Paraguay Population - History

Paraguay Population - History


Paraguay's population is distributed unevenly throughout the country. The vast majority of the people live in the eastern region, most within 160 kilometers (100 miles) of Asuncion, the capital and largest city. The Chaco, which accounts for about 60% of the territory, is home to less than 2% of the population. Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America. About 95% of the people are of mixed Spanish and Guaran’ Indian descent. Little trace is left of the original Guaran’ culture except the language, which is understood by 90% of the population. About 75% of all Paraguayans speak Spanish. Guarani and Spanish are official languages. Germans, Japanese, Koreans, ethnic Chinese, Arabs, Brazilians, and Argentines are among those who have settled in Paraguay.


6,995,655 (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Age structure:

0-14 years: 36.7% (male 1,304,115/female 1,260,560)
15-64 years: 58.1% (male 2,043,509/female 2,023,317)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 168,554/female 195,600) (2009 est.)

Median age:

total: 21.9 years
male: 21.6 years
female: 22.2 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.364% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Birth rate:

28.17 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 53

Death rate:

4.46 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 202

Net migration rate:

-0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 90


urban population: 60% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 24.68 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 89
male: 28.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.77 years
country comparison to the world: 73
male: 73.19 years
female: 78.49 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate:

3.75 children born/woman (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 51

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.6% (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 70

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

21,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 78

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 1,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 79

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2009)


noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups:

mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%


Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)


Spanish (official), Guarani (official)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 94.9%
female: 93% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)

Education expenditures:

4% of GDP (2004)

country comparison to the world: 104


Paraguay still haunted by cataclysmic war that nearly wiped it off the map

L atin America’s bloodiest war ended with a single gunshot fired on the lonely banks of the Aquidabán Niguí – a stream flowing through dense subtropical forest in what is now the Cerro Corá national park in north-eastern Paraguay.

After a cross-country chase lasting months, Brazilian troops had finally caught up with Paraguay’s president and military commander, Marshal Francisco Solano López, and shot him dead on 1 March 1870.

He final words were supposedly: “I die with my homeland!” – and it was no exaggeration.

The six-year War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870), in which Paraguay confronted the combined forces of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, had inflicted apocalyptic damage on the landlocked nation.

Roughly two-thirds of Paraguay’s population perished during the conflict, including around 90% of its men. Brazil and Argentina would go on to annex enormous swaths of Paraguayan territory.

As Paraguay prepares to mark the 150th anniversary of the conflict with book launches, conferences and concerts – and official commemoration ceremonies on Sunday in Asunción, Paraguay’s capital, and at the Cerro Corá national park – the impact of the war is still strongly felt.

A bust of the former Paraguayan president Francisco Solano López overlooking the spot where he was killed by the Aquidabán Niguí River in 1870. Photograph: William Costa/The Guardian

“I don’t think any other Latin American country has gone through what Paraguay experienced,” said historian Herib Caballero. “That’s why it has left such a strong mark on the Paraguayan collective consciousness.”

One legacy of the conflict is a continuing national obsession with buried treasure.

Known as plata yvyguy in Jopará – the mixture of Spanish and native Guaraní widely spoken in Paraguay – caches of gold were supposedly left behind by families fleeing the foreign invaders and are still eagerly sought by modern treasure hunters.

The war also left a lasting impact above ground. After the conflict, tracts of public land were sold off to foreign companies to pay off war debt imposed on Paraguay, said Ernesto Benítez, a leader in the small-scale farmers’ movement.

“From 1870 onwards, the dominant economic system has been that of large estates,” he said. “This has greatly excluded small-scale farmer and indigenous populations. It’s a historical problem that still affects us.”

At least 14% of Paraguayan land is in the hands of Brazilian farmers, a group that wields enormous economic and political power.

“The war greatly affected our diplomatic relations we’ve almost never been able to stand up to the Brazilians,” said Jorge Rubiani, an architect and historian.

Further evidence of this imbalance is seen in the joint Paraguayan-Brazilian ownership of the Itaipú dam – the world’s most productive hydroelectric facility. The dam, in theory, should provide equal benefits to the two countries, but one recent study found that due to skewed terms in the Itaipú Treaty, Paraguay lost $75.4bn to Brazil from 1985 to 2018.

Afro- Paraguayans of Paraguay, Central South America.

Afro Paraguayans of African Ancestry in Paraguay , Central South America .

Afro- Paraguayans are African Descendants in Paraguay , Central South America and they were captured by the Europeans especially the Spanish from different parts of Africa such as Angola , Nigeria , Mozambique , Kenya , Equatorial Guinea , Cameroon , Central African Republic , Gabon , Togo , Niger , Burkina Faso , some parts of Senegal and Benin only few came from Ghana and Guinea Bissau . It is said Mostly Afro- Paraguayans are of Kamba , Fon , Tikar , Bamileke , Yao , Nguni , Bubi , Adja , Yoruba , Igbo , Ibibio , Wolof and other African ethnic groups . Afro- Paraguayans can be found in Kamba Cua also spelled as Camba Cua outside Asuncion , Kamba Kokue outside of Paraguari , the city of Emboscada . It is believed Afro- Paraguayans Historians believed that neo- Africanization , of Camba Cua and by extension Kamba Kokue and Emboscada , presents unquestionably a positive development for Paraguay’s Afro descendants . It is said up to date the essence of Kamba Cua Culture is Identified with drumming and the accompanying dance , while in Kamba Kokue or Camba Kokue and Emboscada only vague notions of a ‘’ Black’’ past form a common Identity . Afro- Paraguayans sold into Slavery by Spanish were considered mostly of Yoruba and Ibibio of Nigeria, Igbo of Nigeria , Ambundu , Umbundu of Angola , Bubi of Equatorial Guinea , Fon and Adja of Togo and Benin and Kamba of Kenya Ancestry . It is said Afro- Paraguayans were concentrated in the Eastern part of Paraguay which is part of their 3 communities . The First Africans arrived from Africa to Paraguay in the 1520s It is said they mainly raised cattle ranches , they had agricultural farm, their population increased by local mating and mixing . In the 1570s, Paraguay had 3,000 Mulattos or half casts and Mestizos by the 1650s , the black population was counted at 15,000 an Increase , In 1782, there was a decline to 10,840 then Paraguay developed a system known as Amparo . It is said Freed Africans could not pay tribute to the State would be placed under the government or religious order to work designated lands . The Amparo was believed to be like a status for Enslaved Africans and Emboscada was founded based on Military Purpose , the War of Triple Alliance in 1864, Afro- Paraguayans were used in the Paraguay Military and they became Soldiers . It is believed In 1869, all enslaved Africans declared their freedom about thirty- there point three percent ( 33.3%) of their population were murdered in the War .

Dr. Jose Ignacio Telesca narration History about Afro- Paraguayans of Paraguay.

According to Jose Ignacio Telesca’s account , Enslaved Africans legally entered from the ensclavitas ports of Buenos Aires , Montevideo and Codora , Telesca claimed that those entered illegally came from Brazil . Thus , the Spanish Explorer known as Pedro de Mendoza reached Rio de Plata in the 16th Century and brought Enslaved Africans to Paraguay . However, The Population continued to Increase , as already in 1811, half of the Paraguayan populations was of African descent whether Enslaved or Freed, Several towns INclude Aregua , Emboscada and Guarambare were established as a black communities In Paraguay with the arrival of Aritgas who also arrived with an Enslaved Kambas from Keya , Uruguay to Paraguay In the 1820s , It is said they arrived in a recigment of 250 or more who accompained JoseAritgas .

The History of Afro- Paraguayans narrations of the African Descendants in Paraguay by Natalia Ruiz Diaz and John M. Lipski .

According to Natalia Ruiz Diaz , Black Communities have for the most part remained out of sight and out of mind in Paraguay , but now they are organising and claiming equal economic and social rights , while building an African Identity . The Paraguayans state does not recognized them as an ethnic minority , an Afro- Paraguayan General Secretary of Kamba kua known as Jose Carlos Medina, The Settlements in Kamba Kokue , Kamba Kua and period in 1782, Enslaved Africans have been brought from Africa since 1556 . Emboscada was founded in 1740 with the name of Emboscada de Padros Libres meaning the place of ambush of Freed blacks in Spanish , because ambushes frequently took place there , and Its first settlers were 500 Freed People of Africans similar communities grew up in Paraguari and other places in the region , Enslaved Africans kept on cattle ranches , Kamba Kua was settled by members a regiment of 250 lancers , both men and women , In 1820 It is believed the regiment went into exile in Paraguay with General Jose Artigas the revolutionary Independence leader of the Banda oriental in what is Present day Uruguay . According to John M. Liskpi account, Emboscada is a small city located in the Cordillera region of Paraguay . The History of Emboscada and the surrounding region dates back to the 16th Century . It is believed the 1520s Spanish settlers brought the First Africans to Present day Paraguay . Many of the Enslaved Africans were from Angola , Congo , Kenya , Nigeria , Equatorial Guinea , Mozambique , some parts of Senegal .Niger , Benin , Togo and Gabon . Paraguay had few from Ghana as well and also have few precious metals , there are three black communities in Paraguay , Kamba Cua , Kamba Kokue meaning “ Chacra de Negros” the black farm in Guarani language , and Emboscada . These are three communities in the Eastern Region of Paraguay . Paraguay has been developing Negritud de colores “ black colors” , that runs in different cities . It is said Afro- Latin American musician and dance with rescued African roots of this Continent . The Paraguayan Singer known as Marivi Vargas and his team of musicians , drummers and dancers from Kamba cua led by Lazaro Medina and offer a show that aims to make Afro- Paraguayan Culture a visible part of the collective African descent .

It is believed during the Colonial era , Afro- Paraguayans were known locally as Pardos . They were a Significant presence in Paraguay and , In 1785 , comprised the population of another towns such Aregua , Emboscada and Guarambare were originally established as black communities . Afro- Paraguayans achieved their freedom during Spanish rule , after Paraguay’s Independence in 1812 many were forced back into Slavery by Spanish then later in 1842 , It is believed Paraguayan government declared the Law of the Free Womb which stipulated that any children born of Enslaved Africans after that date were able to be freed on their 24th birthday this law was stimulated a raid .

The History of Afro- Paraguayans narrated by Mark Jacobs and Stephen Kioko.

According to Mark Jacobs on Afro- Paraguayans , Afro- Paraguayans are Paraguayans of African descent or African Ancestry . They can be found in the city of Camba Cua outside Asuncion , Kamba the Kokue outside of Paraguari , and the city of Emboscada . In the first decade of the 21s Century the notion that Paraguay has no black population which is false , Afro- Paraguayan dance group , the ballet Kamba Cua has its roots in Present day Kenya , which they give performance across the Country and in neighboring countries , and whose celebrations of St. Balthasar, Some historians believe that the neo- Africanization of Camba Cua , and by extension Kamba Kokue and Emboscada Afro- Paraguayans are considered as the Irrisible and expert drumming and dancing African descendants in the Americas. According to Stephen Kioko on Afro- Paraguayans , The Afro- Paraguayans of Kamba Ancestry in Kenya consists pf about 10,000 People has evolved into Sub-group of Akamba or Kamba Cua , an Important central department Afro- Paraguayans community in Paraguay , their history can be easily traceable back to the 1820 . Their ballet is only Afro- Paraguayan expression , and premiered at the folk festival peach Uruguay Yi sings in 1992 , where they won the Golden Charrua .

The History of Afro- Paraguans narrated by Sydney Chick , Les Du Monde , Celph Titled , Panocojams , Mas Kani and Muntu Baula Mathe Mabaso .

According to Sydney Chick’s account on Afro- Paraguayans , The Afro- Paraguayans can be found in Camba Cua or Kamba Cua , Kamba Kokue , the City of Emboscada and the vast majority Enslaved Africans were believed to be of Nigerian and Angolan origins . According to Les Du Monde account on Afro- Paraguayans , Since the Independence in 1811 , the presence of Citizens of African descents on Gurani soil has been systematically denied by the Paraguayan authorities . Excluded from the formal labor market , the descendants of Enslaved Africans , landed between the 16th and 19th Centuries , are gradually emerging from isolation in the wake of young leaders who it is believed they have not experienced the persecutions of the last totalitarian period from 1954 to 1989 futhermore , Enslaved Africans fought alongside during Uruguay and Paraguay’s War of Independece . According to Celph Titled of New Spain’s account , They only make two percent ( 2%) of the population , Mostly their African Ancestry comes from Angola and Nigeria and you can see , these people are very mixed with other ancestry . According to Mas Kani a Kamba native from Kenya’s account on Afro- Paraguayans , The Kambas in Paraguay , now forget the gospel song , Ikamba , enthusiastically sang by 2 young men who are visibly frothing with note and Superiority malady . Mas Kani quoted “ i will tell you something about Kamba that no history book in our education system will tell you “‘ . There is a large collection of Kamba population which has been living in Paraguay for almost 200 years , and established itself as an ancient community among the locals , with a population numbering close to 10,000 popularly known as Kamba Cua and Kamba Kokue , they are settled some 15km to the east of Paraguayan Capital Asuncion in municipality of Fernando de la Mora . It is actually reported that as early as 1500s some Africans were already in Paraguay as Slaves . Majority from West Africa , Central Africa and Kenya . The Kamba’s of Paraguay are part of the Large Afro- Paraguayan community which is Paraguayans of African descendant .

It is believed The Kambas first arrived as Soldiers accompanying the revolutionary Independence fighter , General Jose Gervasio Artigas by the general as part of his regiment for their agility , bravery and unparalleled dexterity in war . The Kamba community in Paraguay is widely respected for its staunch loyalty to its Identity and Culture , promoted through its traditional festivals . They practice dairy and secondarily agriculture in addition to being assimilated to other activities of the nationhood building . They often perform Kamaba style dances , complete with decorated yellow customs and drums , which attracts a lot of Spectators and buzz across South America , and in their premier participation of the Folk festival peach “ Uruguay sings in 1992 ‘’, they own the Golden Charrua and their well known or popular performances , almost similar to the Kilumi dance or lately the moves by Kativui , Ken Wa Maria , the polyrhythmic drum beats are spiced with dramatic energetic leaps and even at times somersaults.

According to Muntu Budula Mathe Mabaso ‘s account , It is believed Afro- Paraguayans are Paraguayans of African descent , found largely in Kamba cua also spelled as Camba Cua . Afro- Paraguayans speak Guarani language . Majority of Afro- Paraguayans were kidnapped as slaves from Nigeria and Angola to Paraguay , which Paraguay became their home in 1556 . Others came as runaways from Brazil, Buenos Aires in Argentina, Montevideo and Córdoba. Others to follow was a group of 250 Kenyans followed by their women in 1820 who went with General Jose Gervasio Artigas . These men and women as Kamba Cua and Kamba Kokue . In 1650, Afro- Paraguayans had population of 15,000 which later declined to 10.840 in 1782 . Paraguay developed a system known as Amparo . Freed Africans that couldn’t pay tribute to the state would be placed under the government or religious order to work designated lands . The Amparo was believed , It is like to be a status like slave . It is said Religious Orders like the Franciscans , Dominicans , and Jesuits founded Amparo towns such as Aregua and Tabapi . Some towns were founded to mark off and Paraguayan borderies and served as a buffer of attacks , from Indians Emboscada was claimed to be an Amparo founded for Military purpose . The End of Slave Trade in Paraguay was said to be a gradual process in 1842, Free womb laws were enacted of enslaved people , but as for Slavery and Amparo the Spanish Colonists never stopped but continued it , It wasn’t until the War of Triple Alliance in 1864 , It is claimed when the country ended Slavery . Afro- Paraguayans were used as Soldiers, It is said in 1869 they fought and died in wars .

Afro- Paraguayans Culture , Traditional Dance and Festival of Paraguay .

In Afro- Paraguayans Culture , Godparents are particularly Important , If parents become unable to provide for their children , God parents are expected to assume responsibility for them and Yerba Mate is their traditional herbal tea , Is consumed year round chilled in Summer , hot in winter and Terere which is a bitter tea made from the same types of leaves that are used to brew Yerba Mate .

They celebrate an annual Kamba Kua music festival and dance festival throughout Paraguay on the 1st August , they believe their medicine is made up of lemon , ruda and it bring happiness , drive away evil forces and protect people health and According to other research Afro- Paraguayans performed their traditional dance which originated from Kenya such as Ndelekeni , Mbenior , Ngulumange , Kilumi and J. Poetner also believed the African masks influenced their mask .


A relatively small, poor, under populated, subtropical, landlocked country located near the geographical core of South America, Paraguay was originally inhabited by numerous Amerindian tribes, semi nomadic peoples linked by the Guaraní language. The modern country traces its origins to sixteenth-century settlements by Spanish explorers, accompanied by Catholic priests these two groups introduced the Spanish language and early patterns of parochial education that have remained influential throughout Paraguay's history.

Juan de Salazar founded Asunción, the capital and major city, in 1537. Independence from both Spain and Argentina, Paraguay's larger neighbor to the southeast and southwest, came in 1811. During its postcolonial epochs, Paraguay has struggled with social, political, and economic problems that have inhibited the establishment of an effective educational system. The coup of 1989 that ended dictatorial government has brought the promise of reform, but unsettled politics have delayed substantive improvements in an underdeveloped educational system.

Economic & Demographic Influences: Paraguay, with no coastline, has commercial access to the outside world only by means of the Parana-Paraguay River system. The country's historical backwardness reflects in part its geographic isolation. In addition to Argentina, Paraguay's other contiguous neighbors are Brazil, to the north and east, and Bolivia, to the west and northwest. Other important towns are Encarnación, Ciudad del Este, Pedro Juan Caballero, Concepción, Coronel Oviedo, and Villarrica.

Slightly smaller than California, the country has geographic borders that are mainly rivers. The Paraguay River divides it into two dissimilar regions&mdashthe Oriental (East), or Paraguay proper, and the Occidental (West), a mostly inaccessible region called the Chaco, inhabited by 5 percent of the population. With just 6 percent arable land, Paraguay is 55 percent pasture and 32 percent forest. It remains one of South America's least populated areas, second only to Bolivia historically its rate of urbanization (35.7 percent in 1965) has also been the continent's second lowest. Over half the economically active population in 1950 was involved in agriculture, and about 70 percent of the land was in holdings of small plots, 10 hectares or less. A tiny 1.1 percent of the population, as large landholders, held 87 percent of utilized land at mid-century. By the late 1990s, with a labor force of 1.8 million workers, 45 percent of the workers were still involved in agriculture. The only large city, Asunción, had by then a population of over a half million. Urban and rural population in Paraguay were roughly equal, and migrations into and out of the country roughly canceled each other out.

About 60 percent of the people still live in small country villages, but about 70 percent of all citizens reside within 120 miles (193 kilometers) of Asunción&mdasha pattern of population clustering that assures the city's cultural dominance and has made it the natural site for the country's universities and major high schools.

During much of the twentieth century, Paraguay of all South American countries recorded the lowest rate of auto possession, the fewest miles of road, the second fewest miles of railroads, the lowest rate of telephone ownership, and the lowest use of electrical energy. Parts of the country are still inaccessible by phone or auto. In the 1990s, modern urban systems of waste disposal were still not fully adequate, and water pollution remained a problem. A 1996 estimate of urban unemployment was 8.2 percent, and rural unemployment was a great deal higher.

Paraguay's deficit economy, agrarian with a large informal sector including active traffic with Argentina and Brazil in illegally recycled imported goods, and with the prevalence of various kinds of underground micro businesses, has also hindered educational progress&mdashas has economic dependence upon neighboring Argentina. In earlier eras Europeans and Argentines acquired vast land holdings, and before 1930 foreign owners had drained off money. At the time of World War II Asunción had no water or sewer system, no fire department, and no paved streets.

The feudal system of ownership, with fewer than one half of one percent of landholders holding three-quarters of the farmlands, has retarded democracy and progress.

The Populace: Historically, at various times, the government of Paraguay has encouraged the settlement of Mennonites from Canada and the United States and of Germans, Russians, and Middle Europeans. Nonetheless, Paraguayans have remained remarkably homogeneous, with at least 90 percent being mestizo (a mixture of Spanish and Guaraní-speaking Amerindian) and the rest mostly a mix of other white and Amerindian backgrounds. The country's estimated population of 5,300,000 in 1998&mdashup from 4,120,000 in 1989 and 1,817,000 in 962&mdashcomprised 39 percent children ages 1 to 14 56 percent adults ages 15 to 64 and 5 percent seniors ages 65 and older. The population growth rate in 1998 was 2.68 percent annually, with 32 births and 5 deaths per 1,000 people&mdashand with an infant mortality rate of about 37 deaths per 1,000 live births. Average life expectancy in the country was 72.23 years in 1998, when the average Paraguayan female bore 4.26 children. This high birth rate and relatively young population, statistically speaking, have strained resources for schools.

During the period 1870-1928, between the wars, a debilitated country that had lost much of its male population and had many orphaned children withstood a succession of about 40 mostly corrupt dictators. The egregious numeric gender imbalance after 1870 triggered a pattern of family organization that put women in charge of households, with few marriages though a numeric balance of the sexes has been restored, the country still has a 50 percent illegitimacy rate, with many unstable family structures.

Political History: Though independent since 1811, Paraguay has endured nearly two centuries of political instability marked by intermittent civil strife. Until 1870 dictators controlled the country, and thereafter, into the 1930s, elite cadres, both Conservatives and Liberals, ruled. Since 1939, a succession of autocratic presidents holding five-year terms has governed. This pattern of personal rule lasted until 1989. General Alfredo Stroessner, the durable "elected" chief of state after 1954, was a virtual dictator who saw Paraguay as defenseless and thus in need of constant military readiness. As an ardent opponent of Communism&mdasha label that he used to brand almost any opposition&mdashStroessner had the economic and political support of the United States. President Nixon praised him in 1958. During his regime, the government in the name of anticommunism restricted personal freedoms and largely isolated Paraguay from the outer world. The Stroessner government censored the press but did allow opposition papers wide latitude. More than half the public treasury went to support the military, with the education budget running a distant second.

A 1989 military coup ended Stroessner's 34-year period of control. The military itself remained a strong force throughout the 1990s, and an attempted military coup was suppressed on May 18, 2000.

The Stroessner regime did make some material progress, building some schools as well as stabilizing the currency, increasing exports, and improving public services and roads. Most rural areas in Paraguay still had no effective formal patterns of public education as late as the 1960s, when one scholar called the state "a poor and frightened land." Perhaps a quarter of its people were then still unable to read or write at even a minimal level.

Overshadowed by the country's militarism and confused politics, the educational history of Paraguay has always effectively been pushed into the background.

Demographics of Paraguay

Paraguay's population is distributed unevenly throughout the country. The vast majority of the people live in the eastern region, most within 160 kilometres (100 mi.) of Asunción, the capital and largest city. The Gran Chaco, which accounts for about 60% of the territory, is home to less than 2% of the population. Ethnically, culturally, and socially, Paraguay has one of the most homogeneous populations in South America. About 95% of the people are of mixed Spanish and Guarani Indian descent. Little trace is left of the original Guarani culture except the language, which is spoken by 90% of the population. About 75% of all Paraguayans also speak Spanish. Guarani and Spanish are official languages. Germans, Japanese, Koreans, ethnic Chinese, Arabs, Brazilians, and Argentines are among those who have settled in Paraguay.

Population: 5,585,828 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 1,109,887 female 1,074,815)
15-64 years: 56% (male 1,574,978 female 1,563,872)
65 years and over: 5% (male 120,662 female 141,614) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.64% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 31.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.81 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.68 years
male: 71.22 years
female: 76.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.16 children born/woman (2000 est.)

noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite, and other Protestant

Languages: Spanish and Guarani (officials)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.1%
male: 93.5%
female: 90.6% (1995 est.) See also : Paraguay

Aruba &bull Falkland Islands &bull French Guiana &bull South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Interesting facts about Paraguay

1. More than 80% of Paraguayans are mestizos: people of mixed Spanish and Native-American ancestry.
(Source: BBC)

2. Paraguay is a bilingual nation: Guaraní is its first language and Spanish, its second. It is also one of few South-American countries to retain its native tongue as an official language.
(Source: CIA World Factbook)

3. Guaraní is an onomatopoeic language. Many of its words, like its music, imitate the natural sounds of animals and the natural environment.
(Source: The Guardian)

4. The first of many geographically interesting facts about Paraguay is that it’s one of three countries sharing La Triple Frontera (The Triple Frontier), a tri-border along the intersection of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil.
(Source: BBC)

5. Due to the country’s central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica (Heart of South America).
(Source: Huffington Post)

6. The Asunción-Encarnación railway line was the first railway line in South America. It was constructed by British engineers from 1858-1861.
(Source: Lonely Planet)

7. In Paraguay, pistol duelling is still legal as long as both parties are registered blood donors. Naturally, this is one of my favourite interesting facts about Paraguay.
(Source: Chicago Tribune)

8. In 1811, Paraguay gained independence from Spain. However, three dictators governed it during the first 60 years of independence.
(Source: InfoPlease)

9. The country’s third dictator, Francisco López, waged war against Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina in 1865-1870. During the conflict (known as the War of the Triple Alliance) half the male population was killed.
(Source: Economist)

10. The country also lost the Iguassu Falls to Brazil. Today, the falls are one of Brazil’s (and the world’s) top tourist attractions.
(Source: Economist)

11. In the 20th Century, Paraguay experienced yet another three decades of dictatorship under Alfredo Stroessner who was finally ousted in 1989.
(Source: BBC)

12. Paraguay is one of two landlocked countries in South America, the other being Bolivia.
(Source: CIA World Factbook)

13. It may lack a coastline but Paraguay has the largest navy of any landlocked country, with naval aviation, a river defence corps and coastguard all part of its force.
(Source: Military History Now)

14. The distribution of wealth is markedly unequal in Paraguay with 80% of land held by 2.5% of the population and 161 people controlling 90% of the country’s wealth.
(Source: The Guardian)

15. Much of northwest Paraguay is taken up by the Chaco, a vast and largely uninhabited plain. Paraguay and Bolivia fought over it in the 1930s leaving 100,000 dead.
(Source: BBC)

16. One of the more surprising facts about Paraguay is that it receives 99.9% of its electricity from hydroelectric plants with 75% of that coming from the Itaipu Dam.
(Source: CIA World Factbook)

17. The Itaipu Dam is a binational hydroelectric dam run by Brazil and Paraguay on the Paraná River and the world’s second-largest hydroelectric power plant. Built in 1984 it was the largest until the Three Gorges Dam opened in China in 2008.
(Source: Wikipedia)

Lonely Planet South America includes a comprehensive guide to the country, including many more interesting facts about Paraguay – ideal for those who want to both explore the top sights and take the road less travelled.

Facts about Paraguay’s Culture

6. The native Guarana people were living in Paraguay long before the arrival of the Spanish in the early 1600s. Today, 95 percent of Paraguay’s people are mestizos, descendants of those Spanish men and Guarana women. This makes Paraguay’s population the most homogenous in South America.

7. Guarani is still spoken by everyone in Paraguay, regardless of their income, politics or social class. This is one of the country’s unifying strengths. Other indigenous heritages are its traditional 38-string harp music and the traditional bottle dance, performed with dancers twirling bottles around their heads.

8. Paraguay’s people make some of the world’s finest lacework. Nanduti (meaning “spiderweb”) is beautiful lace created in circular designs and found in a rainbow of various colors. Other traditional folk arts are embroidered cloth, black clay work and ceramics, and gorgeous silver jewelry in filigree designs.

9. Paraguay’s national beverage is mate. Mate (pronounced “mahtay”) is often served hot. When it is served chilled, it is called tereré. It is imbibed through a metal drinking straw called a bombilla. Yerba mate, which is related to common holly, is cultivated on plantations.

10. The day’s main meal is eaten at noon. Two staples of the Paraguayan diet are corn and cassava, a starchy root vegetable. Cassava (or mandioca) is baked with cheeses to make the thick bread known as Chipa. Corn is used in Paraguayan soup (sopa paraguaya), Bori bori soup and other dishes.

11. Lapacho (or Taheebo) comes from the inner bark of Purple or Red Lapacho trees and is used in herbal medicines and as tea. An ancient cure, it was one of the primary medicines of the Incas.

12. The people of Paraguay enjoy sports, including football (soccer), rugby, tennis, and volleyball. Fishing is as popular as football.

Minority based and advocacy organisations


Amnesty International
Tel: + 595 21 604 329
Email: [email protected]


Asociación de Parcialidades Indígenas (API)
Tel: + 595 21 493 737, 207 987

Coordinadora de Derechos Humanos de Paraguay (CODEHUPY)
Tel: + 595 21 423 875, 201 481, 202 173
Email: [email protected]

Grupo de Apoyo Para el Totobiesgosode
Tel: + 595 21 228 656
Email: [email protected]

Maskoy and Enxet

Tierra Viva
Tel: + 595 21 202 039, 209 092


Federación de Asociaciones Japonesas en Paraguay
Tel: + 595 21 555213

International Regulation Organization Participation

Landlocked Paraguay — sandwiched between Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil — enjoyed consistent economic growth during tobacco magnate Cartes’s 5 years in power, but didn’t shake off persistent poverty, corruption and drug trafficking. Unless otherwise indicated, people may submit material from the Gospel Media portion of this site to a different website or on a pc community for their very own private, noncommercial use. Organizations and legal entities wanting to use materials from Gospel Media may request permission from our Permissions page. For more details about using and sharing Church media, take a look at our FAQ web page. The project will present direct services to 1,240 kids (ages 5-13), 1,650 adolescents, and 1,350 households within the Department of Guairá (Borja, Iturbe, Mauricio José Troche, Paso Yobai, and Villarrica Districts). Sofía Espíndola, a gender specialist, said that this male privilege, accompanied by the impunity enjoyed by occupying Brazilian soldiers, contributed to setting the course for gender relations as they stand right now.

In 2012 they took a radio communication course when the barrio parish provided them group radio. Thirty boys and girls participated, and 10 stayed on to begin a radio program with the assist of a woman from the organization. Since the Fifties the marshlands between official metropolis limits and the Paraguay River have been populated by campesinos that had been displaced from the countryside with the expansion of cattle ranching. One hundred fifty thousand people reside in these wetlands of Asunción—between 15 and 20 % of the capital’s inhabitants.

Argentina grew to become the intermediary for most of Paraguay’s worldwide trade, and foreigners acquired huge expanses of the nation’s land. The inhabitants has more than tripled since 1950 and is growing 2.5 p.c annually, with a total fertility fee of 3.8 kids per lady. The population is comparatively young forty % is under age 15, and solely 5 percent is sixty or older. After that examination of the remains, Lemir said that one lady was shot seven occasions – from the entrance, the back, and the facet – whereas the opposite lady was shot twice, from the entrance and the facet. – Authorities in Paraguay destroyed essential proof in the killing of two 11-year-old Argentinian women by state forces and violated their very own investigative protocols and international human rights requirements, Human Rights Watch stated right now. The Paraguayan government should guarantee an independent, immediate, impartial, and clear investigation into the killings.

Paraguay Women

Elsewhere, latest emblematic circumstances of sexual harassment in path of women in public establishments have been dismissed as “courtship”. Fundación Paraguaya is a leading social enterprise that was based in 1985 by Martin Burt. With the focus on creating revolutionary solutions to poverty and unemployment worldwide, the Fundación strives to enable folks of restricted sources to create jobs, increase their household revenue and develop abilities to be an urban or rural entrepreneur.

Paraguay’s worldwide human rights obligations require it to conduct thorough, immediate, and impartial investigations into killings by state brokers. The worldwide commonplace for conducting autopsies and other forensic evaluation is the United Nations Manual on the Effective Prevention of Extra-legal, Arbitrary, and Summary Executions, known as the Minnesota Protocol. Paraguayan authorities haven’t complied with the fundamental investigative steps laid out by that protocol, Human Rights Watch mentioned. The worst forms of baby labor occurred where malnourished, abused, and uncared for kids worked in unhealthy and dangerous situations selling goods or services on the street, working in factories, or harvesting crops. Children had been used, procured, and offered to third parties for illicit activities together with business sexual exploitation , generally with the data of oldsters and guardians who received remuneration.

The law does not present for a nationwide minimum wage for all economic sectors, but a normal minimal wage applies to most sectors. Further, there are minimal wage requirements stipulated for particular sectors such as cattle elevating. The commonplace minimum wage was above the official estimate for the poverty income level. The Labor Ministry is answerable for administratively imposing baby labor laws, and the Attorney General’s Office prosecutes violators. The Ministry of Children and Youth continued its program offering secure and educational spaces for kids vulnerable to baby labor, incorporating it into the Programa Abrazo .


Although the dominant conception of gender roles gives accountability for the domestic sphere to women while men dominate within the public sphere, women have long had a central function in offering for his or her households and are economically energetic outdoors the home. They played a critical position as workers in nationwide reconstruction after the War of the Triple Alliance. They have all the time played an essential role in agriculture, each in subsistence manufacturing and within the manufacturing of money crops on small peasant farms. However, the financial contributions of women regularly go unrecognized as a end result of their agricultural work, and casual sector work carried out throughout the family, are difficult to differentiate from domestic actions. Recent surveys in city areas indicate that ladies represent a minimal of one-third of the economically active inhabitants. Women are employed predominantly in home service and gross sales and as office workers, whereas men are employed throughout a wider range of activities.

Last yr, legislators in 5 Mexican states proposed bills that might permit mother and father to remove their youngsters from lessons discussing gender id, intercourse and contraception. That committee was by no means set up, the review never occurred, and the ban on gender in faculties stays in effect, despite a model new government taking office in 2019. The present minister of training, Eduardo Petta, didn’t reply to a quantity of requests for comments from openDemocracy. Paraguay’s minister of women’s issues on the time, Ana María Baiardi, acknowledged earlier than the UN committee her own “concern over the potential impact” of the 2017 gender decree.

Kin may be referred to as on to offer essential assist and help in times of need, and the rich might mobilize extended kin to support their political ambitions. In addition to kinship ties by marriage and start, great importance is placed on fictive kin ties established through god-parenthood.

When Juan Carlos Wasmosy was elected in 1993 as Paraguay's first civilian president after many years, he was nominated by the ruling party only as a figurehead, or symbolic leader with little power. Since then, however, he has clashed with the military. The country's democracy is still fragile.

Bernhardson Wayne. Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay: A Lonely Planet Travel Survival Kit. 2nd ed. Australia: Lonely Planet Publications, 1996.

Warren, Harris Gaylord. Paraguay and the Triple Alliance. Austin: University of Texas, 1978.

Warren, Harris Gaylord. Rebirth of the Paraguayan Republic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.

Williams, John Hoyt. The Rise and Fall of the Paraguayan Republic. Austin: University of Texas, 1979.