"I Flayed All the Chiefs who had Revolted and I Covered the Pillar with Their Skins. Their Young Men and Maidens I Consumed with Fire. " - Dread Proclamation of Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II
The Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II was known as one of the Assyrian Empire's greatest Kings, he greatly enlarged the empire's size and was a great patron of the arts who built lavish libraries and grape gardens in the empire's capital at Nineveh. However, like many of his ruthless ancestors, he prided himself on broadcasting his sometimes genocidal deeds on the great monuments to instill terror to the many people under his sway. The Assyrians were brutal conquerors and frequently enacted draconian punishments upon their subjugated peoples, ranging from deporting whole populations to the deserts to die to wholesale genocide of whole tribes and cities.
To punish Tela- one of the great cities that rebelled against him. In his inscriptions upon one of the great monuments Ashurnasirpal proclaimed:
" I built a pillar over against the city gate and I flayed all the chiefs who had revolted and I covered the pillar with their skins. Some I impaled upon the pillar on stakes and others I bound to stakes round the pillar. I cut the limbs off the officers who had rebelled. Many captives I burned with fire and many I took as living captives. From some I cut off their noses, their ears, and their fingers, of many I put out their eyes. I made one pillar of the living and another of heads and I bound their heads to tree trunks round about the city. Their young men and maidens I consumed with fire. The rest of their warriors I consumed with thirst in the desert of the Euphrates.
This treatment of defeated cities would become Ashurnasirpal II’s trademark and would include skinning insubordinate officials alive and nailing their flesh to the gates of the city and “dishonoring the maidens and boys” of the conquered cities before setting them on fire.
The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him bear witness to a considerable development of wealth and art. He was renowned for his brutality, using enslaved captives to build a new Assyrian capital at Kalhu (Nimrud) in Mesopotamia where he built many impressive monuments. He was also a shrewd administrator, who realized that he could gain greater control over his empire by installing Assyrian governors, rather than depending on local client rulers paying tribute. [ citation needed ]
Like previous Assyrian monarchs Ashurnasirpal campaigned along the Euphrates against Aramaeans and in the Diyala against Babylon. Ashurnasirpal II's brutal treatment of rebels ensured that even when his army was not present, there would not be further revolts. Further revolts would see the local monarch replaced with a governor loyal only to the Assyrian monarchy. Leading his army, which was typically composed of infantry (including auxiliaries and foreigners), heavy & light cavalry and chariots, Ashurnasirpal conquered the Hittites and Aramaean states of northern Syria. Α]
Ashurnasirpal II did not destroy the Phoenician/Canaanite cities he conquered. He was unsuccessful in his siege of Tyre, which under Ittobaal settled Kition in Cyprus and opened up trade routes throughout the Aegean, at Rhodes and Miletus. Through tribute they became sources for the raw materials of his armies and his building programs. Iron was needed for weapons, Lebanese cedar for construction and gold and silver for the payment of troops.
When considering the occupied citizens of his conquered territories, he wrote Β]
I resettled them in their abandoned towns and houses. I imposed more tribute and tax on them then ever before: horses, mules, oxen, sheep, wine and labor.
Kings in the Middle Ages
Life of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Death of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Short Biography of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Bio of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Genealogy - Lineage - Nickname - Born - Died - English - England - Monarch - Royal - Royalty - Famous Medieval King of the Middle Ages - History and interesting Information about the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Facts - Info - Era - Life - Times - Period - Famous Accomplishments - England - Age - Middle Ages - Medieval - King of England - Key Dates and events - English King - the Kings of England in the Middle Ages Achievements - Life of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Death of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Short Biography of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Bio of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Genealogy - Lineage - Nickname - Born - Died - English - England - Monarch - Royal - Royalty - Achievements - Famous Medieval King of the Middle Ages - History and interesting Information about the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Facts - Info - Era - Life - Family - Father - Mother - Children - Times - Period - England - Age - Middle Ages - Medieval - King of England - English King - Famous Accomplishments - the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Key Dates and events in the life of the Kings of England in the Middle Ages - Written By Linda Alchin
KING OF THE FOUR QUARTERS: DIVERSITY AS A RHETORICAL STRATEGY OF THE NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE
Recent studies of cultural interaction in the Assyrian empire have focused on the process of assimilation and the production of alterity. In this article, I argue that Assyrian royal rhetoric goes beyond emphasizing simple difference, instead using depictions of cultural diversity to demonstrate the truly universal nature of the empire. I elucidate this rhetoric by comparison the world fairs of the 19th and early 20th-centuries. These fairs advanced European imperialism by allowing visitors to explore the vast extent of empire. I argue that the enumeration of exotic tribute in Assyrian texts and the iconographic depiction of foreigners on reliefs similarly served to concretize Assyrian power. Unlike modern European empires, however, Assyrians did not consider ethnicity to be constitutive of citizenship. Thus, while the Assyrian approach to diversity was certainly instrumentalizing, it was also inclusive of cultural difference. In this respect, the Assyrian understanding of human diversity shares much in common with the way the empire treated other types of difference, ranging from topographic variation to biodiversity. From the imperial vantage point, each of these elements had the potential to be tamed in a way that highlighted the control of the king over the four quarters of the world.
The Bible and Archaeology
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In earlier issues The Good News has discussed various archaeological finds that illuminate and verify the biblical record. In this issue, we focus on the reign of Solomon, successor of David as king of Israel.
Once David had consolidated the Israelite empire, under the guidance of God he chose his son Solomon to be his successor. The reign of this young man became truly legendary. Under Solomon's rule Israel reached the pinnacle of wealth and power. Tragically, the glory of Solomon's kingdom barely outlasted his own lifetime.
Unusual period of peace
What does the Bible say about the wider international condition during Solomon's time? God had told David: "Behold, a son shall be born to you, who shall be a man of rest and I will give him rest from all his enemies all around. His name shall be Solomon [meaning 'peaceful'], for I will give peace and quietness to Israel in his days" (1 Chronicles 22:9 1 Chronicles 22:9 Behold, a son shall be born to you, who shall be a man of rest and I will give him rest from all his enemies round about: for his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quietness to Israel in his days.
American King James Version× , emphasis added throughout).
Was this a time of peace in Israel? What do the archaeological records show? From contemporary Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions, we find these once-powerful kingdoms afflicted by military weakness.
Assyria was occupied with constant battles against the Arameans. Internal strife over dynastic disputes further weakened the kingdom. "These Assyrian preoccupations," states Donald Wiseman, professor of Assyriology, "left David and Solomon free to extend their own territory into south Syria. The intruders from the Syrian desert impoverished Assyria under the aged Ashurnasirpal I . " (The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1979, Vol. 1, p. 334). Meanwhile, the Assyrians held the Babylonians in check, blocking any Chaldean intrusion into Israelite territory.
On Israel's southern flank, the Egyptians were also experiencing a general decline. Commenting on the beginning of this long period of weakness, one authority observes: "After the empire [of the previous centuries], Egypt never regained her former dominance in the eastern Mediterranean world . In large part this foreign weakness arose from domestic weakness. Egypt kept breaking up into smaller states . From the time of Samuel to the fall of the kingdom of Israel, Egypt was normally in a state of divided weakness" (The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Abingdon, Nashville,1962, Vol. 2, p. 52).
This international backdrop is faithfully reflected in the biblical account. In fact, the weak priestly dynasty ruling Egypt made great concessions to Solomon because of his increasing power and influence.
Opinion among scholars is divided over which pharaoh was Solomon's contemporary. Eugene Merrill believes it was Siamun. ". Siamun soon realized that Solomon was to be ruler of a kingdom which would rival or even exceed his own in power and influence. He therefore decided it was to his best advantage to cultivate amicable relations with the young monarch, even to the extent of recognizing him as an equal. That this is the case is clear from his willingness to provide his own daughter as a wife for Solomon, a concession almost without parallel in Egyptian history since it was a candid admission to the world of Egypt's weakness and conciliation. Normally Egyptian kings took foreign princesses but did not give up their own daughters to foreign kings" (Kingdom of Priests, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1987, p. 292. Compare to David Rohl, A Test of Time: The Bible-From Myth to History, Arrow Books, London, 1996, pp. 173-185).
It is clear from the history of the neighboring countries that an unusual era of peace enveloped Israel, enabling Solomon to greatly develop and enrich his nation through many profitable commercial alliances.
Prosperous alliance with Phoenicia
Not only did Solomon lack foreign enemies, he found a powerful ally in King Hiram, a faithful friend of his father, David.
"Now Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants to Solomon, because he heard that they had anointed him king in place of his father, for Hiram had always loved David . So the LORD gave Solomon wisdom, as He had promised him and there was peace between Hiram and Solomon, and the two of them made a treaty together" (1 Kings 5:1 1 Kings 5:1 And Hiram king of Tyre sent his servants to Solomon for he had heard that they had anointed him king in the room of his father: for Hiram was ever a lover of David.
American King James Version× , 12).
Regarding this treaty, a thousand years later the Jewish historian Josephus noted that copies of this alliance could be read in the public archives in Tyre. "The copies of these epistles," writes Josephus, "remain at this day, and are preserved not only in our books, but among the Tyrians also insomuch that if any one would know the certainty about them, he may desire of the keepers of the public records of Tyre to shew him them, and he will find what is there set down to agree with what we have said" (Antiquities of the Jews, Book VIII, Chapter II, Section 7).
In Solomon's day, the Israelites were just beginning to clearly define their own culture. To initiate such vast projects as the temple (see G. Ernest Wright, "The Stevens' Reconstruction of the Solomonic Temple," Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 18, 1955, pp. 41-44), fortified towns and maritime trade, Solomon could have found no more enterprising a people to help than the Phoenicians.
One author explains, "Solomon was a thoroughly progressive ruler. He had a flair for exploiting foreign brains and foreign skill and turning them to his own advantage. That was the secret, otherwise scarcely understandable, of how the [nation] . developed by leaps and bounds into a first class economic organism. Here also was to be found the secret of his wealth which the Bible emphasises. Solomon imported smelting technicians from Phoenicia. Huram . , a craftsman from Tyre, was entrusted with the casting of the Temple furnishings (1 Kings 7:13 1 Kings 7:13 And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre.
American King James Version× , 14). In Ezion-Geber Solomon founded an important enterprise for overseas trade . The Phoenicians had behind them practical experience accumulated over many centuries. Solomon therefore sent to Tyre for specialists for his dockyards and sailors for his ships: 'And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea. ' (1 Kings 9:27 1 Kings 9:27 And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon.
American King James Version× )" (Werner Keller, The Bible As History, Bantam, New York, 1980, pp. 211-212. On Ezion-Geber, see Gary D. Pratico, "Where Is Ezion-Geber?", Biblical Archaeology Review, September/October 1986, pp. 24-35 Alexander Flinder, "Is This Solomon's Seaport?", Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 1989, pp. 31-42).
Archaeologists who have studied the remains of Solomon's time clearly see the Phoenician influence which the Bible, instead of hiding the facts, candidly admits. "Where the Israelites replaced Canaanite towns, the quality of housing was noticeably poorer," says The New Bible Dictionary, "though standards improved rapidly in the days of David and Solomon, partly through Phoenician influence . The commonest-type house . has become known generally as the four-room house, which appears to be an original Israelite concept" (Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1982, p. 490).
Great construction projects
Throughout Israel, Solomon fortified the great cities: "And this is the reason for the labor force which King Solomon raised: to build the house of the LORD, his own house, the Millo, the wall of Jerusalem, Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer" (1 Kings 9:15 1 Kings 9:15 And this is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised for to build the house of the LORD, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer.
American King James Version× ).
Regarding Jerusalem, as long as the Temple Mount is disputed between Arabs and Jews, no excavations are permitted in the immediate area where Solomon's temple existed. But the Bible mentions three other cities that Solomon expanded and fortified. Does any archaeological evidence support the biblical record?
The first city mentioned is Hazor, a northern Israelite habitation that was lost in time until a century ago. The first extensive excavations were done under the direction of archaeologist Yigael Yadin in the 1950s. He writes about Hazor, "What I'm about to say may sound like something out of a detective story, but it's true. Our great guide was the Bible. As an archaeologist, I can't imagine anything more exciting than to work with the Bible in one hand and a spade in the other. This was the real secret of our discovery of the Solomonic period" (Hazor, Random House, New York, 1975, p. 187).
Yadin found the elaborate and sturdy main gate and part of the wall, which archaeologists now call the Solomonic style of architecture. Eventually, he found the same Solomonic-type gate in all three of the cities mentioned in the Bible.
In the most recent excavation of Megiddo in 1993, archaeologists Israel Finkelstein and David Ussishkin report, "The grandeur of Solomon's Megiddo is clearly evident in the archaeological finds at Megiddo-in large palaces, with fine, smooth-faced ashlar masonry and in elaborate decorative stonework" ("Back to Megiddo," Biblical Archaeology Review, January/February 1994, p. 36).
Archaeologist Bryant Wood sums up the discoveries: "Probably the most famous of the architectural finds related to the kingdom period are the early tenth-century 'Solomonic gates' at Megiddo, Hazor and Gezer, built by David's son Solomon . " ("Scholars Speak Out," Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 1995, p. 34). So the biblical account accords nicely with the archaeological evidence.
Enter the queen of Sheba
One of the most colorful accounts about Solomon is relegated to myth by some scholars. It concerns the visit of the queen of Sheba.
"Now when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the LORD, she came to test him with hard questions. She came to Jerusalem with a very great retinue, with camels that bore spices, very much gold, and precious stones and when she came to Solomon, she spoke with him about all that was in her heart. So Solomon answered all her questions there was nothing so difficult for the king that he could not explain it to her .
"Then she said to the king: 'It was a true report which I heard in my own land about your words and your wisdom. However I did not believe the words until I came and saw with my own eyes and indeed the half was not told me. Your wisdom and prosperity exceed the fame of which I heard. Happy are your men and happy are these your servants, who stand continually before you and hear your wisdom! Blessed be the LORD your God . ' Then she gave the king one hundred and twenty talents of gold, spices in great quantity, and precious stones. There never again came such abundance of spices as the queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon" (1 Kings 10:1-10 1 Kings 10:1-10  And when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon concerning the name of the LORD, she came to prove him with hard questions.  And she came to Jerusalem with a very great train, with camels that bore spices, and very much gold, and precious stones: and when she was come to Solomon, she communed with him of all that was in her heart.  And Solomon told her all her questions: there was not any thing hid from the king, which he told her not.  And when the queen of Sheba had seen all Solomon's wisdom, and the house that he had built,  And the meat of his table, and the sitting of his servants, and the attendance of his ministers, and their apparel, and his cupbearers, and his ascent by which he went up to the house of the LORD there was no more spirit in her.  And she said to the king, It was a true report that I heard in my own land of your acts and of your wisdom.  However, I believed not the words, until I came, and my eyes had seen it: and, behold, the half was not told me: your wisdom and prosperity exceeds the fame which I heard.  Happy are your men, happy are these your servants, which stand continually before you, and that hear your wisdom.  Blessed be the LORD your God, which delighted in you, to set you on the throne of Israel: because the LORD loved Israel for ever, therefore made he you king, to do judgment and justice.  And she gave the king an hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices very great store, and precious stones: there came no more such abundance of spices as these which the queen of Sheba gave to king Solomon.
American King James Version× ).
This story has been the inspiration for many paintings and movies, but does it have historical backing? Where was the kingdom of Sheba? Until this century, the sands of time very probably covered up much of this great kingdom of the past.
Yet it was well known by some of the classical Greek and Roman writers. "In happy Arabia," wrote Dionysius the Greek in A.D. 90, "you can always smell the sweet perfume of marvelous spices, whether it be incense or wonderful myrrh. Its inhabitants have great flocks of sheep in the meadows, and birds fly in from distant isles bringing leaves of pure cinnamon."
Another Greek historian, Diodorus (100 B.C.), writes: "These people surpass in riches and luxuries not only their Arab neighbors, but also the rest of the world. They drink out of cups made of gold and silver . The Sabeans enjoy this luxury because they are convinced that riches which come from the earth are the favor of the gods and should be shown to others."
The Roman Emperor Augustus actually sent an army of 10,000 men to southern Arabia to plunder this wealth. But the withering desert and frequent plagues decimated the army before they could arrive in the capital. They never fulfilled their mission.
Scholars generally agree that the kingdom of Sheba is located in the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, now called Yemen. The area is quite isolated and desolate now, but this has not always been the case. "The most prominent of the Arab states . during the first half of the 1st millennium B.C.," comments The New Bible Dictionary, "Sheba was ruled by mukarribs, priest-kings, who supervised both the political affairs and the polytheistic worship of the sun, moon and star gods. Explorations [in 1950-1953] . found some outstanding examples of Sabean art and architecture, especially the temple of the moon-god at Marib, the capital, which dates from the 7th century B.C. . " (p. 1087).
Until this century, this area of Yemen was largely off-limits to archaeologists. Now, up to 4,000 inscriptions of this ancient kingdom have come to light, confirming that one of the four nations in the area was called Sheba and that the population of at least one of its cities totaled a million.
This part of the world was not always dry and barren. It once had abundant water which irrigated the precious spice crops. The two most popular spices grown were frankincense (a resin of incense) and myrrh. The fragrant perfume of frankincense was used in temples and homes of the rich to ask favors from the gods. Myrrh was an indispensable oil used as a beauty aid to keep the skin smooth and soft, and was also used to embalm the dead. The Magi gave these two valuable spices to the infant Jesus as gifts fit for a newborn king (Matthew 2:11 Matthew 2:11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented to him gifts gold, and frankincense and myrrh.
American King James Version× ).
The evidence of abundant water in Sheba comes from the remains of a huge dam found in the area, and explains how it could be called "Happy Arabia" by the ancients.
"A gigantic dam blocked the river Adhanat in Sheba," writes Dr. Keller, "collecting the rainfall from a wide area. The water was then led off in canals for irrigation purposes, which was what gave the land its fertility. Remains of this technical marvel in the shape of walls over 60 feet high still defy the sand-dunes of the desert. Just as Holland is in modern times the Land of Tulips, so Sheba was then the Land of Spices, one vast fairy-like scented garden of the costliest spices in the world. In the midst of it lay the capital, which was called Marib. That was until 542 B.C.-then the dam burst. The importunate desert crept over the fertile lands and destroyed them" (The Bible As History, p. 225). This is the present state of most of the country. It has lost much of its fertility due to lack of water.
There is much to explore in this area of ancient Sheba, and it is still a dangerous place to go, but much scientific progress has been made. Investigations continue up to the present time. What the famed archaeologist W.F. Albright remarked about these excavations in 1953 still holds true: "They are in process of revolutionizing our knowledge of Southern Arabia's cultural history and chronology. Up to now the results to hand demonstrate the political and cultural primacy of Sheba in the first centuries after 1000 B.C." (Keller, p. 227).
As time goes by, more archaeological evidence continues to indicate that Solomon's reign was actually as magnificent as the Bible faithfully records. GN
Palassene, templene og andre bygninger som ble reist av ham, vitner om en betydelig utvikling av rikdom og kunst. Han var kjent for sin brutalitet ved å bruke slaveriske fanger til å bygge en ny assyrisk hovedstad i Kalhu ( Nimrud ) i Mesopotamia hvor han bygde mange imponerende monumenter. Han var også en smart administrator, som innså at han kunne få større kontroll over imperiet sitt ved å installere assyriske guvernører, i stedet for å avhenge av at lokale klienthersker hyllet.
I likhet med tidligere assyriske monarker kjempet Ashurnasirpal til Eufrat mot arameere og i Diyala mot Babylon . Ashurnasirpal IIs brutale behandling av opprørere sørget for at selv når hæren hans ikke var til stede, ville det ikke være ytterligere opprør. Videre opprør ville se at den lokale monarken ble erstattet med en guvernør som kun var lojal mot det assyriske monarkiet. Han ledet hæren sin, som vanligvis var sammensatt av infanteri (inkludert hjelpestoffer og utlendinger), tunge og lette kavalerier og vogner , og erobret Ashurnasirpal hetittene og de arameiske delene i Nord-Syria.
Ashurnasirpal II ødela ikke de fønikiske / kanaanittiske byene han erobret. Han lyktes ikke i beleiringen av Tyrus , som under Ittobaal bosatte Kition på Kypros og åpnet handelsruter over hele Egeerhavet, på Rhodos og Milet. Gjennom hyllest ble de kilder til råmaterialene til hans hærer og hans byggeprogrammer. Jern var nødvendig for våpen, libanesisk sedertre for konstruksjon og gull og sølv for betaling av tropper.
Da han vurderte de okkuperte innbyggerne i hans erobrede territorier, skrev han
Jeg bosatte dem i deres forlatte byer og hus. Jeg innførte mer hyllest og avgift på dem den gang før: hester, muldyr, okser, sauer, vin og arbeidskraft.
The Casablanca Conference, 1943
The Casablanca Conference was a meeting between U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the city of Casablanca, Morocco that took place from January 14–24, 1943. While Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin received an invitation, he was unable to attend because the Red Army was engaged in a major offensive against the German Army at the time. The most notable developments at the Conference were the finalization of Allied strategic plans against the Axis powers in 1943, and the promulgation of the policy of “unconditional surrender.”
The Casablanca Conference took place just two months after the Anglo-American landings in French North Africa in November 1942. At this meeting, Roosevelt and Churchill focused on coordinating Allied military strategy against the Axis powers over the course of the coming year. They resolved to concentrate their efforts against Germany in the hopes of drawing German forces away from the Eastern Front, and to increase shipments of supplies to the Soviet Union. While they would begin concentrating forces in England in preparation for an eventual landing in northern France, they decided that first they would concentrate their efforts in the Mediterranean by launching an invasion of Sicily and the Italian mainland designed to knock Italy out of the war. They also agreed to strengthen their strategic bombing campaign against Germany. Finally, the leaders agreed on a military effort to eject Japan from Papua New Guinea and to open up new supply lines to China through Japanese-occupied Burma.
On the final day of the Conference, President Roosevelt announced that he and Churchill had decided that the only way to ensure postwar peace was to adopt a policy of unconditional surrender. The President clearly stated, however, that the policy of unconditional surrender did not entail the destruction of the populations of the Axis powers but rather, “the destruction of the philosophies in those countries which are based on conquest and the subjugation of other people.”
The policy of demanding unconditional surrender was an outgrowth of Allied war aims, most notably the Atlantic Charter of August 1941, which called for an end to wars of aggression and the promotion of disarmament and collective security. Roosevelt wanted to avoid the situation that had followed the First World War, when large segments of German society supported the position, so deftly exploited by the Nazi party, that Germany had not been defeated militarily, but rather, had been “stabbed in the back” by liberals, pacifists, socialists, communists, and Jews. Roosevelt also wished to make it clear that neither the United States nor Great Britain would seek a separate peace with the Axis powers.
Prince Philip Married Queen Elizabeth. So Why Wasn't He Called a King?
P rince Philip’s life changed completely when Queen Elizabeth ascended to the British throne after her father’s death in 1952.
Overnight, the Duke of Edinburgh, who died on Friday, went from being a Naval officer and young husband to a man expected to perform royal duties and defer to his wife in the public eye&mdashall under the title of Prince Consort rather than King of England.
Upon marrying the Queen, Prince Philip dropped his title as Prince of Greece and Denmark to become the Duke of Edinburgh. But when Queen Elizabeth took the throne, Philip did not become the King of England, thanks to a longstanding rule in the royal family which decrees that a man who marries a reigning queen will only be referred to as a Prince Consort.
A ruling queen’s husband is called a Prince Consort because the title of King is only given to a monarch who inherits the throne and can reign. Therefore, the title of King will go to Prince Charles, who will succeed Queen Elizabeth.
In 1957, Philip, then known only as the Duke of Edinburgh, officially became a Prince after Queen Elizabeth bestowed the title upon him. The decision was famously depicted in the Netflix hit series The Crown&mdashcoming after a dispute about Philip’s importance and standing within his own home.
Women who marry into the royal family have to follow slightly different rules. The wife of a ruling King would take the title of Queen Consort, a symbolic role that would bar her from ruling as a monarch but refer to her as queen. For example, Kate Middleton is likely to become Queen Catherine when Prince William takes over the throne, though she would not actually rule as Queen.
Focus on Retail
The economic downturn of the 1980s caused Hbc to rethink its priorities and, like many other firms, return to its core business. Non-retail businesses were sold off. The pace of retail acquisition increased with takeovers of Zellers (1978), Simpsons (1978), Fields (1978), Robinsons (1979), Towers/Bonimart (1990), Woodwards (1994), and K-Mart Canada (1998) following in the tradition of Cairns (1921), Morgans (1960) and Freimans (1971).