Susanoo Timeline

Susanoo Timeline

  • 712

    The Kojiki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.

  • 720

    The Nihon Shoki is written, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.

  • c. 807

    Imibe-no-Hironari writes the Kogoshui, a collection of oral myths forming the basis of the Shinto religion.


XG-70 Susanoo

A photo of the original engineering team that built the XG-70.

The result of the HI-MAERF Project (HIgh-Maneuver AERonautic Fortress), a US-led program that aimed to construct a powerful mobile weapon that could reduce the number of men and machines required for assault operations by almost 100 times, especially those involving Hive infiltration.

The XG-70 is essentially a floating fortress, powered by a Moorcock-Lechte Engine built by Lockweed after the discovery of G Elements. The XG-70 was initially scrapped due to the inability to precisely control the Field around the pilots without killing them the powerful gravitational fluctuations of the Field often caused fatal G-force-related injuries for both the pilots and other personnel around them.

After the completion of Alternative IV and the 00 Unit, the UN obtained the two XG-70 units from the United States in exchange for XM3. This was to be used in guarding the 00 Unit to ensure that it would be able to complete its objective.

It was named the Susanoo, after the Shinto god of the sea and storms and who was considered the ruler of Yomi (the land of the dead) in Japanese mythology.


7 Shisui Uchiha

One of the famed Uchiha prodigies, Shisui was a Konoha jonin with exceptional talent and skills. At some point during the Third Great Ninja War, Shisui witnessed someone close to him die, which led to him getting the Mangekyo Sharingan. Since he possessed it in both eyes, he also had the ability to wield the Susanoo.

In Naruto Shippuden: Ultimate Ninja Storm Revolution, Shisui's backstory revealed that he was, in fact, capable of using the Susanoo. While his version of this ability wasn't complete, probably because of having one eye stolen by Danzo, it was still powerful enough to take on a battalion of shinobi.


Contents

Since the middle of the 19th century, the major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka (the modern name for waka), haiku and shi or western-style poetry. Today, the main forms of Japanese poetry include both experimental poetry and poetry that seeks to revive traditional ways. Poets writing in tanka, haiku and shi may seldom write poetry other than in their specific chosen form, although some active poets are eager to collaborate with poets in other genres. The history of Japanese poetry involves both the evolution of Japanese as a language, the evolution of Japanese poetic forms, and the collection of poetry into anthologies, many by imperial patronage and others by the "schools" or the disciples of famous poets (or religion, in the case of the Bussokusekika). The study of Japanese poetry is complicated by the social context within which it occurred, in part because of large scale political and religious factors such as clan politics or Buddhism, but also because the collaborative aspect which has often typified Japanese poetry. Also, much of Japanese poetry features short verse forms, often collaborative, which are then compiled into longer collections, or else are interspersed within the prose of longer works. Older forms of Japanese poetry include kanshi, which shows a strong influence from Chinese literature and culture.

Kanshi Edit

Kanshi literally means "Han poetry" and it is the Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. Kanshi from the early Heian period exists in the Kaifūsō anthology, compiled in 751.

Waka Edit

Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, and are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Thus, waka has the general meaning of "poetry in Japanese", as opposed to the kanshi "poetry in Chinese" however waka is sometimes also used in the more specific and restrictive sense of poetry which is in Japanese and which is also in the tanka form. The Man'yōshū anthology preserves from the eighth century 265 chōka (long poems), 4,207 tanka (short poems), one tan-renga (short connecting poem), one bussokusekika (a poem in the form 5–7–5–7–7–7 named for the poems inscribed on the Buddha's footprints at Yakushi-ji in Nara), four kanshi (Chinese poems), and 22 Chinese prose passages. However, by the time of the tenth-century Kokinshū anthology, waka had become the standard term used for short poems of the tanka form, until more recent times.

Tanka Edit

Tanka are poems written in Japanese with five lines having a 5–7–5–7–7 metre. The tanka form has shown some modern revival in popularity. As previously stated, it used to be called waka.

Collaborative verse Edit

Much traditional Japanese poetry was written as the result of a process of two or more poets contributing verses to a larger piece, such as in the case of the renga form. Typically, the "honored guest" composing a few beginning lines, often in the form of the hokku (which, as a stand-alone piece, eventually evolved into the haiku). This initial sally was followed by a stanza composed by the "host." This process could continue, sometimes with many stanzas composed by numerous other "guests", until the final conclusion. Other collaborative forms of Japanese poetry also evolved, such as the renku ("linked-verse") form. In other cases, the poetry collaborations were more competitive, such as with uta-awase gatherings, in which Heian period poets composed waka poems on set themes, with a judge deciding the winner(s).

Haiku Edit

Haiku is a short verse genre written in one line in Japanese and commonly three lines in English and other languages. It has achieved significant global popularity, having been adapted from Japanese into many other languages. Typical of Japanese haiku is the metrical pattern of 5, 7, and 5 on (also known as morae). Other features include the juxtaposition of two images or ideas with a kireji ("cutting word") between them, and a kigo, or seasonal reference, usually drawn from a saijiki, or traditional list of such words. Many haiku are objective in their depiction of personal experiences.

Much of Japanese poetry has been transmitted historically through published anthologies, many of them with imperial patronage. Important collections are the Man'yōshū, Kokin Wakashū, Shin Kokin Wakashū, and the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu.

The history of Japanese poetry is tied to the history of Japanese literature, that is in the purely historical sense of having extant written records. However, the early pre-history and mythology of Japan involve or include some references to poetry. And, the earliest preserved works in the Japanese language also preserve some previous poetry from this earlier period.

Mythology Edit

According to Japanese mythology, poetry began, not with people, but with the celestial deities, the goddess Izanami and the god Izanagi. They were said to have walked around the world pillar, and encountered each other. The goddess spoke first, saying the following verse:

What joy beyond compare To see a man so fair!

The male god, angry that the female had spoken first told her to go away and return later. When they again met, the male god spoke first, saying the following verse:

To see a woman so fair— What joy beyond compare! [1]

Chinese influence Edit

Chinese literature was introduced into Japan ca the 6th century CE, mostly through the Korean peninsula. Just as the Chinese writing itself, Chinese literature, historical writings, religious scriptures and poetry laid the foundation for Japanese literature proper. Such influence is somewhat comparable to the influence of Latin on the European languages and literature.

In the court of Emperor Tenmu (c. 631 – 686) some nobles wrote Chinese language poetry (kanshi). Chinese literacy was a sign of education and most high courtiers wrote poetry in Chinese. Later these works were collected in the Kaifūsō, one of the earliest anthologies of poetry in Japan, edited in the early Heian period. Thanks to this book the death poem of Prince Ōtsu is still extant today. [2]

The strong influence of Chinese poetics may be seen in Kakyō Hyōshiki. In the 772 text, Fujiwara no Hamanari attempts to apply phonetic rules for Chinese poetry to Japanese poetry.

Many of the Tang Dynasty poets achieved fame in Japan, such as Meng Haoran (Mōkōnen), Li Bo (Ri Haku), and Bai Juyi (Haku Kyo'i). In many cases, when these poets were introduced to Europe and the Americas, the source was via Japan and a Japanese influence could be seen in the pronunciations of the names of the poets, as well as the accompanying critical analysis or commentary upon the poets or their works.

The Nara period (710 to 794) began in Japan, in 710, with the move of the Japanese capital moved from Fujiwara (today's Asuka, Nara) to Nara. It was the period when Chinese influence reached a culmination. During the Nara period, Tōdai-ji ("Great Temple of the East") was established together with the creation of the Great Buddha of Nara, by order of Emperor Shōmu. The significant waka poets in this period were Ōtomo no Tabito, Yamanoue no Okura, and Yamabe no Akahito.

Early poems recorded Edit

The oldest written work in Japanese literature is Kojiki in 712, in which Ō no Yasumaro recorded Japanese mythology and history as recited by Hieda no Are, to whom it was handed down by his ancestors. Many of the poetic pieces recorded by the Kojiki were perhaps transmitted from the time the Japanese had no writing. The Nihon Shoki, the oldest history of Japan which was finished eight years later than the Kojiki, also contains many poetic pieces. These were mostly not long and had no fixed forms. The first poem documented in both books was attributed to a kami (god), named Susanoo, the younger brother of Amaterasu. When he married Princess Kushinada in Izumo Province, the kami made an uta, or waka, a poem.

八雲立つ 出雲八重垣 妻籠みに 八重垣作る その八重垣を Yakumo tatsu / Izumo yaegaki / Tsuma-gomi ni / Yaegaki tsukuru / Sono yaegaki wo

This is the oldest waka (poem written in Japanese) and hence poetry was later praised as having been founded by a kami, a divine creation.

The two books shared many of the same or similar pieces but Nihonshoki contained newer ones because it recorded later affairs (up till the reign of Emperor Tenmu) than Kojiki. Themes of waka in the books were diverse, covering love, sorrow, satire, war cries, praise of victory, riddles and so on. Many works in Kojiki were anonymous. Some were attributed to kami, emperors and empresses, nobles, generals, commoners and sometimes enemies of the court. Most of these works are considered collectively as "works of the people", even where attributed to someone, such as the kami Susanoo.

The Heian period (794 to 1185) in Japan was one of both extensive general linguistic and mutual poetic development, in Japan. Developments include the Kanbun system of writing by means of adapting Classical Chinese for use in Japan by using a process of annotation, and the further development of the kana writing system from the Man'yōgana of the Nara period, encouraging more vernacular poetry, developments in the waka form of poetry. The Heian era was also one in which developed an increasing process of writing poems (sometimes collaboratively) and collecting them into anthologies, which in the case of the Kokin Wakashū were given a level of prestige, due to imperial patronage.

Waka in the early Heian period Edit

It is thought the Man'yōshū reached its final form, the one we know today, very early in the Heian period. There are strong grounds for believing that Ōtomo no Yakamochi was the final editor but some documents claim further editing was done in the later period by other poets including Sugawara no Michizane.

Though there was a strong inclination towards Chinese poetry, some eminent waka poets were active in the early Heian period, including the six best waka poets.

Man'yōshū anthology Edit

Compiled sometime after 759, the oldest poetic anthology of waka is the 20 volume Man'yōshū, in the early part of the Heian period, it gathered ancient works. The order of its sections is roughly chronological. Most of the works in the Man'yōshū have a fixed form today called chōka and tanka. But earlier works, especially in Volume I, lacked such fixed form and were attributed to Emperor Yūryaku.

The Man'yōshū begins with a waka without fixed form. It is both a love song for an unknown girl whom the poet met by chance and a ritual song praising the beauty of the land. It is worthy of being attributed to an emperor and today is used in court ritual.

The first three sections contain mostly the works of poets from the middle of the 7th century to the early part of the 8th century. Significant poets among them were Nukata no Ōkimi and Kakinomoto no Hitomaro. Kakinomoto Hitomaro was not only the greatest poet in those early days and one of the most significant in the Man'yōshū, he rightly has a place as one of the most outstanding poets in Japanese literature. The Man'yōshū also included many female poets who mainly wrote love poems. The poets of the Man'yōshū were aristocrats who were born in Nara but sometimes lived or traveled in other provinces as bureaucrats of the emperor. These poets wrote down their impressions of travel and expressed their emotion for lovers or children. Sometimes their poems criticized the political failure of the government or tyranny of local officials. Yamanoue no Okura wrote a chōka, A Dialogue of two Poormen (貧窮問答歌, Hinkyū mondōka) in this poem two poor men lamented their severe lives of poverty. One hanka is as follows:

世の中を 憂しとやさしと おもへども 飛び立ちかねつ 鳥にしあらねば Yononaka wo / Ushi to yasashi to / Omo(h)e domo / Tobitachi kanetsu / Tori ni shi arane ba I feel the life is / sorrowful and unbearable / though / I can't flee away / since I am not a bird.

The Man'yōshū contains not only poems of aristocrats but also those of nameless ordinary people. These poems are called Yomibito shirazu (よみびと知らず), poems whose author is unknown. Among them there is a specific style of waka called Azuma-uta (東歌), waka written in the Eastern dialect. Azuma, meaning the East, designated the eastern provinces roughly corresponding to Kantō and occasionally Tōhoku. Those poems were filled with rural flavors. There was a specific style among Azuma-uta, called Sakimori uta (防人歌), waka by soldiers sent from the East to defend Northern Kyushu area. They were mainly waka by drafted soldiers leaving home. These soldiers were drafted in the eastern provinces and were forced to work as guards in Kyūshū for several years. Sometimes their poetry expressed nostalgia for their faraway homeland.

Tanka is a name for and a type of poem found in the Man'yōshū, used for shorter poems. The name was later given new life by Masaoka Shiki (pen-name of Masaoka Noboru, October 14, 1867 – September 19, 1902).

Kanshi in the Heian period Edit

In the early Heian period kanshi—poetry written in Chinese by Japanese—was the most popular style of poetry among Japanese aristocrats. Some poets like Kūkai studied in China and were fluent in Chinese. Others like Sugawara no Michizane had grown up in Japan but understood Chinese well. When they hosted foreign diplomats, they communicated not orally but in writing, using kanji or Chinese characters. In that period, Chinese poetry in China had reached one of its greatest flowerings. Major Chinese poets of the Tang dynasty like Li Po were their contemporaries and their works were well known to the Japanese. Some who went to China for study or diplomacy made the acquaintance of these major poets. The most popular styles of kanshi were in 5 or 7 syllables (onji) in 4 or 8 lines, with very strict rules of rhyme. Japanese poets became skilled in those rules and produced much good poetry. Some long poems with lines of 5 or 7 syllables were also produced. These, when chanted, were referred to as shigin – a practice which continues today.

Emperor Saga himself was proficient at kanshi. He ordered the compilation of three anthologies of kanshi. These were the first of the imperial anthologies, a tradition which continued till the Muromachi period.

Roei style waka Edit

Roei was a favored style of reciting poetical works at that time. It was a way of reciting in voice, with relatively slow and long tones. Not whole poetic pieces but a part of classics were quoted and recited by individuals usually followed by a chorus. Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) compiled Wakan rōeishū ("Sino-Japanese Anthology for Rōei", ca. 1013) from Japanese and Chinese poetry works written for roei. One or two lines were quoted in Wakan rōeishū and those quotations were grouped into themes like Spring, Travel, Celebration.

Waka in the context of elite culture Edit

Kuge refers to a Japanese aristocratic class, and waka poetry was a significant feature of their typical lifestyle, and this includes the nyobo or court ladies. In ancient times, it was a custom for kuge to exchange waka instead of letters in prose. Sometimes improvised waka were used in daily conversation in high society. In particular, the exchange of waka was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū (or Kokinshū) gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers parted at the woman's home. The exchanged waka were called Kinuginu (後朝), because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had almost no time to don his clothes which had been laid out in place of a mattress (as was the custom in those days). Soon, writing and reciting Waka became a part of aristocratic culture. People recited a piece of appropriate waka freely to imply something on an occasion. In the Pillow Book it is written that a consort of Emperor Murakami memorized over 1,000 waka in Kokin Wakashū with their description.

Uta-awase, ceremonial waka recitation contests, developed in the middle of the Heian period. The custom began in the reign of Emperor Uda (r. 887 through 897), the father of Emperor Daigo (r. 897 through 930) who ordered the compilation of the Kokin Wakashū. It was 'team combat' on proposed themes grouped in similar manner to the grouping of poems in the Kokin Wakashū. Representatives of each team recited a waka according to their theme and the winner of the round won a point. The team with the higher overall score won the contest. Both winning poet and team received a certain prize. Holding Uta-awase was expensive and possible only for Emperors or very high ranked kuge.

The size of Uta-awase increased. Uta-awase were recorded with hundreds of rounds. Uta-awase motivated the refinement of waka technique but also made waka formalistic and artificial. Poets were expected to create a spring waka in winter or recite a poem of love or lamentation without real situations.

Emperor Ichijō (980–1011) and courts of his empresses, concubines and other noble ladies were a big pool of poets as well as men of the courts.

The Pillow Book (begun during the 990s and completed in 1002) and Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu (c. 978 – c. 1014 or 1025), from the early 11th century of the Heian period, provide us with examples of the life of aristocrats in the court of Emperor Ichijō and his empresses. Murasaki Shikibu wrote over 3,000 tanka for her Tale of Genji in the form of waka her characters wrote in the story. In the story most of those waka were created as an exchange of letters or a conversation. Many classic works of both waka and kanshi were quoted by the nobles. Among those classic poets, the Chinese Tang-dynasty poet Bai Juyi (Po Chü-i) had a great influence on the culture of the middle Heian period. Bai Juyi was quoted by both The Pillow Book and Tale of Genji, and his A Song of unending Sorrow (長恨歌), whose theme was a tragic love between the Chinese Emperor and his concubine, inspired Murasaki Shikibu to imagine tragic love affairs in the Japanese imperial court in her Tale of Genji.

Fujiwara no Teika Edit

Fujiwara no Teika (1162 to 1241) was a waka poet, critic, scribe and editor of the late Heian period and the early Kamakura period. Fujiwara no Teika had three lines of descendants: the Nijō, Reizei family and Kyōgoku family. Besides that, various members of the Fujiwara family are noted for their work in the field of poetry.

Kokin Wakashū anthology Edit

In the middle of the Heian period Waka revived with the compilation of the Kokin Wakashū. It was edited on the order of Emperor Daigo. About 1,000 waka, mainly from the late Nara period till the contemporary times, were anthologized by five waka poets in the court including Ki no Tsurayuki who wrote the kana preface ( 仮名序 , kanajo)

The Kana preface to Kokin Wakashū was the second earliest expression of literary theory and criticism in Japan (the earliest was by Kūkai). Kūkai's literary theory was not influential, but Kokin Wakashū set the types of waka and hence other genres which would develop from waka.

The collection is divided into twenty parts, reflecting older models such as the Man'yōshū and various Chinese anthologies. The organisation of topics is however different from all earlier models, and was followed by all later official collections, although some collections like the Kin'yō Wakashū and Shika Wakashū reduced the number of parts to ten. The parts of the Kokin Wakashū are ordered as follows: Parts 1–6 covered the four seasons, followed by congratulatory poems, poetry at partings, and travel poems. The last ten sections included poetry on the 'names of things', love, laments, occasional poems, miscellaneous verse, and finally traditional and ceremonial poems from the Bureau of Poetry.

The compilers included the name of the author of each poem, and the topic (題 dai) or inspiration of the poem, if known. Major poets of the Kokin Wakashū include Ariwara no Narihira, Ono no Komachi, Henjō and Fujiwara no Okikaze, apart from the compilers themselves. Inclusion in any imperial collection, and particularly the Kokin Wakashū, was a great honour.

Influence of Kokin Wakashū Edit

The Kokin Wakashū is the first of the Nijūichidaishū, the 21 collections of Japanese poetry compiled at Imperial request. It was the most influential realization of the ideas of poetry at the time, dictating the form and format of Japanese poetry until the late nineteenth century. The primacy of poems about the seasons pioneered by the Kokin Wakashū continues even today in the haiku tradition. The Japanese preface by Ki no Tsurayuki is also the beginning of Japanese criticism as distinct from the far more prevalent Chinese poetics in the literary circles of its day. (The anthology also included a traditional Chinese preface authored by Ki no Tomonori.) The idea of including old as well as new poems was another important innovation, one which was widely adopted in later works, both in prose and verse. The poems of the Kokin Wakashū were ordered temporally the love poems, for instance, depict the progression and fluctuations of a courtly love-affair. This association of one poem to the next marks this anthology as the ancestor of the renga and haikai traditions.

The period of cloistered rule overlapped the end of the Heian period and the beginning of the Kamakura period. Cloistered rule (Insei) refers to an emperor "retiring" into a monastery, while continuing to maintain a certain amount of influence and power over worldly affairs, and yet retaining time for poetry or other activities. During this time the Fujiwara clan was also active both politically and poetically. The period of cloistered rule mostly Heian period but continuing into the early Kamakura period, in or around the 12th century, some new movements of poetry appeared.

Imayō in the period of cloistered rule Edit

First a new lyrical form called imayō (今様, modern style, a form of ryūkōka) emerged. Imayō consists of four lines in 8–5 (or 7–5) syllables. Usually it was sung to the accompaniment of instrumental music and dancing. Female dancers (shirabyōshi) danced to the accompaniment of imayō. Major works were compiled into the Ryōjin Hishō (梁塵秘抄) anthology. Although originally women and commoners are thought to be proponents of the genre, Emperor Go-Shirakawa was famed for his mastery of imayō.

Waka in the period of cloistered rule Edit

Some new trends appeared in waka. There were two opposite trends: an inclination to the contemporary, modern style and on the other hand a revival of the traditional style. Both trends had their schools and won the honor to compile imperial anthologies of waka. Fujiwara no Shunzei and his son Fujiwara no Teika were the leaders of the latter school.

Renga in the period of cloistered rule Edit

Also in this period for the first time renga were included in the imperial anthologies of waka. At that time, renga was considered a variant of waka. The renga included were waka created by two persons only, quite unlike the later style which featured many stanzas.

The Kamakura period (1185–1333) is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura shogunate, officially established in 1192 AD in Kamakura, by the first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan.

Shin Kokin Wakashū anthology Edit

In the late period rule by cloistered Emperors, or the early Kamakura period (1185–1333), Emperor Go-Toba (1180–1239), who had abdicated, ordered the compilation of the eighth imperial anthology of waka, the Shin Kokin Wakashū. Go-Toba himself joined the team of editors. Other editors included Fujiwara no Teika and Kamo no Chōmei.

Later Imperial waka anthologies Edit

The Kamakura period influence continued after the end of the actual period: after the Shin Kokin Wakashū, fourteen waka anthologies were compiled under imperial edict: the 13 Jūsandaishū ( 十三代集 ) and the Shin'yō Wakashū (c. 1381). These anthologies reflected the taste of aristocrats (and later, warriors) and were considered the ideal of waka in each period. Moreover, anthologizing served as a proof of cultural legitimacy of the patrons and often had political connotations. [3]

The Nanboku-chō period (1334–1392) is also known as the "Northern and Southern Courts period". Poetic movements included Renga developments, such as the publication of the Tsukubashū – the first imperial anthology of renga, in about 1356. There were various Renga poets, critics and theories, such as the development of shikimoku (renga rules) and Sōgi. Haikai no renga appears – as a parody of renga Shinseninutusukbashu. Noh play and poetry began to develop. There was influence from waka and other poetry, and Noh play reading as verse.

Renga Edit

Renga is a collaborative verse form between two or more poets. Tsukubashū, the first imperial anthology of renga, was published in about 1356. This lent imperial prestige to this form of verse.

The Sengoku period literally derives its name from the Japanese for "warring states". It was a militarily and politically turbulent period, with nearly constant military conflict which lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, and which during which there were also developments in renga and waka poetry.

In the Pre-modern or Edo period (1602–1869) some new styles of poetry developed. One of greatest and most influential styles was renku, (also known as haikai no renga, or haikai), emerging from renga in the medieval period. Matsuo Bashō was a great haikai master and had a wide influence on his contemporaries and later generations. Bashō was also a prominent writer of haibun, a combination of prose and haiku, one famous example being his Oku no Hosomichi (or, The Narrow Road to the Interior).

The tradition of collaboration between painters and poets had a beneficial influence on poetry in the middle Edo period. In Kyoto there were some artists who were simultaneously poets and painters. Painters of the Shujo school were known as good poets. Among such poet-painters the most significant was Yosa Buson. Buson began his career as a painter but went on to become a master of renku, too. He left many paintings accompanied by his own haiku poems. Such combination of haiku with painting is known as haiga.

Waka underwent a revival, too, in relation to kokugaku, the study of Japanese classics. Kyōka (mad song), a type of satirical waka was also popular.

One poetry school of the era was the Danrin school.

Hokku Edit

Hokku renga, or of its later derivative, renku (haikai no renga). [4] From the time of Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694), the hokku began to appear as an independent poem, and was also incorporated in haibun (in combination with prose).

Haikai Edit

Haikai emerged from the renga of the medieval period. Matsuo Bashō was a noted proponent. Related to hokku formally, it was generically different.

In the late Edo period, a master of haikai, Karai Senryū made an anthology. His style became known as senryū, after his pseudonym. Senryū is a style of satirical poetry whose motifs are taken from daily life in 5–7–5 syllables. Anthologies of senryū in the Edo period collect many 'maeku' or senryū made by ordinary amateur senryū poets adding in front of the latter 7–7 part written by a master. It was a sort of poetry contest and the well written senryū by amateurs were awarded by the master and other participants.

A new wave came from the West when Japan was introduced to European and American poetry. This poetry belonged to a very different tradition and was regarded by Japanese poets as a form without any boundaries. Shintai-shi (New form poetry) or Jiyu-shi (Freestyle poetry) emerged at this time. They still relied on a traditional pattern of 5–7 syllable patterns, but were strongly influenced by the forms and motifs of Western poetry. Later, in the Taishō period (1912 to 1926), some poets began to write their poetry in a much looser metric. In contrast with this development, kanshi slowly went out of fashion and was seldom written. As a result, Japanese men of letters lost the traditional background of Chinese literary knowledge. Originally the word shi meant poetry, especially Chinese poetry, but today it means mainly modern-style poetry in Japanese. Shi is also known as kindai-shi (modern poetry). Since World War II, poets and critics have used the name gendai-shi (contemporary poetry). This includes the poets Kusano Shinpei, Tanikawa Shuntarō and Ishigaki Rin.

As for the traditional styles such as waka and haiku, the early modern era was also a time of renovation. Yosano Tekkan and later Masaoka Shiki revived those forms. The words haiku and tanka were both coined by Shiki. They laid the basis for development of this poetry in the modern world. They introduced new motifs, rejected some old authorities in this field, recovered forgotten classics, and published magazines to express their opinions and lead their disciples. This magazine-based activity by leading poets is a major feature of Japanese poetry even today.

Some poets, including Yosano Akiko, Ishikawa Takuboku, Hagiwara Sakutarō wrote in many styles: they used both traditional forms like waka and haiku and new style forms. Most Japanese poets, however, generally write in a single form of poetry.

Haiku Edit

Haiku derives from the earlier hokku. The name was given by Masaoka Shiki (pen-name of Masaoka Noboru, October 14, 1867 – September 19, 1902).

Tanka Edit

Tanka is a name for and a type of poem found in the Heian era poetry anthology Man'yōshū. The name was given new life by Masaoka Shiki (pen-name of Masaoka Noboru, October 14, 1867 – September 19, 1902).

Contemporary Poetry Edit

Japanese Contemporary Poetry consists of poetic verses of today, mainly after the 1900s. It includes vast styles and genres of prose including experimental, sensual, dramatic, erotic, and many contemporary poets today are female. Japanese contemporary poetry like most regional contemporary poem seem to either stray away from the traditional style or fuse it with new forms. Because of a great foreign influence Japanese contemporary poetry adopted more of a western style of poet style where the verse is more free and absent of such rules as fixed syllable numeration per line or a fixed set of lines.

In 1989 the death of Emperor Hirohito officially brought Japan’s postwar period to an end. The category of "postwar", born out of the cataclysmic events of 1945, had until that time been the major defining image of what contemporary Japanese poetry was all about (The New Modernism, 2010). For poets standing at that border, poetry had to be reinvented just as Japan as a nation began reinventing itself. But while this was essentially a sense of creativity and liberation from militarist oppression, reopening the gates to new form and experimentation, this new boundary crossed in 1989 presented quite a different problem, and in a sense cut just as deeply into the sense of poetic and national identity. The basic grounding “postwar”, with its dependence on the stark differentiation between a Japan before and after the atomic bomb, was no longer available. Identity was no longer so clearly defined (The New Modernism, 2010) In 1990, a most loved and respected member of Japan’s avant-garde and a bridge between Modernist and Post-Modern practice unexpectedly died. Yoshioka Minoru, the very embodiment of what the postwar period meant to Japanese poetry, had influenced virtually all of the younger experimental poets, and received the admiration even of those outside the bounds of that genre (The New Modernism, 2010). The event shocked and dazed Japan’s poetry community, rendering the confusion and loss of direction all the more graphic and painful. Already the limits of “postwar” were being exceeded in the work of Hiraide Takashi and Inagawa Masato. These two poets were blurring the boundary between poetry and criticism, poetry and prose, and questioning conventional ideas of what comprised the modern in Japan (The New Modernism, 2010). Statistically there are about two thousand poets and more than two hundred poetry magazines in Japan today. The poets are divided into five groups: (1) a group publishing the magazine, Vou, under the flag of new humanism (2) Jikon or time, with neo-realism as their motto, trying to depict the gap between reality and the socialistic ideal as simply as possible (3) the Communist group (4) Rekitei or progress, mixing Chinese Han poetry and the traditional Japanese lyric, and (5) Arechi or waste land (Sugiyama, 254).

The Western poets who appeal to the taste of poetry lovers in Japan are principally French(Verlaine), Paul Valéry, Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire and Rainer Maria Rilke is also a favorite (Sugiyama, 255). English poetry is not very popular except among students of English literature in the universities, although Wordsworth, Shelley, and Browning inspired many of the Japanese poets in the quickening period of modern Japanese poetry freeing themselves from the traditional tanka form into a free verse style only half a century ago (Sugiyama, 256). In more recent women’s poetry, one finds an exploration of the natural rhythms of speech, often in a specifically feminine language rather than a high, literary form, as well as the language of local dialects (The New Modernism, 2010). All of these strategies are expressions of difference, whether sexual or regional, and map out shifting fields of identity in modern Japan against a backdrop of mass culture where these identities might otherwise be lost or overlooked.


Appearance

According to Jiraiya, Naruto strongly resembles his father: ⎻] he has yellow-blond, spiky hair and blue eyes, while inheriting the shape of his mother's eyes and face. ⎼] His trademark characteristics are the three whisker markings on his cheeks. During the Fourth Shinobi World War, Dan Katō initially mistook Naruto for Nawaki due to their stark resemblance. ⎽] Naruto was rather short for his age during Part I, ⎾] though he grew to be taller than Sakura in Part II. ⎿] Naruto originally wore green goggles on his forehead, though he discards them upon becoming a genin.

In Part I, Naruto wore an orange and blue jacket with a white collar, a white swirl with a tassel on the left side, and a red Uzumaki crest on the back. He also wore orange pants with a shuriken holster on his right knee, blue sandals, and a blue forehead protector, given to him by Iruka after graduating from the Academy. In Part II, Naruto wears a more form fitting outfit after wearing out his original one while training with Jiraiya, ⏀] with a T-shirt or mesh armour underneath. While retaining the swirls and orange pants, the blue pieces of his outfit changes to black: his forehead protector (which is now longer), sandals, and orange jacket, the black colour showing more prominence than the blue did originally. During his battle with Pain, Naruto briefly wore a short-sleeved red coat with a black flame pattern around the hem and carried a large scroll on his back.

Naruto loses his right arm after the Fourth Shinobi World War, though it is later replaced by a fully maneouverable prosthetic arm made of Hashirama Senju's cells, wrapped completely in bandages. In The Last: Naruto the Movie, Naruto grew again to be one of the tallest of his graduating class, cut his hair short, and wore a black elastic forehead protector. Over his pants and sandals, he wears a black uniform jacket with an orange zipper and buttons on the waist and sleeves, which can be folded up at times. He has a red armband with an Uzumaki crest on his left arm. After becoming Hokage, Naruto dons a garment similar to his father's: a white cape that has a red flame pattern around the hem, is held together by a red rope, and has the kanji for "Seventh Hokage" ( 七代目火影 , Nanadaime Hokage) written vertically down the back. Underneath this, he wears an orange sweatshirt with black stripes (reverse in the manga version of Boruto: Naruto Next Generations), black pants and sandals. He occasionally wears the traditional Hokage headpiece, but has stopped wearing a forehead protector.


Armaments & Abilities

As a Nothung Model Fafner, Susanoo comes equipped with all standard design features for its type, including internal weapon storage for Razing Cutters and Mine Blades, and the self-destruct system Fenrir.

Within battle Susanoo is most often seen dual-wielding bladed weaponry such as Luger Lances and Long Swords, highlighting its pilot's status as a skilled swordsman.

After the awakening of Reo's SDP, Susanoo gains the Festum-like ability to instantaneously transport itself through space, allowing it to teleport at will. As this power grows, Reo and Susanoo are even shown to be capable of transporting nearby objects along with them, such as allied Fafners.


Ship Design and Appearance cont.

Armory

Certain panels within the Susanoo are capable of flipping on an internal axis bar, revealing a large display of weaponry. For the most part each crew member stores their best tools there or in other secret compartments across the Junk's body. The largest display of weaponry belongs to Dalmyo.

Defense

The metal exo-skeleton wrapped about Susanoo is capable of absorbing the kinetic energy behind most blows and storing it in the cannon's for return fire. It was designed by Kenta Senmaru after studying Inta's body to learn how his San'no Hikaru mode worked.

Retaliation

Aside from the Kinetic Cannon's stored on board, at least two other uncommonly designed cannons line the underside in specifically sealed compartments used for destroying the keel of enemy ships.


Keys: Normal Attack • Charge Attack • Musou • Jump/Mount

Ground Moveset [ edit | edit source ]

, (), (): Stabs his sword in the ground, grabs his opponent and throws them to the ground before stomping on the victim, creating a large shockwave that cracks the earth around him. The final input does not occur if Susano'o K.O.s a target with the initial grab-slam. , , (), (): Creates a water bubble that explodes and lifts the opponent into the air, then creates a twirl of water around his sword as he stabs upward-in-front with it, which hits the opponent repeatedly and finally slashes them away with a 360 degree horizontal sword slash. , , , (), (): Summons a tornado with his sword in front of him, then creates a second one with his left hand and another with his sword again to harm enemies in front of him. , , , , (), (): Summons a rainstorm that sucks in foes to juggle them rapidly with spiral-launches before ending with a stretching gesture that blasts enemies away. Repeated inputs add more hits to the rainstorm as they drag the victims in and as Susano'o braces himself more before the final portion. , , , , : Points his sword to the sky, which summons lightning bolts, then waves his sword in a horizontal arc, and summons lightning bolts in a 180 degree arc in front of him. , , , , , , , : Slashes three times with his sword, roundhouse kicks five times in a horizontal arc and then slashes the opponents with a final horizontal swing of his sword. Dashing : A left-handed body-blow punch that sends out electric shockwaves if it connects. , : A horizontal slash in a slight downward angle. , : Smashes his left fist into the ground to create a huge shockwave around him that cracks the earth. R1: Draws his sword back behind himself, and draws it out for a mighty horizontal slash that warps time and space, cracking the wall between dimensions. Activates weapon elements. , R1 (Warriors Orochi 3 Ultimate only): Raises sword into the air and does a cross slashing motion which releases large blue energy streaks in the form of large cutting waves downward in front to the ground. : Many diagonal slashes covered in blue flames as he advances forward per each interchangeable-downward reaping slash. Ends by stabbing his sword into the ground, creating a small shockwave around him. (True): Ends instead with a final strong diagonal slash imbued with flames for multiple hits.

Horse Moveset [ edit | edit source ]

: horse rears on hind legs before smashing the ground with their front hoofs. If the horse is sprinting, it will perform a long jump instead. , : summons a rainstorm. , , : summons a rainstorm. , , , : summons a rainstorm. , , , , , , , : many slashes to the right side. : horse stampedes with a powerful aura.

Fighting Style [ edit | edit source ]


Contents

Early life

Obito arrives late to his Academy entrance ceremony.

Obito grew up not knowing who his parents were in the anime, he was left in the care of his grandmother. Ε] Feeling alone in the world, Obito dreamed of becoming Hokage so that the people of the village would acknowledge his existence. Ζ] He enrolled in the Academy to help him achieve that goal, where he developed a one-sided rivalry with Kakashi Hatake, whose natural talent and popularity he was jealous of. He also became a close friend of Rin Nohara, whom he eventually fell in love with. After finally graduating some years later, Obito, Rin, and Kakashi were placed on a team under the leadership of Minato Namikaze. Η]

In the anime, as a final qualifying test, Minato gave the team a bell test to test their cooperation skills. Obito could not accomplish this on his own but, by joining forces with Rin and Kakashi, they succeeded in taking the bells, teaching Obito the value of teamwork. ⎖] The team later participated in the Chūnin Exams, where Obito was defeated in the third round in a one-on-one match with Might Guy. Kakashi would go on to defeat Guy in a subsequent match, promoting him to chūnin and impressing Rin. Eager for Rin's attention, Obito trained relentlessly, eventually rising to the rank of chūnin himself. His excitement was short-lived as Kakashi soon afterwards became a jōnin, once again earning Rin's praise and Obito's resentment. Η]

During the Third Shinobi World War, Kakashi was placed in charge of the team for a mission to destroy the Kannabi Bridge, which would hinder Iwagakure from using Kusagakure as a relief point. Before beginning the mission, Minato and Rin gave gifts to Kakashi to celebrate his promotion to jōnin, though Obito had "forgotten", straining their already poor relationship. Minato was soon called to the front lines, leaving the team to complete the mission alone under Kakashi's command. The three were discovered by Iwa-nin along the way and Rin was captured. Kakashi elected to abandon Rin, believing it was more important to finish the mission before concerning themselves with her safety. Obito became enraged at the idea and insisted that they focus on her rescue. When Kakashi refused, Obito left on his own, remarking that Kakashi was worse than trash for abandoning his friends. ⎗]

Obito located the cave the Iwa-nin were using as a hideout, but was found by a camouflaged Taiseki before he could launch a rescue. Kakashi, moved by Obito's earlier words, arrived in time to save him from Taiseki's attack, but lost his left eye in the process. From his desire to help Kakashi, Obito awakened his Sharingan, allowing him to see through Taiseki's camouflage and kill him. Obito and Kakashi infiltrated the cave and released Rin from her restraints. Her captor, Kakkō, caused the cave to collapse around them. As the team ran for the exit, Kakashi was struck in his blind spot and fell. When Obito noticed that Kakashi was about to be hit by a falling boulder, Obito pushed him out of the way and became trapped in his place.

Obito trapped beneath a boulder.

With the right side of his body crushed and no way to free himself, Obito accepted his fate and made an offering: to give Kakashi his left Sharingan as an apology for not getting him a present earlier. ⎘] Rin performed the transplant and, once the procedure was finished, Kakashi used his new Sharingan to kill Kakkō. Iwa reinforcements quickly began to further compress the rubble, forcing Kakashi and Rin to leave Obito behind. As the rocks tightened around him, Obito reflected that he had finally started to get along with Kakashi and that he couldn't confess to Rin that he loved her. Kakashi and Rin were rescued by Minato and, when they returned to Konoha, Obito's name was engraved on the village's Memorial Stone. ⎙]

Saved from Death

In actuality, Obito was rescued by White Zetsu under orders from an elderly Madara. He brought Obito to Mountains' Graveyard and tended to his injuries, removing those body parts too damaged to be healed and replacing them with limbs cultivated from the cells of Hashirama Senju. Despite his injuries, Obito's right Sharingan had survived intact. Although frightened by Madara, Obito felt indebted to him for saving his life and was willing to render any assistance he could, an offer Madara made clear he would collect upon. Obito began a long rehabilitation process, eager to recover enough for him to return to Konoha and help his friends and the village with the still-ongoing war. With the help of White Zetsu and another spiral-faced Zetsu he nicknamed Guruguru, Obito became accustomed to his replacement limbs and the abilities they granted him. ⎚] All the while, Madara would tell Obito about the harsh realities of the world and his plan to save it, which the young Uchiha disregarded.

Obito mourning Rin's death.

During the end of his recuperation process, White Zetsu informed Obito that Kakashi and Rin were elsewhere about to be killed by Kirigakure ninja. Obito was insistent on helping them, which Guruguru offered to help with by encasing Obito with its body. Before leaving, Obito thanked Madara for all his help but said he wouldn't be returning. Madara made clear his conviction that Obito would return to him. Guruguru directed Obito to Rin and Kakashi's location, along the way informing him of Minato's absence. When they arrived they found Rin and Kakashi surrounded by Kiri-nin and Kakashi plunging his Chidori through Rin's heart. ⎛] Rin's death caused each of their Sharingan to mature into Mangekyō Sharingan, a process that also caused Kakashi to pass out. Enraged by what had happened, Obito used a combination of his Mangekyō Sharingan's Kamui and the Wood Release of Guruguru's body to slaughter the Kirigakure ninja. When all of them were dead, Obito cradled Rin's lifeless body, ignoring the unconscious Kakashi. ⎜]

Obito returned to Mountains' Graveyard, vowing to do anything for Madara if it could bring him together with Rin and Kakashi again. Madara explained his Eye of the Moon Plan, which would replace the contemporary world of violence and death with one where nobody ever needs to die. Obito was intrigued, determined to create a reality where he, Rin, and Kakashi could exist alongside each other. Madara imparted all of his knowledge and plans to Obito, taught him about abilities he would need moving forward, entrusted him with his possessions, and manifested Black Zetsu to act as a guide. Having left almost all that he had to Obito, Madara disconnected himself from the Demonic Statue of the Outer Path that was keeping him alive and told Obito that until his revival, he was to act as Madara Uchiha. ⎜]

Moving the Plan Forward

Obito and Zetsu approach Nagato.

Using Madara's name and concealing his identity, Obito moved in the shadows of the ninja world to acquire the remaining pieces of the Eye of the Moon Plan. Shortly after Madara's death, Obito and Zetsu went to Amegakure and approached the fledgling Akatsuki with an offer of support in creating the world of peace they envisioned. ⎝] In truth he only needed Nagato, in whom Madara had implanted his Rinnegan several years earlier and who would be needed in the final stages of the Eye of the Moon Plan. While Obito was almost able to sway Nagato, the Akatsuki leader, Yahiko, declined Obito claims he eventually agreed without informing Akatsuki's other members. ⎞] In the anime, Obito learned of a conspiracy between Hanzō and Danzō Shimura to eliminate Yahiko. He intercepted and killed the members of Akatsuki that tried to rescue Yahiko and, once Yahiko was dead, encouraged Nagato in a new direction for the organisation, one focused on acquiring the tailed beasts. ⎟] While Nagato became the Akatsuki leader and recruited powerful missing-nin for their cause, Obito took on the alias of "Tobi", and changed his personality around members to conceal his identity.

In Kirigakure, Obito at some point took control of the Fourth Mizukage, Yagura (in the anime being accompanied by Pain and Konan) in effect making him the de facto Mizukage. After Kisame Hoshigaki became disillusioned by the lies of the world, Obito (as "Madara") revealed himself to Kisame and promised to help make a world of truth. Kisame became his loyal servant, one of the few Kiri-nin to knowingly work for him. ⎠] During this time Obito discovered the circumstances of Rin's death: that Kiri had sealed the Three-Tails into her to make her a timebomb that would destroy Konoha. At Rin's insistence, Kakashi killed her to prevent this from happening. ⎡] Obito's manipulation of the Mizukage was eventually discovered by Ao and he was forced to abandon it.

Twelve years before the start of the series, Obito visited Rin's grave in Konoha. Kakashi was already there when he arrived and Obito, watching secretly, heard him confide to Rin's grave that Minato's wife, Kushina Uzumaki, would soon be giving birth. Knowing that Kushina was the Nine-Tails' jinchūriki and that the seal keeping the Nine-Tails contained within her would weaken during childbirth, Obito tracked her down on the night of October 10. He killed her Anbu bodyguards and midwives, which included the Third Hokage's wife, and took her newborn son, Naruto Uzumaki, hostage to prevent Minato from interfering. Minato was able to take Naruto from him, which distracted him long enough for Obito to escape with Kushina. ⎢] He extracted the Nine-Tails from her body, placed it under his control with his Sharingan, and ordered it to destroy the village. ⎣]

Minato soon afterwards arrived to help in the village's defence. Before Minato could contribute much or even tell anyone what had happened, Obito located him and tried to use Kamui to send him away and prevent further interference. Minato was able to escape with his Flying Thunder God Technique, but Obito pursued him. Minato did not recognise Obito as they fought, instead suspecting he was Madara Uchiha. He initially struggled to successfully strike Obito but, after several failed attacks, Minato finally hit him with a Rasengan and branded him with a Flying Thunder God seal, allowing him to teleport to Obito whenever he wanted. He then used a Contract Seal on Obito to release the Nine-Tails from his control. Wounded and deprived of his best weapon, Obito fled. ⎤] Minato gave his life to save the village by sealing the Nine-Tails into his son, and thus never had the chance to inform anyone of Obito's involvement. Konoha's leadership nevertheless suspected an Uchiha's involvement, and to that end placed all members of the clan under heavy scrutiny.

Obito and Itachi plotting to massacre their clan.

Years later in the anime, Obito attacked the Fire Daimyō's convoy en route to Konoha, placing everyone in a genjutsu and killing Tenma Izumo, but swiftly retreats after sensing Kakashi approaching. ⎥] Years later, the Uchiha, as a result of their mistreatment, began plotting a coup d'état. Obito returned to the village with the intention of exacerbating the conflict, but was discovered by Itachi Uchiha. Believing Obito was Madara, Itachi asked for his help in wiping out their clansmen, offering revenge against them for their treatment of Madara decades earlier in exchange for Obito's agreement to spare the village. ⎦] Obito accepted and offered Itachi a position in Akatsuki. In the anime, during the night of the massacre, he slaughtered the Konoha Military Police Force and killed Izumi Uchiha. Afterwards, he collected several Uchiha corpses in order to extract their Sharingan for his own use. ⎧] He also met Danzō around this time, for unknown reasons. ⎨] Following the attack, he cut his hair and brought Itachi into his organisation.


Legacy

After his second death, Madara's greatest lasting influence was in Obito's actions, who used Madara's knowledge to create Akatsuki. Several years later, when Obito began operating under Madara's name, the mere possibility that he was truly Madara was enough to unify the ninja of the Five Great Shinobi Countries and trigger the Fourth Shinobi World War. 𖏾]

Madara's actions during life, and even those subsequent actions of Obito, would end up having disastrous effects for the Uchiha clan. Following Madara's betrayal of Konoha, the Uchiha were entirely isolated from any form of control over Konoha's future, chiefly because of the actions of Tobirama Senju. His actions also played a role in Tobirama's growth, who believed that to be Hokage, one must balance between Hashirama's compassion and Madara's ruthlessness. At the time, some Uchiha members saw this as proof of what Madara always feared, but the fears subsided with time. Years later, when Obito causes the Nine-Tailed Demon Fox's Attack, Konoha once again becomes suspicious of the Uchiha and the Uchiha once again feel wronged. This time, however, their discontent does not subside. When the Uchiha began planning to overthrow Konoha, the upper echelons of Konoha's government ordered the Uchiha Clan Downfall.

One silver lining of Madara's legacy is the name of Konohagakure, which he himself came up with.


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