( Cic. in Cat. 1.3 ) and though neither Pliny nor the Liber Coloniarum give it that appellation, its colonial dignity under the Empire is abundantly attested by numerous inscriptions. (Zumpt, de Colon. p. 254 Lib. Colon. p. 236 Orell. Inscr. 1831, 3051, &c.) A. Gellius indeed has a story that the Praenestines applied to Tiberius as a favour to be changed from a colony into a Municipium but if their request was really granted, as he asserts, the change could have lasted for but a short time. (Gell. N. A. 16.13 Zumpt, l.c.

We find scarcely any mention of Praeneste towards the decline of the Western Empire, nor does its name figure in the Gothic wars which followed: but it appears again under the Lombard kings, and bears a conspicuous part in the middle ages. At this period it was commonly known as the Civitas Praenestina, and it is this form of the name--which is already found in an inscription of A.D. 408 (Orell. Inscr. 105)--that has been gradually corrupted into its modern appellation of Palestrina.

The modern city is built almost entirely upon the site and gigantic substructions of the temple of Fortune, which, after its restoration and enlargement by Sulla, occupied the whole of the lower slope of the hill, the summit of which was crowned by the ancient citadel. This hill, which is of very considerable elevation (being not less than 2400 feet above the sea, and more than 1200 above its immediate base), projects like a great buttress or bastion from the angle of the Apennines towards the Alban Hills, so that it looks down upon and seems to command the whole of the Campagna around Rome. It is this position, combined with the great strength of the citadel arising from the elevation and steepness of the hill on which it stands, that rendered Praeneste a position of such importance. The site of the ancient citadel, on the summit of the hill, is now occupied by a castle of the middle ages called Castel S. Pietro: but a considerable part of the ancient walls still remains, constructed in a very massive style of polygonal blocks of limestone and two irregular lines of wall of similar construction descend from thence to the lower town, which they evidently served to connect with the citadel above. The lower, or modern town, rises in a somewhat pyramidal manner on successive terraces, supported by walls or facings of polygonal masonry, nearly resembling that of the walls of the city. There can be no doubt that these successive stages or terraces at one time belonged to the temple of Fortune but it is probable that they are of much older date than the time of Sulla, and previously formed part of the ancient city, the streets of which may have occupied these lines of terraces in the same manner as those of the modern town do at the present day. There are in all five successive terraces, the highest of which was crowned by the temple of Fortune properly so called,--a circular building with a vaulted roof, the ruins of which remained till the end of the 13th century, when they were destroyed by Pope Boniface VIII. Below this was a hemicycle, or semicircular building, with a portico, the plan of which may be still traced and on one of the inferior terraces there still remains a mosaic, celebrated as one of the most perfect and interesting in existence. Various attempts have been made to restore the plan and elevation of the temple, an edifice wholly unlike any other of its kind but they are all to a great extent conjectural. A detailed account of the exiting remains, and of all that can be traced of the plan and arrangement, will be found in Nibby. (Dintorni, vol. ii. p. 494--510.)

The celebrity of the shrine or sanctuary of Fortune at Praeneste is attested by many ancient writers (Ovid, Ov. Fast. 6.61 Sil. Ital 8.366 Lucan 2.194 Strab. v. p.238 ), and there is no doubt that it derived its origin from an early period. Cicero, who speaks of the temple in his time as one of great antiquity as well as splendour gives us a legend derived from the records of the Praenestines concerning its foundation, and the institution of the oracle known as the Sortes Praenestinae, which was closely associated with the worship of Fortune. ( Cic. de Div. 2.4. 1 ) So celebrated was this mode of divination that not only Romans of distinction, but even foreign potentates, are mentioned as consulting them ( V. Max. 1.3.1 Liv. 45.44 Propert. 3.24. 3) and though Cicero treats them with contempt, as in his day obtaining credit only with the vulgar, we are told by Suetonius that Tiberius was deterred by religious scruples from interfering with them, and Domitian consulted them every year. Alexander Severus also appears, on one occasion at least, to have done the same. ( Suet. Tib. 63 , Domit. 15 Lamprid. Alex. Sev.: 4.) Numerous inscriptions also prove that they continued to be frequently consulted till a late period of the Empire, and it was not till after the establishment of Christianity that the custom fell altogether into disuse. (Inscr. ap. Bormann, pp. 212, 213 Orelli, Inscr. 1756--1759.) The Praenestine goddess seems to have been specially known by the name of Fortuna Primigenia, and her worship was closely associated with that of the infant Jupiter. (Cic. de Div. l.c. Inscr. ut sup.) Another title under which Jupiter mas specially worshipped at Praeneste was that of Jupiter Imperator, and the statue of the deity at Rome which bore that appellation was considered to have been brought from Praeneste ( Liv. 6.29 ).

The other ancient remains which have been discovered at Palestrina belong to the later city or the colony of Sulla, and are situated in the plain at some distance from the foot of the hill. Among these are the extensive ruins of the villa or palace of the emperors, which appears to have been built by Hadrian about A.D. 134. They resemble much in their general style those of his villa at Tivoli, but are much inferior in preservation as well as in extent. Near them is an old church still called Sta Maria della Villa.

It was not far from this spot that were discovered in 1773 the fragments of a Roman calendar, supposed to be the same which was arranged by the grammarian Verrius Flaccus, and set up by him in the forum of Praeneste. (Suet. Gramm. 17.) They are commonly called the Fasti Praenestini, and have been repeatedly published, first by Foggini (fol. Romae, 1779), with an elaborate commentary and again as an appendix to the edition of Suetonius by Wolf (4 vols. 8vo. Lips. 1802) also in Orelli (Inscr. vol. ii. p. 379, &c.). Not-withstanding this evidence, it is improbable that the forum of Praeneste was so far from the foot of the hill, and its site is more probably indicated by the discovery of a number of pedestals with honorary inscriptions, at a spot near the SW. angle of the modern city. These inscriptions range over a period from the reign of Tiberius to the fifth century, thus [p. 2.666] tending to prove the continued importance of Praeneste throughout the period of the Roman Empire. (Nibby, vol. ii. pp. 513--515 Foggini, l.c. pp. v.--viii.) Other inscriptions mention the existence of a theatre and an amphitheatre, a portico and curia, and a spoliarium but no remains of any of these edifices can be traced. (Gruter, Inscr. p. 132 Orelli, Inscr. 2532 Bormann, note 434.)

The territory of Praeneste was noted for the excellence of its nuts, which are noticed by Cato. (R. R. 8, 143 Plin. Nat. 17.13. s. 21 Naevius, ap. Macrob. Sat. 3.18). Hence the Praenestines themselves seem to have been nicknamed Nuculae though another explanation of the term is given by Festus, who derives it from the walnuts (nuces) with which the Praenestine garrison of Casilinum is said to have been fed. ( Cic. de Or. 2.6. 2 Fest. s.v. Nuculae.) Pliny also mentions the roses of Praeneste as among the most celebrated in Italy and its wine is noticed by Athenaeus, though it was apparently not one of the choicest kinds. ( Plin. Nat. 21.4. s. 10 Athen. 1.26 f.)

It is evident from the narrative of Livy ( 6.29 ) that Praeneste in the days of its independence, like Tibur, had a considerable territory, with at least eight smaller towns as its dependencies but the names of none of these are preserved to us, and we are wholly unable to fix the limits of its territory.

The name of Via Praenestina was given to the road which, proceeding from Rome through Gabii direct to Praeneste, from thence rejoined the Via Latina at the station near Anagnia. It will be considered in detail in the article VIA PRAENESTINA