Francis Attwood

Francis Attwood

Francis Attwood was born in Massachusetts in 1856. He studied at Harvard University but left in 1881 without graduating. After a spell at Boston Art Museum School he began having his work published in Cosmopolitan before becoming a staff cartoonist at Life Magazine. Over the next ten years Attwood commented on the world's leading politicians. Attwood, a political independent with broad humanitarian sympathies, died in 1900.

Park Attwood, Worcestershire

Some years ago the writer visited the therapeutic centre, Park Attwood twice, with friends in need of health care.

She was immensely impressed by the ambience of the place, and the excellent multi-facetted healthcare offered, which included organic food grown on the Steiner farm nearby.

Last month it occurred to her that there might be a connection with the family of Thomas Attwood. Knowing that many people visit the site for articles with an historical content, she looked further afield. These findings are taken from several sources (listed at the end of this post), including:

Dr Nash (1724-1811), in his History of Worcester, says the Attwoods of Wolverley were the most ancient family in the county. The arms of the Attwoods are the same as those of the French De Bois, seen in Southwick Church. One of the family founded the Chantry of Trimpley, a berewick of Kidderminster in 1086 – “a ‘barley village’ detached portion of farmland that belonged to a medieval manor and was reserved for the lord’s own use”. At North Wood, Trimpley, a house with land was acquired by the Prior of Great Malvern about 1318 and a licence was granted in 1362 to John Attwood of Wolverley, the King’s yeoman, to enclose 600 acres in his demesne lands at Kidderminster and Wolverley.

The Legend of Attwood the Crusader. In “Rambles in Worcestershire”, Noakes, relates that Wolverley Court belonged to one of the Attwoods who went out as a Crusader. He was taken by the Saracens and kept so long in a dungeon that his lady at home, supposing him to be dead, was about to marry again, when the Knight, having made a vow to the Virgin to present a large portion of his lands to the Church of Worcester, was supernaturally liberated from his cell, whisked through the air, and deposited near his old home, now called Park Attwood, when, of course, he lost no time in forbidding the banns. The prisoner’s fetters are still preserved in the Court, as also the sculptured figure of the warrior which formerly lay in the old Church.

Land at Trimpley remained in the Attwood family until the end of the 16th century. In 1661 John Attwood had rights in a considerable estate in Wolverley and Park Attwood and was held by the Attwood family until the greater part was purchased about 1797 by Henry Chillingworth of Holt Castle. Thomas Hessin Charles, barrister-at-law, purchased the manor and lands of Park Attwood in 1912.

In 1938 the estate was sold and Park Attwood House became a hotel. A Planning inspectorate’s report said that Park Attwood had been requisitioned during the Second World War and a regiment of the Royal Corps of Signals was billeted there. The route to it was closed off and Kathleen Robinson remembers that the soldiers manned a searchlight station based in the Park Attwood – by then in use as a hotel.

In the Kidderminster Parish News 2010, we read that farmer Jack Powick bought Park Attwood from the ministry after the war. It took ten years to renovate it to become a renowned country club. Later, Park Attwood and its seven acres of peaceful gardens were sold and the house and grounds were renamed Park Attwood Clinic, an anthroposophical residential and out-patient facility.

A kindly man with great insight, with whom the writer’s two friends had consultations, Dr. James A. Dyson, MD, was the co-founder with Dr. Michael Evans.

He had been an anthroposophical physician for nearly 30 years, developing a special interest in the fields of mental health and child development and continued to practice there until 2003.

The latest news:

A Planning Inspectorate decision in 2011 upgraded the approach to the house, which had been a restricted byway. During the war, powers were available to the Secretary of State for Defence to permanently or temporarily stop public rights of way but there was no evidence of any such orders relating to this land. The Parish Council presented user evidence to show that the route had been used by people on horseback. It was recorded that in the late 1970s and the 1990s the users, and the Parish Council, believed that this was a public bridleway and there seems to have been no effective challenge to this view.

In 2005, Park Attwood Steiner Centre closed and the house became a centre for neurorehabilitation.

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Here are details of Columbus Diocese clergy accused of abuse

The list of 34 clergymen that the Diocese of Columbus says have been "credibly accused" of sexual abuse includes priests whose crimes have been known for years alongside 15 others for whom reporters could find no public accusations.

Fr. Ronald Atwood — deceased. Atwood, who entered the ministry in 1969, was placed on leave in 2013 after accusations that he abused a child between 1976 and 1979 while working at Bishop Ready High School on the West Side, St. Stephen on the South Side and St. Peter Church on the Northwest Side. The Dispatch reported that Atwood was accused of abusing the child in his office and on out-of-state trips.

Fr. Thomas Brosmer — removed from ministry. Brosmer was placed on leave in 2012 after an allegation that he abused a minor while working at St. Nicholas Parish and Bishop Rosecrans High School in Zanesville between 1969 and 1973. He also worked at parishes in Dennison, New Philadelphia, Grove City, Worthington and throughout Columbus.

Fr. R. Michael Ellifritz — laicized.  Ellifritz admitted to "improper contact" with a minor in the early 1980s when he was working at either Sts. Peter and Paul Chruch in Wellston or at St. Luke Church in Danville. He retired from service in 2002 due to health issues and agreed not to minister. The Vatican removed Ellifritz from the priesthood in 2005.

Monsignor Joseph Fete — laicized. Fete admitted to engaging in a sexual relationship with a teenager in the 1970s while an associate pastor at St. Joseph Cathedral. The allegations came to light in 1999 and shortly after, he was sent to Jerusalem for continued studies. In 2002, he was ministering at St. Margaret of Cortona Church on the West Side when he was removed from parish service for a new position the diocese created for him. The Dispatch reported in 2002 that Bishop James A. Griffin said he had been aware of the allegations against Fete in 1999. In 2003, Columbus police vice officers charged Fete with public indecency for exposing himself in a vehicle near baseball fields in Berliner Park.

Fr. Michael Hanrahan — deceased. Hanrahan was convicted of gross sexual imposition and sentenced to four years in prison in 1994 after admitting to sexual misconduct with a boy during the 1980s while serving at St. Ladislas and St. Christopher parishes in Columbus. Allegations by other boys were not prosecuted as part of a plea deal. According to court records, Hanrahan admitted fondling the boy, who was 11 and 12 at the time, and lying naked next to him when the boy slept over at his home. Hanrahan resigned from the priesthood in 1993 and moved to Connecticut to seek psychological treatment. Three victims later filed civil lawsuits against Hanrahan. Those lawsuits included allegations of abuse of a child who worshiped at St. Mary's Church in Columbus. At least two of the civil lawsuits were dismissed.

Deacon James Hutson — deceased.

Fr. Philip J. Jacobs — laicized. Jacobs was removed from ministry in Columbus in 1993 after reports to the diocese that he had sexually abused at least 10 Ohio children. He served at St. Anthony,  St. Philip the Apostle and St. Paul the Apostle parishes. After the church ordered him to receive treatment, he became a priest in Vancouver, British Columbia. Authorities there charged Jacobs with sexual assault in 2010. He was found guilty in February 2013 of sexually touching a person between the ages of 14 to 18 years old. He received two years probation.

Fr. Raymond Lavelle —  deceased. Lavelle was accused of sexually abusing a minor between 1971 and 1980 while pastor at St. Agnes Church on the Hilltop. He served at Columbus-area churches or at Bishop Hartley High School from his ordination in 1957 to his retirement in 2000.

Fr. Frederick Loyd — laicized. Loyd was removed from the priesthood in 2009 after allegations he sexually abused a minor in the 1980s. He was associate pastor at Saint Francis de Sales in Newark at the time. The Diocese of Columbus said it was not made aware of the allegations until late 2008, when it reported them to Newark police but the statute of limitations had passed. Lloyd, now 74, worked in churches, hospitals and at St. Francis DeSales High School during his career, starting with his ordination in 1970.

Fr. Robert Luchi — left ministry.

Fr. Bernard McClory — deceased.  McClory retired in 1997 as pastor of St. Leo Parish in Columbus.

Fr. Thomas McLaughlin — deceased.  McLaughlin was removed from his duties as pastor at Church of the Resurrection in New Albany months before he pleaded guilty in 1989 to molesting a child at the priest’s cottage at Indian Lake in Logan County. In exchange for the plea, charges that he had molested six other boys were not pursued. McLaughlin also was pastor at St. Mary Church in Marion and served at other parishes in the Columbus diocese. McLaughlin agreed to leave the priesthood in 1990.

Fr. Samuel Ritchey — laicized, deceased. Ritchey, a pastor at Sacred Heart Church on the North Side, was removed from the priesthood in 2006 after the diocese concluded he had sexually abused a male high-school student at St. Bernadette Church in Lancaster in 1977.

Fr. Francis Schaefer — deceased. Three lawsuits in Licking County Common Pleas Court in 1993 and 1994 named Schaefer, the Church of the Blessed Sacrament in Newark, and the Columbus Diocese as defendants. The resolution of those cases wasn't available Friday.

Fr. George Tumeo — laicized. Tumeo became assistant pastor of St. Timothy's Church in Columbus in 1965.

Fr. Martin Weithman — laicized. Weithman was removed as pastor of Seton Parish in Pickerington in 2002 after he was accused of molesting a teenage boy in the late 1980s. The victim said the molestation began when he was a student at the former Wehrle High School and continued for several years. The diocese paid the victim $115,000 after he threatened to sue. Although he maintained his innocence, Weithman reached a settlement with the diocese in 2004 and was removed from the priesthood. John Marshall, the Columbus attorney who negotiated the settlement with the diocese for Weithman, said Weithman continues to maintain his innocence.

Monsignor Harry Estadt �sed. Estadt began with the Columbus Diocese in 1935, at St. Thomas the Apostle Church. He retired in the 1970s.

Fr. Louis Hoffman — deceased. Hoffman served at St. Philip the Apostle Parish in Columbus.

Fr. Robert Schmidt — deceased.

Fr. Ted Spires — laicized, deceased. 

Fr. Alan Sprenger — deceased.  Sprenger was ordained in 1960, and taught at Marion Catholic, Bishop Ready and Father Wehrle high schools. He co-founded Syntaxis Youth Homes, group homes for teenage wards of the court and county children services, according to his obituary. Before that, he had been director of a YMCA Helping Hands program for neglected boys before he was fired in 1973 after a study said he his management was inadequate, The Dispatch reported.

Fr. John Tague — deceased. Teague was ordained in 1951 and was the  priest at St. Francis of Assisi in the Short North when he died in June 1983. Tague was killed in a head-on car collision while driving the wrong way on Route 315, The Dispatch reported. He had been released from an alcoholism treatment center just days earlier, police said. Teague served as principal at Newark and Chillicothe high schools and taught at Watterson High School.

Fr. Carl Drake — removed from ministry. Drake was accused of sodomizing a teenage boy and other “indecent acts” over nearly five years when he was a Navy chaplain, according to a 1993 article from The Washington Post. In a court-martial, Drake was acquitted of five of the charges against him, including the sodomy allegation, but was convicted of “getting into bed with the youth, caressing his body and attempting to touch his genitals,” The Post reported. Drake consistently maintained his innocence. He was sentenced to prison for 18 months.

Fr. Hector Bellinato — no longer in diocese.

Fr. David Heimann — deceased. Allegations of sexual misconduct against Heimann, once a faculty member at the Josephinum seminary, were well known in the early 1960s, Tom Reed, a  former priest who attended the seminary at the time, told The Dispatch on Friday. Reed said Heimann did not abuse him, but he was “using religion to get close to” high-school aged boys. “It was very much not handled, as I recall,” Reed said. “There was never any official announcement. It was all, ‘let’s not talk about it.’”

Deacon Gabriel Hernandez — dismissed from the Josephinum, laicized. Allegations of sexual abuse against Hernandez were first publicized in September when the Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend released its list of former priests and deacons accused of abuse.

Fr. Timothy Keane — no longer in ministry.

Fr. Pierre Albalaa — removed from ministry. Albalaa was removed as administrator at St. Michael's Parish in Italian Village in May after investigators in Los Angeles accused him of sexually abusing a minor in 2004.

Fr. Frank Benham — left ministry. Benham, who served in the Columbus diocese from 1979 to 1985, pleaded guilty in 2005 to molesting a 15-year-old boy and a 13-year-old girl in Maryland. He served 18 months in prison. In the late 1970s, he was removed from ministry because of a sex abuse allegation against him and sent to treatment. Then-Bishop Edward Herrmann allowed Benham to join the Columbus diocese in 1979, and he served at St. Nicholas Church in Zanesville and the Community of Holy Rosary/St. John on the South Side.

Fr. Aaron J. Cote — deceased. Cote was accused in 2005 of abusing a teenage boy when he was pastor at Holy Trinity Church in Somerset in Perry County during the 1980s. He was also sued in Maryland by another man who said Cote abused him in 2001 and 2002 at a parish in Germantown, Md.

Fr. Kenneth France-Kelly — deceased. The Dominican order's website says France-Kelly, who left as pastor of St. Patrick Church Downtown in 1999, was "removed from public ministry" in 2008 based on an allegation that he committed abuse in 1975 prior to entering the priesthood. In 2002, The New York Daily News quoted him about the priest abuse scandal: "I've known some victims, and I'm glad the church is continuing to address this," he said. He died in 2015.

About the 1968 U.S. Olympic Team Oral History Project

-->Or, click HERE to download The youngest of ten siblings, Ralph Boston was born and raised in Laurel, Mississippi. Boston excelled as a student and NCAA title athlete at Tennessee State University. In 1960, he broke the long jump world record held by Jesse Owens for 25 years. Boston set an Olympic record and took the gold medal in the long jump at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome. Boston won the silver medal at the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games and he completed his medals by winning the bronze medal for the long jump in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Brice Durbin was born in Missouri and grew up in Kansas. He spent more than 40 years as a coach and as a state and national athletics administrator. Durbin’s numerous posts include terms on the National Basketball Rules Committee, the U.S. Track and Field Federation, and the U.S. Olympic Committee. Durbin served as U.S. national track team manager during the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Tom Farrell was born and raised in New York. He was an NCAA champion in 1964 and 1965 and he finished 5th in the 800 meter race in the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. In 1968, Farrell won the U.S. Olympic Trials for the 800 m and went on to win the bronze medal in that event in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Francie Kraker was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan. She became a champion middle distance runner at Long Island University and at the University of Michigan. Kraker ran the 800 meters event in the 1968 Olympic Games and the 1,500 meters in the 1972 Games. She coached women’s junior high, high school, and college track. After the passage of Title IX, Kraker was amongst the first female administrators appointed to a Division I university position.

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-->Or, click HERE to download This four time Olympic racewalker hails from Louisville, Kentucky where he was born on May 31, 1938. Although his best Olympic finish in the men's 50km walk is 19th place, Laird took home the gold in the 1967 Pan American 20km walk as well as 65 national championships in a career spanning three decades. During his successful career, Laird held 81 American records and was named the outstanding US race walker six times.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Marty Liquori was born and raised in New Jersey. In 1967 he became the third American high school student to break the four minute mile. Though injuries kept 19 year-old Liquori from being a top finisher in the 1,500 meter race at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City, he went on to a very successful and storied track career that lasted another decade. Liquori ran for Villanova University and later became a sports commentator for broadcast television. He also founded a chain of successful athletic footwear stores that sponsored several athletes. Today Liquori is enjoying retirement in Florida where he is a professional jazz guitarist.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Tracy Smith was born and raised in California. He won multiple national titles in four different running distances between 1966 and 1969. After running track at Oregon State, Smith enlisted in the Army to fulfill his military obligations. Luckily, he was able to continue his training in the Army and in 1967 Smith set a world record in the three-mile race. Smith ran the 10,000 meter race in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City where he faced steep competition from African distance runners who had been born and raised at high-altitude.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Esther Stroy Harper was born and raised in Washington D.C. in a large family. Stroy was competing for the Sports International Track Club by the time she was 13. Though she favored the 200 m dash, Stroy's famed coach, Brooks Johnson, trained her to excel in the 400 m event. She was just 15 years old when she competed in the 1968 Olympic Games where an injured hamstring resulted in a 5th place finish in the semi-finals. She attended but did not compete in the 1972 Games due to the same injury. Stroy later went on to coach at Stanford University.

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-->Or, click HERE to download George Woods was born is Missouri in 1943 and set a Missouri state high school record for the shot put before attending Southern Illinois University on athletic scholarship. Woods set six indoor world records for the shot put, won ten championships, and made the U.S. Olympic Team three times: 1968, 1972, and 1976. Woods won the U.S. Olympic track and field team trials in shot put in 1968 and 1972 before winning Olympic silver medals in Mexico City in 1968 and in Munich at the 1972 Olympic Games. Woods competed in but did not medal at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal.

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-->Or, click HERE to download George Foreman was born in Marshall, Texas and grew up in Houston. In 1965, Foreman was seventeen when he qualified for Job Corps, a U.S. Department of Labor program that provides free education and job training for low-income young adults. Foreman was introduced to boxing at a Job Corps center in Pleasanton, California. With less than three years of experience in the sport, Foreman won a place on the 1968 Olympic Team and went on to win the heavyweight gold medal in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Click HERE to download a transcript of this interview. Born in Detroit, Michigan, Alfred Jones (a.k.a. "Tiger Cat") won the bronze medal in middleweight boxing at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Prior to his Olympic debut, Jones won the National Golden Gloves Middleweight Championship, having defeated Dave Matthews of Buffalo, New York. Jones turned professional in 1969 and won the first 12 matches of his professional career. After a KO in 1971, Jones retired from the ring.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Oliver “Butch” Martin was born and raised in New York City. As a teenager he competed in European races on an Italian cycling team. Martin was a member of the 1964 and 1968 U.S. Olympic Cycling Teams (100 K Team Time Trial). He won more than 50 national and international races during his career and placed within the top 5 finishers in another 37 races. Martin began coaching the U.S. national road cycling team in 1974, leading them to several breakthrough place finishes including the Montreal Olympic Games in 1976.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Rick Gilbert, born on September 23, 1943 in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, competed in men's platform diving at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Although he finished in 17th place, his abilities as an amateur photographer preserved many memorable images of the Games.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Keith Russell was born in Mesa, Arizona and was a member of the Dick Smith Swim Gym, which produced several notable diving champions. Russell won silver medals in diving at the World University Games and the Pan Am Games in 1967 in 1968 he won the NCAA three-meter diving championship while competing for Arizona State University. Russell placed fourth in Men’s Platform Diving and 6th in Men’s Springboard Diving at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. He has since enjoyed a long and successful career as a coach he’s currently the head diving coach at Brigham Young University.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Click HERE to download a transcript of this interview. John Thomas Balla was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1936. As a boy, Balla began fencing in Budapest. At 20 years old, he left Hungary as a refugee in 1956 and was granted political asymlum in the United States where he earned his citizenship. Balla fenced with a club in Philadelphia and from there, earned a spot on the U.S. Olympic fencing team in 1968. Balla proudly represented his adopted country in the Men’s Sabre Fencing event at the Olympic Games in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Carolyn "Ping" Pingatore Holmes was born and raised in Seattle, Washington. Though she did not pursue competitive gymnastics until she was a teenager, she was winning national championships by the time she was 16. At 17, Holmes won a spot on the 1968 U.S. Olympic Women's Gymnastic Team. She had the time of her life in Mexico City and later went on to coach her sport. Holmes has continued to make significant contributions to the rules and governance of her sport and to the Olympic Movement.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Maurice Thomas "Tom" Lough was born in Harrisonburg, Virginia, in 1942. He attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, where he competed in fencing and triathlon (running, swimming and pistol shooting). After graduating from West Point in 1964 with a B.S. in General Engineering, Lough served in Korea as a combat engineer with the 7th Infantry Division. In 1966, he was assigned to Fort Sam Houston, Texas, where he trained in modern pentathlon (horseback riding, fencing, pistol shooting, swimming, and cross country running). At age 26, Lough competed in the modern pentathlon at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Immediately after the 1968 Games, Lough, an Army captain, returned to military duty in VietNam as a company commander with the 326th Engineer Battalion (Combat), 101st Airborne Division. He received a Purple Heart and Bronze Star with”V” because of his heroic actions in May of 1969 he was shot down in a Huey helicopter over Hamburger Hill yet still managed to lead a team of combat engineers and secure a landing zone for the infantry unit. After ten years of Army service, he resigned to start a career in science education. Lough earned two Masters’ degrees (Geodetic Science and Physics) before earning a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, followed by an MBA in Finance. Lough recently completed a 17-year period of service as a science education professor at Murray State University in Kentucky. Lough still competes in Masters track events. He maintained his involvement in the Olympic Movement by serving as national director for the Bicentennial Olympic Project in 1976 and by acting as a torchbearer on the Olympic Torch Relay Team for the 1996 and 2002 Games. Moreover, Lough has coordinated the reassembly of the 1968 U.S. Olympic Team and has been instrumental in establishing the 1968 U.S. Olympic Team Oral History Project and Legacy Archive at the University of Texas. He has also organized a number of alumni and reunion events of the 1968 U.S. Olympic Team.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Click HERE to download a transcript of this interview. Lieutenant Colonel John Russell was born in Dauphin, Pennsylvania in 1920. He participated in equestrian sports while growing up on his family’s farm. Colonel Russell is a decorated veteran of World War II, having served in the U.S. Army in North Africa, Germany, and Italy. After the War, Russell competed in equestrian jumping at the 1948 Olympic Games in London and he won a bronze medal in this event at the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki. The Colonel has coached six U.S. Olympic Modern Pentathlon teams, including the 1968 delegation in Mexico City. At the age of 94, Russell operates a successful horse farm in San Antonio, Texas and he is still actively involved in coaching and judging equestrian sports.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Jacques Poindexter Fiechter was born and raised in Pennsylvania. He attended Harvard University where he captained a very successful varsity rowing crew. After graduating in 1967, Fiechter rowed with Vesper Boat Club in Philadelphia and won a place as a spare rower (alternate) for the eight man U.S. Olympic crew in 1968. When illness forced one of the regular U.S. crewmembers from the boat, Fiechter stepped in to row in the Olympic finals.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Paul Hoffman was born in New York but raised in the Virgin Islands. He attended Harvard University where he joined the rowing team as coxswain. Hoffman coxed the U.S. eight man crew in the 1968 Olympic Games and was a major supporter of the Olympic Project for Human Rights. He returned to cox the U.S. eight man crew in the 1972 Munich Games where he won a silver medal. Hoffman served in the Peace Corps and later returned to Harvard to earn his law degree.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Luther H. Jones, III was born and raised in Idaho. The 6' 5" Jones was athletic but had no experience in rowing when he was recruited to the rowing program at the College Boat Club of the University of Pennsylvania. After rowing for only one year, Jones finished 5th in the Men’s Coxed Fours rowing event at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico city. Jones also competed in the Coxed Pairs event at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.

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-->Or, click HERE to download John Nunn was born in 1942 in Terre Haute, Indiana but he grew up in various northern states. He attended high school in Canada where he played football, basketball, and cricket. His grandfather rowed for Columbia University and his father played lacrosse and football for Cornell University before becoming a professional football player with the Boston Shamrocks, 1936 American Football League champions. The 6' 5" Nunn had wanted to play football, as his father had, for Cornell University but was recruited to the rowing program instead. However, it was not until after he graduated from Cornell that Nunn reached his peak performance in rowing. In 1967, Nunn won a silver medal in the single sculls event at the Pan American Games before partnering with Bill Maher to win a bronze medal in the double sculls at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. With partner Tom McKibbon, Nunn won a bronze medal in the double sculls event at the 1971 Pan-Am Games.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Gary Anderson was born and raised in Nebraska. Through hard work and dedication, Anderson became a world champion rifleman in the 1960s. The U.S. Army assigned Anderson to its elite Marksmanship Unit at Fort Benning, Georgia in 1959 and he competed internationally as part of the U.S. Army team throughout the 1960s. In addition to 7 world championships, 6 world records, and 16 national titles, Anderson also won two consecutive Olympic gold medals at the 1964 Tokyo Games and the 1968 Mexico City Games in the 300 m, 3 positions rifle event.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Arnold Vitarbo, record-setting marksman, was born and raised in the Bronx, New York. Though Vitarbo began sport shooting while enlisted in the Marine Corps in the 1950s, it was not until he was 27 and serving in the U.S. Air Force that he made his mark in elite competitive shooting. At 32, Vitarbo placed 4th in the mixed free pistol event in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Vitarbo coached the U.S. national shooting team in the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, and, as of 2013, he continues to remain very active in the sport.

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-->Or, click HERE to download At only 15 when she competed in the 1968 Olympic Games, Susan Atwood was one of the youngest athletes on the team. While she did not advance past the preliminary heats of the women's 200 meter backstroke, she went on to obtain three medals in the 1971 Pan American Games and claim the world record in the 200 meter backstroke before the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich. During those games, Atwood competed in the 200 meter and 100 meter backstroke, winning both a silver and a bronze, respectively.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Brent Berk was born in Eustis, Florida but grew up swimming in Honolulu. With a move from Hawaii to famed Santa Clara (California) Swim Club to swim under renowned coach George Haines, Berk entered the world of elite swimming and began training for a spot on the U.S. Olympic team when he was just a teen. Though favored to place higher, Berk succumbed to illness in Mexico City, placing 8th in the Men’s 400 Meter Freestyle event in the 1968 Olympic Games. Berk narrowly missed a spot on the 1972 U.S. Olympic Team when he placed 4th in the 200 meter freestyle event at trials. While swimming at Stanford, Berk achieved NCAA All American Swimmer status. Later, Berk enjoyed competitive body surfing in Hawaii into his forties and was inducted into the Hawaii Swimming Hall of Fame in 2003.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Mike Burton was born in Iowa. He played basketball and football as a boy until he was severely injured when struck by a truck while on a bicycle. It was soon after this, around the age of 13, that Burton began training seriously in swimming. Burton graduated from high school in Sacramento, California and swam with Arden Hills Swim Club. He set many world and national records and was a five-time NCAA champion while at UCLA. Burton won two gold medals for the Men’s 400 Meter Freestyle and the Men’s 1,500 Meter Freestyle events at the 1968 Olympic Games. He went on to capture two more golds in the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Burton was the first man to win two Olympic 1,500 m freestyle titles and the only American man to accomplish this feat.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Click HERE to download a transcript of this interview.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Lynn Vidali Gautschi was born and raised in San Francisco. By her early teens she was swimming with the Santa Clara Swim Club under legendary coach George Haines. At only 14 years of age, Vidali set a new world record in the women’s 200-meter individual medley. Vidali was just 16 when she won a silver medal in the women’s 400-meter individual medley in the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Four years later, she won a bronze medal in the 200-meter individual medley at the Olympic Games in Munich, Germany. Vidali attended San Jose State under an athletic scholarship and later became a physical education teacher and swim coach.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Nancy Owen was born in Cleveland, Ohio but spent most of her formative years in Palos Verdes, California. It was here that a physical education teacher, who played on the women’s national volleyball team, introduced Owen to the sport. Owen was a member of the very first U.S. Women’s Olympic Volleyball team when the event made its debut during the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan. Owen also played on the 1968 U.S. Olympic Women’s Volleyball team in Mexico City. Owen attended Pepperdine after the ’68 Games as was inducted into that university’s Athletic Hall of Fame in 1981. Fortner spent over a decade in international competition and later coached women’s volleyball at Loyola Marymount University.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Danny Patterson was born and raised in Southern California where volleyball was a stapleof outdoor recreation and beach life. Patterson’s volleyball team took the gold medal in the ’67 Pan-American Games and the silver medal in the ’71 Pan-American Games. At 21, Patterson became one of the younger players on the 1968 U.S. Olympic Men’s Volleyball Team. Surprising everyone, the underdog U.S. team beat the favored Soviet team in the opening volleyball game in Mexico City.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Dean Willeford was born in Dallas, Texas. Willeford enjoyed swimming before becoming involved in waterpolo at his California high school. He attended the University of California and also played club water polo with the Phillips 66 and Longbeach clubs. Willeford’s teams won silver at the 1963 Pan Am Games and gold at the 1967 Pan Am Games. He was selected All American five times before making the 1968 U.S. Olympic Water Polo Team. Willeford was inducted into the USA Water Polo Hall of Fame in 1982.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Born in Altha, Florida on February 15, 1944, Joseph Dube is one of a small group of individuals who have competed for the title "World's Strongest Man". In 1964 he was the first teen-aged weightlifter to clean and press 400 lbs. He earned a gold medal in the 1967 Pan Am Games, followed by a bronze in the 1968 Olympics, and a bronze and gold in the 1968 and 1969 World Weightlifting Championships. He is the first American weightlifter to total 1300 lbs in three Olympic lifts, and set twelve American and four world records.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Barton Jahncke was born and raised in New Orleans he hails from a long line of New Orleans sailors. His uncle was Ernest Lee Jahncke, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, appointed by President Herbert Hoover. Ernest Lee Jahncke was a member of the International Olympic Committee until he was expelled for his voicing his opposition to holding the 1936 Games in Nazi Germany. Barton Jahncke graduated from Tulane University and worked for Lykes Brothers Steamship Company before winning the gold medal in the Mixed Three Person Keelboat sailing event at the 1968 Olympic Games. He was affiliated with the Southern Yacht Club of New Orleans.

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-->Or, click HERE to download Click HERE to download a transcript of this interview. Robert Lee James, Jr. was born in Mobjack, Virginia in 1933. Sailing was a major part of life for the James family and Robert grew up sailing the waters of Virginia. James competed in the Mixed Two Person Heavyweight Dinghy event in the 1968 Olympic Games. His partner in the event was his brother, David James, who is 16 years Robert’s junior. Though the pair did remarkably well at the U.S. Olympic trials in San Diego, they ranked 10th in their event, which was held at Acapulco Yacht Club, Bahía de Acapulco, Mexico, October 14 – 21, 1968. Though James enjoyed sailing after his retirement, today he fills his spare time with golf and gardening in his home state of Virginia.

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Contact Us

Have feedback or comments?Interested in getting involved? Do you have information to contribute to the project? Please contact us using one of the methods below and we will get back to you as soon as possible.

Upcoming Activities

Scholarly Journals Accepted for Mayflower Research

It is sometimes possible to utilize published sources or problem-solving articles without consulting the original sources yourself. The purpose of scholarly journals is to analyze difficult problems, review the evidence, and present a solid conclusion and publish source material to a wider audience. The key to this in the modern (i.e. since 1980s) sense is the heavy use of citations (whether endnotes, footnotes, or embedded). Below is a list of journals deemed of high quality that can be used in your effort to document your Mayflower lineage. This is not an exclusive list, but the ones more commonly seen.

* The New England Historical and Genealogical Register (1847-present) #

* Essex Institute Historical Collections (1869-present) #

* The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record (1870-present) #

* The Narraganset Historical Register (1882-1891)

* The Bangor Historical Magazine (1885-1894)

* Genealogical Quarterly Magazine (var. titles) (1890-1917)

* The Essex Antiquarian (1897-1909)

* The Genealogical Advertiser (1898-1901)

* The Mayflower Descendant (1899-1937, 1985-present) #

* The New Hampshire Genealogical Record (1903-1910, 1990-present)

* National Genealogical Society Quarterly (1912-present)

* The American Genealogist (1923-present) #

* Early Settlers of New York State (1932-1942) [source material only]

* The Mayflower Quarterly (1935-present)

* Connecticut Nutmegger (1969-present) #

* Branches & Twigs (1972-1995) [source material only] & Vermont Genealogy (1996-present) #

* Rhode Island Roots (1975-present)

* The Maine Seine (1978-1983) and The Maine Genealogist (1984-present)

* The Genealogist (1980-present)

All these journals will have annual name indexes. The ones noted with "#" have consolidated name indexes in some form. For a subject index, the best is the Periodical Source Index (PERSI). Over the past 30 years the Allen County Public Library (ACPL) Genealogy Center has created more than 2.5 million searchable index entries in the Periodical Source Index (PERSI), indexing every article from more than 8,000 different periodicals, including magazines, newsletters and journals, by location, topic, surname, ethnicity and methodology. ACPL is now partering with to enhance PERSI by linking index entries with their corresponding articles. Check for updates. If the article you require is not in your local library or linked on FindMyPast, you can obtain a copy by contacting the Allen County Public Library.

The only officially sanctioned source for approved lineages published is the Mayflower Families Through Five Generations "silver" books and the associated Mayflower Families in Process "pink" pamphlets. Older applications from family members that used secondary sources or any of the Mayflower Index books will need to be redocumented for any new application for membership.

General Mayflower History

Readers wishing a better general understanding on the passengers, culture, time, history, and genealogy should consult any of the following in print books:

  • James W. Baker, Thanksgiving: The Biography of an American Holiday (Lebanon, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2009).
  • Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, see numerous articles in the New England Ancestors (magazine) for various aspects of Pilgrim life, especially before their arrival in Plymouth (Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, n.d.).
  • Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims, Travellers and Sojourners: Leiden and the Foundations of Plymouth Plantation (Plymouth, Mass.: General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 2009).
  • Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and Their World: A New History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010).
  • Eugene Aubrey Stratton, Plymouth Colony Its History & People 1620-1691 (Salt Lake City: Ancestry Pub., 1986).
  • James Deetz and Patricia Scott Deetz, The Times of Their Lives: Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony (New York: Anchor Books, 2001).
  • Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers ([Philadelphia]: Xlibris, 2006).
  • Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower A Story of Courage, Community, and War (New York: Viking, 2006).
  • Mayflower Families Through Five Generations available for all passengers who left descendants from the General Society of Mayflower Descendants, Plymouth, Mass.

&ldquoSilver Books&rdquo and Related

Mayflower Families Through Five Generations (series, pub. Plymouth, Mass.):

v. 3 George Soule by John E. Soule and Milton E. Terry (1980) Addendum (2nd ed., 1991).

v. 4 Edward Fuller by Bruce Campbell MacGunnigle (2006).

v. 5 Edward Winslow by Ruth C. McGuyre and Robert S. Wakefield and John Billington by Harriet W. Hodge (2nd ed. 1997).

v. 6 Stephen Hopkins by John D. Austin (3rd printing, 2001).

v. 7 Peter Brown by Robert S. Wakefield (2nd ed., 2002).

v. 8 Degory Priest by Mrs. Charles Delmar Townsend, Robert S. Wakefield, and Margaret Harris Stover (2nd ed., 2008).

v. 9 Francis Eaton by Lee Douglas Van Antwerp, rev. by Robert S. Wakefield (rev. ed., 1996).

v. 10 Samuel Fuller by Katharine Warner Radasch and Arthur Hitchcock Radasch, rev. by Margaret Harris Stover and Robert S. Wakefield (rev. ed., 1996).

v. 11 Edward Doty by Peter B. Hill, pt. 1 (2nd ed., 2009), pt. 2 (1996), pt. 3 (2000).

v. 12 Francis Cooke by Ralph V. Wood Jr. (Rockport, Me., rev. ed. 1999).

v. 13 William White by Ruth Wilder Sherman and Robert Moody Sherman, rev. by Robert S. Wakefield (3rd ed., 2006).

v. 14 Myles Standish by Russell L. Warner, Robert S. Wakefield, ed. (1997). [Note: This book has been reprinted with no changes in 2007.]

v. 15 James Chilton by Robert Moody Sherman and Verle Delano Vincent, rev. by Robert S. Wakefield, and Richard More by Robert Moody Sherman, Robert S. Wakefield, and Lydia Dow Finlay (1997).

v. 16 John Alden by Esther Littleford Woodworth-Barnes, Alicia Crane Williams, ed., pt. 1 (1999), pt. 2 (2002), pt. 3 (2004).

v. 17 Isaac Allerton by Robert S. Wakefield and Margaret Harris Stover (1998).

v. 18 Richard Warren by Robert S. Wakefield, rev. Judith H. Swan, pt. 1 (3rd ed., 2004), pt. 2 (2nd ed., 2011), pt. 3 (2001).

v. 19 Thomas Rogers by Alice W. A. Westgate, rev. by Ann T. Reeves (2000).

v. 20 Henry Samson, pt. 1 by Robert Moody Sherman and Ruth Wilder Sherman, Robert S. Wakefield, ed. (2000), pt. 2 (2005) and pt. 3 (2006) by Jane Fletcher Fiske, Robert Moody Sherman, and Ruth Wilder Sherman.

v. 21 John Billington by Harriet W. Hodge, rev. by Robert S. Wakefield (2001).

v. 22 William Bradford by Ann Smith Lainhart and Robert S. Wakefield (2004).

v. 23 John Howland for children: Lydia, Hannah, Joseph, Jabez, Ruth, and Isaac by Ann Smith Lainhart and Robert S. Wakefield, pt. 1 (2006), pt. 2 Fifth Generation of his Children Lydia and Hannah by Ann Smith Lainhart and Jane Fletcher Fiske (2010).

v. 24 The Descendants of Elder William Brewster, by Barbara Lambert Merrick, ed. Scott Andrew Bartley, First Edition (2014).

Mayflower Families in Progress (pamphlet series)

* George Soule by John E. Soule and Milton E. Terry, rev. by Louise Walsh Throop, first four generations (6th ed., 2011) Fifth generation, pt. 1 (2000), pt. 2 (2002), pt. 3 (2003), pt. 4 (2005), pt. 5 (2008).

* Francis Cooke &ndash first four generations by Robert S. Wakefield and Ralph Van Wood Jr. (5th ed., 2000) &ndash supersedes that part of volume 16 above.

* William Brewster by Barbara Lambert Merrick, pt. 1 &ndash first four generations (3rd ed. 2000), pt. 2 -5th gen. of Jonathan2 (1999), pt. 3 &ndash 5th gen. of Love2 (2003), pt. 4 &ndash 5th gen. of Patience2 (2001).

* Philip Delano by Muriel Curtis Cushing, first four generations (2002), 5th gen. pt. 1 (2004), 5th gen. pt. 2 (2011).

Not part of the official series:

* v. 1 &ndash descendants of Desire2 by Elizabeth Pearson White (Camden, Me., 1990).

* v. 2 &ndash descendants of John2 by Elizabeth Pearson White, assisted by Edwin Wagner Coles and Roberta Gilbert Bratti (Camden, Me., 1993).

* v. 3 &ndash descendants of Hope2 by Elizabeth Pearson White (Rockland, Me., 2008).

* v. 4 &ndash descendants of Elizabeth2 by Elizabeth Pearson White (Rockland, Me., 2008).


George Ernest Bowman, ed., The Mayflower Descendant: A Quarterly Magazine of Pilgrim Genealogy and History (1899-1937), 34v. The Mayflower Descendant: Index of Persons (Boston, 1959-1962), 2v. Alicia Crane Williams, ed., The Mayflower Descendant: A Magazine of Pilgrim Genealogy and History (1985-1998), v. 35-48 [8.5x11 format] Scott Andrew Bartley, ed., Mayflower Descendant (2000-2010), v. 49-59 Caleb Johnson, ed., Mayflower Descendan (2011-2013), v. 60-63.

George Ernest Bowman, ed., Pilgrim Notes and Queries (1913-1917), 5v.

California Mayflower (1981-1995), v. 10-24, incomplete.

Chilton Chat (2005-present) [Note: Only one issue for v. 1.].

The Compact (1980-present), v. 1+.

The Howland Quarterly (1958-present), v. 23+.

The Mayflower Quarterly (1935-present), v. 1+.

Various state newsletters, 1990s to present.

Other Books and Articles

Account of the part taken by the American Antiquarian Society in the Return of the Bradford Manuscript to America (Worcester, Mass. 1898).

American Printer (journal), &ldquoMayflower Number,&rdquo Vol. 71, No. 12 [20 Dec. 1920]:

Edmund G. Gress, &ldquoThoughts About Printers and Pilgrims,&rdquo p. 41-46.

Henry Lewis Bullen, &ldquoThe Printer Leaders of the Pilgrim Fathers,&rdquo p. 48-49.

George Ernest Bowman, &ldquoThe Mayflower Compact and Its Signers,&rdquo p. 49-52.

Arthur Pemberton, &ldquoThe Pilgrims and the Lettering on Burial Hill,&rdquo p. 52.

Joseph Moxon, &ldquoIn the Old-time Printing Offices,&rdquo p. 53-56.

&ldquoStory of the Editorial Inserts,&rdquo p. 57-60. [Twenty insert plates between p. 64-65]

E. G. G., &ldquoStudies in Colonial Typography,&rdquo p. 61-63.

Aptucxet &ndash 1627: The First Trading Post of the Plymouth Colony (Bourne, Mass., s.l.).

&ldquoGovernor Bradford&rsquos First Dialogue. A dialogue, or the sum of a conference between some young men born in New England and sundry ancient men that came out of Holland and old England, anno Domini 1648.&rdquo Part of Old South Leaflets series, No. 49 (Boston, 1896?).

Governor Bradford&rsquos Letter Book (Boston, 1906). Reprinted from the Mayflower Descendant.

&ldquoGovenour Bradford&rsquos Letter Book&rdquo as first published in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. II, No. 12-13 [Sept.-Oct. 1793], Vol. III, No. 16-17 [Jan.-Feb. 1794] [Note: Incomplete] [In vault]

Proceedings at the Unveiling of the John Robinson Memorial Tablet in Leyden, Holland, July 24, 1891, Under the Auspices of the National council of Congregational Churches of the United States (Boston, 1891).

Azel Ames, The May-Flower and Her Log July 15, 1620-May 6, 1621, Chiefly from Original Sources (Boston, 1901). Oversize.

Robert Charles Anderson, The Pilgrim Migration: Immigrants to Plymouth Colony 1620-1633 (Boston, 2004).

Edward Arber, The Story of The Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623 A.D. as Told by Themselves, Their Friends, and Their Enemies (London, 1897).

Robert Ashton, The Works of John Robinson, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers. With a Memoir and Annotations (London, 1851).

William Franklin Atwood, The Pilgrim Story Being Largely a Compilation from the Documents of Governor Bradford and Governor Winslow, Severally and in Collaboration Together with a List of Mayflower Passengers (Plymouth, Mass., 1940).

James W. Baker, Aldens Return to England: The 2006 Alden Kindred of America Tour & A Guide to Pilgrim Sites Along the Way (Duxbury, Mass., 2007). [paperback]

James W. Baker, Thanksgiving: The Biography of an American Holiday (Hanover, N.H., 2009). [paperback]

Josephine R. Baker, An Historic Bible [The Connecticut Magazine] Hartford, Ct., 1899). Pages in folder.

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Indian Deeds: Land Transactions in PlymouthColony, 1620-1691 (Boston, 2002).

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Pilgrim Edward Winslow: New England&rsquos First International Diplomat A Documentary Biography (Boston, 2004). Paperback.

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Strangers and Pilgrims: Travellers and Sojourners: Leiden and the Foundations of Plymouth Plantation (Plymouth, Mass., 2009).

Jeremy Dupertuis Bangs, Pilgrim Life in Leiden Texts and Images from the Leiden American Pilgrim Museum (Leiden, The Netherlands, 1997). Spiral bound pamphlet.

Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the &ldquoMayflower&rdquo in 1620, the &ldquoFortune&rdquo in 1621, and the &ldquoAnne&rdquo and the &ldquoLittle James&rdquo in 1623 (New York, 1929).

Joseph Banvard, Plymouth and the Pilgrims or Incidents of Adventure in the History of the First Settlers (Boston, 1851). Cover tied on.

Robert Merril Bartlett, The Pilgrim Way (Philadelphia, 1971). Oversize.

W. H. Bartlett, The Pilgrim Fathers or, Founders of New England in the Reign of James the First (London, 1865).

William Bradford, [edited by Charles Deane], History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston, 1856). [Top part of spine torn]

William Bradford, edited with notes by Charles Deane, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston, 1856). [John Wingate Thornton embossed stamp on title page. Many news clippings pasted to inside front cover and fly leaf and loose in envelope talking about the second edition front hinge loose and spine partially detached]

William Bradford, edited by John A. Doyle, History of the Plimoth Plantation containing an account of the Voyage of the &lsquoMayflower&rsquo [now reproduced in facsimile from the original manuscript](London, 1896). Oversize. [Spine taped and loose]

William Bradford, Bradford&rsquos History &ldquoof Plimoth Plantation.&rdquo From the Original Manuscript. With a Report of the Proceedings Incident to the Return of the Manuscript to Massachusetts (Boston, 1901). [There are editions of this work dated 1898 and 1900.]

William Bradford, edited by [Committee at Mass. Historical Society], History of Plimoth Plantation (Boston, 1912), 2 v.

William Bradford, edited by Samuel Eliot Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647 (New York, 1952, 8 th printing, 1979).

John Brown, The Pilgrim Fathers of New England and Their Puritan Successors (London, 1896).

Nick Bunker, Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and Their World A New History (New York, 2010).

Walter H. Burgess, John Robinson- Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers A Study of His Life and Times (London, 1920).

Champlin Burrage, ed., John Pory&rsquos Lost Description of Plymouth Colony in the Earliest Days of the Pilgrim Fathers, Together with Contemporary Accounts of English Colonization Elsewhere in New England and in the Bermudas (Boston, 1918). Oversize.

Douglas Campbell, The Puritan in Holland, England, and America- An Introduction to American History (New York, 1892). 2 v.

Martha Campbell, &ldquoPlymouthColony Proprietors Records&rdquo (typ., 1993).

Edmund J. Carpenter, The Pilgrims and Their Monument (New York, 1911).

R. J. Carpenter, Christopher Martin, Great Burstead and The Mayflower (Chelmsford, Eng., 1982), photocopy of pamphlet.

George W. Chamberlain, &ldquoWilliam Brewster, The Pilgrim Printer&rdquo in The Magazine of History with Notes and Queries, Vol. XV, No. 2 [February 1912], 63-66.

George B. Cheever, The Journal of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, in New England, in 1620: with Historical and Local Illustrations of Providences, Principles, and Persons (New York City, 1848).

Glenn Alan Cheney, Thanksgiving: The Pilgrim&rsquos First Year in America (New London, Conn., 2007). Paperback.

Cobblestone: The History Magazine for Young People, v. 10 no. 11 [Nov. 1989], &ldquoPilgrims to a New World.&rdquo

Winnifred Cockshott, The Pilgrim Fathers Their Church and Colony (Bowie, Md., 2002). Paperback.

Leon E. Cranmer, Cushnoc: The History and Archaeology of Plymouth Colony Traders on the Kennebec (Augusta, Me., 1990).

Laura Crawford, The Pilgrims&rsquo Thanksgiving from A to Z (Gretna, La., 2005). [for very young readers]

John Cuckson, A Brief History of the First Church in Plymouth from 1606-1901 (Boston, 1902).

Ozora S. Davis, &ldquoJohn Robinson Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers&rdquo reprinted from the Hartford Seminary Record, Vol. 7, Nos. 2 and 3 (Hartford, Conn., 1897).

Charles Deane, The First Plymouth Patent: Granted June 1, 1621 Now First Printed from the Original Manuscript (Cambridge, Eng., 1854). In folder.

James and Patricia (Scott) Deetz, The Times of Their Lives Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony (New York City, 2000).

John Demos, A Little Commonwealth Family Life in Plymouth Colony (New York, 1970).

Henry Martyn Dexter, Mourt&rsquos Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth with an Introduction and Notes (Boston, 1865).

John Frederick Dorman, &ldquoBrewster-Allerton-Lee: Analysis of Records Concerning Anne (Lee) Eustace and Elizabeth (Lee) Jones Taylor&rdquo report to GSMD dated 28 Feb. 2008. [photocopy]

Thomas Bradford Drew, The Ancient Estate of Governor William Bradford (Boston, 1897). Paperback in folder.

Alice Morse Earle, ed., Diary of Anna Green Winslow- A Boston School Girl of 1771 (Boston, 1894).

A. Eekhof and Edgar F. Romig, &ldquoJohn Robinson: Two addresses delivered in the Pieterskerk in Leyden on the occasion of the unveiling of the memorial-tablet in the baptismal chapel, on Saturday September 8th 1928&rdquo reprinted from the Nederlandsch Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis, XXI, 4 (The Hague, 1928).

A. Eekhof, The Unknown Documents Concerning the Pilgrims Fathers in Holland (The Hague, 1920). [digitized photocopy]

Herbert Folger, A Record of the Names of the Passengers of the Good Ship &ldquoMayflower&rdquo in December, 1620 (S.l., sn.) [by the New Jersey Society in 1904 or later]

Sheila Foley, ed., Faith Unfurled: The Pilgrims&rsquo Quest for Freedom (Lowell, Mass., 1993). Paperback.

Brandon Fradd, The Winslow Families of Worcestershire (Boston, 2009).

David A. Furlow, &ldquoThe Enigmatic Isaac Allerton: A Mariner, Merchant, Burgher, Attorney, and Diplomat of New Netherland&rdquo in Margriet Bruijn Lacy, Charles Gehring, and Jenneke Oosterhoff, eds., From De Halve Maen to KLM: 400 Years of Dutch-American Exchange (Münster, [2008]), p. 105-118 (photocopy).

Deborah Sampson Gannett, An Address Delivered in 1802 in Various Towns in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York (Dedham, Mass., 1802 rep. Boston, 1905). [Pamphlet, bound, gilded, in rotting leather binding &ndash use photocopy first.]

L. D. Geller, ed., They Knew They Were Pilgrims- Essays in Plymouth History (New York, 1971).

John A. Goodwin, The Pilgrim Republic &ndash An Historical Review of the Colony of New Plymouth with Sketches of the Rise of Other New England Settlements, the History of Congregationalism, and the Creeds of the Period (Boston, 1895).

William Elliot Griffis, The Pilgrims in Their Three Homes- England, Holland, America (Boston, 1900).

Cheryl Harness, The Adventurous Life of Myles Standish and the Amazing-But-True Survival Story of Plymouth Colony: Barbary Pirates, The Mayflower, The First Thanksgiving, and Much MUCH More (Washington, D.C., [2006]). [for middle-grade children]

Cheryl Harness, Three Young Pilgrims (New York, 1995). [for very young readers]

Rendel Harris, The Finding of the &ldquoMayflower&rdquo (Manchester, Eng., 1920).

Rendel Harris, The Last of the &ldquoMayflower&rdquo (Manchester, Eng., 1920).

Rendel Harris, ed., Souvenirs of the &ldquoMayflower&rdquo Tercentenary The Documents Concerning the Appraisement of the &ldquoMayflower&rdquo Refusal of the Leyden Authorities to Expel the Pilgrims The Marriage Certificate of William Bradford and Dorothy May The Plymouth Copy of the First Charter of Virginia (Manchester, Eng., 1920). 4 pamphlets in folder.

Rendel Harris & Stephen K. Jones, The Pilgrim Press A Bibliographical & Historical Memorial of the Books Printed at Leyden by the Pilgrim Fathers (Cambridge, Eng., 1921).

Frankie Summers Hauser, Mayflower Descendants in the State of Texas and Their Lineage ([San Antonio, Tex.?], 1967).

Annie Arnoux Haxtun, Signers of the Mayflower Compact (New York, 1896). Oversize.

E. J. V. Huiginn, The Graves of Myles Standish and Other Pilgrims (Beverly, Mass., 1914).

Die Modlin Hoxie, ill., and Carolyn Freeman Travers, text, Plimoth Plantation Coloring Book (Plymouth, Mass., 19980. [for very young readers]

Joseph Hunter, Collections Concerning the Early History of the Founders of New Plymouth, the First Colonists of New England (London, 1849). [Pamphlet cover title: Mr. Hunter&rsquos Critical and Historical Tracts. No II. The First Colonists of New England.]

Joseph Hunter, Collections Concerning the Church or Congregation of Protestant Separatists Formed at Scrooby in North Nottinghamshire, in the Time of King James I: The Founders of New Plymouth, the Parent-Colony of New-England (London, Eng., 1854).

Sydney V. James Jr., ed., Three Visitors to Early Plymouth (Plymouth, Mass., 1963).

Caleb H. Johnson, The Complete Works of the Mayflower Pilgrims with Selected Works by Those Who Knew Them, or Who Visited Early Plymouth Colony (Vancouver, Wash., 2003) Oversize.

Caleb H. Johnson, The Mayflower and Her Passengers ([Vancouver, Wash.], 2006).

Caleb [H.] Johnson, Here Shall I Die Ashore. Stephen Hopkins: Bermuda Castaway, Jamestown Survivor, and Mayflower Pilgrim ([Philadelphia], 2007).

Joke Kardux and Eduard van de Bilt, Newcomers in an Old City the American Pilgrims in Leiden 1609-1620 (Leiden, The Netherlands, 1998).

Dorothy H. Kelso, Hard Hands and Brawny Consciences A New England Family History (1986). Paperback.

H. Roger King, Cape Cod and Plymouth Colony in the Seventeenth Century (Lanham, Md., 1994). Paperback.

Jonathan King, The Mayflower Miracle The Pilgrims&rsquo Own Story of the Founding of America (London, 1987).

Susan M. Kingsbury, An Introduction to the Records of the Virginia Company of London with a Bibliographical List of the Extant Documents (Washington, D.C., 1905). Oversize, paperback.

H. Kirk-Smith, William Brewster &ldquoThe Father of New England&rdquo His Life and Times 1567-1644 (Boston, Eng., 1992).

George D. Langdon Jr., Pilgrim Colony: A History of New Plymouth, 1620-1691 (New Haven, Conn., 1966).

Charles T. Libby, Plymouth Colony Marriages to 1650 together with Mary Chilton&rsquos Title to Celebrity (Warwick, R.I., 1978).

David Lindsay, Mayflower Bastard a Stranger Among the Pilgrims (New York, 2002).

Alexander MacKennal, Homes and Haunts of the Pilgrim Fathers (London, 1899).

D. W. Manchester, &ldquoMistakes in History &ndash The Pilgrims Not Puritans But Separatists&rdquo in The National Magazine, [cut from unknown vol.] [Nov. 1891]: 82-91.

Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus (New York, 2005).

Annie Russell Marble, The Women Who Came in the Mayflower (Boston, 1920).

Thomas W. Mason & B. Nightingale, New Light on the Pilgrim Story (London, 1920).

Albert Matthews, The Term Pilgrim Father (Cambridge, Mass., 1915). [Pamphlet reprint from the Publications of The Colonial Society of Massachusetts, vol. 17.]

Samuel Maverick, A Briefe Discription of New England and the Severall Townes Therein together with the Present Government Thereof (ms., 1660 rep. Boston, 1885). [Pamphlet reprinting of article in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 38 [1884]: 342, and the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1884.]

William Alexander McAuslan, Mayflower Index (Boston, 1932), 2v. [no longer accepted as sole proof of a Mayflower lineage]

Ann McGovern, The Pilgrims&rsquo First Thanksgiving (New York, 2005). [a book for very young readers]

Blanche McManus, The Voyage of the Mayflower (New York, 1897) as part of the Colonial Monographs series.

Nathaniel Morton, New=Englands&rsquo Memoriall (Boston, 1903).

William P. Muttart and Linda R. Ashley, One Hundred & Eleven Questions & Answers Concerning the Pilgrims (Montville, Conn., 2007). [paperback]

Adelia White Notson & Robert Carver Notson, comp., Stepping Stones: The Pilgrims&rsquo Own Story (Portland, Ore., 1987).

Ethel J. R. C. Noyes, The Women of the Mayflower and Women of Plymouth Colony (Plymouth, Mass., 1921).

John M. Pafford, How Firm a Foundation William Bradford and Plymouth (Bowie, Md., 2002). Paperback.

Russell M. Peters, The Wampanoags of Mashpee (S.n., 1987). Paperback, oversize.

Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War (New York, 2006).

Nathaniel Philbrick, The Mayflower and the Pilgrims&rsquo New World (New York, 2008).

Pilgrim Hall Museum, The Pilgrims & the Fur Trade: A curriculum unit for grades 5-7. Study Strands: History, Economics & Finance, and Geography with connections to Mathematics (Plymouth, Mass., 2006).

Plimoth Plantation, &ldquoMusic & Dance from the Time of the Pilgrims&rdquo (undated pamphlet).

D. Plooij, The Pilgrim Fathers from a Dutch Point of View (New York, 1932).

D. Plooij and J. Rendel Harris of Manchester, Leyden Documents relating to the Pilgrim Fathers Permission to Reside at Leyden and Bethrothal Records Together with Parallel Documents from the Amsterdam Archives (Leyden, The Netherlands, 1920). Oversize.

Jenny Hale Pulsipher, &ldquo&lsquoSubjects &hellip unto the same king&rsquo: New England Indians and the Use of Royal Political Power&rdquo published in The Massachusetts Historical Review, vol. 5 (2003). [photocopy]

William Howell Reed, Elder William Brewster A Monograph (S.n., 1894). Paperback.

Gary Boyd Roberts, ed., Mayflower Source Records: Primary Data Concerning Southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, and the Islands of Nantucket and Martha&rsquos Vineyard from The New England Historical and Genealogical Register (Baltimore, 1986).

Susan E. Roser, Mayflower Increasings (Baltimore: 2 nd ed., 1997).

Susan E. Roser, Mayflower Births & Deaths from the files of George Ernest Bowman at the Massachusetts society of Mayflower Descendants (Baltimore, 1992), 2v.

Susan E. Roser, Mayflower Marriages from the files of George Ernest Bowman at the Massachusetts society of Mayflower Descendants (Baltimore, 1990).

Susan E. Roser, Mayflower Deeds & Probates from the files of George Ernest Bowman at the Massachusetts society of Mayflower Descendants (Baltimore, 1994).

Susan E. Roser, Mayflower Passenger References (from contemporary records and scholarly journals) ([Milton, Ont.,] 2011]).

Louise Rumnock and Carol Lanman Yovanovich, Pilgrim Myles and Tom-T&rsquos Plymouth Adventure Activity / Coloring Book Ages 5-7 (Port Orange, Fl., 2004).

Louise Rumnock and Carol Lanman Yovanovich, Pilgrim Myles and Tom-T&rsquos Plymouth Adventure Activity Book Ages 8-10 (Port Orange, Fl., 2004).

William S. Russell, Guide to Plymouth, and Recollections of the Pilgrims (Boston, 1846).

William S. Russell, Pilgrim Memorials, and Guide to Plymouth with a Lithographic Map, and Eight Heliotypes (Boston, 1886).

Edwin G. Sanford, The Pilgrim Fathers and Plymouth Colony: A Bibiliographical Survey of Books and Articles Published during the Past Fifty Years (Boston, 1970). [photocopy]

Gary D. Schmidt, William Bradford: Plymouth&rsquos Faithful Pilgrim (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1999). [a book for young readers]

Jerome D. Segel and R. Andrew Pierce, The Wampanoag Genealogical History of Martha&rsquos Vineyard, Massachusetts (Baltimore, Md., 2003).

Marcia Sewall, The Pilgrims of Plimoth (New York, 1986, rep. 1996). Children&rsquos book.

Hubert Kinney Shaw, Families of the Pilgrims (Boston, 1956).

Ruth Wilder Sherman and Robert S. Wakefield, Plymouth Colony Probate Guide: Where to find Wills and Related Data For 800 People of Plymouth Colony 1620 &ndash 1691 (Warwick, R.I., 1983).

Mary B. Sherwood, Pilgrim A Biography of William Brewster (Falls Church, Va., 1982).

C. H. Simmons Jr., Plymouth Colony Records: Volume 1: Wills and Inventories, 1633-1669 (Rockland, Me., 1996, rep. 2011).

Ashbel Steele, Chief of the Pilgrims: or The Life and Time of William Brewster, Ruling Elder of the Pilgrim Company that Founded New Plymouth, the Parent Colony of New England, in 1620 (Philadelphia, 1857).

Francis R. Stoddard, The Truth About the Pilgrims (New York, 1952).

Channing S. Swan, Background of &ldquoThe Pilgrim Movement&rdquo as Revealed by Visits to Places in Europe of Mayflower Interest (S.n., 1958). Typescript with photos, oversize.

Mary Alice Tenney, The Pilgrims: A Selected List of Works in the Public Library of the City of Boston (Boston, 1920). [photocopy]

Milton E. Terry and Anne Borden Harding, comp., Alden Gamaliel Beaman, Velma H. Terry, and Willard Newell Woodward, eds., Mayflower Ancestral Index, Volume I [Descendants of the Families: Brewster, Chilton, Eaton, Samuel Fuller, More, Rogers, Soule, White] [no longer accepted as sole proof of a Mayflower lineage]

A True Relation concerning the Estate of New-England as it was Presented to his Ma tie (ms., ca. 1634 rep. Boston, 1886). [Pamphlet reprinted from the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 40 [1886].

Terry Tucker, Bermuda &ndash Unintended Destination (Bermuda, 1978, 1982).

J. W. Verburgt, The Pilgrim Fathers&rsquo at Leyden (Holland) (Leyden, The Netherlands, 1955). Paperback.

Alvin G. Weeks, Massasoit of the Wampanoags with a Brief Commentary on Indian Character and Sketches of Other Great Chiefs, Tribes and Nations Also a Chapter on Samoset, Squanto and Hobamock, Three Early Native Friends of the Plymouth Colonists (Fall River, Mass., 1920).

David K. Weiner, History Makers In Their Own Words (Baltimore, 2005). [on John Alden]

Dorothy Wentworth, The Alden Family in the Alden House (Duxbury, Mass., 1980).

Henry White, Indian Battles: with Incidents in the Early History of New England, Containing Thrilling and Stirring Narratives of Battles, Captivities, Escapes, Ambuscades, Assaults, Massacres, and Depredations of the Indians. The Habits, Customs, and Traits of Character Peculiar to the Indian Race. The Life and Exploits of Capt. Miles Standish The History of King Phillip&rsquos War, and Personal and Historical Incidents of the Revolutionary War (New York, 1859).

Gertrude Whittier, The Good Ship Mayflower (S.n., 1933).

Erastus Edward Williamson, The &ldquoMaster Williamson&rdquo of The &ldquoMayflower&rdquo Pilgrims: Who He Was and His Relationship to Timothy Williamson, Senior of Marshfield, Mass. (Hyde Park, Mass., 1917).

George F. Willison, Saints and Strangers Being the Lives of the Pilgrim Fathers & Their Families, with their Friends & Foes & an Account of Their Posthumous Wanderings in Limbo, Their Final Resurrection & Rise to Glory & the Strange Pilgrimages of Plymouth Rock (New York, 1945).

Edward Winslow, Hypocrisie Unmasked A True Relation of the Proceedings of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Against Samuel Gorton of Rhode Island (London, 1646 rep. Providence, 1916).

William Copley Winslow, &ldquoGovernor Edward Winslow: His Part and Place in Plymouth Colony&rdquo reprinted from the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record (July 1896).

Justin Winsor, The Surrender of the Bradford Manuscript (Cambridge, Mass., 1897).

Justin Winsor, Elder William Brewster and Other Notes (Cambridge, Mass., 1887). Pamphlet in folder.

Judith Lloyd Yero, The Mayflower Compact (Washington, D.C., 2006). Children&rsquos book.

Alexander Young, Chronicles of The Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth, from 1602-1625 (Boston, 1844 rep., 1974). Paperback.

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Court Orders [1633-1691] (Boston, 1855-1856), v. 1-6. [oversized]

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Judicial Acts. 1633-1692 (Boston, 1857), v. 7. [oversized]

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Miscellaneous Records. 1633-1689 (Boston, 1857), v. 8. [oversized]

David Pulsifer, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Acts of the Commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, 1643-1678/9 (Boston, 1859), v. 9-10. [oversized]

David Pulsifer, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Laws, 1623-1682 (Boston, 1861), v. 11. [oversized]

David Pulsifer, ed., Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England: Deeds Vol. I. 1620-1651 &c. (Boston, 1861), v. 12. [oversized]

Below is a list of all the passengers on board the Mayflower that ultimately sailed to New England in 1620 as given by William Bradford. The table is arranged in alphabetical order for quick access with a brief account of each passenger. To find more detailed information regarding each passenger, click on the passenger's name. To understand more about the date this list was created, see our research article.

The list contains all the latest data on each of the Mayflower passengers. Each entry usually includes the parentage (if known), birth, death, and marriage(s). It is noted whether the men had signed the Compact and whether the passenger left any known descendants beyond their children.

This is meant to be a quick reference guide and authority of the facts presented. It is the culmination of all the scholarship since the re-discovery of the Bradford manuscript history published first in 1856. It is this manuscript that is the basis for who is ultimately a passenger or not. There is no other source to corroborate it. Bradford calls several single young men hired seamen, cooper, etc. He treats them as "passengers" possibly because the Company hired them. There are other men who are the officers and crew of the ship. Few of these men are known and are not considered passengers even though they, too, had to stay in Plymouth Colony the first winter where half of them met their death as did the passengers. For this reason, the General Society of Mayflower Descendants does not recognize for membership anyone who descends from any officer or crew. Only the ship's Master, Christopher Jones, is known to have any descendants – though some have claimed him as an ancestor, no one has published or documented such a claim (though we welcome any such documentation).

The goal will be to gather all documents created by each passenger and those that reference them along with all known articles or books published on them. If you should have any additional material not reflected here, please email the office so we may update our information.

ISBN 13: 9780260870513

Attwood, Francis Gilbert

This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Excerpt from Attwood's Pictures: An Artist's History of the Last Ten Years of the Nineteenth Century

Ran cis gilbert attwood was born in Jamaica Plain, F Mass., on the 29th of September, 1856, and died on the 3oth of April, 1900, in the house Where he was born. He entered the class of 1878 at Harvard, but left college at the end of his junior year and began the study of art. The Harvard Lampoon was started during his sophomore year, and his first work appeared in that journal. After leav ing college he studied under Dr. Rimmer and at the Boston Art Museum.

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This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.

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Demonstrators walk up the U.S. Supreme Court steps to voice opposition to Judge Amy Coney Barrett’s nomination to the court on Wednesday, September 30, 2020. Caroline Brehman/CQ-Roll Call, Inc/Getty Images

The centennial of women’s suffrage in the United States arrives at a moment when many Americans are renewing a civil rights movement to assert that “Black Lives Matter.” Justifiably, the story of women’s liberation is being revisited as more than the unbearable whiteness of the suffragettes and the bra burners. In a country where the killing of Breonna Taylor has yet to receive legal recognition, there is little patience for the victories and complaints of white, often college-educated women. Books such as Mikki Kendall’s Hood Feminism: Notes from the Women That a Movement Forgot rightly receive praise for attention overdue to the diversity of women change makers.

Then again, this is a time of grief and rage for many second-wave feminists themselves. Christine Blasey Ford and Anita Hill have long since left Capitol Hill, but Justice Kavanaugh has mounted the bench and Joe Biden is the nation’s best hope for unseating the pussy-grabber-in-chief. “Warren has a plan for that” T-shirts are at the back of the drawer with yesteryear’s “Stacey Abrams for Governor” and “I’m with Her.” Justice Ginsburg, may your memory be a blessing.

Also on the rise are books that grapple as much with the shortcomings of second-wave feminism as with its accomplishments. As is often the case for women’s writing, reflection and analysis have been worked out in the form of the novel. I’m thinking of the intergenerational wrestling that occurs within Jennifer Weiner’s Mrs. Everything, Ann Patchett’s The Dutch House, and Tara Westover’s Educated: A Memoir. Margaret Atwood’s The Testaments, a sequel to The Handmaid’s Tale, is one such retrospective on second-wave feminism.

Readers of the 1985 Handmaid’s Tale will recall the novel as a dystopic experimental mating of two anxious cultural movements of their moment: a white Cambridge-and-Ann-Arbor feminism with an aspirational “family values” Christian right. Atwood shows how these mutually repulsed bedfellows were also oddly synergistic. The Republic of Gilead is the result of opportunists of the new right seizing the opportunity to bring females under the “protection” of an explicitly patriarchal rule. Here, women with reproductive potential become wards of a state-sponsored matriarchy that instructs them in their grim lot of surrogacy. In the novel, our idiosyncratic protagonist, Offred, is reduced to functional anonymity in her long red cloak and white Dutch bonnet. Within, she rages and scrambles in her attempts to grasp breath and the life she had lived “before.”

Offred, the Handmaid, tells her tale as an eyewitness account. The Aunts, primarily Lydia and Elizabeth, oversee the “re-education” of women who have to be taught to forget they ever had a bank card or a family to call their own. These disciplinary Aunts in brown train the Handmaids for a new regime of terror and isolation. They are to keep their distance from the Marthas, the housekeepers and cooks. And the “Econowives”? No one really wants to know. Offred is desperate to feel her way to fellow resistance in the hermetically sealed new world. But the men of Gilead—the Guardians, the Eyes (the secret police)—have every interest in her surveillance. The form this availability takes is not always clean.

As a Handmaid, Offred is also a piece of tail. Her assigned lot in Gilead is to perform as a maternal surrogate for a Commander and his Wife when the latter cannot conceive. It happens that the reproductive site that Offred fulfills is that of Serena Joy, a former televangelist. Reading The Handmaid’s Tale for The New Republic, cultural analyst Sarah Jones draws a direct line between Serena Joy and Paula White. “Her existence is proof of American fundamentalism’s durability, and a reminder that it could not thrive without the enthusiastic backing of women,” writes Jones. 1 Offred’s own observations bring to mind Phyllis Schlafly. “[Serena] doesn’t make speeches anymore,” she notes. “She stays in her home, but it doesn’t seem to agree with her. How furious she must be, now that she’s been taken at her word” (Handmaid, 56).

Atwood’s skill as a writer is on full display in The Handmaid’s Tale. She defers and frustrates her readers’ drive for best-seller gratification. The novel is nearing its end when Offred discloses a key event: “after the catastrophe, when they shot the president and machine-gunned the congress, and the army declared a state of emergency. They blamed it on the Islamic fanatics, at the time” (174). Just how the (male) Commanders and Guardians have staged a successful coup against the U.S. republic is not revealed. Nor is how Gilead came to its end—disclosed only is that the regime did end—for us to know.

In The Testaments, Atwood extends the plot of The Handmaid’s Tale both forward and backward in time. She provides the narrative satisfaction of just how Commanders and Guardians staged their successful coup against American liberal democracy, circa 1985.

As in The Handmaid’s Tale, the narrative voice is confessional. But like the Christian Bible, and unlike the original novel, this later book is composed of multiple first-person vantage points. New female voices render the narrative of how Gilead was formed, and the causes of its demise.

Aunt Lydia, foundational to the new theo-dispensation, is a key storyteller. Her confession reveals a pragmatist, not a true believer. (Of the four founding Aunts, only Vidala worked with zeal to realize the vision of Gilead.) Lydia had been a judge in Washington, D.C., an advocate for and practitioner of family law, before being swept up in the coup. Her life before Gilead evokes that of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Hillary Rodham and other first-generation women who entered and changed the legal profession. The feminism of the 1980s invested in formal and institutional mechanisms of equality to make society and law gender neutral. (Add Rodham: A Novel, by Curtis Sittenfeld, to the list of books in which white women can’t stop looking back.)

Under conditions of gross coercion, Lydia was sufficiently self-disciplined during a time of crisis to bargain for survival by establishing Gilead’s shadow matriarchy. She co-opts power from male privilege under the Christian logic of gender complementarity. In order for the women’s sphere to be truly distinct, she maintains, it must be woman-administered.

Lydia invents “laws, uniforms, slogans, hymns, names” for Gilead and reports her proposals to the Commander. “For those concepts he approved, he took the credit” (177–78). In the separate sphere that she walls off from male surveillance, the Aunts oversee the training in pronatal and subservient female Christian education. As she institutionalizes the logic of biblical womanhood, she and the Commander play one another for dupes. The Aunts enjoy the meager privileges of relative autonomy and tea at the Schlafly Café. Some will recognize the repurposing of buildings at Harvard and Radcliffe. “Veritas” has been painted out in favor of a surveilling eye. Atwood winks. Foucault shrugs. He knows it has always been thus.

The regime in Gilead is a biblical, Pauline Protestantism. Even so, the community, with its libraries, hints at bygone communities of Catholic women religious. This can be an occasion for insider anti-Catholic jokes, as when Aunt Lydia hides her personal papers in her research on the Apologia Pro Vita Sua. (“ ‘Such a notorious heretic,’ ” she is chastised. “ ‘Know your enemy,’ ” Lydia curtly replies [313].)

Aunt Lydia grows old and increases her substantial power. Her humiliation includes the dismantling of her prior commitments to feminism and political liberalism. In her adult realism, Lydia looks back with shame. “Stupid, stupid, stupid: I’d believed all that claptrap about life, liberty, democracy, and the rights of the individual I’d soaked up at law school. As if they were eternal verities and we would always defend them. I’d depended on that, as if on a magic charm” (116). Atwood leaves it up to the reader to judge whether such survival was shrewd or scheming. “Did I hate the structure we were concocting?” writes Lydia in her testament. “On some level, yes: it was a betrayal of everything we’d been taught in our former lives, and of all that we’d achieved. Was I proud of what we managed to accomplish, despite the limitations? Also, on some level, yes. Things are never simple” (178).

The Aunts’ power depends upon the rule of gendered elite spheres in which privileged young women are socialized through “texts of terror” from the Bible, rendering them fit to serve as Wives of men of the Commander caste. But the machinery of Atwood’s plot (and Lydia’s eventual revenge) depends upon its exception. The founding generation is aging, and for Gilead to survive, some women of the second generation must learn to read and to write. Lydia calls select younger women to the exceptional status of “Aunt,” where they will maintain the hard regime. The novel is spliced with first-hand witnesses of these women, who would facilitate the routinization (or the fall?) of Gilead’s empire.

As the Trump/Pence ticket gained momentum, The Handmaid’s Tale drove to the top of Amazon’s best-seller list, overtaking George Orwell’s 1984. I recall this well because in 2016, in advance of the presidential election, I taught The Handmaid’s Tale at the University of Oklahoma. The class was composed mostly of evangelical Christian young women. They were on their way to degrees, and purity rings were objects of discussion. Would the novel hold up? Would my students relate? Would they rebel? Mostly, they were intrigued by Atwood’s world.

Beyond Norman, Oklahoma, the relationship between conservative Christianity and the American polity had been dormant since the 1990s. But with the Trump/Pence victory, The Handmaid’s Tale was renewed as a site for cultural debates. Some found clear connections. “Our President is a Playboy-brash predator his Vice-President is pure Gilead,” Emily Nussbaum wrote in The New Yorker. 2 Jia Tolentino also found unmistakable parallels. “The current President has bragged about grabbing women ‘by the pussy,’ ” she wrote, “and the Vice-President is a man who, as governor of Indiana, signed a law that required fetal remains of miscarriages and abortions, at any stage of pregnancy, to be cremated or buried.” 3 Others, such as Ross Douthat, refused the comparison. He dismissed The Handmaid’s Tale as a “feminist fever dream of how the religious right might rule,” and also declared its return impossibly time-bound. The world of Offred, wrote Douthat, required imagining a time “when a backlash against women in the workforce was a meaningful part of social-conservative politics.” 4 Just imagine.

A television adaptation of The Handmaid’s Tale raised the visibility of Offred’s red cloak. The show, produced by MGM and Hulu, was announced in April 2016 with a Super Bowl ad. It premiered a year later as an immensely successful multiseason series. (Atwood gave approval and aid.) The space of play that Atwood had created in 1985 claimed its power in the public square more than 30 years later. The red, hooded cloak appeared at the Kavanaugh hearings and has since been worn at protests around the globe. The persona of the handmaid provided a signifier of state-sanctioned misogyny and control of female reproductive freedom. Elisabeth Moss, the actor who portrayed Offred on TV, compared The Handmaid’s Tale to Trump’s administration. 5 Nussbuam commented on its “grotesque timeliness.” Especially in its opening, “the Trumpian parallels are hard to miss. It’s a story about a government that exploits fear of Islamic terrorists to crush dissent, then blots out women’s reproductive rights. It’s about fake news, political trauma, the abnormal normalized,” she wrote. “There’s a scene that so directly evoked the Women’s March that I had to hit Pause to collect myself.” 6 The present collapsed into Atwood’s past projection of the future.

Atwood has been reasonably transparent in acknowledging that, with The Testaments, she is feeding grist to the television drama. Critics have also been quick to grasp how imminently the sequel feeds production of The Handmaid’s Tale series. Tolentino’s comment is particularly poignant. She marks the shift in consumption of the story, “from a niche world that commanded mainstream interest into a mainstream phenomenon that seems to target a shrinking niche.” 7

Religious apologetics in The Testaments are slight, but they are present. Although Atwood is not kind to hypocrites, this novel teaches a pathos that brings back to me those dear, talented students of 2016. “God isn’t what they say,” one young protagonist tells her female friend. “[Becka] said you could believe in Gilead or you could believe in God, but you could not believe in both” (304). When a smart young person begins to reckon with the duplicity that inhabits her culture, whether conservative or liberal, she is bound to struggle with loneliness. As one protagonist describes her crisis of faith, a tenderness worthy of George Eliot breaks through: “If you’ve never had a faith, you will not understand what that means,” she confesses. “You feel as if your best friend is dying that everything that defined you is being burned away that you’ll be left all alone. You feel exiled, as if you are lost in a dark wood” (303).

Many find Atwood’s continued conversation with politics of gender and power to be more salutary than the novel is, unto itself. A sort of under-edited, lumbering quality to The Testaments also fits with the energy of dread that saturates life under COVID-19 in the late Trump administration. Still, The Testaments was joint winner of the 2019 Man Booker Prize, an honor that it shared with Bernardine Evaristo’s novel Girl, Woman, Other. It was also voted Best Fiction in the Goodreads Choice Awards 2019 and shortlisted for the 2020 Fiction Book of the Year in the British Book Awards.

But it is the original novel that will be handed down, hidden in closets with the inter-generational shibboleth, “Illegitimi non car-borundum.” Joyce Carol Oates captures its power, writing that “we don’t remember The Handmaid’s Tale because it was palatable. We remember it because it told us something uncomfortable about ourselves and the tragedies contained in our futures.” 8 Atwood has not abandoned this insight. In The Testaments, Aunt Lydia reflects on moral luck: “How can I have behaved so badly, so cruelly, so stupidly? you will ask. You yourself would never have done such things! But you yourself will never have had to” (303).

How to Locate French Civil Registration Records

Locate the Town/Commune
The important first step is to identify and approximate date of a birth, marriage, or death, and the city or town in France in which it occurred. Generally knowing just the department or region of France is not enough, although there are some cases such as the Tables d'arrondissement de Versailles which indexes the actes d'état civil across 114 communes (1843-1892) in the Yvelines department. Most civil registration records, however, are accessible only by knowing the town — unless, that is, you have the patience to wade page by page through the records of dozens if not hundreds of different communes.

Identify the Department
Once you have identified the town, the next step is to identify the department that now holds those records by locating the town (commune) on a map, or using an Internet search such as lutzelhouse department france. In large cities, such as Nice or Paris, there may be many civil registration districts, so unless you can identify the approximate location within the city where they lived, you may have no choice but to browse through the records of multiple registration districts.

With this information, next locate the online holdings of the Archives Départementales for your ancestor's commune, by either consulting an online directory such as French Genealogy Records Online, or use your favorite search engine, to search for the name of the archives (e.g. bas rhin archives) plus "etat civil."

Tables Annuelles and Tables Décennales
If the civil registers are available online through the departmental archives, there will generally be a function to search or browse to the correct commune. If the year of the event is known, then you can then browse directly to the register for that year, and then turn to the back of the register for the tables annuelles, an alphabetical listing of names and dates, organized by event type — birth (naissance), marriage (mariage), and death (décès), along with the entry number (not page number).

If you are not sure of the exact year of the event, then look for a link to the Tables Décennales, often referred to as the TD. These ten-year indexes list all names in each event category alphabetically, or grouped by the first letter of the last name, and then chronologically by the date of the event. With the information from the tables décennales you can then access the register for that particular year and browse directly to the portion of the register for the event in question, and then chronologically to the date of the event.

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