Battle in the Doab, 2 April 1526

Battle in the Doab, 2 April 1526

Battle in the Doab, 2 April 1526

The battle in the Doab of 2 April 1526 was a minor victory at an unnamed location that saw Babur defeat a detachment from Ibrahim Lodi's army that had been sent across the River Jumna into the Doab.

Babur's route towards Delhi saw him advance to Sirhind then to Ambala, sending his son Humayun to defeat a force from Hisar-Firuza on 26 February 1526. From Ambala the army moved south to Shahabad, then east to reach the River Jumna opposite Sarsawa. At the same time Ibrahim Lodi, Sultan of Delhi, had gathered his army and was advancing slowly north from Delhi, eventually camping somewhere close to Panipat. Late in March 1526 Ibrahim decided to send a small force across the Jumna into the Doab (the area between the Jumna and the Ganges). This force consisted of 5,000-6,000 men under the command of Daud Khan and Hatim Khan, and was roughly half the size of Babur's entire army.

Babur learnt of this when he was two days south of Sarsawa, and decided to send a raiding force across the river to attack this detachment. His right wing had won the victory on 26 February, and so this time he detached his left wing, once again reinforced with part of the centre, so the two armies may have been about the same size. Babur's men crossed the Jumna at midday on 1 April, and advanced south during the afternoon.

At day-break on 2 April Babur's men reached the enemy camp. Daud Khan and Hatim Khan would appear to have been caught by surprise and attacked before they could form their men up into a proper line. Babur's men quickly broke their resistance, and chased Ibrahim's men until they were opposite Ibrahim's main camp. Hatim Khan was one of 60-70 prisoners captured, along with 6 or 7 elephants. Just as after the battle on 26 February most of the prisoners were executed, again to send a warning to Ibrahim's men.

After this victory Babur continued to advance south, reaching Panipat on 12 April. Something of a standoff then developed, before Ibrahim was finally goaded into attacking Babur's small army, allowing Babur to win his most important victory, at Panipat on 21 April 1526.


BATTLE REPORT # V - PANIPAT 1526 (re-done)

Panipat has been described as the pivot of indian history for 300 years.And its story begins in the first great battle of 1526.After the fall of the sayyids,the afghan lodi dynasty had seized power at delhi.The power of the sultanate had decreased considerably at this time,though the sultan could still command significant resources.Ibrahim lodi,the third ruler was unpopular with the nobility for his persecution and execution of a large number of old nobles.A prominent noble,Daulat khan fearing for his life appealed to Zahir-ud-din Babur,the Timurid ruler of Kabul to come and depose ibrahim lodi.It was thought that babur would defeat lodi,plunder and leave.Babur however had different ideas.

Babur,a timurid prince with descent from Timur and Chingiz khan had originally inherited the kingdom of fergana -one of the brekaway regions in the aftermath of the breakup of the once mighty timurid empire.The 2 foremost powers in the region at this time were the Safavids of Iran and The Uzbeks of central asia.Squeezed between them babur had to fight for survival.Gaining and losing Samarkand 3 times he eventually moved to Kabul in 1504,where he aimed to consolidate a powebase.It was here that he came into touch with India and between 1504 and 1524 had raided accross the Northwestern frontier 4 times.His main goal at this time was to consolidate his position in Afghanisthan by crushing the rebellious pathan tribes of the region,particularly the Yusufzais.Having given up his aspirations of retaking Samarkand in 1512 he now dreamed of a new empire east of the Indus,and bided his time for an oppurtunity.In the Baburnama he writes that as these territories were once conquered by timurlane he felt it was his natural birthright and he resolved to acquire them by force if necessary.The invitation of the Afghan chiefs provided him with this oppurtunity.

(India 1525 & Babur's Invasion route - The delhi sultanate and rajputs under Rana sanga were the 2 major powers in north india.South india being dominated by the deccan sultanates and Vijaynagar)​

Babur started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 but found that Daulat Khan Lodi had been driven out by forces sent by Ibrahim Lodi. When Babur arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and was routed. Babur burned Lahore for two days, then marched to Dipalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi's, as governor.There after he returned to Kabul to gather reinforcements.Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi. He defeated them and drove off Alam's army , Babur realized Lodi would not allow him to occupy Punjab.Meanwhile Alam also demanded Babur assign delhi to him after its capture,which was not acceptable to Babur.In 1525 November ,Babur set out in force to seize the empire he sought.Crossing the Indus a census of the army revealed his core fighting force numbering 12,000.This number would grow as it joined his garrison in Punjab and some local allies or mercenaries to around 20,000 at Panipat.Entering Sialkot unopposed he moved on to Ambala.His intelligence alerted him that Hamid Khan was about to reinforce Lodi's force with a contingent,he sent his son Humayun to defeat his detatchment at Hisar Firoza.From Ambala the army moved south to Shahabad, then east to reach the River Jumna opposite Sarsawa.

At the same time Ibrahim Lodi, Sultan of Delhi, had gathered his army and was advancing slowly north from Delhi, eventually camping somewhere close to Panipat. Late in March 1526 Ibrahim decided to send a small force across the Yamuna into the Doab (the area between the Yamuna and the Ganges).Babur learnt of this when he was two days south of Sarsawa, and decided to send a raiding force across the river to attack this detachment.His right wing had won the victory on 26 February, and so this time he detached his left wing, once again reinforced with part of the centre, so the two armies may have been about the same size. Babur's men crossed the Jumna at midday on 1 April, and advanced south during the afternoon.At day-break on 2 April Babur's men reached the enemy camp. Daud Khan and Hatim Khan would appear to have been caught by surprise and attacked before they could form their men up into a proper line. Babur's men quickly broke their resistance, and chased Ibrahim's men until they were opposite Ibrahim's main camp. Hatim Khan was one of 60-70 prisoners captured, along with 6 or 7 elephants. Just as after the battle on 26 February most of the prisoners were executed, again to send a warning to Ibrahim's men.

After this victory Babur continued to advance south, reaching Panipat on 12 April.Here Babur recieved news of the apparent huge size of Lodi's army and began to take defensive measures.He was confident in his troops,the core of which were battle hardened veterans ,loyal friends to him through thick and thin.He also enjoyed a solid rapport with his men and treated them on a equal footing.Any could dine at his table.Ibrahim lodi however was facing dissension in ranks.He even had to resort to distributing riches to encourage his troops and promised more.Personally brave,ibrahim was an inexperienced commander and quite vain which upset some of the afghan nobility. For eight days Both armies stood facing each other without making a decisive move.Finally babur in an attempt to goad lodi into attacking him ordered a night raid by 5000 picked horsemen.However the attack faltered badly,and the mughals narrowly escaped.
Elated by his success,Lodi now advanced to meet Babur's forces on the fields of Panipat.

The Delhi sultanate armies had traditionally been based around cavalry.To this the addition was made of the Indian war elephant.The Elephant and horse formed the 2 pillars of sultanate military strength.The army would be based on a quasi-feudal structure.A small central force uder the Sultan's direct control at Delhi supplemented by large number of contingents brought by the different afghan chiefs or Jagirdars,plus Jagirdars(turkish) and indian feudal levies and mercenaries(largely infantry).There was no gunpowder artillery and infantry was very much a cannon-fodder force.Ibrahim Lodi was at this time involved in attempts at centralization which was unpopular amongst his chieftains.Ibrahim Lodi's army at Panipat may be estimated at 50,000 men and 400 war elephants.Perhaps 25,000 of these were heavy cavalry predominantly afghan ,rest being feudal levies or mercenaries of less value.

Heavy Cavalry -
The afghans were not a steppe people and thus didn't master horse archery.Rather they relied on heavy shock cavalry as the basis of their military power.Above shows the equipment of an afghan mailed heavy lancer.To the left is one wearing the standard plate-chainmail hybrid armour of the day.To the right is iron lamellar armour.Both would have been in use ,though mail would have predominated.2 in the second picture depicts a typical afghan mailed lancer in action.They were a redoubtable foe and under Sher shah proved could easily turn the tables on the mughals.

Ibrahim's Primary shock force was his 400+ armoured elephants.
A terrifying shock weapon as well as mobile fortress,used properly they were a formidable problem.They mounted a mahout and 2-3 infantrymen with spears and bows.Against the earlier mongol invasions of the delhi sultanate under the khiljis,the combination of armoured elephants and Sultanate cavalry had proved too much even for the mongols.However this descendant of genghis had something-that the earlier chagatai mongols didn't have - Cannons.

AUSTERLITZ

SENIOR MEMBER

THE OPPOSING ARMIES - CONTINUED

SULTANATE INFANTRY :
India's humid climate,the impact of archery and the dominating presence of war elephants didn't allow the development of heavily armoured infantry or pikemen in packed formations as in europe.Infantry were very much cannon fodder.Lodi's army would have consisted of several types of infantry,infantry itself being held in low regard during his period.
1.The afghan chiefs would have brought with them along with their mounted retainers, Pashtun tribal foot infantrymen armed with an assortment of weapons including axes,swords and spears.May or may not be armoured according to wealth.
2.Muslim foot archers armed with the composite bow and a sword.(seen above left)
3.Bumi feudal levies conscripted by the local zamindars/chieftains making up the numbers.Generally no armour,a traditional bamboo longbow(inferior than the composite bow but more durable and easier to obtain) and a broadsword.Mercenaries might have armour.

AFGHAN TACTICS :

The battle formation consisted of the traditional five-fold divisions - the vanguard, the right, the left,the centre and the rear.Sultan stood at the centre with a picked body of cavalry.Skirmishing and night raids were common.The Afghans based their battle tactics around the shock strike forces of their elephants and heavy cavalry. Brute force in massed frontal assaults on the flat plains were therefore key elements of Ibrahim lodi's plan.A considerable part of this army was feudal contingents from the various nobles,they were thus not drilled nor trained to work in co-operation with the whole body,and suffered from lack of manuevreability.They were however well equipped and courageous,if lacking the discipline of the veteran baburids.They also had no understanding of the Tulughma tactics of Central Asia.

Babur's army consisted of turks,mongols,iranians and afghans.It was built as a veteran core which had been campaigning alongside him for over a decade and thus the troops and commanders were confident,and familiar with each other.It also had an element of equality where any trooper could dine with babur or give his opinion on tactics in contrast with the tiered hierarchy in the sultanate army.And they were campaigning far away from home,where defeat would mean annihilation with nowhere to retreat.All these factors contributed to better morale.The army was organized along timurid lines -units of 10,50,100,500,1000.Babur's army at Panipat numbered 15,000-20,000 men.
The bulk of them timurid cavalry,supplemented by turkish gunners with gunpowder matchlocks and cannons-till now an unknown feature on the indian battlefield.

Cavalry was the centrepiece of the mughul army.Babur's horsemen would have been composed of Horse archers - mainly mongols recruited from moghulistan in central asia and masters of steppe warfare and also turks and heavy melee cavalry(who may also use bows).Even the horseachers in the mughul army wore full armor.Lamellar armour was in extensive use alongside chainmail-plate hybrid armours.(so called 'mirror' armor).First picture on top shows baburid shock cavalry using lances ,swords.They usually wear mailshirts beneath a padded jacket on top.On the right is a light horseman with scimitar.Second picture above shows a cavalryman in lamellar armour and lance on the left,he is fully capable of acting as a horse archer.On the right is pure heavy cavalryman in mail armour(mail more suited to close combat)with straight sword and batle-axe.

Mughul Horse Archer in full armour and composite bow to his side.
A product of steppe warfare,horse archers were the primary cause of the superiority of nomadic armies in the age of cavalry and among the most effective troop types in military history.Though the afghans had excellent horsemen as well,they relied on heavy mailed cavalry over mounted archers.They were masters of ambushes,raiding,feigned retreats.The deadliest mughul weapon was the Turco-Mongol Composite bow.Generally capable of shooting 3 times faster than a matchlock it was in the handsof a veteran horse archers possible to launch volleys of 6 shots in 20 seconds.It was accurate upto 70-100 yards and still dangerous upto 200 yards.Babur employed his horse archers to the flanks and in front of his army as a screen.

Babur's infantry was of 2 main types.Footarchers armed with composite bows and a secondary weapon and more importantly Matchlock musketeers.Ratio of archers to matchlockmen was 4:1.Both weapons had about the same effective range of 100 yds.But bowmen had almost 3 times the rate of fire while matchlocks had unparalleled armour penetration and lethality,capable of stopping a horse or even an elephant dead in its tracks.Matchlock musketeers were called Tufang or Bunduqchi and used a protective mantlet as cover when firing the weapon.Matchlockmen in babur's service were mostly turkish origin.

Gunpowder weapons were introduced in central asia by the Mongols who brought them from china,but these were very rudimentary mainly siege devices.The ottomans developed gunpowder weapons quite early along with the europeans.In the first decades of the 16th century the newly equipped ottoman gunpowder armies inflicted stunning defeats on their safavid rivals who in a crash programme equipped themselves with similar weapons.Babur who was in intimate contact with safavid military developments at this time possibly acquired these weapons in the same manner.

Babur began a new epoch in indian military history with the introduction of field artillery which he would use to devastating impact.Four the basic models were used by Babur—the zarb-zan, (light cannon), kazan, (heavy cannon), kazan-i-bozorg (siege gun) and firingi (swivel/anti-personnel gun) with only the first 2 types present at Panipat.Babur’s artillery used only stone shot.Stone was cheap and plentiful, but the production of stone cannon balls was extremely labor intensive. Metal was more expensive, but metal shot was much easier to make. Stone projectiles were not as dense as metal and transferred less energy to the target, but they might also shatter on impact, producing lethal shrapnel as a secondary effect. Metal ammunition did have one very important advantage—it could be made hollow. When left empty such projectiles were lighter and could travel further. When loaded with gunpowder, they could be fused to explode on impact.They were not horse drawn but rather mounted on carriages.Babur had 20 cannons at Panipat.

Babur's tactics at Panipat showed the influence of a mix of 2 military traditions - The Ottoman and the Mongol-timurid.The use of wagon carts as battlefield defenses was first pioneered by the Hussite rebels of Europe under Jan Zizka,though the Hungarians it was transmitted to the Ottomans who made it the centrepiece of their tactical system - The Tabur Cengi( camp battle).Even previously the ottomans employed infantry in the centre behind natural defenses to act as a pivot flanked by mobile cavalry wings,an advance guard and a reserve to the rear as demonstrated at Nicopolis.The adoption of the cart-wagon line allowed them to create artificial defenses for their infantry now.These tactics were used to devastating effect vs the safavids in 1514 and against the hungarians at Mohacs in 1526.It was through his turkish gunners that Babur came to be acquainted with this system of battle.

Below- On top the Ottoman Tabur cengi.Boxes with Diagonal shades -Cavalry.Cross shades -Infantry.Light colour indicates light cavalry or infantry.Akinci light cavalry screens ottoman center deployment,skirmishes the enemy and draws him into attacking the ottoman centre through harassment and feigned retreats.Infantry and artillery in the centre behind wagon ladder defenses.Irregular Azap infantry on the flanks and janissaries with muskets in the centre,cannons spread over the wagon line.Sipahis on both wings..these will conduct the main mobile battle looking to outflank the enemy and push him inwards infront of the janissaries and cannons where they can be mowed down.Generally a reserve of more sipahis to the rear on each wing.Finally the Sultan with his personal household troops -The kapikulu sipahis and a chosen infantry bodyguard as a last reserve.The use of carts in battle is also called Araba.

The tulughma implied dividing a smaller force into subordinate divisions within the traditional divisions for better manuverability and flexibility. The highly mobile right and left divisions peeled out and surrounded the larger enemy force,especially through employment of flanking parties.The standard Central Asian battle array, or yasal, was divided into four basic parts—the irawul(Harawal) or vanguard, the ghol(Kol) or center, the chadavul or rear guard, and the jaranghar and baranghar—the left and right flanks. During the early expansion of the Turkic and Mongol empires these units were composed almost exclusively of cavalry, but as these states and their rulers became increasingly sedentary, larger numbers of infantry began to appear.

The vanguard was composed primarily of light cavalry and light infantry. It was responsible for scouting and skirmishing.The vanguard acted essentially as a shock absorber for the center, using skirmishing tactics and missile fire to slow and disrupt a frontal assault by enemy heavy cavalry, infantry or elephants. When hard pressed they gradually gave ground and fell back to merge with the main force.Against less aggressive enemies they were tasked with staging harassing attacks followed by feigned retreats designed to lure the opponent into contact with the center and to make them vulnerable to overextension and flanking maneuvers.

The center was the largest component and included the commander’s headquarters and bodyguard.It could in conjunction with the vanguard withstand a frontal assault, fixing the enemy in place for envelopment from the flanks. It was also capable of delivering shock action, either as a first strike or on the counterattack. The rear guard was smaller and could act as a reserve but generally protected the baggage.

The flanking units had the most specialized and demanding task. They were responsible for carrying out the tulughmeh, or encircling maneuver (This term was also used to describe the contingents of soldiers responsible for carrying out that tactic). These groups were comprised exclusively of well trained light cavalry, especially horse archers. Their job was to race around the opposing army’s flanks and towards its rear as it was engaged with the main force.When an army approached an enemy that was stationary or falling back, the flank units often pulled well ahead of the main body as they began their encircling maneuver, so that the entire formation changed its shape to resemble a crescent with the points facing forward.When on the defensive they might initially pull back, “refusing” the flanks and creating an arc facing in the opposite direction.Babur learned the intricacies of this technique in his battles with the Uzbeks.He writes in the Baburnama -

As tactics became more sophisticated particualrly under Timur the larger units were broken down into sub groups which could operate independently.In the picture the standard mughul tulughma formation is shown with qarawal scouts screening,a vanguard ,rightwing and left wing composed of infantry in front and cavalry to the rear. Illtimish Reserves behind each flank.The tulughma flanking parties on the extreme ends.The centre or Kol is divided into 3 divisions -The reserve composing the commander's bodyguard ,The centre right division and the centre left division.Rearguard protects camp.Both the jaranghar and Baranghar wings try to outflank their oppposing flank while the tulughma parties carry out a wide envelopment,centre and vanguard act as a pinning force that can also counterattack frontally.The illtimish reserves behind each flank can reinforce their respective wings or join the flanking movements.Similarly the left centre and right centre can reinforce the wings or take up positions vacated by the wings cavalry while they are carrying out the wheeling movements against the enemy's flanks.
Babur drilled his cavalry regularly to carry out the complex manuevres.

The fusion of these 2 similar tactical systems would be employed by Babur at Panipat.

NEXT : THE BATTLE OF PANIPAT


Battle of Do Ab

The Battle of Do Ab took place in Nuristan province, Afghanistan on 25 May 2011. In the battle, a scout platoon from the 1st Battalion, 133rd Infantry Regiment, United States Army, 20 Afghan soldiers, and two United States Air Force Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) operators and one Law Enforcement Professional (LEP) were ambushed by an estimated 400-500 Taliban near the village of Do Ab. With assistance from close air support, the coalition forces repulsed the ambush, killing approximately 270 Taliban. The coalition forces suffered no casualties.

After receiving reports of Taliban fighters massing to attack Forward Operating Base Kalagush, a scout platoon from the 1st Battalion, 133rd Infantry Regiment, plus 20 Afghan soldiers and two US Air Force TACPs, and one Law Enforcement Professional (LEP) were airlifted by a pair of Chinook helicopters to a small landing zone in a canyon near the village of Do Ab. Unknown to the coalition troops, several hundred Taliban had surrounded the small landing zone and prepared an ambush. That morning, as soon as the helicopters landed the troops were attacked from all sides. [1]

The troops returned fire while the two TACPs radioed for air support. Throughout the day, airstrikes by US Air Force F-16s, F-15s, and AC-130 gunships, US Navy Super Hornets, and US Army AH-64 Apaches and OH-58 Kiowas prevented the Taliban from overrunning the coalition forces. An MC-12 aircraft provided command and control support and relayed the air support requests from the TACP, as the high canyon walls interfered with radio communications from the ground. Later in the day, Chinooks delivered a half team of U.S. special operations forces and Afghan commandos to support the surrounded Coalition troops. [1]

When night fell, the surviving Taliban halted the attack and attempted to retire from the battlefield. Two AC-130s, equipped with infrared equipment, hunted the retreating Taliban and attempted to kill them all. In total, the United States estimated that 270 of the Taliban were killed. [1]

After the battle in May 2011, Afghan and Coalition forces did not attempt to regain control of Nuristan province, which remained under Taliban control. Instead, Coalition forces conducted periodic sweeps or raids in the province to cull the numbers of occupying Taliban militants. A joint Afghan/Coalition operation in the Barg-e-Matal district of Nuristan in September 2011, for example, killed an estimated 70 Taliban fighters. [2]


2. Kurukshetra War

The Kurukshetra war or Mahabharat War was fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas to attain the throne of the Kuru kingdom. According to Mahabharata, almost all the districts of India participated in this war. According to Mahabharata and other Vedic literature, this was the largest war in the history of Vedic period in ancient India. Millions of Kshatriya warriors were killed in this war, which resulted in the collapse of Vedic culture and civilization. Apart from kings from all over India, Kshatriya heroes from many other countries also participated in this war and all were killed. As a result of this war, India lacked both knowledge and science as well as heroic Kshatriyas. In a way, the Vedic culture and civilization which was at the peak of development was abruptly destroyed. The golden Vedic civilization of ancient India came to an end with the end of this war.


The Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1526

The Delhi Sultanate basically refers to the Muslim rulers who ruled India through Delhi. This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori’s generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. During the end of the 12th century, he established a series of rulers and this dynasty was called as the slave dynasty since the rulers had been military slaves. Read more about the history of the Delhi sultanate in India.

The extent of Delhi sultanate was till Bengal in the east and Deccan in the south. Even such a big sultanate faced constant threats from the North West and was also under pressure from internal politics within independent nobles. There was instability and unrest in the kingdom as there five dynasties that rose and fell which includes Slave dynasty, Khilji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty and Lodhi dynasty. It was under the Khilji dynasty that most of South India was conquered. The territory was never fixed and depended upon the ability of the ruler as to how much was he able to conquer and control.

The effectiveness of a ruler during this time depended entirely upon his ability to conquer the places that fell near military highways and trade routes, collect land tax for revenue of the state and have firm authority over military and state governors. Agriculture and its related activities were the main source of livelihood in the kingdom but due to continued political unrest and instability, thepeasants suffered greatly. During this time, Persian language developed to a great extent at the places where power was concentrated.


Other important events:

21 April 1816: Charlotte Brontë, Cornish-English novelist, and poet was born Also Read - Ram 'bhakts' will construct temple in Ayodhya when they get more powerful: Anil Vij

21 April 1865: Abraham Lincoln&rsquos funeral train leaves Washington

21 April 1918: World War I: German fighter ace Manfred von Richthofen, better known as &ldquoThe Red Baron&rdquo, is shot down and killed over Vaux-sur-Somme in France.

21 April 1963: Beatles meet The Rolling Stones for the 1st time

21 April 2012: Train crash in Netherland. About 117 people were injured after two passenger trains collided near Sloterdijk in the area of Amsterdam. Neither of the trains was derailed.

21 April 2016: US President Barack Obama begins a 4-day visit to the UK with Michelle Obama


Sikandar Lodhi (AD 1489-1517)

He was the ablest of the three Lodhi rulers. He conquered Bihar and Raja of Tirhut and concluded a friendship treaty with the Alauddin Hussain Shah of Bengal. Dariya Khan was appointed as the Governor of Bengal. Sikandar extended his empire by conquering Dholpur, Chanderi, etc. He kept strict vigilance on his nobles and Jagirdars whom he strictly suppressed. He set up an efficient espionage system and introduced the system of auditing the accounts.

He relaxed restrictions on trade, which greatly promoted the economic prosperity of the people. He introduced “Gaz-i-Sikandar” (Sikandar’s yard) of 39 digits or 32 inches, for the measurement of agricultural land. He transferred his capital from Delhi to Agra, a city that was founded by him. The village of Sikandara, near Agra, where the tomb of Akbar stands, was named after Sikandar. He was staunch Sunni and a Muslim fanatic. He lacked religious tolerance and levied Jaziya and Pilgrim’s tax on Hindus. He was a liberal patron of arts and letters. He wrote verses in Persian under the pen name of Gulrukhi.


Historical Events in 1526

    Saxony and Hesse form League of Gotha (league of Protestant princes) French Dauphin Francis and his brother Henry exchanged as hostages for their father Francis I, beginning four years of captivity in Spain under Treaty of Madrid French King Francis I freed from Spain King Francis I returns from Spanish captivity to France

First Battle of Panipat

Apr 21 First Battle of Panipat: Central Asian conqueror Babur defeats Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, establishing the Mughal Empire in India

    1st slave revolt in North America at San Miguel de Gualdape, a Spanish settlement (now part of South Carolina) German evangelical monarchy joins Schmalkaldic League Pope Clemens VII, France, Genoa, Venice, Florence & Milan form Anti-French League of Cognac Four remaining ships of the Spanish Laoisa Expedition sail into the Pacific Ocean, soon be separated in a storm, only one will successfully cross to reach the Spice Islands) Diet of Speyer convenes, resulting in the Edict of Speyer, which temporarily suspends the 1521 Edict of Worms (a Papal ban on Luther's teachings) allows Lutheranism and other "reforms" to propagate unimpeded throughout Germany

Victory in Battle

Aug 29 Battle of Mohács: In a decisive battle the Hungarian Empire is conquered by the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent


The Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1526

The Delhi Sultanate basically refers to the Muslim rulers who ruled India through Delhi. This basically came into existence after Mohammed Ghori captured Delhi after defeating Prithviraj. After Prithviraj was captured, the Delhi Sultanate went into the hands of one of Ghori’s generals known as Qutub-ud-din Aibak. During the end of the 12th century, he established a series of rulers and this dynasty was called as the slave dynasty since the rulers had been military slaves. Read more about the history of the Delhi sultanate in India.

The extent of Delhi sultanate was till Bengal in the east and Deccan in the south. Even such a big sultanate faced constant threats from the North West and was also under pressure from internal politics within independent nobles. There was instability and unrest in the kingdom as there five dynasties that rose and fell which includes Slave dynasty, Khilji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty and Lodhi dynasty. It was under the Khilji dynasty that most of South India was conquered. The territory was never fixed and depended upon the ability of the ruler as to how much was he able to conquer and control.

The effectiveness of a ruler during this time depended entirely upon his ability to conquer the places that fell near military highways and trade routes, collect land tax for revenue of the state and have firm authority over military and state governors. Agriculture and its related activities were the main source of livelihood in the kingdom but due to continued political unrest and instability, thepeasants suffered greatly. During this time, Persian language developed to a great extent at the places where power was concentrated.


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