Reybold DE-177 - History

Reybold DE-177 - History


(DE-177: dp. 1,900 (f.); 1. 306'; b. 36'10"; dr. 11'8"; s. 21 k.; cpl. 20S; a. 3 3", 2 40mm., 8 20mm., 3 21" tt., 2 dct., 8 dcp., I dcp. (hh.); el. Cannon)

DE-177 was laid down on 3 May 1943 by the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Port Newark, N.J., launched as Reybold (DE-177) on 22 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. John K. Reybold, widow of Lt. Comdr. Reybold; and commissioned on 29 September 1943, Lt. A. B. Bradley, Jr., in command.

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Reybold operated briefly under ComSubLant, then completed an escort run from Rhode Island to the Canal Zone. She then steamed to Norfolk before the end of 1943 and, on 2 January 1944, she sailed south to join the 4th Fleet. On the 15th, she arrived at Recife, Brazil, whence she escorted ships to Trinidad and back until July, interrupting that duty only for air/sea rescue operations at the end of May. In July, she guarded the sealanes between Brazil and Gibraltar, anchoring off the latter 13-15 July and returning to Reeife on the 23d to prepare for transfer to the Brazilian Navy.

Shifting to Natal on 9 August, Reybold was decommissioned and transferred under the terms of lend-lease to Brazil on 15 August 1944. Renamed Bauru, she continued operations under that name throughout the remainder of World War II and the 1940's. She was returned to the custody of the United States and transferred, permanently,.under the terms of the military defense aid. program, to Brazil on 30 June 1953. Since that time, she has served the Brazilian Navv as Bauru

USS Dickerson (DD-157/ APD-21)

USS Dickerson (DD-157/ APD-21) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties until 1943 when she was converted into a fast transport. In 1945 she was struck by two kamikazes and suffered such heavy damage that she was sunk by US gunfire two days later.

The Dickerson was named after Mahlon Dickerson, Secretary of the Navy from 1834-38.

The Dickerson was launched on 12 March 1919 at the New York Shipbuilding Co, Camden, and commissioned on 3 September 1919.

Dickerson operated along the east coast and in the Caribbean and in 1921 took part in the combined fleet maneuvers off South America, visiting Valparaiso, Callao, and Balboa, before returning to Hampton Roads where the Atlantic Fleet was reviewed by President W. G. Harding. On 22 July 1921 she was given the task of sinking the former German submarine U-140, which had been taken by the US navy as war reparations after the end of the First World War and then used for aerial bombardment tests.

The Dickerson was decommissioned on 25 June 1922.

The Dickerson was recommissioned on 1 May 1930 and joined the Atlantic Fleet. She took part in the normal mix of operations along the East Coast and in the Caribbean. In 1932 and 1933-34 she took part in fleet exercises on the west coast. She took part in the Presidential Fleet Review of 31 May 1934 at Brooklyn, and then entered the Rotating Reserve as Norfolk, where she underwent an overhaul. In 1935 she joined the Training Squadron, and was used to train the Naval Reserve, operating between Chareston and the Caribbean.

In 1938 the Dickerson joined Destroyer Squadron 10, Atlantic Squadron. She operated as a plane guard for the carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) off Norfolk. In the spring of 1939 she took part in fleet landing exercises in the Cairbbean. In the late summer of 1939 she joined Squadron 40-T, then based at Lisbon, Portugal, supporting US citizens caught up in the Spanish Civil War. She visited a number of Spanish ports and helped evacuate refugees from Casablanca.

The Dickerson returned to the US In July 1940. She joined the Neutrality Patrol, and was based at Key West, operating in the Caribbean, until October 1941. In October 1940 she briefly moved to New London to operate with Submarine Squadron 2, but then returned to the Caribbean. In September 1941 she rescued six survivors from the SS Libby Maine.

After the American entry into the Second World War the Dickerson was based at Argentia, Newfoundland, where she spent December 1941 to January 1942 on patrol duties and escorted one convoy to Iceland. She then returned to coastal patrol duties off Norfolk. At the start of 1942 she was part of Destroyer Division 54, Destroyer Squadron 27, Destroyer Flotilla 8. On 19 March she was the victim of a friendly fire incident, when the nervous crew of the SS Liberator opened fire and hit the chartroom. Four men were killed, including her CO, Lt Commander J.K. Reybold. The destroyer escort USS Reybold (DE-177) was named after him.

Between April and August 1942 the Dickerson escorted convoys between Norfolk and Key West. Between August and October 1942 she escorted convoys between Key West and New York. Between October 1942 and January 1943 she escorted convoys between New York and Cuba. In the first half of 1943 she escorted the crucial tanker convoys heading to Gibraltar and Algiers and operated in the Caribbean.

The summer of 1943 saw the start of a series of dramatic changes of activity. In June she joined a hunter-killer anti-submarine group based around the carrier USS Card (CVE-11), which operated in the mid Atlantic. Between 17 July and 13 Auugst she took part in exercises with units of the British fleet from Londonderry.

After this she returned to the US, where she was converted into a high speed transport. On 21 August 1943 she was reclassified as APD-21.

The Dickerson departed for the Pacific on 1 November 1943. She was used to escort convoys from Espiritu Santo to Guadalcanal, then operated on patrol and escort duty in the Solomons.

On 30 January 1944 she landed a reconnaissance party of New Zealanders on Green Island, withdrawing after being strafed by Japanese aircraft. She then took part in the occupation of the Green Islands, landing New Zealanders on 15 and 20 January. On 20 March she landed US Marines on the undefended Emirau Island.

In April 1944 the Dickerson moved to New Guinea where she supported the landings at Seleo Island and Aitape.

The Dickerson carried an underwater demolition team during the invasion of the Marianas, and supported their operations at Saipan and Guam until July 1944, acting as their supply, control and fire support ship. On 18 June she helped cover the tug Apache (ATF-67) as she rescued the stranded landing craft LCI(G)-348, which had become stuck on the shore on Guam.

After a refit on the west coast the Dickerson returned to New Guinea. On 27 December 1944 she departed for Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, supporting an underwater demolition team during the landings of 9 January 1945.

The Dickerson was part of the screen of a logistics support force during the invasion of Iwo Jima of 19 February 1945. She briefly returned to Leyte carrying 58 prisoners of war. On 24 March she left Leyte as part of the escort for a convoy of LSTs and LSMs heading for Keise Shima, an island which was to be used as a heavy artillery base during the invasion of Okinawa. After completing this mission she moved to the transport area to the south-west of Okinawa. On the night of 2 April one kamikaze aircraft hit the Dickerson at a low angle, slicing off the top of her two remaining stacks then hit the base of the bridge, starting fires. Just afterwards a second kamikaze hit the centre of the forecastle, causing a massive explosion. One of the aircraft was a Kawasaki Ki.45 'Nick' twin engined reconnaissance/ ground attack aircraft. Fifty-four men were killed, including a second commanding officer to be lost on the Dickerson. Damage control efforts had to be abandoned when the fire threatened to reach the forward magazine and the survivors were evacuated. The Bunch (APD-79) and the tug Arikara (AT-98) managed to put out the fires, but the Dickerson was beyond repair, and on 4 April 1945 she was sunk by US gunfire.

The Dickerson earned six battle stars during the Second World War, for the Bismarck Archipelago, Hollandia, Marianas Islands, Luzon, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

35kts (design)
35.34kts at 24,610shp at 1,149t on trial (Wickes)

USS Reybold (DE-177)

Alus tilattiin Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Companyltä Newarkista New Jerseystä, missä köli laskettiin 3. toukokuuta 1943. Alus laskettiin vesille 22. elokuuta kumminaan John Reyboldin leski ja otettiin palvelukseen 29. syyskuuta ensimmäisenä päällikkönään A. B. Bradley Jr. [1]

Läpäistyään koeajot Bermudalla alus oli hetken Yhdysvaltain Atlantin laivastossa ennen saattueen suojaamista Rhode Islandilta Panaman kanavalle, josta alus lähti Norfolkiin vielä ennen vuoden loppua. Alus lähti 2. tammikuuta 1944 etelään liittyäkseen Yhdysvaltain 4. laivastoon. Se saapui 15. tammikuuta Recifeen, jonka jälkeen se suojasi Recifen ja Trinidadin välisiä saattueita. Toukokuun lopulla saattuepalveluksen keskeytti pelastusoperaatio. Heinäkuussa alus suojasi merireittä Brasiliasta Gibraltarille, jossa se oli 13. – 15. heinäkuuta ennen paluutaan Recifeen. Se saapui Recifeen 23. heinäkuuta aloittaen valmistautumisen aluksen siirtoon Brasilian laivastolle. [1]

Alus poistettiin palveluksesta 9. elokuuta Natalissa ja luovutettiin 15. elokuuta Brasilialle. [1]

Brasilian laivasto nimesi aluksen CTE Bracuíksi (port. Contratorpedeiro de Escolta ) runkonumerolla D-23. Alus palautettiin 30. kesäkuuta 1953 Yhdysvaltain laivastolle, joka luovutti sen heti takaisin Brasilialle. Alus poistettiin 1973 Brasilian laivastoluettelosta. Se on sijoitettu museolaivaksi Rio de Janeiroon.

Red Lion Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware

This hundred, the smallest in the State, is bounded on the north by a creek of the same name, on the south by St. George's Creek, on the east by the Delaware River and on the west by Pencader Hundred. The soil is rich and productive, and some of the finest farmland in the State is to be found within its borders. In 1831, it is said, the first peach orchards in the State were introduced in this hundred, and they yielded abundantly for about thirty-five years, but since that time have been a failure, and are no longer planted. Much of the land is marsh, and requires embankments to prevent the river from overflowing, and ditches to drain it. Large parts of it were used in early times for grazing cattle. The village of St. George's extended partly in St. George's Hundred, and to remedy the inconveniences thereby occasioned, an act was passed for the extension of the boundaries of Bed Lion Hundred, on March 1, 1875.

The territory thus added to this hundred is described as follows:

"The said enlargement or extension shall begin at a point on the Ches. & Del. canal, at the line dividing the lands of Jno. P. Hudson from the lands of Jno Hudson thence and with said division line in a southerly direction to the public road leading from Summit bridge to the town of St. George's thence in a northeasterly direction with the middle line of said road to the road leading from Odessa to the said town of St. George's thence crossing said road to the line of the lands of Mrs. Letitia How, being the northern boundary of the road dividing the lands of the said Letitia How from the lands of Mrs. Margaret A. Osborn thence and with said line and road to the line dividing the lands of the said M. A. Osborn from the lands of Francis McWhorter and Brother thence with the line dividing said lands to Scott's run thence down said run to the Ches. & Del. canal, and thence with said canal and with the original division lines of said hundreds to the place of beginning."

In 1661 Jacob Young, who was residing at Upland, eloped from that place with the wife of the Reverend Laurentius Laers, and went to Maryland and resided at or near Bohemia Manor. While there he obtained, by warrant and purchase, land in Red Lion and St. Georges Hundreds. On the 6th of November, 1675, a warrant was granted to him by Governor Edward Andros for a tract of one thousand two hundred and eighty acres known as "St. George's Neck," situate on the north side of St. George's Creek and extending to Dragon's Run. By the death of Jacob Young the land vested in his two sons, Jacob and Joseph. They, by separate deeds, dated November 10, 1700, granted a portion of the estate to Charles Anderson and the remainder to John Cocks. Four hundred and thirty-seven acres of this was sold by Anderson and Cocks on July 20, 1708, to Joseph Neall. At the decease of John Cocks his land passed to his sons, Charles, John and Augustine Cocks. By partition and survey, made by George Deakayne, October 20, 1720, the estate was divided among the three sons, each receiving two hundred and thirty-four acres. Augustine's was the eastern part, Charles the middle and John the western part. John sold his two hundred and thirty-four acres June 24, 1729, to Francis Land. He died in June, 1731, and left some other land, westward of the above tract, to his wife, Rebecca, and his son, Gabriel Cocks. This large tract has, since the purchase of John Cocks, in 1700, been known as "Cocks Neck," a name still familiar to the residents of Red Lion Hundred. Augustine Cocks died soon after his father, and November 20, 1730, his executors sold his share to Jacob Gooding.

Lawrence Higgins, an Ulster Presbyterian from Belfast, was the first of his family to settle in America. He emigrated in 1750, and married a Miss Susan Wilson, of the Welsh emigration. Her family moved to Virginia shortly after her marriage, and further knowledge of them is lost. He died in 1789. His son, Jesse Higgins, was the executor of his will. He first owned a farm near Port Penn, and afterward that now owned by John C. and Anthony Higgins, bordering upon the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal and the town of Delaware City. He is known to have been an ardent Whig in the War of the Revolution. He was resident agent for the purchase of supplies for the Continental army, and speedily exhausted both means and credit in his zeal for the cause of independence. His surviving family were four sons, Jesse, Anthony, Samuel, David and a daughter who married one Armstrong, and went to Ohio.

Jesse first married a niece of George Read, the signer, a daughter of his brother. Their son, John Read Higgins, lived to the age of ten. Jesse Higgins early became a widower, and married Mary Witherspoon, daughter of Thomas Witherspoon, of Middletown, who was treasurer of Drawyers Presbyterian Church in 1764, and upon the committee which built the present church, upon or near the site of an older one in 1772. His uncle, David Witherspoon, was a member of the Council of Delaware in 1762. He was a native of Londonderry, in Ireland, and was a trustee of Drawyers Church in 1746. He died in 1763, leaving his nephew, Thomas, his heir.

Susan, the wife of Thomas Witherspoon, was the daughter of Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle, whose wife, Mary Ann Bayard, was the sister of Peter, Samuel and James Bayard, who were the sons of Samuel Bayard, who settled on Bohemia Manor about a. d. 1700.

Samuel was the son of Peter Bayard, the son of Nicholas Bayard, whose wife, Anneke, was the sister of Governor Peter Stuyvesant, who, with her sons, accompanied him from Holland to New Amsterdam in 1647.

John M. O. Rodney has a French psalm-book which she brought with her, and which has descended in seven generations to him.

Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle was the son of Dr. Petrus Bouchelle, who was the son of Legede Bouchelle.

Dr. Petrus Bouchelle was the son-in-law and favorite heir of Petrus Sluyter, the leader of the Labadists, who settled on Bohemia Manor in 1684.

Jesse Higgins lived at Damascus, a mill-seat on the Dragon, one mile north of St. George's. He was a man of intellect and deep research, a logical and impressive public speaker, and probably the most influential man of his day of the laymen of the Jefferson Democrats. He was often invited to become a member of the bar, but in his settlement of Dr. Bouchelle's estate he had to bring and resist law-suits, and was thus involved in litigation. He conceived a strong antagonism to the profession of the law, believing that '' an honest man could not be a good lawyer."

In pursuance of this feeling he wrote a pamphlet entitled "Samson against the Philistines," in which he sought to prove that arbitration could be properly, cheaply and effectively substituted for suits at law. The edition was promptly bought by the lawyers, as far as possible suppressed, and another was not issued. Its publication in the Aurora gave it a wider circulation. William Duane, the editor and publisher of the Aurora was also the publisher of the pamphlet. As a vigorous and sincere expression of views it is not without interest now after the lapse of nearly a century. The following letter from Mr. Duane will better describe Jesse Higgins than any present testimony:

"Deas Sir,
My son has forwarded to me yours of the 28th of October.

"The pamphlet, you know, I proposed not to publish before the first week or fortnight of the meeting of our Legislature. Accordingly, I brought it with me to this place, where I can under my own eye see it printed. The thirty-second page proof I read this morning and shall have the whole ready as proposed. In about ten days I shall begin to advertise it so as to prepare the minds of readers for its reception.

"You will have seen an essay in the Aurora signed "More,' which I wrote for the same purpose to meet our legislators at their own homes before they set out to Lancaster.

"The Lawyers of Pennsylvania have agreed to run me down! so that it is now, who shall! And tho the force is formidable, you must know, from times past, that I am not easily dismayed.

But whatever may have been the "happy state of things" at Washington, the fight at home between Federalist and Democrat was a warm one, and from the above it appears that in those heated political controversies Jesse Higgins met from time to time, and was not worsted by, the most brilliant Federalist of that era.

Old men described to the generation just gone the great meeting at Glasgow, when these men met in alternate speeches.

Jesse Higgins' daughter, Susan, married Henry Fromberger, and their daughter, Susan Maria, married Thomas M. Rodney, son of Caesar A. Rodney, and by this domestic tie further cemented the friendship of the previous generation.

A son of Jesse Higgins bearing his father's name became a midshipman in the navy. He was upon the "Essex" with Commodore Porter, and a diary now extant gives a history of his experience upon that historic ship.

The second prize taken by the "Essex" was an English vessel from Liverpool for New Brunswick. A George Pearce was appointed prize-master, and Jesse Higgins his next officer. They sailed for Boston, but were captured by the English sloop-of- war "Atalantis," and sent to St. John's, N. B.

They were placed upon the prison-ship for a few days only, were paroled, and permitted the liberty of the town within certain limits for a few months, and then paroled until exchanged. They were in all respects kindly treated during their stay at St. John's and on August 31, 1812, left for Boston, in a schooner which they had purchased for four hundred pounds. Quite a large American colony were included in this shipload.

Only six weeks later, October 20, 1812, Jesse Higgins, Jr., died of pneumonia, contracted during his voyages of a few months.

Anthony Higgins, second son of Lawrence, succeeded his father and became one of the foremost farmers of his time, leaving six hundred acres to his children. He was a man of great mental and physical energy, of iron will, yet genial and social in disposition. He had an unusually fine voice and musical talent. His Revolutionary and hunting songs were the delight of his generation, and some of them have been handed down to his descendants. He delighted in the music of hounds and made the chase a double factor in his life, as it gave him the exercise which his tendency to corpulency made a necessity. His hospitality was largely extended.

Anthony Higgins was twice married, first to a Miss Rankin, of which marriage there was no issue. On March 22, 1792, he married Martha Witherspoon, the sister of the wife of his brother Jesse. Three sons, John, Thomas .Jefferson and Anthony Madison, and a daughter, Harriet, survive their parents. John Higgins, the oldest, was born in 1794, and died in 1848. He married Ann Sawyer, daughter of Capt. Joseph Sawyer, of New Castle. They lived for twenty-five years at Fairview, built by his father and now occupied by his nephew, John C. Higgins. He was the father of the public schools of Delaware City, giving them unwearied attention, although himself childless. He was a colonel of militia, member of Legislature, always a patriotic and public-spirited citizen, and popular and beloved to a rare degree. His brother, Thomas J. Higgins, did not marry. He led a quiet, thoughtful life, was keenly alive to the political situation of State and nation, and was the only man who voted for Fremont in Red Lion Hundred in 1856. Their sister Harriet was long the relict of John Dushane Eves.

David Higgins, third son of Lawrence, left a son William, who married Elizabeth Reynolds, of Middletown, who has long survived her husband and lives with her children in Missouri.

Of the names mentioned in this sketch, Lawrence Higgins, Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle and Thomas Wither-spoon are known to have suffered pecuniary loss in the cause of American Independence. Dr. Bouchelle was a trustee of the Forest Presbyterian Church, at Middletown, upon its erection in 1760. He left a large estate, principally in land, a part of which lies in Burke County, North Carolina. He removed thither and died there in 1796.

The first land purchased by Lawrence Higgins, the first settler, was on the lowest point of Cocks' Neck, bounded on the south by St. George's Creek, and on the north by Dragon Run, and afterwards the land now owned by John C. and Anthony Higgins. On this latter place he built a house which was standing in 1840 and bore the words "Our Grandfather's Log Cabin, a Whig of '76." It was soon after torn down.

Jesse Higgins, the eldest son of Lawrence Higgins, was born in 1763. Soon after arriving at manhood he purchased a farm adjoining his father's, and built a residence within three hundred yards of an old landing for vessels at the head of navigation on St. George's Creek. This landing was a great convenience to the people in this vicinity and afforded the only outlet for water conveyance to Brandy wine Mills or Philadelphia for more than one hundred years previous to the permanent enclosure of St. George's Creek.

On the 19th of February, 1790, he purchased a grist-mill, brick mansion and a plantation of one hundred acres, which was known as ''Damascus," and the place still retains the name. It was situated one and a half miles north of the town of St. George's and was sold by Sheriff Thomas Kean as the property of Jacob Cannon. The Cannons were a prominent family who came to this hundred in 1724. In November of that year Isaac Cannon purchased "Damascus" of Samuel Griffith, who purchased it October 16, 1719, when it was sold by Sheriff Rowland Fitzgerald aa the property of Henry Hanson. After the death of Jesse Higgins "Damascus" passed into the hands of his son-in-law, Henry Fromberger. Shortly afterwards the dam broke and was never repaired. "Damascus" is now owned by Mrs. George H. Smith.

He subsequently purchased the paternal estate and devoted his time to farming and grazing, in some years selling as many as sixty bead of cattle to the butchers of New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. In 1822 he built a brick house within two hundred yards of the place where he was born, which, on account of its location, he called "Fairview." He died in 1823, leaving a widow and six children, three sons and three daughters. He devised legacies to his daughters and his estate to his sons, to be divided when the youngest should arrive at age.

Anthony Madison Higgins, of Red Lion Hundred, a prominent citizen of Delaware in his day, was born November 22, 1809, on the place and near the spot where he died. This place is known as Fairview. His father, Anthony Higgins, and grandfather, Lawrence Higgins, had cultivated the same farm, and it is now owned and tilled by John C. Higgins, his eldest living son. For several generations the family has lived in Red Lion Hundred, not far from Delaware City. The subject of this sketch, after preparatory courses of instruction, first with Rev. Wilson, of Middletown, then with the late John Bullock, of Wilmington, and subsequently at the Newark Academy, entered Jefferson College, at Cannonsburg, Pa., in 1829, and received his diploma from that institution in 1831. As a student and as a member of the Literary Society of his choice, he stood in the foremost rank, giving promise to his friends by his collegiate achievements of future eminence in some field of literature.

In those days railroads did not exist among the mountains of Pennsylvania, Living steeds were the main dependence for transportation of travelers and freight. Romantic interest and peril, in the more sparsely- peopled places, would therefore attend a journey at that time on the routes from Wilmington to Western Pennsylvania. In order to enjoy the scenery along the way and gratify his taste for natural enjoyments and equestrian exercise, Mr. Higgins, after graduating, in company with four college mates, Messrs. David D. Clark, of Cumberland County, Pa. Maxwell Kennedy, of Lancaster County, Pa. L. P. Bush, M.D., of Wilmington and Hon. Addison May, now of West Chester, Pa., of whom the two last named were classmates, returned home on horseback. Each member of the party left his companions at the point on the route which was nearest to his own home. This agreeable journey from his alma mater was remembered and mentioned in after years with genuine pleasure. His standing and activities in class and society, while at college, had led his acquaintances to suppose that after graduation he would devote himself to the profession of the law, but his rural environments and tastes controlled his choice and decided his career for the farm. Hence college life was to him but a more complete equip-ment and preparation for life as an agriculturalist. He gave his cultivated energies, both of mind and body, to the culture of his farm. He settled upon a place situated north and west of the village of St. George's, and almost adjoining his paternal estate. Here, for more than thirty years, he pursued actively his chosen vocation with signal ability and success. He then withdrew from the active labors of the farm, and for twenty years enjoyed the life of a retired country gentleman, at his home at Linden Hill. Much of this time he devoted to reading, in which he took great delight. He traversed a wide field of literature with a desire for knowledge that was apparently insatiable. In this domain, his acquisitions, on almost every subject of general interest, were large. On all matters of local and domestic interest he was an encyclopedia. These two decades of his life were notably happy years, yielding memorable pleasures both to him and his family and his friends. In these years the personal traits of Mr. Higgins, which preeminently constituted his individuality, were freely developed and plainly seen. Conspicuous among them was an unselfish, even self-sacrificing fairness towards others with whom he dealt. To observers he seemed to forget himself in his scrupulous care for the interests of others to an extent which made him appear in a transaction as more careful of their welfare than of his own. He was highly favored in his marriage relations. His wife was a woman of rare courage and force of character and was a potent factor in the successful life of her husband. Her death deprived him of his most efficient coadjutor and left a void that was never fully filled and a sorrow of no ordinary kind. Although capable as a writer to an unusual degree when he chose to use his pen, Mr. Higgins has left comparatively little to indicate his skill in this particular. He devoted himself so completely to his agricultural interests that he had but scant time or inclination to put his thoughts upon paper. The most that he did as a writer, upon subjects of general interest, was done for the Department of Agriculture at Washington City, for which he prepared, by request, several valuable communications on topics relating to the agricultural resources and industries of New Castle County. In the last two years of his life he was overshadowed by another deep grief, occasioned by the death of his eldest daughter, to whom he was devotedly attached, and who, after the death of her mother, had done what she could to supply her place. Alter this bereavement his health and comfort became so much impaired that be abandoned Linden Hill as a home, and spent his remaining days at the homes of his children.

Mr. Higgins was not one of the class of men who are content with inferior methods when better may be employed. He believed in going forward to the attainment of the best possible results. Hence, it is not surprising that he made the farm which he tilled advance from an inferior condition to the very front rank of handsome and productive rural estates. He was devoted heartily to his calling and labored in it intelligently and with assiduity. As an intelligent citizen he always took a lively interest in the public welfare. But he did not abandon his life work to do so. In politics he was originally a Whig, later in life he was known as a Republican. He was always in earnest in whatever he did, having clear and decided convictions upon all questions which his duty required him to consider. Twice he took upon him the cares and responsibilities of public official position, once as a trustee of the poor of New Castle County, and once as a member of the State Legislature.

The latter position he held as the choice of the people in the stormy period of 1860, when his name was placed on the Lincoln Bell fusion ticket. In the Legislature he did much by his consistent, intelligent, conscientious fidelity towards preserving his native State in the position which she had been the first to take in relation to the National Constitution. As public offices were not congenial to his tastes, he served but one term in any official position, and returned willingly to his agricultural pursuits when public duty permitted. Possibly the conspicuous candor and unsuspecting truthfulness of his character may, in part, explain his reluctance to engage in the competitions of political life. He was married, in 1833, to Sarah C. Corbit, a daughter of Pennell Corbit. His wife died on the 28th of February, 1871. Five children survived their father, John C. Higgins, near Delaware City Anthony Higgins, attorney-at-law of Wilmington Thomas Higgins, a merchant of New York City Pennell C. Higgins, a journalist of the same city and Mary C, wife of Daniel Corbit, of Odessa. His oldest daughter, Martha, died in February, 1886, at Nassau, New Providence, Bahama Islands, where she had been taken by her father for her health.

Mr. Higgins died July 29, 1887, and was buried in St. George's Cemetery near the centre of the enclosure, in the family plot, and in full view of the beautiful home which he had established more than half a century before he died. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and his obsequies were conducted according to the ceremonies of that denomination. Mrs. Higgins, his wife, (Sarah Clark Corbit,) was a granddaughter of Governor John Clark, son of Captain William Clark, whose valor was well proved at the head of his command in the Revolutionary Army. He led into the battle of Monmouth a company of seventy-five men, raised principally between Smyrna and Cantwell's Bridge. Forty-five of these brave men perished on the field. In a hand-to-hand conflict Captain Clark killed with his sword a British officer who had attacked him. The sword with which he had saved his life and vanquished his antagonist was long retained and highly valued among the heirlooms of the family, but was eventually stolen by some person who was supposed to have coveted its mountings.

Mr. Higgins is remembered as an intelligent, energetic farmer a man of unswerving rectitude and purity a generous friend, a patriotic citizen, an unusually well-informed Christian gentleman, interested in all his active years in every good work that he could personally aid, and always a warm advocate of every worthy enterprise. Such men do not die, they only pass to other spheres beyond.

"Tho human forms to primal dust return,
Their deeds, perennial, live from age to age."

On February 2, 1788, during Jesse Higgins' first term in the Legislature, a supplementary act was passed for stopping St. George's Creek, and draining a quantity of marsh and cripple on both sides of the creek, being about three thousand acres, situate in Red Lion and St. George's Hundreds, and for keeping the dykes and drains in good repair.

Henry Ward Pierce and Mathew Pearce were the owners of a portion of this tract. On the 18th day of April, 1796, they conveyed thirteen hundred and seventy-eight acres to Solomon Maxwell, William Guier and Adam Diehl, wealthy merchants of Philadelphia. In 1799, Maxwell sold his interest to Joseph Clark. While this tract was in their possession the hotel at St. Augustine Piers was erected and managed by them for more than twenty years. The marsh was enclosed and ditched and converted into pasture land, on which numerous cattle were fattened, and found a ready market in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore.

The tract was divided into three portions or farms and assigned by lot. Joseph Clark became the owner of the farm in St. George's Hundred Adam Diehl drew the middle farm and William Guier received the upper farm, which extended as far north as the present location of the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal. Clark's property was at a later period purchased by John Barney, and is now owned by Wm. S. Lawrence, of New Jersey. The William Guier farm is now owned by Arthur Coleburn, of Philadelphia. In 1828, Adam Diehl sold his farm to Captain George Maxwell, who, in 1843, conveyed it to J. J. Henry. John P. King was the next owner, and he sold it in October, 1861, to William Beck, the present owner, who came from England in 1848. St. George's marsh now comprises some of the finest farmland in the State. On this tract, in 1831, the first peach orchards in the State were planted. The tidal wave in 1878 swept away the entire embankment and since that time $37,000 have been spent in rebuilding and repairing the banks and ditches along this marsh.

In 1872, for the better draining of this land, there was stationed on it a thirty-six-inch pump with a capacity of twenty-five thousand gallons per minute. It was operated by an eighty-five horse-power engine.

John Moll, of whom a more complete history is given elsewhere in the chapter on " Bench and Bar," in 1676, bought of William Currier and William Goldsmith a tract of six hundred acres, which was patented to them January 13, 1675. On June 27th of that year this land was surveyed to him, and an additional four hundred acres ''which had been seated for several years with good stock and good improvements thereon." A patent was granted to him for these one thousand acres on the 8th of August, 1679.

This tract, known as "The Exchange," was situated on the Delaware River, south of Red Lion Creek, and extended to Dragon Swamp. It was adjacent to the "Reeden Island" tract patented to Henry Ward. Articles of agreement for the sale of "The Exchange" were drawn up Sept. 3, 1683, between John Moll and Gabriel Rappe, who was acting as agent for Daniel Duthy, a merchant of London. The terms of the contract were not complied with, and the land was awarded to John Moll by a board of arbitrators. On the 19th of March, John Moll sold this land to Hans Hanson, who, on July 7, 1685, took out a warrant for a tract of land called "Lowland," situate on the south side of Red Lion Creek, and containing four hundred and twenty-five acres of fast land and marsh. Below "Lowland" was a tract which at this time was owned by Lewis Davis, and afterwards became escheated and was granted to Joseph Hanson, son of Hans. On December 25, 1701, it was surveyed to him in two tracts containing four hundred and three hundred acres respectively. At his death, Hans Hanson devised all of his property to his two sons, Peter and Joseph, who then owned nearly the entire northeastern portion of Red Lion Hundred. This land has passed through various hands and is now principally owned by the Reybolds and Clarks.

A small stream called "Cedar Creek" flows through this tract, and in some parts the land is marshy. From an early date a bank has been necessary along the Delaware to prevent the river from overflowing the land in this vicinity. In 1784 the bank was in need of repair, and on February 5th of the following year an act of Assembly was passed enabling the owners of meadow marsh and cripple on Cedar Creek in Red Lion Hundred, and County of New Castle, to erect a new bank in part, and to keep the residue of the old bank, dams, sluices and flood-gates in repair. On February 5, 1811, a supplement to the act of 1785 was passed. By it Francis Haughey, Benjamin Merrit, William Kennedy, Dr. David Stuart and Adam Deighl were appointed commissioners to go on Red Lion bank and view the situation, for the purpose of ascertaining whether it were advisable to repair the old bank, or build a new one on another site. Andrew Jamison, Peter Hanse and Thomas Marsh Foreman were appointed managers to superintend the repairing of the old bank, or the erection of a new one and the laying out of sluices.

The commissioners met at Red Lion Inn on April 30, 1811, and made their report. They recommended the erection of a bank to be five feet high, measuring from high-water mark, and sixteen feet wide at the base. They advised the building of a wharf forty rods long, and parallel to the bank, for the better protection of eighty perches of the most exposed portion of the bank. They also directed that forty rods of the bank be protected by piles arranged in rows at the base of the bank, and that a sluice ten feet wide and five feet deep, with flood-gates, be made where the old sluice was.

The suggestions of the commissioners met with approval, and the work was performed. At frequent intervals since that time the embankments have been rebuilt, and new sluices dug.

In 1701 Joseph Hanson sold a portion of his estate to John Boyer, who in 1703 conveyed it to Henry Packard (Piker). At his death he devised his estate to his wife, with remainder to his children. On May 27, 1730, George Hadley leased two hundred acres of the heirs of Henry Packard. Hadley came from New York City, at which place he owned considerable property. He died at Dover while there attending to some business. He was reported as being immensely wealthy, and rumor said he had buried a large quantity of treasure before taking this trip. Numerous were the requests made by different persons, who claimed they had dreamed concerning this wealth and where it was located, for permission to examine certain places on the premises. According to tradition almost the entire farm was overturned in the search. It was never discovered, or, if so, was enjoyed in silence. By his will, bearing date December 28, 1732, he devised his estate to his wife, Mary, who the following year married John Clark. Clark was a mariner and surveyor and was the son of a captain of a boat that sailed between New Castle and New York. He purchased other land in this hundred and at the time of his decease owned four hundred and ninety-one acres, valued at £1359 2s. 6d. The estate was taken at the valuation by John, the oldest son, who died in 1791, and by his will devised one-half of his real estate to George, his eldest son, and a life estate in the other half to his wife, with remainder to George, who was to pay certain legacies to the other children. William D., Levi H. and James C. Clark were sons of Major George Clark. He died December 6, 1838, and devised to his youngest son, Levi H. Clark, all of his real estate subject to the legacies of the other children. Levi H. sold some of the land, and March 28, 1863, conveyed the remainder to his brother, John C. Clark, who, July 28, 1865, granted it to his son, James H. Clark, the present owner. The Clarks of Red Lion Hundred are all descendants of the John Clark who married Mary Hadley, and are influential citizens of this hundred. The old home-stead, except the kitchen, on the James H. Clark property was destroyed by fire on St. Patrick's Day, 1857.

In 1875 William D. Clark erected a granite shaft near the old kitchen with the following inscription:

"John Clark.
Mrs. Mary Hadley.
Both Born 1711.
Married 1733
John Clark.
Mary Adams.
Married 1766.
Geo. Clark
Rebecca Curtis
Esther Bryan
Here they lived and
died and here was
my mother's room.
These memories to me
are precious.
Wm. D. Clark.

The estate on which William D. Clark resided until his death was also a portion of the John Moll tract. In 1802 it was conveyed by Henry Ward Pierce to Joseph Holmes and Clayton Earl. On May 16, 1810, the executors of Joseph Holmes sold his one-half interest to Clayton Earl, who, June 9, 1819, conveyed it to Hugh Exton, whose executors granted it to William D. Clark March 15, 1837. The estate is now owned by the heirs of William D. Clark.

Peter Hanson, who was grandson of Hans and son of Joseph, and inherited half of his father's estate, by will dated April 5, 1729, devised his property to his children, Hans, Magdalen, wife of Michael Butcher, Rachel, wife of Thomas Tobin, and John Hanson. Michael Butcher and Magdalen, his wife, conveyed their portion to Hans and John, and Patrick Porter purchased the share of Thomas Tobin and Rachel, his wife. The land was divided and the portion received by John descended to his two sons Nathaniel and John. On March 28, 1776, Nathaniel sold his land to Alexander Porter, whose daughter, Mary, married Thomas M. Foreman, and inherited portion of this land. On January 1, 1820 Philip Reybold purchased six hundred acres of Thomas M. Foreman.

Major Philip Reybold, of Delaware City, Red Lion Hundred, a man of more than ordinary physical vigor, and endowed with strong common sense and indomitable energy, was descended from Dutch ancestors, of whose history no record remains. He was born in Philadelphia, May 5, 1783. His father dressed sheep for the Philadelphia market, and from his only son, Philip, required and received, even in his childhood, such aid in his business as proved him to be a boy of remarkable capacity. Although but ten years old when his father died, he had an intelligent under-standing of the situation in which his mother, his sister and himself had been left. With characteristic courage, foresight and energy, he struggled with the adversities that confronted him, and managed to obtain favor, employment and some compensation. Sometime after his father's death, his mother married Dr. Albertus Shilack, a physician of some means, in Philadelphia. She did not long survive her second marriage and left no additional children. Aided, no doubt, by the step-father, Philip continued to work at the business that he had learned, in its rudiments, with his father, and, in the absence of better facilities, he wheeled his dressed sheep to market on a hand-cart or wheel-barrow, and sold his meat to his customers. Thus he continued to work with increasing success until October 25, 1801, when, in his nineteenth year, he was married to Elizabeth Dilcart and laid the foundation of a home which was afterwards blessed with surprising prosperity. Major Reybold continued to acquire means by diligent attention to his occupation in Philadelphia until about 1810. At this time his family had been increased by the birth of his four eldest children. Having a decided taste for rural occupations, stock-raising, grazing and such pursuits, he thought about this time that he would do well for himself and his growing family by removing to the country and engaging in agriculture. Accordingly, after inquiry, he decided to remove to a farm in Red Lion Hundred, Delaware, which he purchased on equal shares with one Worknot, from Clayton Earle. The tract thus bargained for contained over one thousand acres, and included lands now embraced in the estate of the late William D. Clark, also in the property of George F. Brady, in Jefferson Clark's estate, the Delaware City Cemetery, and in fields now belonging to many others. Such a venture on such a scale gives some idea of the courageous energy of the man. To realize what was invested and obtain additional profit demanded extraordinary skill and vigorous effort, perhaps more than his experience at that time prepared him to exhibit, though not more than he was capable of displaying under favorable circumstances. Fortunately or unfortunately, he was handicapped by his partner, Worknot. Whether the name had significance or not, his partner did not make his payments as promised, and as the result, the farm was lost to Messrs. Reybold and Worknot by a foreclosure of the mortgage held by Mr. Earle. Not discouraged, however, by this event, Mr. Reybold subsequently rented the same property from Mr. Earle, and, unembarrassed by a partner, he embarked in the business of raising merino sheep.

By diligence and prudence his plans prospered, and Mr. Reybold gradually advanced in means and influence. To purchase the property that he had lost, through the failure of his partner, Mr. Reybold had sold his half-interest in the estate of his step-father, which, after the death of his mother without additional heirs, had been left to him and his sister, their step-father having died previously. Having lost all his own early savings and his patrimony, by the disastrous termination of the Worknot partnership, the situation would have been discouraging to a faint heart. But to Major Reybold it afforded chiefly an incentive to greater effort for his heart was not of the ''faint" kind. Robust energy that knew not how to faint or fail and was determined not to learn to do either, was, more than in most men, his predominant characteristic. After a profitable experience in raising merino sheep, Mr. Reybold rented what was known as the Newbold property, on part of which Delaware City now stands. On this farm he gave attention to raising and pressing castor beans for oil. The making and sale of castor oil proved so profitable that from what it and his other farming operations produced, he was able, in 1819, to purchase the Marsh Mount property, upon which, in 1820, he finished building the large and commodious mansion, in which he resided for more than a quarter of a century, and which is now occupied by his son, William. After removal to Marsh Mount farm, of which eighty acres was woodland, he gave the most particular attention to the improvement of it. Here, besides maintaining all the ordinary work of a cereal farm, he raised choice stock and conducted the culture of castor beans on a large scale. He had over four hundred acres under complete cultivation, of which he devoted fifty or sixty acres to beans for oil. The product of these acres was exceedingly profitable. Major Reybold, so far as is known, was the first castor oil producer who used the cold pressure and put the famous cold-expressed castor oil in the market.

While engaged in these industries, the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal was projected. Mr. Reybold and John C. Clark entered into a contract with the canal company to build that part of the canal which lies between Delaware City and St. Georges. This section offered to contractors the greatest difficulties to be encountered along the entire line, as so much of it lay through heavy marsh land. The company had tried in vain to obtain a suitable person to supervise the work on this section. It required a man who could successfully control rough and reckless workmen, as well as know what they must do. Mr. Reybold had the necessary qualifications. He was sagacious, prompt and physically large and strong. He exceeded six feet in height, and was well proportioned. He succeeded to that part of the work of which John Randel had been in charge, and remained on it until the canal was finished. While carrying on his part of the excavation and construction, he also contracted to supply meat and bread to the men on the entire line, from Delaware City to Chesapeake City, and filled the contract successfully. The magnitude of this undertaking is more easily imagined than described but the difficulties were all surmounted and satisfactorily overcome. After the completion of the canal, he gave attention to the manufacture of brick, and carried it on upon an extensive scale. He supplied, under contracts, the brick for buildings erected by Girard & Ridgeway, of Philadelphia also for the almshouse of that county on the west side of the Schuylkill. Many of his brick were sent to New York, as he was able, because of superior facilities for their manufacture, to supply them at cheaper rates. His transactions in this industry reached up in value to millions of dollars. He was also largely engaged in peach culture, being personally interested and occupied in it, more or less, from 1885 to about 1850. Although a very busy man through all these years, he found time between 1840 and 1845 to erect a new house for his residence at a place about a mile from Marsh Mount. To this new home he gave the name of Lexington, at the suggestion and in honor of Henry Clay, whom he greatly admired and who visited him here, in company with Hon. John M. Clayton and other prominent public men. Mr. Reybold had removed from Marsh Mount to the Lexington country seat in December, 1846, and his distinguished visitors, just mentioned, came to see his large, productive peach orchards in August, 1847. Their visit gave him great pleasure.

Mr. Reybold was, without doubt, a masterful man, full of energy and resources. That he was a man of no ordinary mould may be judged from his portrait, as well as from his achievements. His face and figure will suggest to an observer of the oil-painting, which preserves his features, a by no means remote resemblance to Washington. In enterprise he was nothing small. He was gigantic. It enlarges one's conceptions of things merely to recite his under-takings and remember the disadvantages under which he labored, both in his individual deficiencies of equipment in early life and in the absence of mechanical facilities, which since his day have become so abundant. But as a strong man who delights to run a race, those things which might discourage less energetic persons seemed to be stimulating incentives to him, and he literally strode through and over stupendous obstacles with a sort of Herculean vigor. There are such men, and he was one of them. It is willingly conceded by those who knew him that he was the leading pioneer in improvements of a practical kind in the neighborhood where he lived. In these he was equally fertile and skillful both on the land and the water. Canal, river, bay, boats, barges, wagons, cars, farms, fruits, grains, herds, flocks and people all felt the force of his genius and the value of his directing skill. And the evidences of his efficient labor remain and are apparent still, both on the land and waters of the State of Delaware. After removing from Marsh Mount to his new country-seat at Lexington, the infirmities of age began to be felt, and he withdrew more and more from active life. He felt a desire and need for rest. He was blessed with a true wife, who was also a faithful 'mother. She was a true and efficient helpmeet, and contributed largely to her husband's success. She died in August, 1852. Both his wife and he were members of the St. George's Presbyterian Church, of which at the time Rev. Mr. Howe was pastor. They raised a family of twelve children. Of these three sons survive (1887). They are William and Barney Reybold, of Red Lion Hundred, and Anthony Rey-bold, of Wilmington. The Major died February 28, 1854, leaving behind him the memory and proofs of a life that abounded with energy, skill and usefulness. In the foregoing sketch it has been impossible to do more than give the most condensed account of this busy, enterprising man. The half has not been told. And he was never concerned so much about what might be said of him as he was about the work that he had in hand. To this he gave himself with unreserved energy, preferring that his works should be his record and his monument.

Patrick Porter also purchased one hundred and eighty acres of land sold by Sheriff Duff as the property of Thomas Dunn in 1765. On this property there was an old fulling mill. At his death, Patrick Porter devised his estate to his son David, who died without issue. The property then passed into the hands of his two sisters, Mary and Janet. Mary married Whitehead Jones and had two children, John and Mary. On this farm there was a saw-mill operated for several years by Whitehead Jones. The land was next vested in Purnel Veach. After passing through several hands it is now owned by James Gray. Samuel McCall also owns a portion of the Porter land.

Henry Vanderberg was the owner of considerable laud in Red Lion Hundred. On October 1683, a war-rant was granted to him for six hundred and four hundred acres, called New Utrecht, situate on the north side of main branch of St. George's Creek, "above ye bridge adjoining Dragon Swamp." A tract of four hundred and forty acres patented the 30th of the fifth month, 1684, to John Harins was assigned to him by Harins. On June 4, 1696, he sold this tract to John Donaldson. On November 17 of the same year he sold four hundred acres at St. George's Creek to Richard Asken.

A List of Taxable in Red Lion Hundred as returned November 27, 1787, by John Thompson, assessor.

Among the private schools in the hundred previous to the adoption of the public-school system, the Randall Hall and Franklin schools were well known. The Randall Hall School was situated about a mile and a half from Delaware City, and was attended by pupils from that town. The Franklin school-house was built in 1820, by Major George Clark and Major Philip Reybold, of bricks manufactured by Major Reybold on his farm. Frank Brine was one of the earliest teachers. The adoption of the free-school system was the cause of consider-able complaint by some of the citizens. The necessary school buildings were erected, however, and school opened in them for all classes. This system has gradually improved and is now highly valued. At present there are several school houses in the hundred, and instructions given to a large number of pupils.

The three schools for colored children have enrolled one hundred and ninety-nine pupils, and an average attendance of one hundred and thirty-eight.

With the exception of the creamery and canning factory there are no industries in this hundred. On August 21, 1732, Samuel Clements purchased a lot in Red Lion Hundred, on the north side of St. George's branch, containing one acre and thirty-two perches, also a part of the land on which "Hugh Watson now dwells, and which may hereafter be overflowed by a mill-pond, intended to be made by Clement." If there was a mill erected it was in existence but a short time, as no mention is made of it afterwards. The mill at St. George's was undoubtedly the first industry in the hundred, and was last conducted by Enoch Thomas, in 1825. On the assessment list of 1804 there are three mills, owned respectively by Enoch Thomas, Jesse Higgins and Whitehead Jones. Jesse Higgins owned the "Damascus" mill seat, and the mill was run only a short time after his death. The Whitehead Jones saw-mill was a small affair on the property now owned by James Gray, and has not been in operation for many years. In 1838 Dr. James M. Sutton built a mill which was used as a saw-mill and afterwards converted into a mill for grinding plaster and feed. It has not been in use for some years. Smoking tobacco was prepared by Sutton and Harvey, Harvey and McWhorter (successors to Sutton and Harvey), and finally by John P. Belville, from 1869 till 1873 in St. Georges. The factory had a capacity of one thousand pounds per day, and gave employment to ten persons. There was another grist-mill in the town of St. Georges, erected in 1838 by William Hudson, and afterwards owned by George W. Townsend. This was operated for a few years and then discontinued. It is now used as a wheelwright shop. Bricks were manufactured by Major Philip Reybold from 1820 until 1832. About two and a half million were shipped annually to Philadelphia some were used in building the Blockley almshouse, and others were purchased by Stephen Girard.

On April 4, 1887, a creamery was opened by Webb Brothers, about two miles from Delaware City, on the farm of Theodore F. Clark. The Deleval system of separating the cream from the milk by centrifugal force was adopted and has since been used. The capacity of the creamery is about one thousand pounds per day, but only one hundred and fifty pounds are made, on account of the inability to get milk for more. The butter is all shipped to Philadelphia.

On April 4, 1883, the St. George's Fruit Packing Company was incorporated with the following members: James Garman, Mark H. Pierce, Geo. W. Simpler, John C. Stuckert, Joseph Heisel, Alfred Hudson, John P. Hudson, Jr., Clayton M. Riley and W. S. Smith. The canning establishment was erected the same year on Main Street, on the south side of the canal. The main building is forty by sixty feet and the packing house is a one-story frame forty by eighty. Tomatoes are canned principally, and during a season 20,000 cases are packed. Employment is given to one hundred and twenty-five persons for two months of the year. The company manufactures its own cans and employs ten men at this work for nine months each year. Contracts are made this year for the tomatoes grown on one hundred and fifty acres. New York and Philadelphia are the markets for the goods packed in this locality. The present officers are, president, Jas. Garman vice-president, A. L. Hudson secretary, Geo. W. Simpler treasurer, J. C. Stuckert.

Source: History of Delaware, 1609-1888, Volume I, by J. Thomas Scharf, L. J. Richards & Company, Philadelphia, 1888.

Jody Wilson-Raybould

Jody Wilson-Raybould was elected the Liberal MP for Vancouver Granville in 2015. Photo taken on 30 January 2014.

(photo by Erich Saide/Wikimedia CC)

Early Life and Education

Jody Wilson-Raybould was born 23 March 1971 in Vancouver, British Columbia. Her father, Bill Wilson, is a fiery Kwagiulth (Kwakwaka’wakw) hereditary chief, her mother, Sandra Wilson, a non-Indigenous teacher. They separated when Wilson-Raybould was a small child. Her mother raised her on Vancouver Island, mostly in Comox, not far from the villages of her dad’s Kwakwaka’wakw people.

Wilson-Raybould is a descendant of the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk and Laich-Kwil-Tach peoples, who are part of the Kwakwaka’wakw. She is a member of the We Wai Kai Nation.

She received a BA in political science and history in 1996 from the University of Victoria. Three years later, both she and her older sister Kory Wilson-Goertzen graduated with law degrees from the University of British Columbia (UBC).

Personal Life

Wilson-Raybould married Tim Raybould, a non-Indigenous man, in 2008. He has worked for decades as a management consultant to First Nations groups. He has a doctorate in social anthropology from the University of Cambridge and is a professor at the McGill Institute for the Study of Canada.

Legal Career

From 2000 to 2003, Jody Wilson-Raybould worked as a provincial crown prosecutor in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. She strove to reduce that area’s high rate of incarceration of Indigenous residents, seeking to address their marginalization, poverty and inequality.

From 2003 to 2009, Wilson-Raybould was part of the BC Treaty Commission, which oversees treaty negotiations between Indigenous groups and the Crown. She served briefly as an advisor and in 2004, the Chiefs of the First Nations Summit elected her commissioner.

Regional Chief

In 2009, Jody Wilson-Raybould was elected councillor of the We Wai Kai First Nation at Cape Mudge on Vancouver Island, where she’s a member and owns a home. The same year, she was elected regional chief of the Assembly of First Nations (AFN). In this role, she worked to advance First Nations governance as well as fair access to land and resources, improved education and health care for Indigenous peoples.

Wilson-Raybould reduced tensions among British Columbia’s more than 200 Indigenous bands by helping them set up new administrations, gain access to funds, and conduct community consultations. She chaired the First Nations Finance Authority, which provides access to long-term loans at lower interest rates.

In 2011, Wilson-Raybould and her husband co-authored the BCAFN Governance Toolkit: A Guide to Nation Building, a comprehensive survey of the options for negotiating self-government. Wilson-Raybould was re-elected as AFN regional chief in 2012 and held this position until stepping down in June 2015.

Justice Minister

After her election as Liberal MP for Vancouver Granville in 2015, Jody Wilson-Raybould was sworn in as minister of justice and Canada’s attorney general — the first Indigenous person to hold this position. She remained in Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s political cabinet until February 2019. As minister of justice, Wilson-Raybould played a key role in the development and passage of new legislation. After the Supreme Court of Canada, in 2015, struck down the law against doctors helping patients die, Wilson-Raybould led the effort to introduce Bill C-14, which received royal assent in June 2016. The Medical Assistance in Dying Act limited medically assisted suicide to competent adults suffering “grievous and irremediable” sickness their death had to be “reasonably foreseeable.”

In July 2017, Wilson-Raybould released a list of 10 principles to guide the federal government’s efforts to reconcile its relationships with Canada’s Indigenous peoples. The first principle states that “all relations with Indigenous peoples need to be based on the recognition and implementation of their right to self-determination, including the inherent right of self-government.”

Wilson-Raybould also introduced Bill C-45, The Cannabis Act, which made it legal for Canadians aged 18 and older to purchase, grow and use a limited quantity of recreational cannabis. The law came into effect on 17 October 2018. (See Cannabis Legalization in Canada.)

Legislative and Legal Reforms

In April 2017, Jody Wilson-Raybould introduced Bill C-46, which overhauled Canada’s impaired driving laws. The legislation introduced new criminal offences related to drug-impaired driving and gave police increased powers to conduct roadside breath alcohol testing. Bill C-46 was hailed by some as the most comprehensive reform in more than 40 years. The changes started to come into effect in June 2018.

She also introduced Bill C-16, which added gender identity and gender expression to the list of prohibited grounds for discrimination as an amendment to the Canadian Human Rights Act. This legislation, which amended the Criminal Code to extend protections against hate propaganda, received royal assent in June 2017.

In May 2018, the justice minister introduced Bill C-78, the first major amendments to Canadian family law in more than 20 years. The new law addressed issues such as child poverty, family violence and access to justice. She also introduced Bill C-51, Canada’s first update to sexual assault laws in more than 25 years, which came into effect in December 2018.

As justice minister, Wilson-Raybould sought greater transparency and accountability in legal reform and changed how judges were appointed across Canada. She also introduced Bill C-75 to address delays in the criminal justice system.

Colten Boushie Case

The justice minister stirred public outcry following a Twitter exchange on 9 February 2018 with Justin Trudeau in response to a contentious verdict. That day, an all-white Saskatchewan jury found white farmer Gerald Stanley not guilty in the 2016 shooting death of 22-year-old Cree man Colten Boushie. Trudeau tweeted that “I can't imagine the grief and sorrow the Boushie family is feeling tonight” while Jody Wilson-Raybould tweeted: “As a country we can and must do better.”

Opposition politicians and many legal experts criticized both Trudeau and Wilson-Raybould for implying that the jury had given the wrong verdict they charged that such comments undermine the justice system. Wilson-Raybould insisted that she was not commenting specifically on that verdict, but on the overall treatment of Indigenous people by the police and courts.

Resignation from Cabinet

In a January 2019 Liberal Cabinet shuffle, Jody Wilson-Raybould became minister of veterans affairs. Many observers considered this a demotion. She left Justin Trudeau’s cabinet on 12 February 2019. Although her public resignation letter did not provide a reason, she stated that she will continue to maintain “a positive and progressive vision of change on behalf of all Canadians.”

SNC-Lavalin Scandal

Jody Wilson-Raybould’s departure from cabinet followed media reports that the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) had pressured her to intervene in a federal case against SNC-Lavalin, directing federal prosecutors to negotiate a deal with the company. The Quebec company was charged in 2015 with bribing Libyan officials in exchange for construction contracts. In a Globe and Mail article published on 7 February 2019, unnamed sources said that Wilson-Raybould had refused this directive, which would have led to SNC-Lavalin receiving a fine in a deferred prosecution agreement instead of facing a criminal trial.

In public testimony on 27 February 2019 to a parliamentary committee probing the scandal, Wilson-Raybould affirmed that she had tried to stop “consistent and sustained” political interference from the PMO and others in this matter, citing prosecutorial independence as one of her core values. She said she felt that her stance on this issue had resulted in her removal from the department of justice.

Her testimony resulted in an opposition party call for Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to resign as well as requests for a public inquiry or criminal investigation into the government’s actions in this matter. Trudeau said that he “completely disagrees” with Jody Wilson-Raybould’s version of events. Ethics Commissioner Mario Dion launched an investigation in February 2019. He focused on the alleged pressure from Trudeau and PMO staff.

On 2 April 2019, Trudeau ejected Wilson-Raybould and another former Cabinet minister, Jane Philpott, from the Liberal caucus. Philpott had resigned from Cabinet over the government’s handling of the SNC-Lavalin affair. On 27 May 2019, Wilson-Raybould and Philpott both announced that they would seek re-election as Independent candidates in the federal election scheduled for October 2019.

Dion released his report in August 2019. He found that Trudeau had improperly attempted to influence Wilson-Raybould to grant SNC-Lavalin a deferred prosecution agreement and therefore breached the Conflict of Interest Act. According to the Act, a person in public office cannot use their position to influence, for their own private interests or those of a third party, another person’s decision. In this case, SNC-Lavalin stood to benefit by avoiding a possible criminal conviction. The company would be ineligible for government contracts for a decade if found guilty.

In a statement, Wilson-Raybould said she was grateful that the report confirmed facts from her testimony. But she also expressed sadness at what she viewed as a lapse in essential values and principles in government.

2019 Federal Election

In the October 2019 federal election, Jody Wilson-Raybould ran for re-election as an Independent in the riding of Vancouver-Granville. In late September, she and fellow Independent Jane Philpott announced that they had exceeded their fundraising goals and had received support from across the country. Wilson-Raybould was re-elected on 21 October 2019, with more than 32 percent of the vote. She pledged to “do politics differently” and work with all MPs to support progressive legislation. This included working with the incoming Liberal minority government.

Law degrees and legal distinction run in Wilson-Raybould’s family. Her father, Bill Wilson, helped successfully amend the Constitution Act, 1982 to enshrine Indigenous rights. He became the second Indigenous person to graduate from UBC Law School in 1973 his first cousin, Alfred Scow, was the first in 1961. Scow became the first Indigenous lawyer in British Columbia and the first Indigenous judge appointed to BC Provincial Court, where he served from 1971 to 1992.


Ken Coates, an historian of First Nations issues, has called Jody Wilson-Raybould “the most influential Indigenous federal politician in Canadian history.” As justice minister, she tried to achieve true reconciliation with the country’s Indigenous peoples. In her words: “The future of Aboriginal peoples and all Canadians is mutually intertwined.”

Wilson-Raybould has been hailed as one of Vancouver’s most powerful people and has appeared frequently in Vancouver Magazine’s “Power 50” list.

Volunteer Activities

Jody Wilson-Raybould has served as a director for Capilano College, the Minerva Foundation for BC Women, the Nuyumbalees Cultural Centre and the National Centre for First Nations Governance. She has also served as a director on the First Nations Lands Advisory Board and chair of the First Nations Finance Authority.

164 thoughts on &ldquo The Legacy of Riverview Beach Amusement Park &rdquo

I grew up at Riverview – I worked in the Loganberry Stand (hotdogs, French fries & sodas) in 1948/49 and 1950/51. Lots of same people worked there every year: Reds-Merry-go-round Woody-rollercoaster: Mack on the airplanes Jack-row boats and on and on. Lifeguards Bud Kohler, Herb Miles, Dave Springer, Henry Hocknell, Bud Gary, Dave Coneeny and many more. Those summers were the best time of my life. /s/

Hi. are you Betty Nagy from Golf Manor? My name is Tom Peak and I believe we lived next door. Small world if that’s the case! I graduated in 62 with Ron (RIP). He & I were the 2 in our class that ended up in California. My mom is still with us, lives in FL. I seem to remember you baby sat for us when my brother Mike & I were VERY young. If you’re interested, I have a photo of the kindergarteners in front of your house waiting for the taxi ride to Pershing School. Best to you. Tom

I was a young child when my parents took my family to Riverview Beach Park. My 4 sisters and 1 brother. I am now 73 yrs young and I wish the boat on Delaware ave was still there and we could go to the beach. My children didn’t have the chance to enjoy it as I did. I often think about it….Ohhh well. At least I have the memories….

Operated the Bubble Bounce when it was new. Also SkeeRoll. My daughter who lives facing the park still finds coins etc on the former park grounds. Great times then.

One of my sisters and I loved to ride on the Bubble Bounce and the Whip. We used to love to get the car spinning in a circle on the Bubble Bounce turning and turning the large center wheel as best we could to get it spinning. Then, it was really cool when it started bounding up and down. Then sometimes when it stayed way up and the platform keep rotating, that was really fun. You probably took tickets from my sister and I. As I recall it was 5 cents a ride. Oh, that park was so much fun, it’s such a major part of so many of our lives looking back. We lived just over on North River Drive.
Duane Tash

Yes Duane the ride was a hit. However I had to hose the ride off many time when riders could`nt hold their hotdogs and popcorn down. My daughter Karen Samuels lives facing the park near North River Dr.
I have to give Yummy Gal credit for maintaining this site. A place where those of yesterday can connect.

Hi there to Betty and all the folks who were so priviledged to remember the wonderful old park the way I do. It’s just too bad that we can’t turn back the clock and go take ourgrandchildren there to ride the rides, feed the carp in the lake and buy them a custard. I painted a picture of “Cuz” and donate it to Pv Historical Society
Aleasa Hogate

I had hoped to take my children there, but things folded up before I had the chance. Lots of memories of a fun place.

I remember the park so well, and we also had our boy scout troop 15 in a lodge right on the water in the park. I lived just down the road from it on the water. My friends and I spent so much time at the park. Each year we had pool passes, that pool was incredible, and we loved all of the rides. It was just a fun place for everyone and it was so well landscaped. The rose gardens were incredible. I remember it all just like yesterday, it’s a big part of my memories from my youth in Pennsville. To me, it really started to go downhill after they put that fence all around it. The merry-go-round was incredible too, it was huge and the instrumentation was great. One time I sat there listening to it watching it spin, all the people having fun and 3 hours had passed. I had no idea I had been sitting there that long until my friends came and found me! I loved growing up in Pennsville!

I have many fond memories of Riverview Beach. Every year in grade school we would make the trip by boat. Every aspect of the park was wonderful, but I always ran out of money.

I loved Riverview and the Wilson Liners. Every year, we had our annual picnic at Riverview via the Wilson Line. Many of the Catholic Parochial Schools from all over came at the same time. I was in St. Thomas the Apostle and I believe the Sisters we had called Franciscans were the largest group of Nuns from the local schools as well as Chester, Philadelphia, and other stops on the way. It was fun seeing the Nuns enjoy themselves too with the rides (the Whip and Bumping Cars). I always had some healthy guilt about running into a Nun but I don’t recall them having mercy on me as I got bumped. It was a park one can only imagine. I am 74 and can recall the beautiful plants, flowers, gardens and smells. I can still hear the Carousel, smell the French fries and hear the squeals of kids as their ride gave them a thrill. Mr. Acton was so family oriented. I am so sad that many have never had the Riverview/Wilson Line experience. I did and it is etched deeply into my memory filed under LOVE.

In Rock Hall,Md we have a small museum dedicated to another of parks served by the Wilson Line,It’s called Tolchester Revisited.

William, I’m going to have to plan a visit. Sounds like an awesome place to see

This site brings back memories from the late 1940’s and early 1950’s to this writer. Growing up in Wilmington’s East side at 4th & Pine Sts., I often walked to the old Third Street bridge and looked at the Ships of the Wilson Line docked on the north side of the bridge. Later on, it was to my delight to go on some “Moonlight Cruises” aboard them and dance the night away.

Riverview Amusement Park was another great joy of my youth. Time and again, going over to “Jersey” and doing our thing was a great treat for the summer vacations from school. The rides and other attractions held us in awe because in those days, kids had little else to do except play running games, baseball, and skinny dip at the railroad bridge on the Christiana River. We often times “mooned” the passengers on the Wilson Liner as it sailed by on occasion.

In 1954, I joined the Marine Corps to serve our country and a few years later returned to Wilmington and had another ride up the river aboard the Wilson Line. Something had changed but I could never understand what it was that was different. Later on, I also learned of the fire at Riverview Amusement Park. It appeared the whole world was changing for the worse, but I still had the great memories from my youth. Even today, I smile to myself thinking of those times of awe & merriment at the “Park” where we rode and swam till our hearts were content.

Yummygal, “Thanks for the memories as Bob Hope used to say.”

John Snyder worked in the Park 1954, 1955, 1956, &1957. My first job was puttting bumper stickers on all of the cars that said Riverview Beach Park, Pennsville, NJ. I wasn’t paid in money, I was paid in passes to ride all the rides when I was done putting bumper stickers on. Later on I worked in the snowball srand next to the merry go round. My mother Alice Snyder workedin the custard stand on the other side of the merry go round in the early fifties. I learned to swim in the pool when Bud was the swimming instructor. I now live in Lecanto, Fl. I really enjoyed the articles. Keep up the good woek.

Thank you, John and everyone for sharing their cherished memories of the park!

Loved the custard at the Park! I still remember how good it was and it was a favorite treat.

This is awesome! I grew up there too and still visit that park to this day when in town. This article is written like a true local! Thanks I will share! My family will love it!

I can so remember that on the last day of school, on the next day we would all go to the park .I remember riding all those rides ,what memories it brings back. Also every sat. afternoon we would go roller skating.

What a trip down memory lane. I learned to swim in the pool, met my husband at the Riverview Roller Rink,
enjoyed trips on the Wilson line. We announced our engagement at the rink. We enjoyed the Du pont picnics at the park. From our house we could hear the “fat lady” in the mirror house laughing and the people screaming on the roller coaster and never minded it because it was happy sounds. We rode our bikes to the park with our children. When the park and Ferry closed I had limited edition Cleveniger Bottles made with the park and ferry scene on them. I miss hearing the laughter, these are good memories. June 6th is the 10th anniversary of the New Sweden Heritage Monument now standing along the riverfront in the park to memorialize Salem Couties Swedish roots. The park is still lovely. It’s just not the wonderful fun place
it once was. This is New Jersey’s 350th anniversary I’m hoping the people of South Jersey will honor this historic year and learn about South Jersey’s Swedish roots at a program being planned for June 6th 2014.
Aleasa Hogate

Beautifully done ! I enjoyed it. I was born and enjoyed my early years in the City of Salem. Married in1949 to a classmate and adopted his hometown of Pennsville, N. J., I have spend more of my years in Pennsville and feel that Pennsville is my adopted home town. Thanks for the memories……

I grew up one street over from Riverview on Main Street. My father had a restaurant and the crew from the Wilson Line came over for lunch after docking at the park. I have the fondest memories of the park and the roller rink which was not included. It was truly a magical time living in the 50’s and living around the corner from Riverview Beach Park. I believe it was the fence and the admission that was the downfall of the park.

I recall those days when we took the Wilsonliner over to Riverview Beach what a treat that was! Loved the Bumper cars, and the Roller Coaster…. Who knew, that one day I would live there and graduate from RE-HI in Penns Grove class of 1954…. Those were the days AH YES… those were the days!

I moved to Penn Terrace Apts., behind the Grants and Acme (Pennsville Shopping Center) in Fall of 󈨆. Never saw any rides operating at Riverview, even summer of 󈨇. Just the concrete remains of where rides had been.
Big roller coaster was there into the 70’s.
My brother and I would walk to the movie theater(sadly the last movie theater in Salem County), and closed.
And frequently went to Penn Bowl. Connected to the bowling alley was “the Crescendo” night club, now Dollar store.
Went to Deepwater school 66-72 remember DuPont Explosion around 󈨉 caused evacuation of school. I remember windows to cafeteria blown in.
Playing at Fort Mott, the custard stand. My mother worked at Holiday Inn near the Turnpike Inn, now the Budget(?) motel.
I have lived in 8 states, including Southern California. I’ve been in every state, except Alaska. I lived in Germany(dad/Army). I’ve been in 8 or 9 other countries (Navy), and I presently live in Jupiter, FL., but there is no place I Love more, than Salem County NJ! And never Happier than being a kid at Penn Terrace!


Oh my god me too. I had dreams about it back it 2010! Hit me up!!

I only went to Riverview Beach once. 1957 the end of my junior year. I went with maybe 20 others from my class at Camden High. Had a great time and wish I had gone more.

What really happen to close the Riverview park.

Reduced rate tickets given free in the grocery stores in Philadelphia and vicinity. Lower class disrespectful patrons came bearing weapons and bad attitudes scaring the good people away forever.

Gee,I wonder what group of “disrespectful patrons” from Philly Nancy is talking about ?

They erected a fence and you had to pay admission to go in. That seemed to stop a lot of locals from walking through the park and spending money. Additionally, it seemed maintenance also went by the wayside. So sad. I had hoped my kids would have enjoyed the park like I did, but it was closed by the time they were old enough. In addition to the park, as a kid, I spent Friday nights at the skating rink. My husband often went to the pool. My mother and aunt both worked there. Lots of memories. Thanks Yummy Gal for all the information!

That’s when I felt it all started to go downhill too, when they put the fence up. I recall so many people complaining about it. And many people used to walk through and then decided to go on rides and all, eat, etc. The fence took all of that away.
Duane Tash

It was fenced in and admission was charged. Stopped everyone who would wander through on a regular basis and buy some refreshments or take a ride, etc. I believe maintenance was let go, too.

Would you reply to [email protected] and tell me how many feet was it from Wilmington to Penns Grove ? It was not 13 miles was it? I am studying the Dutch VanImmens of somewhere in locality of North or East of Penns Grove , I am not sure ? Churchgoers in 1684 were said to go back and forth in canoes?

Seems I can never read enough about the park as it was such a big part of my childhood. Living two streets over on Harding Ave. I was able to go pretty much any time I wished and had a season pass to the pool. Thanks so much for your work concerning Riverview Beach Park memories.

I remember Riverview Beach Park like yesterday. As a youth, my friends and I spent many fun times there. Our boy scout troop 15 was also on on the park grounds. Our scoutmaster was George Morris, an incredible person. Our scout house was an old lodge and was right on the water beside the park’s train tracks. The pool was incredible as were all of the rides. One of my sisters and I used to love to ride on The Whip and the Bubble Bounce. I was lucky enough to live just down the street on North River Drive right on the water. I spent so many fun times there roller skating, the pool and riding the amusements. It was just a very fun place to grow up! We thought it would last forever back then in the 50’s.

When I think back on my childhood days the park is the most memorable, I think I walked over every day to swim, ride some rides and just wander around. I grew up on Harding Ave. so it was just a short walk down North River Drive. Wish my kids could have experienced the park!!

Yes, we were so lucky to have the park just down at the end of North River Drive. I think when they put the fence up all around the park that started its demise. I remember so many people upset. Lots of people used to walk over to the park … they spent money there, but when they put the fence up and charged I think it took all of that business away. I wish they had at least kept the pool and skating rink. I had heard that the pool and all really needed work done and it was cost prohibitive to keep them operational. Anyway, I just wish they had somehow kept the pool and skating rink. I think it would have been great for new generations of kids to grow up with that. I think Pennsville was a great place to grow up as a kid. I have only good memories!

You are so right. There should have been at least the pool and skating rink saved. It all probably comes down to money. Often politics forget the future.

Had our 8th Grade class trip to Riverview… 1951…. King of Peach Catholic School… always remembered the trip and the Beach.

My family went down by way of Chester/Bridgeport ferry and the Wilson Liner in the 50’s. It was really fun and exciting. Can still remember the rides I was aloud on. Sorry there are not parks like that one around today.

Will someone please fill in a piece of the puzzle that my mind can’t remember. I believe, in the late 40’s or early 50’s there were two roller coasters at Pennsville Park. One was “The Wildcat.” What was the name of the other one? My memory says we always preferred the other one it was more exciting. Does anyone else remember it as I do? Was one roller coaster discontinued/torn down before the other one?

It was the Hummingbird! We always thought it was steeper and faster.

As I recall the Hummingbird was also the one to the right as you looked at both coasters from the park side looking north and was painted all white. I think that’s also the one that came down first, there was a lot of rotten wood on it and it was getting too much to repair. I’m just trying to recall this from years ago. I think that’s also the one that was very high and had a large curve that faced north toward the field that had a ball park. It seems it was also the one where three guys visiting were sadly killed one Saturday when the top cured section broke loose and the car when flying out into the field. Anyway, that’s as I recall it from years ago. I lived just down the street on North River Drive from this great park. I spent many many days there. I also loved to listen to the incredible Merry-go-Round. It was partially what sparked my interest in music for years.
Duane Tash

I was just a child from Woodstown My brother and I looked forward to our occasional weekend visits to the Park (between 1945 and 1952). My dad said that he had worked part time at the park as a child, but I don’t remember what type of work. He worked at DuPont Chambers Works there in the Carney’s Point/Pennsville area and remember when he came home upset about hearing of the broken curved section and the deaths of the riders. I thought the roller coaster’s name was “The Wildcat.” It might have been the one dad said was most dangerous because some of the curves in the tracks tilted outward from the curve instead of inward, creating more of a centrifugal force on the car and riders. In the late 50’s and early 60’s there were roller skate competitions in the rink, but can’t remember if it was in or out of the park area. Is that rink still there? There were a million memories of good times created in that park. Thank you, Yummygal, for the original posting.

یواس‌اس ریبولد (دی‌یی-۱۷۷)

یواس‌اس ریبولد (دی‌یی-۱۷۷) (به انگلیسی: USS Reybold (DE-177) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۳۰۶ فوت (۹۳ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۳ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس ریبولد (دی‌یی-۱۷۷)
آب‌اندازی: ۳ مه ۱۹۴۳
آغاز کار: ۲۲ اوت ۱۹۴۳
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: ۱٬۲۴۰ long ton (۱٬۲۶۰ تن)
درازا: ۳۰۶ فوت (۹۳ متر)
پهنا: ۳۶ فوت ۱۰ اینچ (۱۱٫۲۳ متر)
آبخور: ۱۱ فوت ۸ اینچ (۳٫۵۶ متر)
سرعت: ۲۱ گره (۳۹ کیلومتر بر ساعت؛ ۲۴ مایل بر ساعت)

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.

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The mission of the Georgia Pharmacy Association is to promote and enhance the profession of pharmacy and the practice standards of its practitioners. Further, the association shall work to heighten the public’s perception of the profession of pharmacy and pharmacists and to promote the value of pharmacy services to the health and welfare of the general public.

Our history

In the summer of 1875, a concerned group of Georgia pharmacists sent a notice to all the pharmacists of the state, requesting them to assemble in Macon on October 20, 1875:

“…to consider the organization of a pharmaceutical association, binding each other with closer ties of friendship and to promote interest in the junior members of the fraternity and exciting the spirit of emulation and ambition the interchange and dissemination of scientific researches the framing of laws to be enacted that will result not only in the protection of the profession but the public in general.”

Georgia’s newspapers published the notice at no charge and the railroads agreed to provide reduced rates from any point in the state to Macon for anyone who wished to attend the meeting. At least twenty pharmacists were present in Macon at Freeman’s Hall at eight o’clock on the evening of October 20, 1875. The meeting included brief presentations by a member of the State Board of Health and three physicians from the Macon Medical Society, all of whom assured cooperation and support from their organizations. Following these presentations, the delegation of pharmacists adopted a constitution with an objective to bring together all the “reputable druggists” of the state in an association in the interests of the profession at large, specifying that every druggist and apothecary of good moral and professional standing whether in business, or in retirement from business, or employed by another, and the teachers of pharmacy, chemistry, materia medica, and botany, who may be professors in any college of pharmacy, should constitute the membership of the association. Thus, the Georgia Pharmaceutical Association was established. Today the Georgia Pharmacy Association is a nationally respected voice for the pharmacy profession.

New Castle County, Delaware

JAMES BENJAMIN CANBY, Philadelphia, Pa., son of James, Jr., and S. Matilda (Price) Canby, was born at Betterton, Kent county, Md., September 14, 1848.

The Canby family is English by descent. Mr. Canby's great-great-grandfather, Oliver Canby, son of Thomas Canby, was born in Bucks county, Pa. He was a prominent man in the colony, and held office under the English government before the beginning of the war of the Revolution. He was the founder of the Delaware branch of the family, and settled at Wilmington, New Castle county. Mr. Canby was a merchant miller and built the first mills on the Brandywine, mills which have been owned and managed by his descendants for generations, and which were for one hundred years the largest in the United States. His son, Samuel, who was his successor in the mills, was the great-grandfather of James B. Canby. Samuel Canby was born in Wilmington, Del. He was married to Frances Lea, and spent his life on the homestead.

Mr. Canby's grandfather James Canby, son of Samuel and Frances (Lea) Canby, who was born in Wilmington, Del., inherited the mills and the business which had been built up by his ancestors. Besides his interests in the east, he made large investments in the west. He also dealt extensively in real estate in Baltimore, Md., and was for many years president of the Union National Bank, and president of the P., W. & B. R. R. James Canby was married to Elizabeth Roberts, of Germantown, Pa. Their son, James Canby, Jr., father of James B. Canby, was born at the old home in Wilmington, Del. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, Mr. Canby engaged in milling, increasing the productive capacity of the old mills, and, by improved machinery, manufacturing flour and meal of a higher grade. James Canby, Jr., was married to S. Matilda Price. Their children are: I. Catherine Roberts, widow of the Rev. Edward Hale, resides in Philadelphia, Pa. II. Esther Roberts, deceased III. Laura, deceased IV. James Benjamin.

James Benjamin Canby was four years old when his mother removed to Wilmington, Del. He was educated in the Friends' School, completing his course at Clarkson Taylor's Academy. After leaving school, Mr. Canby entered the Brandywine Mills of James E. Price & Co., where he remained until he was twenty-five. In 1873, Mr. Canby removed to Philadelphia, Pa., where he obtained a position in the counting house of Alexander C. Cattell & Co., and in 1877 succeeded the firm in business. Mr. Canby is not only an energetic and progressive business man, but as an intelligent citizen, is interested in all that concerns the welfare of the community. He is a member of the Pennsylvania Historical Society of the Union League of Philadelphia of the Trades League, the Maritime Exchange, and the Grocers' and Importers' Exchange, of Philadelphia he is a director of the Sons of Delaware, and has twice been chosen president of the Commercial Exchange, of Philadelphia, the largest trades organization of the city.

James Benjamin Canby was married, in Philadelphia, Pa., June 23, 1880, to Clara Greenough, daughter of Franklin and Clara A. (Greenough) Platt. Their children are: I. Clara Greenough, born in Philadelphia, March 15, 1881 II. Franklin Platt, born in Philadelphia, April 23, 1884 III. James Benjamin, Jr., born in Atlantic City, September 22, 1887. Mr. Canby and family attend St. James P. E. church, Philadelphia, Pa.

[Biographical and Genealogical History of the State of Delaware, Volume I, published by J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., 1899, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

Joseph Philippe Eugene Capelle

Early Physicians. -
Dr. Joseph Philippe Eugene Capelle was born in Flanders (or Courtray) in 1757. He came to this country during the Revolutionary War with Count de Rochambeau, and was subsequently placed on the staff of Gen. Lafayette as surgeon or surgeon's mate.

Dr. Capelle was a member of the Episcopal Church. After the war he settled in Wilmington and continued in the practice of his profession until November 5, 1796, when he died His wife was Mary Isabella Pierce, of Baltimore and their children were Phillippe Henri, Marcus Eugene, Marie May Capelle, Henry Ward Pearce. His funeral took place on Sunday, November 7, 1796, in the cemetery of the Old Swedes' Church, with imposing Masonic and religious ceremonies. Dr. Capelle was one of the incorporators of the State Medical Society, and was repeatedly elected one of its censors. As a professional man he was very popular.
[Source: History of Delaware 1609 - 1888 by J. Thomas Scharf, A. M., LL. D., Vol. 1, 1888] tr. by mkk

Mr. Chalfant has been a resident of Delaware since 1880. Born in Pennsylvania, November 1, 1856, his younger days were spent in that State. Soon after his advent in Delaware he began with the brush, and in 1888 he finished and exhibited a facsimile of the United States paper currency then in general use, of the denomination of one dollar and commonly called "A Dollar Bill." The painting was exhibited side by side with a real note, and so exact was the reproduction that it was with difficulty that one could be distinguished from the other. This effort attracted much attention and established the reputation of Mr. Chalfant as an artist.

A few years later he painted a facsimile of a postage stamp, which was also favorably received. The Old Clock maker and The Village Shoemaker from Mr. Chalfant's easel gave still further evidence of his unusual ability in working into a picture the most minute details. "The Card Players," representing two well known residents of Wilmington, was well received when exhibited, and added still further to the reputation of Mr. Chalfant as a painstaking artist. Mr. Chalfant restricts himself almost entirely to work in oil. He has shown decided ability in portraits and could have succeeded in this branch of art if his talents had been directed in that way. Mr. Chalfant spent nearly three years in the academies of Paris. His studio has for ten years been in the Allmond building at Eighth and Market streets, but he is now about erecting a new studio near the Boulevard on Washington Heights.

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

Robert W. Chambers
ROBERT W. CHAMBERS, Wilmington, Del., son of John and Isabella (Baxter) Chambers, was born in Wilmington, Del., May 30, 1852.

His grandfather, John Chambers, was born in Ireland and came to this country at the beginning of the nineteenth century. His first home here was at DuPont's Banks, Del., afterward he removed to Wilmington. He married in Ireland Miss Baxter, who was of Scotch descent they had children: I. William II. John. Mr. Chambers died in Wilmington, and Mrs. Chambers died in Philadelphia.

John Chambers was born in County Donegal, Ireland, and accompanied his parents to America when a youth. He lived for several years at DuPont's Banks and later removed to Wilmington, where he conducted a flour and feed store. He married Isabella, daughter of John Baxter, of Delaware. They had children: I. John, died in childhood II. Alexander, of Philadelphia III. R. W. Mr. Chambers died in Wilmington, about 1858 his widow died at Rising Sun, Del., in 1866.

R. W. Chambers has known no other home than Wilmington. He attended the public schools only a short time, on account of the death of his parents. At a very early age, he was "bound out" to Robert Morrow, of Christiana hundred, and for some years gave his time and energy to the cultivation of the soil. He was next engaged in butchering for Peter B. Huested, of Wilmington, and afterward established himself in the provision business. About 1879, Mr. Chambers was appointed on the Wilmington police force. After two years' service as patrolman, he resigned his position to become assistant superintendent of the Diamond Match Factory. He remained there three years then served as deputy sheriff one year, was then made car inspector on the B. & O. R. R. and in 1891, was re-appointed on the Wilmington police force. Four days later Mr. Chambers was made sergeant, and in 1893 was promoted to captain, He has since discharged the duties of his responsible office with entire credit to himself and benefit to the city. Captain Chambers is a member of Wilmington Lodge, No. 1, A. O. U. W. He is a Democrat.

On June 30, 1875, in Port Chester, N. Y., R. W. Chambers was married to Essie K, daughter of Captain John and Mary (Heusted) Ferris, of Greenwich, Conn. Their children are: I. Claude T., in training as a nurse in a homoeopathic hospital II. Robert, died in childhood III. Ida, died in childhood IV. John R., employee of Wilmington City R. R. Co. V. Mary E. VI. Clinton VII. Floyd VIII. Myrtle. Captain Chambers and his family attend the Baptist church.
[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., tr. by mkk]

Early Physicians. -
Dr. Pierre Chetard was born at Cape Francois, St. Domingo, July, 1766. His father, Pierre Chetard, was born in St. Yrieix in the ancient province of Limousin, France, whence he emigrated to St. Domingo, and was the owner of a large coffee plantation at the time of the Revolution on that island. His mother was Louise Helene Joullair, and her father was a resident of St. Domingo.

Pierre Chetard resided during his youth with his father's relatives in France, and was educated at Toulouse, where he obtained the degree of A M. in August, 1785. He subsequently entered the medical school at Montpelier, obtained the degree of Licentiate of Medicine, in March, 1788, and that of M.D., in April. After graduating he returned to St. Domingo, and resided there for a short period. He then went to Paris and studied surgery for two years While in Paris the Revolution of St. Domingo occurred, and his parents being obliged to flee from the island, came to the United States and took up their residence in Wilmington. Dr. Chetard arrived in Wilmington in March, 1794He commenced the practice of medicine, and remained until the death of his parents. In 1794 he became a member of the Medical Society of Delaware, and delivered the anniversary oration. His father died in April, 1796, and his mother in February, 1797. He then availed himself of the permission granted by the chief of the island of St. Domingo to return and take possession of his estates. He remained in St. Domingo from, the latter part of 1797 to 1800, when, fearing a renewal of the massacre of the whites, which afterward occurred, he returned to the United States. He sailed about the last of May, 1800, on the ship "Sympathy," which was captured shortly afterward by the British ship "Alarm." Dr. Chettard's claim as an American citizen was recognized by the British captain, and he was transferred to the schooner "Elizabeth," of Baltimore, of which city he became a permanent resident, and was soon actively engaged in his profession.

Dr. Chetard contributed largely to medical literature, and in 1812 was elected a member of the Baltimore Medical Society in 1818 a corresponding member of the New Orleans Medical Society in 1820 corresponding member of the Royal Medical Society of Marseilles in 1825 a corresponding member of the Medical Society of Mexico and in 1835 a corresponding member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Paris. He was a Roman Catholic, and died in that faith June 5, 1848. He was married October 28, 1801, to Jeanne Marie Adelaide Francise Boissou, daughter of Jean Thomas Boisson and Adelaide Coenu. She was born at Cape Francois, St. Domingo, but was educated in France. They had eight children, of whom the following survived their father: S. M. Chetard, M.D., Ferdinand Edmund, Frederick Peter (formerly of the United States navy), Emily, who married Frederick Dungan, of Baltimore, and Josephine, the wife of Dr. Chew Van Bibber, of Baltimore.
[Source: History of Delaware 1609 - 1888 by J. Thomas Scharf, A. M., LL. D., Vol. 1, 1888] tr. by mkk

MAHLN MOON CHILD was born in LeRaysville, Jefferson county, N. Y., March 19, 1835. His father Moses Child, a farmer in good circumstances, was a prominent member of the orthodox Friends, a man most amiable, conscientious and faithful. He died February 2, 1867. His wife, Nancy (Burdick) Child, was a most exemplary and lively Christian wife and mother. She died in 1859 at the age of fifty-five. They had seven children: I. Amos II. Lydia III. James IV. Amos V. Hannah VI. Moses VII. Mahlon.

Joseph Child, a friend, a man of the excellence of character, was one of the first settlers of the John Brown tract in Jefferson county, N. Y., making the journey thither in 1804, when his youngest son, Moses, was sixteen years of age. They went in wagons from Bucks county, Pa., and from Utica made their own roads eighty miles into the wilderness Utica being their nearest postoffice. Joseph Child married Hannah Burgess and had four children: I. Daniel II. Samuel III. Joseph, Jr. IV. Moses. They all lived near together on their own farms, and were prosperous. Their father, an original abolitionist, carefully trained them in the same faith. He died in his seventy-fourth year, and his wife in her seventy-fifth year.

The father of Joseph was Henry Child, a native and resident of Plumstead, Bucks county, Pa., son of Henry Child, Sr., who came to this country with William Penn and settled in Bucks county. He had several children, all of whom remained Friends through life, and some removed to Maryland.

Mahlon M. Child was instructed by a private tutor, and when eleven years old attended the Friends' school near Poughkeepsie. At sixteen he left home and made his own way in the world. He taught school for two years after which he was for three years purser on the steamer John A. Morgan plying between Philadelphia and Bristol. September 3, 1856, he came to Wilmington. For two years he was a clerk at Tatnall & Lea's flour mills, and three years with Ferris & Garret, plumbers. In 1861 he went into the dry goods business in partnership with Granville Worrell, under the name of Worrell & Child, which was very successful until 1867, when supposing he had consumption, he sold his interest to his partner. Mahlon M. Child was married in October, 1856, to Mary W., daughter of Charles and Agnes (Knight) Burton, of Bucks county, Pa.

[Biographical and Genealogical History of the State of Delaware, Volume I, published by J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., 1899, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

John Gilbert Christfield

JOHN GILBERT CHRISTFIELD, Wilmington, New Castle county, Del., son of John Gilbert and Mary A. (Blest) Christfield, was born at Wilmington, Del., June 12, 1863.

Three brothers of the name of Christfield emigrated from Germany, and settled in Maryland. One of these brothers was the father of John W. Christfield and the founder of the town of Christfield, Md. Mr. Christfield's paternal grandfather, Gilbert Franklin Christfield, was a native of Cecil county, Md. His maternal grandfather, James Blest, a native of England, emigrated to America and settled in Philadelphia, Pa., but afterwards removed to Wilmington, Del. He was married to Mary Matilda Newson, who was of French descent, and was born in Maryland. Of their eight children, two died in childhood. Those living are: I. George W. II. William H. III. Mary A., (Mrs. Christfield) IV. John Thomas V. Josephine, (Mrs. Charles Smith). Mr. Blest died at Wilmington, Del., in 1853. His wife died in 1886.

Mr. Christfield's father, John Gilbert Christfield, was born at Chesapeake City, Cecil county, Md., in 1839. He was educated in the schools of his native state, and at the age of sixteen removed to Wilmington, Del., where he learned ship carpentry. He was a skilful mechanic and was always able to find employment at his trade. During the war of the Rebellion, Mr. Christfield fought in defence of his country, serving in Company C, Fifth Delaware Volunteers. John Gilbert Christfield, Sr., married in Wilmington, Del., June 12, 1862, Mary A., daughter of James and Mary M. (Newson) Blest. They have one child, John Gilbert. Mr. Christfield lost his life by an accident at Perryville, Md., June 29, 1863.

John Gilbert Christfield was educated in the public schools of Wilmington, Del., and after completing his course was apprenticed to the Harlan & Hollingsworth Company, ship and car builders of Wilmington. After serving his apprenticeship, he was employed by the firm as a journeyman. Mr. Christfield was a skilful workman and the firm appreciating his diligence and efficiency, appointed him assistant foreman in the car department of their works. In 1887, he was again promoted, and as traveling constructor of railway cars for the firm, visited many countries of Europe and South America. From 1891 until September 15, 1897, Mr. Christfield was connected with the offices of the firm in Wilmington, Philadelphia, Washington and New York City. He resigned his position, September 15, 1897, to become the proprietor of the Eureka Steam Laundry, Wilmington, Del. Mr. Christfield is a successful business man, energetic and reliable, and has won the respect and confidence of the community. He is a member of Lafayette Lodge, No. 14, A. F. & A. M. of Fidelity Lodge, A. O. U. W. and of St. George's Castle, K. G. E. Mr. Christfield is a Republican, actively interested in local affairs, and belongs to the Young Men's Republican Club.

John Gilbert Christfield was married in Wilmington, Del., March 21, 1893, to Elizabeth, daughter of John Spencer. They have one child, John Gilbert, born March 4, 1898.
[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., tr. by mkk]

JAMES H. CLARK, deputy United States marshal, Delaware City, New Castle county, Del., son of John and C. Clark, was born in Red Lion hundred, near Delaware City, New Castle county, Del., November 19, 1844.

He began his education in the public schools of his vicinity, then attended a private school in Hartsville, Pa., and finally entered Saunders' military academy, Philadelphia. After completing his course there, he returned to his home in Red Lion hundred and engaged in farming. He is owner and occupant of the original homestead farm, which has been in the possession of the family for six generations. Mr. Clark conducts a wholesale and retail coal business in Delaware City. He was a member of the New Castle county Levy Court for two years, has always been much interested in educational matters, and was for nine years clerk of the board of school commissioners for School District No. 5, Red Lion hundred. In 1897 he was appointed a deputy United States marshal for Delaware, and was sworn into office October 11 of that year. He is a member of the A. O. U. W. of St. George's. Mr. Clark is an active Republican, and has rendered his party much valuable service. For thirty years he has been a member of the New Castle county committee.

On February 2, 1865, in Delaware City, James H. Clark was married to Sarah, daughter of George G. Cleaver, Sr., and Jane (Deal) Cleaver, of Delaware City. Their children are: I. Courtland S. II. John C. III. Jennie C. IV. William D. Mr. Clark is a trustee of St. George's Presbyterian church.

[Source: History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., transcribed by Mary Kay Krogman]

PHILIP R. CLARK, Wilmington, Del., son of John C. and Elizabeth (Reybold) Clark, was born on the homestead of his father, near Delaware City, March 4, 1832.

John C. Clark was born March 6, 1799, and married in 1826, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Major Philip Reybold, whose biography will be found in the history of Delaware (1888), page 964. In 1827 he purchased a large landed estate of 1,000 acres adjoining the place of his birth, upon which he afterwards lived until his death, July 29, 1869. On part of this tract and on the adjoining farms of Major Philip Reybold and his six sons, Philip, William, John, Barney, Anthony and Clayton, were the famous Reybold and Clark peach orchards, noted for their productiveness and pecuniary value. Mr. Clarke was a rare Christian character before he was twenty years of age he was chosen ruling elder in St. George's Presbyterian Church, and held that office for over fifty years. He was a director in the State Bank in Delaware City from its establishment in 1849 until his death was trustee of Delaware College at Newark, and for many years trustee of the poor, an office which he said he would rather hold than any in the gift of the State. Mr. Clark was president of the convention that nominated Lincoln for the Presidency in 1860. Few men in the State have maintained the relations of life, whether public, official of domestic, with such singular purity, earnestness and fidelity as John C. Clark.

Philip R. Clark, who was his second son, attended the public schools of the neighborhood and also Delaware College. When twenty-two years of age he settled at Woodland Farm near Christiana, Delaware, and soon afterwards married Emma A., daughter of David and Elizabeth Compton, of Mauricetown, N. J. Their children are: I. J. Curtis II. George W. III. Marion IV. Edwin C. V. May VI. Bessie VI. Clara. In 1880, Mr. Clark was elected sheriff of New Castle county. Two years previous he was nominated for that office but the Republican party being confident of defeat no effort was made, and no candidates were nominated for Congress or for the Legislature, yet by his own energy and perseverance, as expressed by the opposition papers, "he came within an ace of being elected sheriff." He proved a faithful and popular officer, discharging his varied duties in a manner reflecting credit upon himself and the position. Upon the expiration of his term of office he removed to Wilmington, where he has since resided, conducting a real estate and brokerage business.

[Source: Biographical and Genealogical History of the State of Delaware, Volume II, published by J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., 1899, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

No family in Delaware can boast a prouder lineage than the Claytons, and none has gained a more distinguished standing. The earlier generations were Friends in religion and the later generations gave evidence of the thrift, industry and stability of their forbears, characteristics of that early religious sect. The first Delaware Clayton was Joshua Clayton who was a descendant of Robert de Clayton who became Lord of the Manor of Clayton by gift from William the Conqueror, in recognition of his laudable services in battle. Joshua Clayton, the first Delaware settler of the family, it is claimed, came to America with William Penn in 1682, accompanied by his cousin William Clayton. The latter settled in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. The name Joshua has been represented in every generation of the family since the original settler.

The earliest of the family to reach distinguished public station in Delaware was Joshua Clayton, the son of John and great-grandson of Joshua, the original settler. His father was a miller and for some years operated the mill near Wyoming in Kent County, and in this vicinity the son Joshua was born in 1744. He studied medicine and while a young man married Rachel McCleary, an adopted daughter of Richard Bassett, afterward United States Senator and Governor of Delaware. About the time of his marriage he settled in New Castle County, near the Maryland State line and lived there until his death, his life being devoted to his profession, and to his public duties. He served in one of the Maryland battalions in the Revolutionary War, and after acquitting himself most honorably

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

The father of Thomas Clayton was Dr. Joshua Clayton, a surgeon in the Revolutionary army, and the last of the "Presidents," as the early Governors of Delaware were styled till 1793 upon the adoption of the new constitution in 1792, he became, from 1793 to 1796, the first governor under the new regime.

His son Thomas chanced to be born out of the State by reason of the fact that in July, 1777, to avoid the apprehension and excitement caused by the passage of the British army across the State, his mother had been conveyed to Massey's Cross Roads, Md., where the future Senator and Chief Justice first saw the light. Dr. Joshua Clayton was the great-grandson of Joshua Clayton, who, with his brother, Powell Clayton, came over from Lincolnshire, England, with William Penn in 1683. Thomas Clayton had a classical education at Newark Academy, then a famous institution, and at nineteen began the study of law in the office of Nicholas Ridgely at Dover, to be duly admitted to the bar three years thereafter. There were legal giants in the land in those days, but for all that the youthful David soon wrested more than his due share of the spoils of the profession in a large and growing practice.

He was made Secretary of State under Governor Truitt in 1808, and three years after Governor Haslet appointed him Attorney General. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1814, but was defeated at the ensuing national election for supporting a bill which passed both Houses of Congress, changing the mode of paying the members. Seven years thereafter the Legislature of his State honored him by an election to the Senatorial office made vacant by the appointment of the Hon. Caesar A. Rodney, minister to Buenos Ayres. Mr. Clayton took his seat in the United States Senate, January 15, 1824, where he remained four years, or until the end of the nineteenth Congress. Upon the reorganization of the judiciary of the State in 1828, Governor Charles Polk appointed him Chief Justice of Common Pleas and when this Court and the Supreme Court were abolished in 1832 by the amended constitution of that year, he was promoted to the office of Chief Justice of the State, and held that position until January 16, 1837, at which time he was chosen Senator to succeed the Hon. John M. Clayton, who had resigned. In 1841 he was again elected to the Senate for the term beginning March 4, 1842. But like his distinguished cousin whom he had followed, he too, rating at its true value the bauble of office, relinquished the wearisome toga for the enjoyment once more of the tranquility of private life at New Castle, which had been his home since 1833, and where, August 21, 1854, he suddenly died.

The exceptional circumstances under which he was selected from a number of candidates for the responsible office of Chief Justice, discloses the profound esteem in which his abilities and character were held both by the Governor and his fellow-citizens generally. Chief Justice James Booth, Sr., a resident of New Castle County, died in 1832, and under the provisions of the Constitution his successor or some judge must also live in that county but Mr. Clayton at that time lived in Kent County, and his nomination to the vacancy meant the appointment of a needless fourth judge at considerable further expense to the State. In a message to the Legislature explaining his action, Governor Polk said, "I selected the present Chief Justice of the Common Pleas solely with a view to his learning, talents, integrity and superior capacity for the station which have been amply tested by the records of the court over which he presided." The Governor pronounced no vain eulogy for Judge Clayton possessed a deep knowledge of the law, and had had a wide juridical experience before coming to the Chief Justiceship, and possessed, moreover, the rare gift of quickly discerning the "point" of the case. The writer in the course of a long experience at the Bar has had occasion to read thousands of cases, but he recalls none, American or English, which announced the true doctrines of the law in fewer or plainer words. His entire impartiality as a judge was never once questioned. His was of those ruggedly honest natures that in the discharge of a public duty knew neither friend nor foe, fear nor favor, but meted out to all an even-handed justice. They tell to this day a characteristic story or so of the old judge which illustrates this quality of a stern adherence to the law. One day on coming into Court, glancing up at the clock, he noticed that he was ten minutes late, and after confirming the fact by his own time-piece, took his seat on the bench and turning to the clerk said, "Mr. Clerk, enter a fine of ten dollars against Thomas Clayton," and then took up the usual court routine. Again, Philip Reybold, Esq., one of the most busy and useful citizens in the whole State, when summoned as a witness, failed for two days to respond, and offered as an excuse that he would first attend to some business of his own in Baltimore. "Is that your only reason sir?" asked the judge. "Yes sir," replied Mr. Reybold whereupon the Chief Justice said to the clerk, "Fine Philip Reybold twenty dollars, and you, Mr. Sheriff, take charge of Mr. Reybold until he complies with the order of the Court." So, too, he once told his son. Col. Joshua Clayton, to "sit down, sir" for insisting upon a point that the old judge had twice told him was neither law nor relevant. The famous John M. Clayton thought to try the same experiment, but on the second recital received a warning that deterred him from venturing further. This same Col. Joshua Clayton, who afterwards abandoned the law for agriculture, was wont to declare of this Brutus-father of his, that "he sat so upright on the bench whenever I had a case, that he leaned clean backward!"

The remains of this intrepid and upright judge lie in the cemetery of the Presbyterian Church at Dover, surrounded by the ashes of many of those who were contemporaries of his useful and honorable career.

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

Chief Justice Thomas Clayton was the third son of Governor Joshua Clayton. He was born in 1777, in Maryland, received an advanced classical education for that time, studied law under Chancellor Ridgely, and was admitted to the Delaware Bar at Dover in 1799. He served for two years as Secretary of State under Governor George Truitt. When but thirty-three years of age he was appointed Attorney-General of the State, which position he held with great credit to himself, and with great acceptability to the Court and public.

From 1815 to 1817 he was a member of Congress from Delaware. He was three times elected United States Senator, in 1824, 1837 and 1841. In 1828 he was appointed Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and served until 1832, when he was made Chief Justice of the State, serving until 1837, when he was elected for the second time to the United States Senate. Retiring from public life, in 1847 he made his residence in New Castle until his death, August 21, 1854. A man of great probity and honor, a lawyer of surpassing ability a judge of the utmost fairness, a public man of exalted ideals, Thomas Clayton is remembered as one of the noblest and strongest characters who have figured in the annals of the State.

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

NEAL CONLEY, Wilmington, Del., son of the late James and Elizabeth (Moore) Conley, was born in Christiana hundred, New Castle county, Del., August 27, 1845.

His paternal ancestors came from Ireland his maternal ancestry, so far as traced, is American. His paternal grandfather died in Ireland his grandmother, Susan Conley, emigrated to America with her sons James and Neal and daughter Jane about 1838, and settled in New Castle county, Del. Mrs. Conley died at Rising Sun, New Castle county, at the advanced age of one hundred and eight years. She was buried in the Old Swedes' Church cemetery.

James Conley, deceased, was born in County Antrim, Ireland. His home here was in Christiana hundred, New Castle county. He was a stone mason, and was for forty years in the employ of the DuPont Powder Company, He was twice married. By his first marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of - - - Moore, he had two sons: I. John, of Christiana hundred II. Neal. By the second union, with Jane Wier, he had four children, of whom three survive: I. Susan II. James III. Mary.

Neal Conley spent his life, prior to 1888, in Christiana hundred. He was educated in the public schools and afterward learned stone-masonry. He was employed for many years by the DuPont Powder Company. In 1888 he came to Wilmington and in connection with his brother John formed the firm of Conley Bros., dealers in coal, wood, lime and cement. The firm does, also, all kinds of heavy hauling. Neal Conley is a Republican.

Neal Conley was married in Christ's church parsonage, Christiana hundred, to Hannah M., daughter of Christopher and Sarah Bossert. Their children are: I. James II. Sarah III. Abraham IV. John. One child died in infancy. A daughter, Laura, aged six years, was accidentally burned to death in the yard of the school she attended. Mr. Conley attends the Reformed Episcopal Church, in which he is vestryman. He is also superintendent of the Sunday-school.

[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

HENRY C. CONRAD, Esq., Wilmington, Del., son of Aaron and Sarah W. (Pennypacker) Conrad, was born at Bridesburg, a northeastern suburb of Philadelphia, Pa., April 25, 1852.

Both of Mr. Conrad's parents were descended from those staid and substantial Teutonic immigrants who established themselves in Germantown about the time of the settlement of William Penn, and who left to that place the heritage of its name and their honored memory. Aaron Conrad was born December 25, 1805, near the "Blue Bell," in Montgomery county, Pa. He was engaged successively in milling, farming and the coal business in the last-named industry he was very prosperous, and while engaged in it was a resident of Nicetown and Bridesburg. In 1850, when his son, Henry C., was four years of age, Aaron Conrad disposed of his coal interests, and settled in the western part of Wilmington, Del., where he became, notwithstanding his somewhat retiring disposition, a leading and influential citizen. His business operations, during his residence in Wilmington, were principally in real estate, in that city and in Caroline county, Md. By the extensive improvements which he planned and executed, he contributed largely to the . growth and embellishment of Wilmington. Although of quiet and rather reserved manner, Mr. Conrad's upright character and kindly nature won for him the confidence and regard of all with whom he came in contact and had he desired it, he might have become a conspicuous figure in public life. He consented to serve as a member of the City Council of Wilmington, to which he was elected in 1877 and re-elected in 1878, representing the Fifth Ward. He died during his second term, December 31, 1878, full of years and of honor. Aaron Conrad was a member of the Society of Friends.

Henry C. Conrad was educated in the public schools, and afterwards attended the classical schools of T. Clarkson Taylor and William A. Reynolds. He took a law course at Harvard University, graduating there with the degree of LL. B. in 1873. Mr. Conrad was entered as a student with Hon. Anthony Higgins, and was admitted to the bar of New Castle county November 23, 1874. Not long after this, he began to "make his mark" in politics. He has always been a Republican, and his eloquent and incisive speeches in behalf of the candidates of that party, made when he had scarcely more than attained his majority, gave promise of future influence and growing power. His public services have been many and of varied character. In 1879, Mr. Conrad was elected a member of the Board of Public Education, and served for three years, being for the last two years president of the Board. In 1882, he was elected president of the City Council of Wilmington, which was one of the earliest triumphs of his party, after a long period of Democratic rule. In 1885, he was the Republican candidate for Mayor, but was defeated. Being appointed United States Chief Supervisor of Elections for the District of Delaware in 1879, by Judge Edward G. Bradford, he served in that capacity until 1890. He was the Republican candidate for County Comptroller in 1892, but, with the rest of the county ticket, was defeated. On the death of Judge Leonard E. Wales, in 1897, the name of Henry C. Conrad was prominently mentioned as his successor in the office of U. S. District Judge for the District of Delaware. In June, 1897, he was elected City Solicitor of Wilmington by a majority of six hundred.

The versatility of Mr. Conrad's talents is illustrated by his brilliant success as editor of the Morning News which he owned and conducted for about a year (1880-81), and to which the character of his work at once gave popularity, influence, and an extended circulation. His literary ability is of no mean order, and his services to the cause of popular education are most valuable. His connection with the Board of Education has already been mentioned in addition to this, he has devoted special attention to the education of colored people, a work of which he has been one of the most ardent promoters. For fifteen years he was Actuary of the African School Society, and by virtue of that office was the head of the movement whereby colored children were afforded school facilities at a time when the State made no provision for them. Among other literary pursuits, Mr. Conrad has taken especial pleasure in history, and has done all in his power to verify and preserve the traditions of the State of Delaware, and to perpetuate its historical records. For the past three years he has been the librarian of the Historical Society of Delaware, and his painstaking and intelligent research, evidenced by the valuable papers on various topics which he has contributed to the literature of the society, has made him high authority on questions referring to the chronicles of the past. As a writer and a speaker, in politics and in literature, Mr. Conrad is well known throughout the state, and beyond its limits in equal degree he enjoys the still more desirable reputation of a man of honorable and beneficent nature. He is a member of the Order of K. of P., and of the I. O. R. M., and is conspicuous and influential in both.

Henry C. Conrad was married in 1884 to Sarah J., daughter of Albert and Rachel R. (Stem) Longaker, of Norristown, Pa. Their children are: I. Edith L. II. Rachel L. Mr. Conrad has been for years a member of Grace M. E. church, and is recognized as a leading Methodist layman.
[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., tr. by mkk]

Stephen S. Cooling
STEPHEN S. COOLING, Wilmington, Del., son of John and Rebecca (Severson) Cooling, was born in Cecil county, Md., February 22, 1837.

His father's ancestors were English and his mother's Swedish. Tradition says that the Cooling family settled in Maryland at an early date, and some members of it have always resided in Cecil county. William Cooling, an uncle of Stephen S., was a well-known sea captain, and died in Chesapeake City, Cecil county, about 1872, at the age of eighty-nine years.

John Cooling, father of Stephen S., was born about 1797, in Cecil county, which was his home throughout life. Many of his years were passed in maritime pursuits. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and served in Company C, Fifth Maryland regiment. John Cooling married Rebecca Severson, who was born in Cecil county, in 1800. Their children were: I. Mary R., deceased II. John T., deceased III. Benoni, sheriff of Cecil county in 1876, died in 1895 IV. Mary, deceased V. Samuel, deceased VI. William W., deceased VII. Joseph N., of Philadelphia VIII. James E., deceased IX. Stephen S. X. Henry S., deceased. Mr. Cooling died in 1842, aged forty-five years his widow died in 1880.

Stephen S. Cooling was a pupil in the Cecil county common schools until he was sixteen years old. Then he went west to Kentucky and in Louisville learned carriage-building. Having acquired his trade, he worked as a journeyman in Louisville until 1867, and then in St. Louis, Mo., until 1870 returned to Maryland for a short time, resumed his occupation in St. Louis for a brief period, then went again to Louisville, where he remained until 1873 thence to Pittsburg, Pa., for four years then moved east to Philadelphia, and worked there fourteen years, and for the past seven years has resided in Wilmington, employed as a carriage maker. He is a member of Friendship Conclave, No. 1, I. O. H., of Wilmington, and a Democrat in politics.

Stephen S. Cooling was married four times. His first wife was Margaret Reece they were married in West Chester, Pa. After her death he married, in Cincinnati, Ohio, Mary Davis. His third wife was Susan Webster, of Baltimore. He was married to his present wife, Catharine C. Steetor, in Camden, N. J., in 1893. Mr. Cooling has no children. He attends the M. E. church.
[Source: Biographical and Genealogical History of the State of Delaware, Volume I, published by J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., 1899] mkk

Alexander B. Cooper, whose father was the Rev. Ignatius T. Cooper, well known in religious circles, was born in Middletown, Delaware, November 5, 1844. He studied law under the direction of the Hon. Eli Saulsbury, attended the law department of the University of Pennsylvania and was admitted to the Bar in New Castle in 1867. He began the practice of law in 1868 in Wilmington, and a year afterwards, moved to New Castle, where he has since continued his residence. From 1879 to 1885 he was Deputy Attorney-General of the State under George Gray. He was a member of the State Senate of Delaware during the sessions of 1883-1887, and Speaker for the last two years of his term. Mr. Cooper was appointed commissioner with William S. Hilles and Walter H. Hayes by the General Assembly of the State in 1905, to confer with like commissioners from the State of New Jersey respecting the Delaware River and Bay, in accordance with the compact agreed upon between the representatives of the two States under date of March 9, 1905. Mr. Cooper is President both of the Delaware commissioners and of the joint commissioners. With untiring devotion to his profession, his legal talents and strict integrity of character have given him high standing at the Bar. He still pursues the practice of law in Wilmington.

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

The first American Corbit dwelt in Chester County, Pennsylvania, but as early as 1708 he had settled on the banks of the Appoquinimink in New Castle County, Delaware. This was Daniel Corbit, a Quaker, born in Scotland in 1682. His son Daniel Corbit married Mary Brinton of Pennsylvania, who was descended from William Brinton, a member of the First Assembly. It was William Corbit, his son, who established the tannery in Cantwell's Bridge. He was succeeded by his son Pennell, who at his death was succeeded by his brother Daniel Corbit III, the subject of this sketch. William was married three times, first to Mary Pennell, second to Sarah Fisher, and third to Mary Cowgill, who survived him. During the life of his second wife he built the Corbit house (now occupied by Daniel W. Corbit) which tradition says was designed by the same architect who planned the new Drawyers Meeting House in 1772.

Pennell Corbit, the son of Mary Pennell, married Mary Clark, both of them dying early, leaving two daughters, Sarah Clark Corbit and Mary Pennell Corbit, who became the wards of their uncle Daniel, when respectively aged eleven and nine years. Sarah Fisher left one son, William Mary Cowgill was the mother of children of whom were John C, whose wife was Harriett Trimble (whose mother was a Brinton) who as his widow, married the late Charles Tatman Sarah C. who became the wife of the Hon. Presley Spruance and Daniel of whom we write.

Daniel Corbit was born in 1796, and had the benefit of the schools at Cantwell's Bridge and Smyrna Boarding School. He had mercantile training in the store of William Corbit, his brother. The village was then a stirring place, for it was the shipping point to Philadelphia for much of Cecil and Kent, Maryland, besides adjacent Delaware. It was the day of the big country grain-buyer and merchant. The great merchants of that older day were Samuel Thomas and David Wilson and their homes on either side of the Corbit house attest their dignity.

It was in such an atmosphere that Daniel Corbit learned those strict business habits, that knowledge of men and things, that, coupled with his strong mind and will, his great caution, his untiring industry and perfect integrity, made him a successful man in every undertaking of his life. He owed much to heredity. His father was undoubtedly a strong man his mother, instancing the rule that our prominent men have notable mothers, was indeed a rare character, and nearly every mental and moral quality that was known in the son, tradition ascribes to his mother. Hers was the placid, even, kindly life that seems natural to Friends it was a strong administration of domestic life withal. Duties outside among the needy were ever recognized, and the house had the atmosphere that has pervaded it for a century and a quarter.

Daniel Corbit was twice married to Eliza Naudain and Mary Corbit Wilson, his cousin. Of the first wife four children reached maturity Mary C. Corbit, who married E. Tatnall Warner, was the only child of the second. He was accustomed to say his wives were the best of the good gifts of a kind Providence, and all who heard agreed with him. His business life was a success throughout. When bark gave out, country tanners generally gave up the business, and he among them. He then turned his attention to the land, adding farm after farm to his estate. It was a real joy to him to take a poor, untidy farm and by clearing, draining, building, hedging and fertilizing, make it beautiful. When the farmers about the Delaware-Chesapeake Canal gave up the peach business he began it. His wide orchards bore golden fruit and wealth flowed in upon him. This was about the time of the war for the Union, and with fullest faith he invested in government securities, and that was profitable. He was long a lender of money at legal interest, and once a week joined the always notable company of the directors of the Bank of Smyrna.

He was quick to recognize promising qualities in young men gave advice when asked, and many now living can testify that he stimulated their self-respect and ambition. He believed in the principles of the Whig and Republican parties, and was ever alive to the political and moral issues as they came up for legislation at Dover and Washington, but accepted office only twice - a term in the Legislature and as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1852. Mr. Corbit was regarded as an ideal person for the gubernatorial office, but he could not even consider the subject, since, if elected, he would have been commander of the militia of the State. Where the Court had to appoint commissioners for some exacting work, he was very often one of them so also of arbitrations, and his life, early and late, was rarely without the burden of trusteeships. For many years he lived near those highest in the political management of Delaware. His wife's brother, Hon. Arnold Naudain, and Hon. Presley Spruance, the husband of his sister, were at different times United States Senators.

In social intercourse he was one of the most charming of men had humor, enjoyed a good laugh, was a reader and thinker, all of which when united with the social instinct make the entertaining companion. He lived and died in the faith of his fathers, brought action to the bar of conscience by familiarity with the Book of books and meditation, and sought the guidance of the "inward light." Few men of Delaware have ever been more respected, admired and loved. Bishop Scott spoke at Mr. Corbit's funeral. They were about the same age and natives of the same place. The Bishop said: "I thank God for Daniel Corbit," and his words found echo in every heart there present.

[History of the State of Delaware by Henry C. Conrad, Volume III, Published by the Author, Wilmington, Delaware, 1908, submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

George Gilbert Crawford, M. D.

In the long ago there came to York County, Pennsylvania, as its first physician, a young Scotchman, Dr. James Crawford, a graduate in medicine of the University of Edinburgh. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. David Jamison, and founded a family of which Dr. George Gilbert Crawford, of Strasburg, Virginia, is a twentieth century representative. Dr. Jamison was a lieutenant-colonel in a Virginia regiment that fought the French and Indians and later was colonel in the revolutionary army. Through another line of descent Dr. George G. Crawford traces to Jacob Rinker (a great-grandfather) who was a captain in the revolutionary army. The sword he carried was preserved in the possession of his descendants until 1840, when the burning of the family mansion destroyed the valued heirloom.

James Crawford moved late in life to the state of Ohio with his family, his son, a lad of seventeen years, not accompanying the family further than Shenandoah County, Virginia. He located in Strasburg in that county on the north fork of the Shenandoah river at the base of Massanutton mountain, near where, in later years, the battle of Cedar Creek was fought between the Union force under Sheridan and the Confederates under Early, and later moved to Woodstock. There he married, reared a family and died. One of his sons, Robert W. Crawford, was first lieutenant under Fitzhugh Lee, of the Confederate army. Another son, Rev. William A. Crawford, was a professor in Delaware College and pastor of the churches at Fairfax Court House and Kernstown, dying at the latter town.
Dr. James Jamison Crawford, son of David Jamison Crawford, was born at Woodstock, Virginia, October 19, 1835. He was a highly educated man, holding the degree of M. A. from Delaware College, the degree of M. D. from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, and was also a student at the University of Virginia and at the University of Maryland. He practiced his profession nearly his entire life in Strasburg. Shenandoah County, Virginia, where he was greatly beloved as a man and most implicitly trusted as a physician. He served in the Confederate army from first Manassas to Appomattox, attaining the rank of captain, and was wounded in battle. His first service was in Company A, Tenth Regiment Virginia Infantry, of which he became captain. Later he served as assistant surgeon of the Thirteenth Virginia Regiment, was engaged in many of the hardest battles of the war and at its close only seven men were left of the original company. Dr. and Captain Crawford died in 1895. His wife, Emma Gertrude (Setszer) Crawford, yet survives him. She was born February 14, 1851, daughter of Henry and Mary Rebecca (Borum) Setszer. After the war Dr. Crawford resumed medical practice at Strasburg, was an elder of the Presbyterian, church, and one of the most influential men of the town.

Dr. George Gilbert Crawford, son of Dr. James Jamison and Emma Gertrude (Setszer) Crawford, was born in Strasburg, Virginia, March 27, 1876. His early education was obtained in public and private schools in Strasburg and "Greenwood School," Albemarle County, Virginia, two years being devoted to study in that institution. He then pursued the academic course at the University of Virginia for three years, then began professional study in the medical department of the university. He was graduated M. D., class of 1901, and for the next three and one-half years practiced in Faulkland, Delaware, and was assistant physician and surgeon at Delaware Hospital, Wilmington. In 1905 he established in private practice in Wilmington, Delaware, continuing there three years. In 1908 he returned to his native town, Strasburg, and began practice there among the people by whom the name "Doctor Crawford" is yet held in loving remembrance. Between the passing of the "old doctor" and the coming of the "young doctor" there was a lapse of thirteen years but among the warmest friends of the "young Doctor Crawford" are the families in which "old Doctor Crawford" was for a quarter of a century the honored friend and trusted medical adviser.

Dr. Crawford is a member of the Shenandoah Valley and Shenandoah County Medical societies, and the Virginia State Medical Society, and American Medical Association, interested in their work and aiding to extend their usefulness. He is decidedly literary in his tastes and a lover of out-of-door sports. For his own entertainment and that of his friends, he often indulges his talents for political composition and one of his poems "A Rub of the Green" published in "Life" was much appreciated by the golfing readers of that periodical. He preserves and honors his father's military service by availing himself of the right it gives him to affiliate with the order of Sons of Confederate Veterans and is a member of Stover Camp.
Dr. Crawford married, June 10, 1903, Anne Preston White, born at Seguin, Texas, daughter of James and Ellen Douglas (Clarke) White. Children: Ellen Clarke, born at Faulkland, Delaware Anne Preston, born in Wilmington, Delaware James Jamison (2), born in Hanover County, Virginia Jean Maxwell, born in Strasburg, Virginia.

[Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography, Under The Editorial Supervision of Lyon Gardiner Tyler, 1915 - TK - Transcribed by A FoFG]

DAVID P. CURLETT, Wilmington, Del., son of Lewis and Elizabeth (Porter) Curlett, was born in New Castle, Del., December 26, 1821.

His paternal ancestors were Welsh the maternal, Scotch. His father was a native of New Castle and spent his life in that city as a plasterer and contractor. He was a busy and highly respected citizen. He married Elizabeth Porter, and had children: I. James, deceased II. Lewis, deceased III. Margaret, deceased IV. Eliza, deceased V. Matilda (Mrs. Samuel Riley) widow VI. Mary, deceased VII. David P. Mr. Curlett died in Wilmington in 1839.

David P. Curlett was a student in the old academy in New Castle, Del. When he was sixteen years old he was sent to Camden, N. J., to learn blacksmithing. He spent six years acquiring this trade but could not, in the same time, develop a liking for it, and he therefore relinquished it and turned his attention to plastering, the business which his father had so successfully followed. To this he soon added contracting, and he has erected many buildings in Wilmington and elsewhere. Notwithstanding his many years of business life, he is still vigorous and retains the management of his affairs in his own hands. He is happy in the respect of all who know him socially, and in the confidence of those with whom he has business dealings. Mr. Curlett is a member of Washington Lodge, Knights of Pythias, and of Oriental Lodge, No. 27, Free and Accepted Masons. He is independent in politics and believes merit in an aspirant for office to be of greater moment than his political affiliations.

On February 21, 1844, David P. Curlett married Jane, daughter of Owen and Elizabeth Zebley, of Wilmington. They had children: I. Elizabeth (Mrs Fred. W. Taylor, of Wilmington,) II. Samuel, of Wilmington, married Eliza Micklen III. Lewis, of Elwood, married Laura Hunter IV. Anna Mary (Mrs. Coldwell), of Wilmington V. and VI. Matilda and Emma, twins, the former is (Mrs. Thomas Denny), of Cape Charles, Va. the latter is deceased VII. David, and VIII. Frank (twins), born February 19, 1855 the former resides in Wilmington, is an upholsterer and cabinet-maker, married May 12, 1880, to Laura, daughter of John and Margaret Mahoney, of Wilmington, and had children: i. Elsie ii. John the latter, Frank, is deceased IX. George, of near Malvern, Pa., married Elizabeth Speakman X. Margaret XI. Henry XII. Jane, and XIII. Ella (twins), died in infancy. Both Mr. and Mrs. Curlett still enjoy good health.

[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., submitted by Mary Kay Krogman]

THOMAS CURLEY, Wilmington, Del., son of Thomas and Mary (Carroll) Curley, was born in Roscommon, Ireland, November 11, 1829.

His ancestors, paternal and maternal, were Irish. His maternal grandfather was a native of Roscommon and died in that city. His father, Thomas Curley, was born in Roscommon, and resided there until 1849, when he emigrated to America and made his home in Melrose, N. Y., where he died. He had five children, of whom Elizabeth, widow of John Smith, residing in New York City, and Thomas Curley are the only ones now living.

Thomas Curley, Jr., attended school in Ireland, and in June, 1848, sailed across the Atlantic ocean to New York City, where he remained about four months, going thence to New Orleans, La. In 1848 he left and afterwards went to Savannah, Ga. In 1840 he went to Louisville, Ky., and in 1850 to New York. In 1851, he came to Wilmington to build the gas works, and this city has been his home since that time. He has ever since been connected with the Wilmington Coal Gas Company, and since 1767 has been its superintendent. Mr. Curley is independent in politics and has never allied himself with any party.

On July 16, 1854, Thomas Curley was married to Mary, daughter of Philip and Mary (Dooley) Bowe, natives of Queen's county, Ireland. One of their children, John M. Curley, died in 1884, aged 28 years another died young and those surviving are: I. Mary H. II. Elizabeth (Mrs. Michael Newell) III. Eleanor M. IV. Edward J., assistant superintendent of the Wilmington gas works V. Thomas F., in employ of the Wilmington Gas Company VI. Agnes R. VII. Charles Fallon. Mr. Curley and his family are members of St. Peter's R. C. Church, Wilmington.

John M. Curley was born November 2, 1856, and was graduated from St. Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Md., after which he entered the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania and spent two years there. In 1879 he entered the employ of the Wilmington Gas company, and began the study of gas engineering, acting at the same time as assistant superintendent. In September, 1884, he was appointed superintendent of the Bristol gas works at Bristol, Penn'a., and four months later, died there of typhoid fever.

Edward C. Curley was born in Wilmington, February 22, 1867, and was educated in the public and the Friends' schools. Since 1884 he has been connected with the gas works and is now assistant superintendent.

Thomas F. Curley attended the public schools of Wilmington and supplemented the instruction received there by a course in Delaware College. He has been with the gas company since 1887. He was married in Wilmington, August 24, 1892, to Eleanor M., daughter of Thomas and Henrietta (Clark) Hanway. Thomas Hanway is deceased. Thomas F. Curley is a member of the A. O. U. W.

Charles Fallon Curley received his primary education in the public schools of Wilmington, passing through the high school, and subsequently entered Georgetown University, Washington, D. C., and graduated from this institution with the degree of B. A. in the class of 1897. In September of the same year he entered Harvard Law School where at date of writing he is still pursuing his studies.
[History of the State of Delaware, Vol. 1 1899, Publishers: J. M. Runk & Co., Chambersburg, PA., tr. by mkk]

The Battle of Brandywine begins

On September 11, 1777, General Sir William Howe and General Charles Cornwallis launch a full-scale British attack on General George Washington and the Patriot outpost at Brandywine Creek near Chadds Ford, in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on the road linking Baltimore and Philadelphia.

Howe and Cornwallis spilt their 18,000 British troops into two separate divisions, with Howe leading an attack from the front and Cornwallis circling around and attacking from the right flank. The morning had provided the British troops with cover from a dense fog, so Washington was unaware the British had split into two divisions and was caught off guard by the oncoming British attack.

Although the Americans were able to slow the advancing British, they were soon faced with the possibility of being surrounded. Surprised and outnumbered by the 18,000 British troops to his 11,000 Continentals, Washington ordered his men to abandon their posts and retreat. Defeated, the Continental Army marched north and camped at Germantown, Pennsylvania. The British abandoned their pursuit of the Continentals and instead began the British occupation of Philadelphia. Congress, which had been meeting in Philadelphia, fled first to Lancaster, then to York, Pennsylvania, and the British took control of the city without Patriot opposition.

The one-day battle at Brandywine cost the Americans more than 1,100 men killed or captured while the British lost approximately 600 men killed or injured. To make matters worse, the Patriots were also forced to abandon most of their cannon to the British victors after their artillery horses fell in battle.

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