Subject Index: War of the Spanish Succession

Subject Index: War of the Spanish Succession

Subject Index: War of the Spanish Succession

Wars & TreatiesBattlesBiographiesWeaponsConcepts


Wars and Treaties


Battles

Oudenaarde, battle of, 11 July 1708 (Belgium)
Ramillies, battle of, 23 May 1706
Schellenberg, Battle of the, 2 July 1704


Biographies


Weapons, Armies & Units


Concepts



The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession : An Historical and Critical Dictionary

From 1702 to 1714, the War of the Spanish Succession affected most of Europe and significant parts of the New World, with battles ranging from the Hungarian plains to the harbors of Rio de Janeiro. The death of the last Hapsburg King of Spain unleashed a struggle for his empire. This book includes entries analyzing the individuals who determined the course of the war, who played a diplomatic, economic, or military role, as well as entries analyzing the pivotal battles influencing the outcome. The provisions of the final treaties, known as the Pacification of Utrecht, are examined in detail, as is the significance of those provisions. The diplomats at Utrecht followed the principles of balance of power, compensation, and legitimacy to mold the peace. The peace set the boundaries of Western Europe until the convulsion of the French Revolution.

The book opens with an introduction pointing to the significance of the treaties provisions. The alphabetical arrangement of the entries, the numerous cross-references, the bibliographies at the end of the entries, a genealogical table, a chronology, and the index make this work easy to use.


Books at On Military Matters

1-TPS11 TURNING POINT SIMULATIONS # 11: Blenheim 1704 AD British, Dutch, Austrians, Prussians, Danes, and various German allies on one side and French, Bavarians, and Irish fighting for Louis on the other. Each unit in the game represents one brigade with each combat strength point around 400 men or 200 horses. One hex on the map equals 400 meters. A turn represents around one hour of action and the game can last up to 7 turns.

The Battle of Blenheim includes: One full color 11x17-inch mounted mapboard 176 full color large 5/8-inch die-cut counters and 12-page Rulebook. Skill Level: Medium. 1 vol, 12 pgs 2019 US, AGAINST THE ODDS
NEW-box, available mid October 2019 . $40.00 with a discount of 25% rct

1-75130 Boeri, Gianncarlo SPANISH ARMIES 1688-1697 CD contains text along with b/w & color images. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD . $30.00

1-75140 Boeri, Gianncarlo ARMY OF THE DUTCHY OF SAVOY 1688-1713 A revised edition of his work on the Army of Savoy 1688-1713. The title has changed to the 'Army of the Duke of Savoy 1688-1713.'

Although there has been minor changes and additions to the text, Boeri has provided greatly expanded footnotes which has resulted in an increase in the number of pages of text from 27 pages to 51 pages. The greatest change has been the addition of 20 color plates by Robert Hall. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2012 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, revised edition . $20.00

1-11421 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES Excellent biography, covers the wars of the Spanish Succession. Maps, index, biblio. 1 vol, 1050 pgs 2002 US, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
NEW-pb . $30.00

1-11422 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: HIS LIFE AND TIMES Excellent biography, covers the wars of the Spanish Succession. Maps, index, biblio. 1 vol, 1080 pgs 2002 US, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
NEW-pb . $30.00

2-198610 Dorrel, Nick MARLBOROUGH'S LAST CHANCE IN SPAIN: The 1710 Spanish Campaign The Military Campaign Series is a set of books that take a closer look at campaigns in various conflicts. The aim is to provide the reader with a detailed view of a particular part of a conflict, rather than trying to describe the entire conflict or just focus on a single battle. The series provides information on commanders, armies, battles of the campaign, and OOBs. The series is a good place to start for those interested in knowing more about a particular conflict, whether you are a history buff or a wargamer.

The Spanish theater was crucial to the outcome of the War of the Spanish Succession and yet it is not well known. This book looks in detail at the vital 1710 campaign in the Peninsula, including the five main actions of the campaign. This campaign was the last chance for Marlborough's forces to seize a decisive advantage in this important theater. The campaign ebbed and flowed before the total defeat of Marlborough's hopes and this proved to be a decisive event in the outcome of the war. 1 vol, 132 pgs 2014 US, ON MILITARY MATTERS
NEW-wire bound softcover . $40.00

2-208310 Dorrell, Nick MARLBOROUGH'S OTHER ARMY: The British Army and the Campaigns of the First Peninsula War, 1702-1712 An often neglected aspect of Marlborough's war is its crucial campaign in Spain and Portugal also known as the First Peninsula War of 1702-1712. Whilst this campaign was critical to the outcome of the war, relatively little information is available about it or the army that fought it. This work not only provides a detailed look at the army that fought the Spanish and Portuguese campaigns of Marlborough's war, but it also offers an insight into the course of the war in Iberia. It aims to provide more detail and understanding of a relatively little known part of a war that helped to shape and strengthened Britain's position amongst the main European players.

Several chapters look at the national contingents that made up the confederate armies fighting in Spain and Portugal. The work concentrates not only on the reasonably well known British contribution but also on the equally important role of the less well known Austrian, Dutch, Palatine, Portuguese and Spanish contingents.

These chapters provide general information about the units involved, their organization, tactics and other relevant detail. In other chapters the work concentrates in detail on the developments in the Spanish and Portuguese campaigns in each year of the war. Also provided: details of the composition of the armies in each campaign, their activities and battles, the size of the units if known, and more for each year. Attention is paid not only to the most famous engagement at Almanza but also to the other battles and skirmishes of the Iberian campaigns. 1 vol, 200 pgs 2019 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-papberback . $35.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-209300 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WAR MACHINE: 1702-1711 Blenheim, Ramilles , Oudenarde, Malplaquet - much has been written about the brilliant victories of the Duke of Marlborough's Anglo-Dutch army over the armies of Louis XIV of France during the War of the Spanish Succession. Also provides focus on the men and the military organization that made these achievements possible - the soldiers, the commanders, the army structure, administration, logistics, engineering, weapons, and finance. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2015 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj, available mid August 2015 . $50.00 with a discount of 15%

1-210350 Falkner, James THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION 1701 - 1714 The War of the Spanish Succession, fought between 1701 and 1714 to decide who should inherit the Spanish throne, was a conflict on an unprecedented scale, stretching across most of western Europe, the high seas, and the Americas.

In a clear and perceptive narrative he describes and analyses the complex political maneuvers and a series of military campaigns which also involved the threat posed by Ottoman Turks in the east and Sweden and Russia in the north. Fighting took place not just in Europe but in the Americas and Canada, and on the high seas. All European powers, large and small, were involved - France, Spain, Great Britain, Holland, Austria, and Portugal were the major players.

The end result of 11 years of outright war was a French prince firmly established on the throne in Madrid and a division of the old Spanish empire. More notably though, French power, previously so dominant, was curbed for almost 90 years. 1 vol, 280 pgs 2015 UK, PEN & SWORD
NEW-dj . $50.00 with a discount of 15%

2-89560 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WARS EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS 1702-1713 Many books have been written about the 1st Duke of Marlborough's famous victories, but none of the previous studies has really concentrated on how the warfare was perceived by the men and women who took part - those who experienced the action at first hand. James Falkner has brought together a vivid selection of contemporary accounts of every aspect of the war to create a panoramic yet minutely detailed picture of those years of turmoil.

The story is told through memoirs, letters, official documents, dispatches, newspaper reports and eyewitness testimony from the French and Allied sides of the conflict.

His linking narrative provides a penetrating analysis of the strategy and tactics of warfare at the time. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2020 UK, PEN & SWORD BOOKS
NEW-pb, new softcover edition available late May 2020 . $40.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-89620 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S SIEGES Well detailed analysis of the the many sieges that the Duke conducted. B/w sketches, drawings and maps of the forts & the campaigns to reduce them. Chapter notes, biblio, index. 1 vol, 268 pgs 2007 UK, SPELLMOUNT PRESS
NEW-dj . $50.00

1-34280 Foure, Pierre COLORS OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY UNDER LOUIS XIV-VOL1 Part of a set of three covering the years 1638 to 1715, many b/w illust and (4) color pages. 1 vol, 32 pgs 1994 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-34282 Foure, Pierre COLORS OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY UNDER LOUIS XIV-VOL2 Part of a set of three covering the years 1638 to 1715, many b/w illust and (4) color pages. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2000 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-75150 Goldberg, Claus-Peter & Robert Hall ARMY OF THE ELECTORATE PALATINE 1690-1716 CD contains text along with b/w & color images. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD . $25.00

1-74530 Grant, C. S. ARMIES AND UNIFORMS OF MARLBOROUGH'S WARS, THE Second edition combines two previously published two volumes into one while reordering some of the text and making some minor changes in a larger format. Covers better known northern European armies and battles in the War of the Spanish Succession, and also the armies and major actions in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Uniform plates by the late Bob Marrion. 1 vol, 152 pgs 2016 UK, PARTIZAN PRESS
NEW-hardcover . $52.00

1-211980 Hall, Robert UNIFORMS AND FLAGS CD: The Armies of Hanover, Celle, and Brunswick - 1670-1715 CD contains new, updated information.

No. of color plates:
Hanover: 55: incl. 13 cavalry, 4 dragoons, 19 infantry
Celle 15: incl. 3 cavalry, 2 dragoons, 8 infantry
Brunswick 27: incl. 5 cavalry, 4 dragoons, 9 infantry

With regard to Hanover we have found extensive, previously unknown, material both on flags and standards from 1674-1700 as well as very complete uniform information, especially for the period 1682-1694, while a significant document written by the Celle colonels documented the differences between the armies in 1705. 1 vol, 248 pgs 2016 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $50.00

1-219730 Hall, Robert FLAGS & UNIFORMS OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY 1688-1714: 2nd Edition (2019) This 2nd edition compilation is a CD (not a book).

The first edition of French Infantry was published in 2001. In 2015, a supplement was published with additional information gleaned from archival research. This 2nd edition contains both as well as new research. This book is the most comprehensive study of French Infantry available.

A number of visits to the Minutier Central des notaires de Paris in the Archives Nationales in Paris in 2018 generated the analysis and documentation of over 190 notary contracts for uniforms. Over 290 regiments are detailed in 548 pages, including all of the Irish regiments, with over 102 of the 290 updated with new information.

The 2nd edition CD contains all text along with b/w and 296 color plates of which 121 are new or have been updated. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $65.00 rct

1-220010 Hall, Robert STANDARD & UNIFORMS OF FRENCH CAVALRY 1688-1714: 2nd Edition (2019) This 2nd edition compilation is a CD (not a book).

This Second Edition contains 258 pages and 75 color plates detailing over 133 units. A more comprehensive look at French cavalry in the period 1688-1714 would be difficult to find. 1 vol, 333 pgs 2019 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $50.00 rct

1-221170 Hall, Robert GUIDONS & UNIFORMS OF FRENCH DRAGOONS 1688-1714: 2nd Edition (2019) The first edition of French Dragoons was published in 2001. In 2015, a supplement was published with additional information gleaned from archival research. This 2nd edition contains both as well as new research.

A number of visits to the Minutier Central des Notaires de Paris in the Archives Nationales in Paris in 2018 generated the analysis and documentation of notary contracts for uniforms. There are 134 pages of text, which include copies of these notary contracts and there are 48 color plates many of which illustrate the new information gleaned from these contracts. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, available late August 2019 . $40.00 rct

1-75160 Hall, Robert ARMIES OF MECKLENBURG & HOLSTEIN-GOTTORP 1650-1719 CD contains text along with b/w & color images. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD . $25.00

1-80880 Hall, Robert MILITARY UNIFORMS OF THE ELECTORATE OF COLOGNE CD contains (14) COLOR PLATES 1 vol, 60 pgs 2005 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $15.00

1-84610 Hall, Robert FLAGS & UNIFORMS OF THE ARMY OF HESSE-KASSELL CD contains text along with b/w & 23 color pages. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $25.00

1-85930 Hall, Robert FLAGS & UNIFORMS HESSE-DARMSTRADT & UPPER RHINE CD contains text along with (9) color pages and(71) pages of text on Hesse-Darmstradt 1678-1739(11) color pages and (110) pages of text coveringthe Upper Rhine Circle 1664-1734. 1 vol, 201 pgs 2007 US, DAN SCHORR
CD-new . $25.00

2-RHDK01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. LIVGARDEN TIL FODS FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHDK02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. PRINCE CARL FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHDK03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. PRINCE GEORGE FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHDK04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. 1ST JUTLAND HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHDK05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. 1ST SEELAND HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHDK06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANISH:I.R. 4TH JUTLAND HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:ROYAL IRISH FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:PORTMORE'S FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:CHURCHILL'S FOOT(Buffs) 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:ORKNEY'S FOOT(Royal Scots) 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:LUMLEY'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:WOOD'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH:WOOD'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:DR LEIBREGIMENT OF HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:KR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:DR VON SONDFELD HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR ANHALT-DESSAU FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR VARENNES FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR CANITZ FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR07 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR08 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR KRONPRINZ FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR09 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:KR L'OSTANGE HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR10 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR WULFFEN FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR11 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR HOLSTEIN-BECK FOOT 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RHPR12 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSSIA:IR LOTTUM, KR BRANDENBURG 8.5x11 color plate, Colors/Standards/Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMAN01 Hall, Robert DR Schmettau 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFC01 Hall, Robert CR Tremouille & CR Courcillon 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFC02 Hall, Robert CR Toulouse & CR Royal E 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFC03 Hall, Robert CR Royal Cravattes & CR Rosen 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFC04 Hall, Robert CR Ligondez & CR Harcourt 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFD01 Hall, Robert DR Le Roi & DR Bretagne 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFG01 Hall, Robert Gendarmes de la Garde Cheveaulegers de la Garde 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFG02 Hall, Robert 1. Company des Mousquetaires 2. Company des Mou 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI01 Hall, Robert IR Picardie & IR Clare 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI02 Hall, Robert IR Gondrin & IR Royal Italien 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI03 Hall, Robert IR Alsace & IR Sparre 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI04 Hall, Robert IR Gardes Francaises IR Gardes Sui 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI05 Hall, Robert IR La Marck & IR Montroux 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMFI06 Hall, Robert IR St. Sulpice & IR Isenghien 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMHG01 Hall, Robert DR Dernath & DR Baudissin 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMHG02 Hall, Robert IR Barner & IR Aderkas 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMHK01 Hall, Robert IR Pr Wilhelm & IR Pr Ludwig 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMHN01 Hall, Robert IR Bernstorff 1B & IR Ranzow 5B 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL01 Hall, Robert IR Pallandt 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL02 Hall, Robert IR Dutch Guards and IR Nassau 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL03 Hall, Robert IR Slangenburg & IR Salisch 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RMNL04 Hall, Robert IR Albemarle 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RMNL05 Hall, Robert IR Hirzel & IR Sturler 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL06 Hall, Robert IR Borthwick 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-RMNL07 Hall, Robert IR Murray & IR Colyear 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL08 Hall, Robert CR Oranje-Friesland & CR Driesbergen 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMNL09 Hall, Robert DR Dopff & CR Wurttemburg 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMPR01 Hall, Robert KR von der Heyden 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMSP02 Hall, Robert IR Zuniga 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMSP03 Hall, Robert IR Girmaldi & IR Lede 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

1-RMSP04 Hall, Robert DR Toulongeon 8.5x11 color plate with Colors/Standards/Uniforms 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-plate . $8.00

2-75120 Hall, Robert & Yves Roumegoux FRENCH MILITIA, ARTILLERY & BOMBARDIERS The French Artillery and Bombardiers under Louis XIV - Organization, Flags and Uniforms. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2019 US, DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, new edition minor changes, available late August 2019 . $30.00 rct

1-74820 Hall, Robert and Boeri, Giancarlo UNIFORMS AND FLAGS OF THE IMPERIAL AUSTRIAN ARMY 1683-1720 CD with 260+ pages and (56) color plates. This is a completely new revision and update of the Kuhnbooklet with all 'new' plates. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2009 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $45.00

1-201440 Hall, Robert and Stanford, Ian and Roumegoux, Yves UNIFORMS AND FLAGS OF THE DUTCH ARMY AND THE ARMY OF LIEGE 1685-1715 New revised edition with 450+ text pages and 70 color plates. 1 vol, 520 pgs 2013 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $60.00

1-215330 Hattendorf, John MARLBOROUGH: Soldier and Diplomat John Churchill, the first Duke of Marlborough, has long been regarded as one of Britain's greatest generals as well as a key English political figure in the first decade of the 18th century. Full-color illustrations throughout.

The subject of numerous books in English, Marlborough has typically been seen only in terms of British political and military history. In this book, 12 leading specialists of the period broaden the perspective by assessing Marlborough in the wider and more diverse contexts of the European situation, the common soldier in the British army, the complementary activities of navies, the differing perspectives of the Austrians, Dutch, French, and Germans as well as in the context of the British popular press and the visual arts. 1 vol, 408 pgs 2012 NETHERLANDS, KARWANSARAY
NEW-dj, available late October 2017 . $85.00 with a discount of 15%

1-65280 Hoglund, Lars-Eric and Sallnas, Ake GREAT NORTHERN WAR 1700-21: Colors and Uniforms Volume 1 8x11.5 inches. Includes 30 color plates depicts hundreds of flags, standards, and uniforms, plus complete details of the Swedish, Finnish, Norwegian, Danish, and German infantry and cavalry units. 1 vol, 158 pgs 2000 SWEDEN, ACEDIA PRESS
NEW-softcover, available again lower price . $75.00

1-78440 Hussey, John MARLBOROUGH:The hero of Blenheim New concise bio of the man & his military genius the author describes, in the context of the times, his battles/campaigns 40+ b/w maps/illust, biblio 1 vol, 224 pgs 2005 UK, WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON
NEW-dj . $28.00 with a discount of 15%

1-74830 Kuhn, August revised by Hall, Robert BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA'S ARMY UNDER FREDERICK 1ST CD contains text along with b/w & color images. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 US, DAN SCHORR
NEW-CD . $15.00

1-86680 Litten, Neil RAMILLIES:Marlborough's Masterpiece Major new study, color illust, maps. 1 vol, 230 pgs 2007 UK, PARTIZAN PRESS
NEW-dj . $50.00

1-80460 Millner, John Royal Regt of Foot of Ireland COMPENDIUM JOURNAL OF ALL THE MARCHES & BATTLES Rare first hand account, Millner was present at all 10 battles/sieges 1701-1712, not only does he describe the events he also lists casualties and o/b's, first rate source. 1 vol, 364 pgs 2004 UK, NAVAL & MILITARY PRES
NEW-pb, facsimile of 1733 edition . $40.00

1-1947619 Mugnai, Bruno THE IMPERIAL ARMY in the Age of Prince Eugene of Savoy 1690-1720: The Cavalry - Volume 1 Volume 1 includes eight full-color pages, with many b/w illustrations and maps. Italian text, but English captions to images. All color plates have full English translations.

Eugene, Prince of Savoia-Carignano and Count of Soissons became a general at 24 years and field-marshal at 27. He is considered the most famous commander of the history of the Imperial army and in some European circles, considered 'the secret emperor.' After being rejected by Louis XIV of France, Eugene went to Austria and began a sizzling career on the battlefield. This three volume series details his history, army organization, equipment, and uniforms of the Imperial infantry. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2012 ITALY, SOLDIER SHOP
NEW-softcover, [Italian text] . $32.00

1-1947620 Mugnai, Bruno THE IMPERIAL ARMY in the Age of Prince Eugene of Savoy 1690-1720: The Cavalry - Volume 2 Volume 2 includes eight full-color pages, with many b/w illustrations and maps. Italian text, but English captions to images. All color plates have full English translations.

Continues the story of Eugene, Prince of Savoia-Carignano and Count of Soissons, his battlefield prowess, and the uniforms of the Army.

1 vol, 80 pgs 2020 ITALY, SOLDIER SHOP
NEW-softcover, [Italian text] . $32.00

1-199200 Owen, John Hely WAR AT SEA UNDER QUEEN ANNE 1702-1708 An account of British naval operations in the early 18th century, this book includes lively descriptions of the important figures of the age, drawn from extensive research in the original records. Illustrated with maps and portraits, it contains useful appendices on the Navy's organization and the composition of the fleet. 1 vol, 360 pgs 2012 UK, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
NEW-softcover . $41.00

1-2078563 Paoletti, Ciro ITALY, PIEDMONT AND THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION: 1701-1712 The War of Spanish Succession is well known in English concerning Flanders and Germany, not that much concerning Spain, not at all about Italy. The Italian front was so important that the French considered it as important as the German one, and committed there their best generals. William III considered it to be far more important than Spain, and, in spite of having no British army there, after King William's death London committed to it 1/10 of her war expense.

It was considered so important in Vienna that the Emperor sent there his best general. Last, it was the front where all the French hopes to submit Europe died in Turin in 1706 after the first dramatic wound they suffered in Blenheim in 1704. 185 b/w illustrations, maps and plans, 16 pages color plates
1 vol, 356 pgs 2021 UK, HELION AND COMPANY
NEW-softcover . $50.00 with a discount of 15% rct

1-LEG1703 Pole, Steve BLENHEIM 1704: August 13th, 1704 The Battle of Blenheim 1704 is a tactical level, two-player game covering one of the pivotal battles during the War of Spanish Succession. One player takes the role of Marlborough, commanding the British and Allied forces, and the other of Tallard, leading the Franco-Bavarians. At Blenheim Marlborough found himself confronted by a superior Franco-Bavarian force in a strong defensive position. Like Hannibal's great victory at Cannae, Blenheim was won by the successful implementation of a bold and imaginative plan. The flanks of the Franco-Bavarian forces were pinned by furious attacks at unfavorable odds which denuded their centre of troops re-deployed to buttress the hard-pressed wings. Then Marlborough released his cavalry to smash what was left of Franco-Bavarian centre and cleave Tallard's army into two. The threat that Louis XIV's France would come to dominate Europe was over.

The Seven Hex System (SHS) derives its name from the map which is divided into areas comprising of seven hexes which enables the player to adopt various positions within an area to reflect different tactical formations thereby making it more likely that an attack will succeed or defending units will stand firm. The SHS incorporates several unique features intended to replicate in a simple and intuitive way the options available to a commander (the wargamer) of a large army. So whilst the commander has complete freedom to devise a plan, and a good deal when positioning units which have yet to encounter the enemy, once battle is joined the options become increasingly limited and unforeseen events can play a part in determining the outcome. Nonetheless, even at a tactical level a commander's decisions are crucial in shaping events. The key to success is a sound plan with a margin for error which allows for ill-fortune, the shrewd deployment of units so as to be able to implement that plan, and the timely commitment of reserves.

Contains: 22x34-inch map, 88 counters, two play aids, and 20-page rule book.
1 vol, 1 pgs 2017 US, LEGION WARGAMES LLC
NEW-box, available late March 2021 . $56.00 with a discount of 10% rct

1-19690 Sapherson, C.A. FORCES OF THE SWEDISH CROWN: 1688-1721 8.5x5.5-inch booklet covers organization, regiments of foot, horse, and dragoons, artillery, flags and standards, Navy, and distribution of Swedish forces in 1701. Includes 32 black and white hand-drawn illustrations of flags with accompanying color details. 1 vol, 36 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $8.00

1-20930 Sapherson, C.A. FRENCH CAVALRY, THE:1688-1715 Equipment, standards, organization, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $8.00

1-20950 Sapherson, C.A. MARLBURIAN ARMIES, 1701-1721 Army lists for (42) countries, Ansbach-Baureuth to Wurzburg, biblio. 1 vol, 72 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-20980 Sapherson, C.A. IMPERIAL INFANTRY, THE:1691-1714 Equipment, standards, organization, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $8.00

1-22370 Sapherson, C.A. DANISH ARMY THE: 1699-1715 Covers organization, uniforms, and standards, and includes black and white drawings, appendix, and a bibliography. 1 vol, 40 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover, back in print . $8.00

2-15370 Schorr, Dan SWEDISH COLORS & STANDARDS OF THE GREAT NORTHERN W 8x11, packed with flag details & more, biblio. 1 vol, 64 pgs 1987 VA, EDITIONS BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $12.00

1-75420 Stanford, Ian MARLBOROUGH GOES TO WAR:Blenheim-Campaign & Battle The most detailed O/B's for the opposing armies onthe day of battle, appendicies, biblio, index. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2004 UK, PIKE & SHOT SOCIETY
NEW-pb, 2nd edition . $22.00

2-72070 Watson, J.N.P. MARLBOROUGH'S SHADOW:Life of the 1st Earl Cadogan This is the story of Marlborough's 'right hand',his Chief of Staff, Quartermaster General andChief of Intelligence, b/w illust, biblio, index. 1 vol, 224 pgs 2003 LONDON, LEO COOPER BOOKS
NEW-dj . $20.00


15th Century - The Beginning of the Spanish Empire

The king of Aragon Ferdinand and Castile's Isabella got married, unifying two neighboring kingdoms into one. At that time it was not known as Spain yet, and it wouldn't be for a few years still, but it was the beginning of something great. Isabella and Ferdinand were known as the Catholic Monarchs. Their religious belief is, supposedly, what pushed them to reconquer Andalusia, with its centre in Granada, the southern part of the Peninsula, for quite a few centuries in moorish hands. When this was accomplished they were ready for more.

While Spain expanded south of its own territory, with the conquest of Melilla in the North of Africa, an even bigger chance presented itself in form of a Genovese sailor, Christopher Columbus, who had a sailing project to find a new route to the Indies. Isabella was interested and funded his voyage. As luck would have it, he did not find what he was looking for, but as luck would have it, something much bigger and that would bring much wealth to Spain in the future: a new continent, today known as America. And so the Spanish Empire begins.


Utrecht, 1713. A Peace possible for Europe

The Treaties of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, a conflict that in recent years has been the subject of intense historical debate. The Peace of Utrecht is now analyzed from different perspectives. During negotiations, Philip V of Spain tried to impose their conditions, but eventually he had to accept the agreement of Louis XIV of France with the Maritime powers. The Spanish king had to renounce to the French throne –something h e never really admitted–, and lost his Spanish territories in Europe. He kept instead the Empire in America, being the content of the Treaties regarding colonial trade the subject of a growing historiographical interest. This contribution analyzes also the position of Charles VI of Austria, who claimed the Spanish throne and faced the peace negotiations from a position of apparent strength –although in the final stage of the war he was guided by conflicting interests regarding the rigid defense of his two main scenarios: Catalonia and Italy. In Utrecht-Rastatt, Spanish Habsburg hegemony in Italy was transferred to the Habsburgs of Vienna and this new domain was interpreted in terms of continuity. The Peace of Utrecht is considered a major European peacekeeping project, but it failed to forget a conflict that still remains close in memory.


War over Italy

It is rare that the victims of war are put into the limelight – reports usually speak only of ‘glorious’ or ‘tragic’ battles – but one man’s grim experience of war at Solferino moved him to found a humanitarian relief organization.

Horace Vernet: The French under the command of Napoleon III attacking with cavalry and infantry at Solferino, painting, 19th century

The war in Italy against Piedmont-Sardinia and France led to the Habsburgs losing Lombardy, acquired in 1714 at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, to Piedmont in 1859. Venetia had been given to the Habsburgs in the course of the Napoleonic wars in compensation for their temporary loss of Lombardy, which had gone to the Corsican Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna confirmed Habsburg possession of both provinces. As early as 1848 Piedmont-Sardinia had attempted to conquer Lombardy, but had been defeated by the Habsburg commander Field Marshal Radetzky. Piedmont-Sardinia finally achieved victory over the Habsburgs through alliance with France, thus opening up the path to the national unification of Italy.

The infamous high point of this war was the battle of Solferino, in which Austria suffered their decisive defeat on 24 June 1859. The horrors of this battle, which were reckoned with by Emperor Franz Joseph (even though he himself was ‘not conscious of any guilt’), were described by the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant, an eyewitness, as follows: ‘It is a terrible man-to-man battle. Soldiers are treading each other underfoot, knocking each other down with their rifle butts, smashing open their opponents’ heads and slicing open their stomachs with sabre or bayonet … Even the wounded defend themselves to the last. When they have no weapon, they seize their opponent and bite his throat open. Elsewhere … the cavalry carves its way over the dead and dying … bodies are turned into formless masses. The earth is literally soaked in blood, and the ground is bespattered with unrecognizable human remains.’ These terrible experiences motivated Dunant to found the Red Cross, which today is one of the world’s largest humanitarian relief organizations.


4.5 Wars for Empire

Wars for empire composed a final link connecting the Atlantic sides of the British Empire. Great Britain fought four separate wars against Catholic France from the late 1600s to the mid-1700s. Another war, the War of Jenkins’ Ear, pitted Britain against Spain. These conflicts for control of North America also helped colonists forge important alliances with native peoples, as different tribes aligned themselves with different European powers.

GENERATIONS OF WARFARE

Generations of British colonists grew up during a time when much of North America, especially the Northeast, engaged in war. Colonists knew war firsthand. In the eighteenth century, fighting was seasonal. Armies mobilized in the spring, fought in the summer, and retired to winter quarters in the fall. The British army imposed harsh discipline on its soldiers, who were drawn from the poorer classes, to ensure they did not step out of line during engagements. If they did, their officers would kill them. On the battlefield, armies dressed in bright uniforms to advertise their bravery and lack of fear. They stood in tight formation and exchanged volleys with the enemy. They often feared their officers more than the enemy.

Click and Explore

Read the diary of a provincial soldier who fought in the French and Indian War on the Captain David Perry Web Site hosted by Rootsweb. David Perry’s journal, which includes a description of the 1758 campaign, provides a glimpse of warfare in the eighteenth century.

Most imperial conflicts had both American and European fronts, leaving us with two names for each war. For instance, King William’s War (1688–1697) is also known as the War of the League of Augsburg. In America, the bulk of the fighting in this conflict took place between New England and New France. The war proved inconclusive, with no clear victor (Figure 4.16).

Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) is also known as the War of Spanish Succession. England fought against both Spain and France over who would ascend the Spanish throne after the last of the Hapsburg rulers died. In North America, fighting took place in Florida, New England, and New France. In Canada, the French prevailed but lost Acadia and Newfoundland however, the victory was again not decisive because the English failed to take Quebec, which would have given them control of Canada.

This conflict is best remembered in the United States for the French and Native raid against Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1704. A small French force, combined with a native group made up of Catholic Mohawks and Abenaki (Pocumtucs), attacked the frontier outpost of Deerfield, killing scores and taking 112 prisoners. Among the captives was the seven-year-old daughter of Deerfield’s minister John Williams, named Eunice. She was held by the Mohawks for years as her family tried to get her back, and became assimilated into the tribe. To the horror of the Puritan leaders, when she grew up Eunice married a Mohawk and refused to return to New England.

In North America, possession of Georgia and trade with the interior was the focus of the War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739–1742), a conflict between Britain and Spain over contested claims to the land occupied by the fledgling colony between South Carolina and Florida. The war got its name from an incident in 1731 in which a Spanish Coast Guard captain severed the ear of British captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for raiding Spanish ships in Panama. Jenkins fueled the growing animosity between England and Spain by presenting his ear to Parliament and stirring up British public outrage. More than anything else, the War of Jenkins’ Ear disrupted the Atlantic trade, a situation that hurt both Spain and Britain and was a major reason the war came to a close in 1742. Georgia, founded six years earlier, remained British and a buffer against Spanish Florida.

King George’s War (1744–1748), known in Europe as the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), was fought in the northern colonies and New France. In 1745, the British took the massive French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia (Figure 4.17). However, three years later, under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain relinquished control of the fortress to the French. Once again, war resulted in an incomplete victory for both Britain and France.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

The final imperial war, the French and Indian War (1754–1763), known as the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) in Europe, proved to be the decisive contest between Britain and France in America. It began over rival claims along the frontier in present-day western Pennsylvania. Well-connected planters from Virginia faced stagnant tobacco prices and hoped expanding into these western lands would stabilize their wealth and status. Some of them established the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1748, and the British crown granted the company half a million acres in 1749. However, the French also claimed the lands of the Ohio Company, and to protect the region they established Fort Duquesne in 1754, where the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers met.

The war began in May 1754 because of these competing claims between Britain and France. Twenty-two-year-old Virginian George Washington, a surveyor whose family helped to found the Ohio Company, gave the command to fire on French soldiers near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. This incident on the Pennsylvania frontier proved to be a decisive event that led to imperial war. For the next decade, fighting took place along the frontier of New France and British America from Virginia to Maine. The war also spread to Europe as France and Britain looked to gain supremacy in the Atlantic World.

The British fared poorly in the first years of the war. In 1754, the French and their native allies forced Washington to surrender at Fort Necessity, a hastily built fort constructed after his attack on the French. In 1755, Britain dispatched General Edward Braddock to the colonies to take Fort Duquesne. The French, aided by the Potawotomis, Ottawas, Shawnees, and Delawares, ambushed the fifteen hundred British soldiers and Virginia militia who marched to the fort. The attack sent panic through the British force, and hundreds of British soldiers and militiamen died, including General Braddock. The campaign of 1755 proved to be a disaster for the British. In fact, the only British victory that year was the capture of Nova Scotia. In 1756 and 1757, Britain suffered further defeats with the fall of Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry (Figure 4.18).

The war began to turn in favor of the British in 1758, due in large part to the efforts of William Pitt, a very popular member of Parliament. Pitt pledged huge sums of money and resources to defeating the hated Catholic French, and Great Britain spent part of the money on bounties paid to new young recruits in the colonies, helping invigorate the British forces. In 1758, the Iroquois, Delaware, and Shawnee signed the Treaty of Easton, aligning themselves with the British in return for some contested land around Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1759, the British took Quebec, and in 1760, Montreal. The French empire in North America had crumbled.

The war continued until 1763, when the French signed the Treaty of Paris . This treaty signaled a dramatic reversal of fortune for France. Indeed, New France, which had been founded in the early 1600s, ceased to exist. The British Empire had now gained mastery over North America. The Empire not only gained New France under the treaty it also acquired French sugar islands in the West Indies, French trading posts in India, and French-held posts on the west coast of Africa. Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War meant that it had become a truly global empire. British colonists joyously celebrated, singing the refrain of “Rule, Britannia! / Britannia, rule the waves! / Britons never, never, never shall be slaves!”

In the American colonies, ties with Great Britain were closer than ever. Professional British soldiers had fought alongside Anglo-American militiamen, forging a greater sense of shared identity. With Great Britain’s victory, colonial pride ran high as colonists celebrated their identity as British subjects.

This last of the wars for empire, however, also sowed the seeds of trouble. The war led Great Britain deeply into debt, and in the 1760s and 1770s, efforts to deal with the debt through imperial reforms would have the unintended consequence of causing stress and strain that threatened to tear the Empire apart.


Watteau’s Peacefully Bittersweet War Scenes

One of the most naturally gifted painters in the history of Western art, Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) has been beloved for his bucolic, operatic scenes of Rococo frivolity and elegant hedonism known as fêtes galantes. In his masterpiece “Pilgrimage to the Isle Cythera” (1717), aristocratic lovers attended to by fluttering cupids prepare to set off in a golden boat for the fabled island of love, the birthplace of Aphrodite. With his delicate, sensuously flickering touch, lush colors and luminous atmospheres, Watteau anticipated Impressionism, and his dreamlike visions of erotic yearning and melancholic hypersensitivity inspired the 20th-century Surrealists.

What are not so famous are paintings that first drew the attention of discerning collectors to Watteau, pictures focused on the lives of common soldiers in a time of war that he made between 1709 and 1715. While the military subject matter differs markedly from that of the fêtes galantes, there’s an allusive, bittersweet poetry about these early works that looks forward to the later scenes of pastoral dalliance. Of the seven such works known to have survived, four are featured along with 13 related drawings in “Watteau’s Soldiers: Scenes of Military Life in Eighteenth-Century France,” a captivating exhibition at the Frick Collection. Organized by Aaron Wile, a curatorial fellow at the Frick, it’s the first exhibition devoted to this subject.

Considering the subject matter, these works appear remarkably nonviolent. Ranging in width from about 12 inches to 20 inches, the paintings depict scenes far behind the front lines of battle. If you had only these images to go by, you wouldn’t know there was a war going on, much less one as horrendously bloody as the War of the Spanish Succession, an 18th-century worldwide conflict over France’s King Louis XIV’s attempt to take over the Spanish empire after the death of King Charles II of Spain.

Image

Made from life in red chalk, the drawings represent soldiers in tricorn hats, knee-length coats, knee-high socks and pointy shoes. They’re shown standing, lying down, kneeling and on horseback. They carry muskets, but they’re not shooting or bayoneting. Nor do their sketchily rendered faces reveal aggression, pain or fear. Watteau seems more interested in their clothes and he poses them in their humanity. They’re like mannequins animated by his wonderfully deft touch. In the studio, Watteau used these figures like paper dolls, translating them into paint on canvas and composing oddly disjunctive scenes that seem at once ordinary and mysterious.

The painting “The Portal of Valenciennes” (circa 1710-11) depicts seven soldiers gathered in a shady space near an old city wall. One is lying down napping, two are sitting and smoking pipes and the others, standing and bearing muskets, seem to be engaged in desultory conversation. In the hazy, blue distance, three more soldiers appear on a bridge leading to ancient buildings partly overgrown by plants, and a single sentry resembling a stone statue stands out on a rooftop against the sky. What is specifically going on, what these people are talking about and what they might be thinking is hard to say. Unlike neo-Classical paintings of the day, in which figures and their relationships were articulated with unnaturally glassy precision, Watteau’s paintings convey a feeling that other people are unfathomably mysterious.

In his excellent catalog essay, Mr. Wile sees in Watteau a shift in ideas about representing human psychology. Seventeenth-century neo-Classicists thought that a person’s character and inner life was revealed in his or her expressions. Mr. Wile writes about the influential academician and court painter Charles Le Brun, who believed that “once the mechanisms of the soul’s movements and their resulting effects on the exterior were discovered, the face could become a legible, because universal, sign of emotion.” Le Brun created a catalog of facial expressions that became widely popular as an aid for painters and sculptors.

The faces in Watteau’s paintings, however, are not transparently expressive. Like the faces of dolls with dots for eyes, they are, observes Mr. Wile, “remarkable for their opacity their faces reveal nothing about the contents of their minds, about their thoughts, emotions or desires.” Yet there’s something truthful in that obscurity, for who in our post-Freudian times would deny that faces — even those of our nearest and dearest — hide as much as they expose? In Watteau’s art, this psychological inscrutability extends to whole paintings, whose visible surfaces imply depths you can only guess at.

“The Halt” (circa 1710) arrays across the foreground 10 people resting under a spreading tree: seven soldiers and three women, one in drab, commoner’s garb — a soldier’s wife, maybe — and two in fancy gowns painted in jewel-bright colors who might be wives, lovers or prostitutes. The soldiers, one of whom has his arm in a sling and his head bandaged, appear exhausted. With its dreamy mood of ennui, it seems more than just a genre scene. It’s like a stop in an allegorical journey of life.

“The Supply Train” (circa 1715) feels like purgatory. Two women highlighted in the center sit on the ground next to a large kettle that is suspended over a campfire, while one tends to a baby in a cradle. An emaciated white pack horse stands behind them. To the right, a third woman sits with her back to us in the company of two reclining soldiers, one with his chin in hand gazing into space or, perhaps, into her eyes. A small dog sleeps in the immediate foreground next to a drum and a musket painted with miniaturist precision. In the distance, smoke rises beyond a ramshackle tent, and further afield more soldiers appear enshrouded by a misty gloom like ghosts.

The only painting representing concerted action is “The Line of March” (circa 1710). We see from behind a crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback funneling between stands of trees. They evidently are heading toward a battle, marked by a glowing conflagration far away near the horizon. There’s a processional, almost mythic feeling, as if they all were on a pilgrimage and that distant burst of light mystically beckoned them to an otherworldly end.


Advisor events [ edit ]

Ignacio de Loyola

Ignacio de Loyola was born in 1491 into a Basque noble family. He served as a soldier under Antonio Manrique de Lara, the Viceroy of Navarre - a Kingdom that Spain had conquered in 1512 - and was wounded in the Battle of Pamplona. When the French army, supporting the expelled Navarrese monarchy, stormed the city on May 20, 1521, Loyola was hit by a cannonball that severely injured both his legs. During the long and painful recovery, Ignacio read a translated version of Ludolph of Saxony's 'De Vita Christi' - a commentary on the life of Jesus that had a great influence on Loyola. He abandoned his military life and decided to devote himself entirely to serving God. In 1534 he and six companions formed the Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, devoted to opposing heresy and actively promoting the counter-reformation.

The year is between 1521 and 1556.

  • Gain 50 administrative power
  • Gain 25 papal influence
  • Gain skill 2 Theologian advisor named Ignacio de Loyola (50% cheaper to employ)

Baltasar de Zuniga

Baltasar de Zuniga came from a powerful Spanish noble family. He served Philip III as ambassador to Brussels, Paris and Vienna between 1599 to 1617. In the latter position he was instrumental in Spain's intervention in the Thirty Years War. In 1618 he managed to remove the Duke of Lerma as Philip III's key advisor, a position he then overtook himself. De Zuniga's nephew, Olivares, was placed in the household of Prince Philip - later Philip IV - to assure continued dominance at the royal court.

The year is between 1591 and 1622.

  • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
    • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

    Olivares

    The Duke of Olivares led the Spanish government between 1621 and 1643, under King Philip IV (1621-1665) whom he was enjoying the favor. He was devious and cunning leader, he involved Spain in the Thirty Years War alongside the Imperials and had the war with Holland renewed. This proved disastrous and precipitated Spanish decline, with secession of both Catalonia (reunited 1652) and Portugal in 1640. Under his governments, poetry, literature (Calderon) and painting (El Greco, Velasquez, and Murillo) prospered and Spanish modes and customs spread across Europe.

    The year is between 1617 and 1645.

    Set country flag SPA_had_event_3711

    • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
      • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

      Alberoni

      Born in 1664 the son of a gardener in Fiorenzuela (near Placentia, Italy), Giulio Alberoni owned his political career and success to the Duke of Vendôme, the French general whom he served in Italy, France and Spain. Agent of the Duke of Parma, he facilitated the wedding of Philip V of Spain with Elizabeth Farnese and become a Cardinal in 1717. His bellicose policy in Spain had him expelled in 1719. He was cunning and sly, but Spain did not have the resources needed to fulfill his ambitious plan. The Age of Spanish Supremacy was long gone.

      The year is between 1694 and 1752.

      • Gain 100 diplomatic power
      • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
        • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

        Jose Moñino

        After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain (1767), Moñino was sent to Rome as ambassador to obtain the papal suppression of the Society of Jesus. He was ennobled (1773) for the success of his mission. In 1776 Charles III appointed him chief minister. Under Conde de Floridablanca, as he was simply known in Spain, the Spanish enlightened despotism reached its peak, and his internal reforms, notably in finance, helped centralize the state. This, however, brought him into conflict with especially the Aragonese faction at court who accused him of embezzlement. After serving a three-year sentence he withdrew from public life. At the age of eighty he made a comeback into political life as he accepted the title of President of the Supreme Central and Governmental Junta that led the defense against Napoleon in 1808.

        The year is between 1758 and 1808.

        • Gain 100 administrative power
        • If the country has not enacted one of the highest tier government reforms
          • then the country gains 15 government reform progress.

          Isabella of Castile

          While not the primary candidate for the throne few can deny the talents and virtues of the young princess Isabella. As a daughter of the powerful Trastamara family she has managed to secure powerful allies through marriage who support her claim to our throne. Few can tell what the future has in store for our country but even for those who are unhappy with the rule of [Root.Monarch.GetName] Isabella is held to be a given candidate to be [Root.Monarch.GetHerHis] successor.

          • Is Castile or Spain if Castile does not exist
          • Does not have a regency.
          • Government type is a monarchy.
          • Government reform allow heirs.
          • Is not the lesser partner in a personal union.
          • Does not have the Castilian Civil War disaster.

          The year is between 1450 and 1504.

          Get a new, 23 years old, female heir Isabella of de Trastámara dynasty with:

          • 95 claims strength,
          • 5 administrative skill,
          • 6 diplomatic skill,
          • 3 military skill.
          • has Castillian culture.
          • has ‘Expansionist’ personality.
          • Gain 100 administrative power.
          • Gain 100 diplomatic power.
          • Gain 100 military power.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .
          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman advisor with skill 2 named Isabel de Trastámara.

          La Malinche

          Born near the border between the Aztec Empire and the Mayan-speaking Yucatan Peninsula, La Malinche was sold into slavery by her family and eventually given to us as tribute. While she initially only spoke Nahuatl and Mayan dialects, but no [Root.GetAdjective], we had an interpreter who spoke [Root.GetAdjective] and some Mayan, setting up a relay until she had learned enough [Root.GetAdjective] to translate on her own. As translator and active participant in the Conquest, La Malinche was so prominent that she was almost invariably portrayed accompanying the conquistadors in native sources. Conquistadors agreed that she was critical to the expedition, with at least one describing her as the second most important contributor after God himself.

          • is Spain , has its capital in Europe and has discovered Central America or Mexico,
          • has a capital in Europe and owns any province in Central America or Mexico.

          The year is between 1500 and 1600.

          • Gain access to a female discounted diplomat with skill 2 named La Malinche.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain a new female conquistador named La Malinche with:

          Juana Inés de la Cruz

          The Tenth Muse', Juana Inés de la Cruz is called, is a self-taught scholar and poet of the Baroque school and a Hieronymite nun. She became a nun to be able to study as she wished, she wanted 'to have no fixed occupation which might curtail my freedom to study.'. The monastery's library has grown with Juana Inés de la Cruz's collection of books and writings. She has defended women's right to education in her letter 'Respuesta a Sor Filotea' - 'Reply to Sister Philotea', something that has brought the attention of many clerical men and their condemnation of her.

          The year is between 1650 and 1700.

          • Gain access to a female discounted statesman with skill 2 named Juana Inés de la Cruz.
          • If this country is the Emperor of China,
          • then it gains 5 meritocracy .

          Gain the “Juana Ines de la Cruz” country modifier for 20 years, giving:

          Inés de Suárez

          Born in Plasencia, Extremadura, Spain, Inés de Suárez came to South America to find her husband only to find that he died before she reached the New World. She became part of Pedro de Valdivia's expedition who set out to establish the capital of the territory. Suárez treated the sick and wounded, found water for them in the desert, and saved Valdivia when one of his rivals tried to undermine his enterprise and take his life. The city was founded in a fertile vally with an abundance of fresh water but also many natives who disapproved of the new settlers. Inés de Suárez took charge and defended the city against a native attack. Clad in a coat of mail, a helmet and a hide cloak over her shoulders, she rallied the soldiers on her white horse and encouraged them with words of praise. She led the men herself and the natives was driven away from the town. Her bravery led to a victory, and had it not been for her, the city would have fallen and the colonial expansion thwarted.

          The year is between 1507 and 1580.

          Gain access to a female discounted colonial governor with skill 2 named Ines de Suarez.

          Gain a new female conquistador named Ines de Suarez with:

          Gain a new female general named Ines de Suarez with:


          War of the Spanish Succession

          The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13) was a European war the North American portion of this war was Queen Anne's War. The war was fought over the European balance of power the Spanish King Charles II had willeded his kingdom to Philip V, a grandson of the French King Louis XIV. A coalition thus fought the war in order to prevent a merging of Spain and France. The war was concluded by the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714).

          Origins

          King Charles II of Spain was an invalid from a very young age, and it was clear that he would never produce an heir. The issue of who would rule the Spanish kingdoms after his death became quite contentious. Through his mother Maria Theresa of Spain, an older sister of Charles II, the Dauphin, only legitimate son of Louis XIV, was the most direct heir, but he was a problematic choice: as the heir to the French throne, if he gained both crowns, it would amount to an annexation of Spain and her vast colonial empire by France, at a time when France was already powerful enough to threaten the European balance of power.

          The alternative candidates were Emperor Leopold I, a first cousin of the late king and Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. The former presented similarly formidable problems, for Leopold's success would have reunited the powerful Spanish-Austrian Habsburg empire of the 16th century. Although Leopold and Louis were both willing to defer their claims to a younger line of their family - Leopold to his younger son Archduke Charles and Louis to the Dauphin's younger son, the Duc d'Anjou, the Bavarian prince remained a less threatening candidate. As a result, Joseph Ferdinand was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands.

          The War of the Grand Alliance, with essentially the same groupings of countries fighting over different issues, had come to an end just as the Spanish succession was becoming critical. War exhaustion led England and France to agree on the First Partition Treaty, which designated Joseph Ferdinand as heir, in return for which the Dauphin and Archduke Charles received territory in Italy.

          Joseph Ferdinand died abruptly the next year, which led to the Second Partition Treaty. Under the terms of that agreement, Charles was to become heir, but the Italian territories that had been parcelled out amongst the two men would now go entirely to France. While France, The Netherlands, and England were all happy with the new arrangement, Austria was not and vied for the entire Spanish inheritance. While the wrangling continued, Charles II unexpectedly spoke out and bequeathed his empire to Anjou, thus keeping the two thrones separate. Louis backed out of the treaty, his grandson was crowned King as Philip V, and the remaining interested parties acquiesced with misgivings.

          Unfortunately, Louis overplayed his hand. He threatened a mercantilist policy in the Spanish/French dominions (thus cutting England and Holland off from Spanish trade) and recognized Philip as his heir, passing over the Dauphin and the Dauphin's eldest son. In 1701, following the death of James II of England, a pensioner at Louis' court, Louis recognized his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender", as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, thus alienating the English. The war began slowly, with Austrian forces under Prince Eugene of Savoy invading the Spanish territories in Italy. France soon intervened, which in turn brought in England, Holland and most of the German states. Minor powers Bavaria, Portugal, and (perversely) Savoy sided with France and Spain.

          Course of the War

          There were two main theaters of the war in Europe: Spain itself and West-Central Europe, especially the Low Countries (although there was also important fighting in Italy and Germany). The latter proved the more important, as Eugene and the English commander, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders. At first, France was successful in the Alsace, and threatened the Austrian capital, but the two generals managed to link up in Bavaria and won the Battle of Blenheim. France's trans-Rhine ambitions were crushed, and the French were forced into a defensive posture. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Portugal and Savoy changed sides.

          In Spain, Valencia and Catalonia switched side in favour of the Austrian pretender, Charles. A British fleet, sent to support Catalans, captured Gibraltar, a possession they held throughout the Siege of Gibraltar and hold to this day.

          Marlborough and Eugene split forces again, with the former going to the Netherlands, and the latter to Italy. Over the next two years, each drove the French back from those territories, with Marlborough winning the notable Battle of Ramillies.

          In 1707, April 25, Batle of Almansa (Valencian country) Austriacist army was defeated by the Borbonic army. Then the war in Spain settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not emerge.

          The French fought back, and managed to stall Eugene's invasion into the south of the country, and Marlborough got caught up in an endless succession of fortresses in and around Flanders. In 1708, Eugene and Marlborough once again managed to link up, and defeated the French again at the Battle of Oudenarde. An attempt to march on Paris resulted in the Battle of Malplaquet, which was won by the two generals but at such a cost to their forces that this final invasion had to be called off.

          Peace

          Britain began to get cold feet, too, as an over-decisive victory for Austria would be almost as bad for their interests as one for the French and Spanish. Marlborough fell out of grace with the English (or rather, now, British) crown and with the new Tory government and was recalled. Peace negotiations with France led to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, in which England, Holland, and France ceased fighting with one another, and Great Britain left the Catalans alone to fight for themselves.

          In 1714, September 11, Barcelona surrendered to the Borbonic army after a long siege. The Franco-Austrian hostilities lumbered on until September 1714, before the signing of the Treaty of Baden.

          With the Peace of Utrecht, the wars to prevent French hegemony that had dominated the 17th century were over for the time being. Philip became the Spanish king, but was removed from the French succession. Louis XIV also agreed to stop supporting the Stuart claim to the throne of England. The Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Milan were ceded to Austria Sicily (replaced by Sardinia in 1720) was ceded to Savoy Britain was given the exclusive right to slave trading in Spanish America Gibraltar and Minorca were transferred from Spain to the UK and a variety of French colonial possessions were given to Britain.

          In 1715 the Bourbon king Philip V of Spain abolished the constitutions of Kingdom of Valencia and Principality of Catalonia with the Decreto de Nueva Planta.


          Watch the video: Spanish Succession War u0026 Consequences