Peggy Baird

Peggy Baird

Margarite Frances Baird was an artist. She was briefly married to Orrick Johns but after a visit to Europe she left him and settled in New York City where she mixed with a group of radicals that lived in Greenwich Village. It is believed during this period she had an affair with Eugene O'Neill.

In 1917, Michael Gold, introduced her to Dorothy Day, a fellow journalist at the New York Call. The two women became close friends. Jim Forest, the author of Love is the Measure (1986), points out: "Peggy was an artist who lived in a large, wildly unkempt room and who was baffled at Dorothy's seeming immunity to sexual temptation."

Peggy Baird was very promiscuous and told Day that sex was "a barrier that kept men and women from fully understanding each other, and thus a barrier to be broken down". Peggy recruited Dorothy as a nude model. During one session she told her "you'll probably have a beautiful figure by the time you're thirty."

Baird was a member of the National Woman's Party and in November 1917, Baird was one of the 168 women arrested and jailed for "obstructing traffic". The women went on hunger strike and afraid that martyrs would be created, Woodrow Wilson ordered their release.

In 1919 Peggy Baird married Malcolm Cowley, who wrote poetry and book reviews for The Dial and the New York Evening Post. In 1921 the couple moved to France and Cowley continued his studies at the University of Montpellier. He also found work with avant-garde literary magazines such as Broom and Secession. While in Paris they became friendly with American expatriates such as Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway and Ezra Pound.

Cowley returned to the United States in August 1923 and went to live in Greenwich Village where he became close friends with the poet Hart Crane. As well as writing poetry Cowley found work as an advertising copywriter with Sweet's Architectural Catalogue. He also translated seven books from French into English.

In 1929 Cowley published Blue Juniata, his first book of poems. Later that year he replaced Edmund Wilson as literary editor of the New Republic. By this time Baird had began an affair with Hart Crane. In 1931 she went to live with Crane in Mexico. This ended in tragedy when Crane committed suicide by jumping from the ship Orizaba on the way back to New York City on 27th April 1932.

According to Jim Forest, the author of Love is the Measure, in the 1960s Peggy Baird was received into the Catholic Church and went to live with Dorothy Day on her Catholic Worker farm: "Even when she was slowly dying of cancer, people were drawn to her just as they had been when she was a young woman in Greenwich Village. Day wrote in her diary: It is wonderful how young and old turn to Peggy, who is always calm, equable, unjudging."

He (Michael Gold) had been born on the Lower East Side of an Orthodox Jewish family and had "no politics except hunger" until 1914, when he strayed into a demonstration at Union Square and was knocked down by the police when they attacked the demonstrators. By the end of the day he bought a copy of The Masses, the Socialist monthly magazine, and began to gravitate into the Socialist Party. His book Jews Without Money, published in 1930, remains a classic novel of the urban poor. When the Communist Party was founded in the United States after the November Revolution in Russia, he became a member and later in his life was editor of the Communist paper, The Daily Worker.

He was twenty-three years old when Dorothy met him. He, too, had joined the paper's staff when he was eighteen. After midnight, when The Call had been turned over to the printers, they were among the reporters who went to Child's for pancakes and coffee. During a period when she was sick, it was he who came after work one day to bring her cough medicine, lemons and some whiskey, as well as an essay on Maxim Gorki, a Russian writer they both liked. The landlady came to her own conclusions about why Mike Gold was in Dorothy's room and called Grace Day to notify her of Dorothy's immoral conduct. Grace Day quickly came to visit and accepted Dorothy's reassurance that she and Mike were friends, not lovers.

It is not surprising that gossip about them continued to be plentiful. The two spent long hours walking the streets, sitting on piers along the waterfront on the East River, talking about life and sharing experiences about the passion that had brought them both to The Call - the sufferings of the poor. They both loved books and rejoiced to talk about their reading. Sometimes Mike broke into song - whether in Hebrew or Yiddish, Dorothy didn't know.

Another lifelong friendship that began in 1917 was with Peggy Baird, whom Dorothy met through Mike Gold. Peggy was an artist who lived in a large, wildly unkempt room and who was baffled at Dorothy's seeming immunity to sexual temptation. Peggy rejoiced to find lovers. She assured Dorothy that sex was "a barrier that kept men and women from fully understanding each other, and thus a barrier to be broken down." Love affairs, she said, were "incidents in an erotic education." Dorothy neither agreed nor disagreed, but was fascinated with Peggy's openness and sense of adventure. The fact that Peggy "sexed," as she called it, and Dorothv didn't wasn't a barrier between them. Peggy recruited Dorothy as a model. "Just strip off your clothes," she said to Dorothy after coffee was brewed one morning. "The room's warm enough. And while you're drinking your coffee, I'll sketch you." It struck Dorothy that she wouldn't dream of undressing before her mother or sister, and yet it was impossible to refuse Peggy's request. She slipped out of her clothes, curled up on the sofa, and comforted herself with a cigarette. "You'll probably have a beautiful figure by the time You're thirty," Peggy said reassuringly.

It was after the suppression of The Masses that I again went to Washington, this time with a group to picket the White House with the suffragists. It was mainly because my friend Peggy Baird was going that I decided one evening to accompany her. The women's party who had been picketing and serving jail sentences had been given very brutal treatment, and a committee to uphold the rights of political prisoners had been formed.

Hypolite Havel, who had been in so many jails in Europe, described to us the rights of political prisoners which he insisted had been upheld by the Czar himself in despotic Russia: the right to receive mail, books and visitors, to wear one's own clothes, to purchase extra food if needed, to see one's lawyer. The suffragists in Washington had been treated as ordinary prisoners, deprived of their own clothing, put in shops to work, and starved on the meager food of the prison. The group who left New York that night were prepared to go on a hunger strike to protest the treatment of the score or more women still in prison.

In Washington it was known by the press and police that the picket line that day would be unusually large so when we left the headquarters of the women's party the park across from the White House was crowded with spectators. Many police held back the crowd and kept the road clear for the women picketers.

They started out, two by two, with colored ribbons of purple and gold across the bosoms of their dresses and banners in their hands. There was a religious flavor about the silent proceedings. To get to the White House gates one had to walk halfway around the park. There were some cheers from women and indignation from men, who wanted to know if the President did not have enough to bother him, and in wartime too! By the time the third contingent of six women reached the gates - I was of this group - small boys were beginning to throw stones, and groups of soldiers and sailors appearing from the crowd were trying to wrest the banners from the hands of the women. The police arrived at once with a number of patrol wagons. I had to struggle for my banner too, with a red-faced young sailor, before a policeman took me by the arm and escorted me to the waiting police van. Our banners were carried, protruding from the back of the car, and we made a gay procession through the streets.

Bail had been provided for us and after our names and addresses were taken at the police station we were released. The trial was set for ten o'clock the next morning. When the thirty-five of us appeared, the judge pronounced us guilty and postponed the sentence.

Again that afternoon we picketed and again there was arrest, release on bail, trial and postponement. The tactics were then changed, and when we were arrested once more and taken to the Central Station, we refused to give bail and were put in the House of Detention for the night.

The facilities there were inadequate for so many prisoners. We had to sleep fifteen in a room meant for two, with cots cheek by jowl so that it was impossible to stir. The next morning we were all sentenced. Many of the women on receiving their sentences took the occasion to make speeches to the judge, who sat patiently though somewhat uncomfortably facing the righteous wrath of the thirty-five women.

The leader of the picketers received a sentence of six months, the older women were sentenced to fifteen days, and the rest of us to thirty days. We started our hunger strike right after receiving our sentences. The scant meal of weak coffee, oatmeal and bread was the last one we expected to have until our demands (for the rights of political prisoners) were granted or we were released. I was too excited to worry much about food. I was to find that one of the ugliness of jail life was its undertone of suppressed excitement and suspense. It was an ugly and a fearful suspense, not one of normal hope and expectation...

Finally, at four o'clock, things began to happen to us. Prison wagons were brought, wagons that had only ventilators along the top and were otherwise closed. Two of them sufficed to carry the prisoners to the jail. When they reached that barren institution on the outskirts of the city, backed by a cemetery and surrounded by dreary bare fields, there was another long halt in the proceedings. After a low argument at the entrance (we never heard what people were saying and that too was part of the torture), the police vans were turned away and started off in another direction.

Those women who had served sentence before knew that we were being taken to the workhouse, and many stories had been told of what the prisoners had suffered at the hands of the violent keeper there, a man named Whittaker. We were all afraid.

It had been completely black in the prison vans but when we were ushered by a number of policewomen into a waiting train which rolled out of station immediately, the lamps along the road had not yet been lit. It was the beginning of November, and I sat with my face pressed against the glass watching the blue twilight, pierced with the black shapes of many scrawny trees. Here and there lamps glowed in farmhouse windows. In the west the sky still held the radiance of the sun which faded gradually and left one with a terrible sense of desolation and loneliness. It was sadly beautiful at that time of night. I was glad for the company of my friend Peggy, and we tried to stay near each other so that we would not be separated later.

There was more waiting after we had been driven from the railroad station to the administration building of the workhouse. A matron tried to take our names and case histories, which all of us refused to give.

We waited there in the administration building, while the matron sat behind her desk and knitted. The spokeswoman for our group was an elderly woman from a socially prominent family in Philadelphia and she had asked to see Mr. Whittaker, the superintendent, before we were assigned to our cells. The matron paid no attention to her request but left us all standing, until of our own accord we took benches and chairs about the room. Some of the younger ones sat on the floor and leaned against the wall. We were beginning to be very tired.


Baird

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Ted and Jim Baird

Ted Baird’s deep love of the wilderness started from a young age, having spent much of his time at his family’s cabin in the bush. Over the years, he’s honed his skills in fishing, hunting, trapping, and survival. But it wasn’t until undertaking his first whitewater canoe expedition as a teenager that he was awed by a sense of freedom and adventure unlike any other he had experienced. Alongside his brother Jim, Ted has logged thousands of miles canoeing some of the most challenging and remote waterways in the world, including a 400-mile expedition across Canada’s Quebec and Labrador via four wild and untamed rivers. These expeditions inspired him to become an adventure photographer and videographer.

Jim Baird
Age: 35
Toronto, Canada
Freelance Writer

Jim Baird grew up exploring the Crown lands of Southern Ontario, Canada alongside his brother Ted. He turned the confidence he built from exploring the outdoors at a young age into a passion for wilderness travel in Canada’s far north. Jim is an avid canoeist, and has several impressive whitewater trips to his credit, many of them with Ted. He’s also the first person on record to complete a self-propelled trek across the northern Ungava Peninsula in winter — a 230-mile Arctic trip he completed with his dog, Buck. Aside from adventuring in Canada’s northern regions, Jim’s also worked as a mineral prospector, a wilderness guide, and with a mapmaking company.

Here are the ten items Ted and Jim selected to bring on their survival journey to Vancouver Island:

  • Saw – crosscut teeth
  • Bow and arrows – recurve bow, 50+ lb. draw
  • Gillnet
  • Tarp – 12′ x 12′
  • Trapping wire
  • Fishing line and hooks
  • Pot – titanium
  • Multitool
  • Rations
  • Ax – painted orange

Personal Background

Bill Britt is the oldest of eight children. His father had an alcohol problem resulting in lost jobs, lost homes, and chronic chaos for the entire family. Bill worked for tips when he was too young to be on anyone's payroll.

After serving in Korea, Bill earned an advanced degree in engineering, and spent the next 15 years as a city manager in various North Carolina cities.

He invested $10,000 in a "blue sky" investment scam, where he was supposed to be able to sell cars obtained at lower prices than other dealers. The entire $10,000 was lost immediately. He and Peggy had borrowed the money for this investment, and after three years of working hard to pay it back were still in debt. They were looking for some other business which would help them, and another person who had been the victim of the same investment scam called him to offer him the Amway opportunity.


As was reported on January 23rd 2013 at approximately 3am Bill Britt passed away in Jacksonville Florida. Below is a direct copy of the announcement that was posted on the Britt Worldwide website:

To Britt IBOs around the world,

It is with great sadness that we tell you that Bill Britt stepped from time into eternity this morning, January 23, 2013 in Jacksonville, Florida.

Words cannot express the depth of sorrow that family and friends are experiencing with such a tremendous loss. Nor can the height of joy be fully articulated, knowing that Bill now abides in the presence of his Lord and Savior.

The positive impact that Bill’s life had on people – all around the world – is immeasurable. He believed and proved that one person of courage can truly make a difference in any family, community or country. His teaching was transformative his example was inspiring his legacy will be lasting if he could do it, then we can do it.

Please keep Peggy in your thoughts and prayers during this difficult time.


Appearance

Peggy has mid-tone skin, and long auburn hair worn with a dark brown cowboy hat, with a darker brown rim. She wears a sky blue and light yellow plaid shirt with a reddish-brown trim and pockets, blue jeans with a brown western belt, and brown shoes and laces.

Clean-Up

Her clothing and hair are more detailed.

Styles

Style B

She wears a short blue denim vest over a two-toned red and black plaid shirt, brown pants, black shoes, and a light-colored cowboy hat with a brown rim.

Hot Doggeria Uniform

She wears her Papa's Hot Doggeria uniform, which consists of a white accented jersey with red stripes, yellow trims, and turquoise buttons, a turquoise plain skirt, a brown basic belt with a gray buckle, a pair of white laced shoes with red laces and brown soles, and a white accent ballcap with a turquoise visor, a yellow head ring, and red lines.

Style C (Papa Louie 2)

She wears her Style A but with a black hat and a dark red rim, dark blue plaid shirt, with light blue perpendicular lines, and white lining. She also wears dark red pants and black shoes with brown soles and laces.


Buckeyemuse

The recent date of July 21 marks the birthday of American poet Hart Crane, born in Garrettsville, Ohio in Portage County in 1899. In his short lifetime—he lived to be only 32 years old—Crane created two memorable collections of poetry. Like so many artists who die young, the details of his life have become legendary. Crane’s legend is that of an incredibly gifted but deeply tormented poet who relentlessly drank and caroused and finally took his own life by jumping from a ship—in view of fellow passengers–while returning to America from Mexico. But there is so much more to Crane than the often sad and sordid details of his standard biography. His story is also that of a man who created a small but memorable body of poetry despite his demons, and scholars and readers continue to study and enjoy his rich and evocative lyric poetry. More recently, scholars examining homosexuality in literature and the lives of gay writers have examined Crane’s work and life, taking a fresh look at questions of image and identify in his poetry related to his sexuality.

Harold Hart Crane was the only child of Clarence Arthur Crane, who made a success in candy manufacturing–he developed Life Savers–and Grace Hart, a delicate woman from Chicago and devout Christian Scientist. It was an unhappy marriage, and the parents’ problems would be a source of instability and anxiety throughout his life. Especially problematic was Crane’s mother. She was a smothering influence who developed an inappropriate relationship with her son, often sharing with him intimate details about her problems with her husband. She was successful also in turning Crane against his father.

The first nine years of Crane’s life were spent under the oppressive influence of his mother and the poisonous atmosphere of marital discord, but his mother suffered some kind of nervous collapse in 1908—she was apparently a hypochondriac—and this allowed Crane to spend much of his later childhood and adolescence in the home of his grandparents in Warren, Ohio, where he was exposed to a wide variety of literature. Crane explored the works of writers as varied as Whitman, Emerson, Voltaire, Balzac, Shelley, and Plato. By thirteen he had begun composing verse. Throughout his adolescence and early adult years, Crane continued to read deeply, becoming especially knowledgeable about the work of Rimbaud, Laforgue, the Elizabethans, Melville, Poe, Dickinson, Eliot and Sandburg.

Crane left school at age seventeen, spending six months on his maternal grandfather’s fruit plantation on the Isle of Pines before leaving for New York City, where he hoped to take an entrance exam for Columbia University. Instead, Crane was drawn into the literary life of the city. It was here in New York that some of the destructive patterns in Crane’s life took shape: heavy drinking, promiscuous sex with sailors, and the inability to hold a job for any substantial length of time.

Emil Opffer, Danish journalist, sailor, and lover of Hart Crane.

During much of his late teens and early twenties, Crane wandered back and forth between Cleveland and New York City. He attempted to join the U.S. Army during WWI but was rejected, and later held jobs ranging from working in a munitions plant during the war to stints as a reporter, advertising writer, and shipping clerk. Crane had begun placing poems in little magazines while still a teenager, and by 1926 had published his first collection: White Buildings. White Buildings includes some of Crane’s strongest early poems, including “For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen,” and “Voyages.” Crane had fallen in love with a Danish sailor and journalist named Emil Opffer, and this affair inspired “Voyages,” which is a poetic sequence dealing with the redemptive power of love. “For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen” pictures the two mythological figures in the American 1920’s, and it celebrates the optimism of the postwar era. Unlike many other literary figures of the times, Crane saw things worth celebrating in the raw vitality of postwar industrial America. The success of White Buildings also attracted the attention of wealthy arts patron Otto Kahn, who gave Crane two grants to work on his next project, which would become his most famous work—the long symphonically structured poem entitled The Bridge (1930).

The Bridge is a fifteen-part poem using the Brooklyn Bridge as its key symbol, representing a link between past and present. The bridge serves as metaphor in other ways, representing the length of the land from one coast to another, as well as the energy and ambition of 20th century America. It is a particularly rich symbol that is capable–no pun intended–of bearing the weight of multiple interpretations. The poem is Crane’s attempt to capture and celebrate America, its myths and promise, its fertility and vibrancy. A host of famous real and fictional figures crowd its pages: Columbus, Pochahontas, and Rip van Winkle are there, and the landscape of America is too, ranging from the western frontier and the shoreline of Cape Hatteras to the stony soil of New England and the urban roar of a New York subway.

Hart Crane with Brooklyn Bridge in the background.

Critical reaction to the poem was mixed, and continues to be so to this day. The Bridge has always had admirers, with some critics praising the ambition and scope of the work, along with Crane’s eloquent lines. Others have decried what they see as the formlessness and obscurity of the poem while noting the success of individual poems. It is often noted in discussions of The Bridge that critics more sympathetic to Whitmanesque long lines and rhapsody are probably more predisposed to view the work favorably, whereas others who favor classical unity are more skeptical of Crane’s achievement. It is remarkable to me how much polarization there is surrounding the poem, and how it is a kind of barometer measuring any one critic’s sympathy for literary romanticism.

Despite the mixed response, The Bridge helped Crane obtain a Guggenheim fellowship, and the poet left for Mexico, planning on writing a long poem on Cortez and Montezuma. His relationship with Emil Opffer had deteriorated not long after the publication of White Buildings, and Crane had continued his old patterns, drinking heavily, arguing with friends, and cruising the waterfront–sometimes being badly beaten by sailors while doing so. Crane continued to drink and carouse while in Mexico, but he startled his friends by embarking upon a heterosexual romance with Peggy Baird, who was separated from her husband, the critic Malcolm Cowley. Baird and Crane spoke of marriage and a future, but their time was shadowed by Crane’s deep personal problems. The poet was frustrated with his output and felt he had wasted his fellowship. Crane, only recently reconciled with his father after a long period of estrangement, lost his father in 1931. He drank heavily, created six different wills, and attempted suicide by drinking iodine.

Peggy Baird (Cowley) with Hart Crane.

He could take it no longer. En route to New York on the S. S. Orizaba, Crane leaped to his death shortly before noon on April 26, 1932 off the coast of Florida.

Crane’s life was full of anguish, but he managed to create a poetry rich with sonorous elegance and beauty. If The Bridge is a failure, as some critics insist, it is a magnificent one. As with any person who dies young, we can only speculate as to what he might have done had he lived longer. However, we have Crane’s collected work available to us, and we can be grateful for what he gave us in his short and painful life.

Patrick Kerin

The Complete Poems and Selected Letters and Prose of Hart Crane. Edited with introduction and notes by Brom Weber. Anchor Press, 1966.

Hart Crane: An Introduction. Clarence Lindsay, The State Library of Ohio, 1979.

Ohio Authors and their Books 1796-1950, ed. by William Coyle. The World Publishing Co., 1962.

Poetry Foundation website entry on Hart Crane.

Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia of American Literature, ed. by George Perkins, Barbara Perkins, Philip Leininger. Entry on Hart Crane by Oscar Cargill and George Perkins. Harper Collins, 1991.

The Oxford Companion To American Literature, edited by James D. Hart. Fifth Edition. Oxford University Press, 1983.


Oregon Pioneers Oral History Collection, 1975-1978

The Oregon Pioneers Oral History Collection consists of 33 interviews conducted primarily in the summer of 1975 by Oregon State University students in a journalism seminar to document various aspects of local history from 1880 to 1929 in preparation for the United States bicentennial in 1976. All of the interviews were conducted in the summer of 1975 with the exception of the Helen Johnston interview, which was conducted in March 1976.

The following individuals were interviewed as part of the project: Edith E. (Peggy) Allworth, Virgil Avery, Mr. and Mrs. Harold Carey, Chester and Rita Chambers, Alice Coolidge, Chester Cosgrove, Catherine Ann Cracraft, William Payne, George Buxton, Ralph Schindler, F.A. and Violette Gilfillan, Dan S. Hart, Melvin S. Hawkins, George and Bessie Hughes, Minnie McMurtry, Ethel Morgan, Floyd Mullen, Bessie Murphy, Dale Propst, Winnie Propst, Robert E. Sommers, Robert Rilatos, Florence Adell Smith, T.J. Starker, A.L. and Mollie Strand, Beatrice Eddy Wilcox, Baird Woodcock, Violet Updike, Richard Andor Christiansen, Bertha A. King, Minerva Kiger Reynolds, and Helen Johnston. The name of an interviewee who discussed bootlegging in the area during Prohibition is not given.

The interviews describe Corvallis, Philomath, Kings Valley, Benton County, and the surrounding area (including Newport and Yaquina Bay) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Topics include railroads and ferries, Corvallis businesses, the Fischer flour mill, logging and lumber mills, agriculture, Chautauqua events, pioneer families, and the Siletz Native Americans. A few of the interviews address topics relating to Oregon State University, such as the Memorial Union, the President's home on campus, and the name change from Oregon State College to Oregon State University.

Interviewers include Judith Carlson, Lorraine Charlton-Ruff, Janice Tiland, and Darrell Wolfe.

The collection includes both audiocassettes and transcripts for almost all (31) of the interviews. For one of the interviews (T.J. Starker), only transcripts are available. There is only a sound recording (no transcript) for the interview of Minerva Kiger Reynolds. Copies of the publication, Pioneers!, (ca. 1978) that was prepared using the interviews are also included in the collection.

All of the audiocassettes held in this collection have been digitized with the exception of damaged cassettes OH01:21 (Robert E. Sommers), OH01:22 (Winnie Propst side 2) and OH01:30 (Violet Updike). Digital files are available upon patron request.

Duplications of signed permissions forms are included in the transcript folders for most of the interviews held in this collection.

The collection is arranged into two series, one devoted to transcripts and another to audiocassettes. An alphabetical view of the oral history interviewees whose recordings are held in this collection is as follows.

Allworth, Edith E. "Peggy". (ca. 1975) Avery, Virgil (August 12, 1975) Buxton, George (Mr. and Mrs.) (August 6, 1975) Carey, Harold (July 21, 1975) Carey, Mabel (July 21, 1975) Chambers, Chester W. (July 26, 1975) Chambers, Rita C. (July 26, 1975) Christiansen, Richard Andor (August 2, 1975) Coolidge, Alice (July 24, 1975) Cosgrove, Chester J. (July 26, 1975) Cracraft, Catherine Ann (July 31, 1975) Gilfillan, Francois A. (ca. 1975) Gilfillan, Violette (ca. 1975) Hart, Dan S. (July 28, 1975) Hawkins, Melvin S. (July 1975) Hughes, Bessie (August 1, 1975) Hughes, George (August 1, 1975) Johnston, Helen (March 22, 1976) King, Bertha A. (August 17, 1975) McMurtry, Minnie (July 25, 1975) Morgan, Ethel (August 2, 1975) Mullen, Floyd (August 1, 1975) Murphy, Bessie Gragg (July 23 - August 4, 1975) Payne, William (Mr. and Mrs.) (August 1, 1975) Propst, Dale (July 25, 1975) Propst, Winnie (August 7, 1975) Reynolds, Minerva Kiger (July 1975) Rilatos, Robert (July 24, 1975) Schindler, Ralph (August 4, 1975) Smith, Florence Adell (July 25, 1975) Sommers, Robert E. (ca. 1975) Starker, T.J. (Thurman James) (ca. 1975) Strand, August L. (ca. 1975) Strand, Mollie (ca. 1975) Updike, Violet (July 16, 1975) Wilcox, Beatrice Eddy (August 1, 1975) Woodcock, Baird (July 31, 1975)


History of New Testament Research (3 vols.)

In this must-have collection, William Baird gives attention to the biographical and cultural settings of people and approaches in the rich history of New Testament studies, affording both the beginning student and the seasoned scholar an authoritative account that is useful for orientation as well as research. More than an ad hoc list of figures and movements, these volumes present a coherent and in-depth account of New Testament scholarship&rsquos organic development from the Enlightenment to the modern day. In volume 1, William Baird guides the reader through intriguing developments and critical interpretation of the New Testament from its beginnings in Deism through the watershed of the Tubingen school. In volume 2, Baird takes on the formative era of nineteenth-century New Testament scholarship in a balanced and readable fashion. In volume 3, Baird rounds out this masterful work by charting the dramatic discoveries and breakthroughs in method and approach that characterized New Testament studies in the mid- and late twentieth century. With these remarkable volumes, you have all you need to navigate the often murky waters of New Testament scholarship&rsquos past and obtain a clearer view of its future.

In the Logos editions, these valuable volumes are enhanced by amazing functionality. Scripture and ancient-text citations link directly to English translations and original-language texts, and important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches with the Topic Guide to instantly gather relevant biblical texts and resources, enabling you to jump into the conversation with the foremost scholars on issues within New Testament studies. Tablet and mobile apps let you take the discussion with you. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

Key Features

  • Comprehensive overview of New Testament scholarship from the Enlightenment to the modern day
  • Careful analyses of significant figures and developments in New Testament studies

Praise for the Print Edition

&mdashVictor Paul Furnish, university distinguished professor emeritus of New Testament, Perkins School of Theology


The County was named after James Callahan, a survivor of the Massacre at Goliad.

Baird was named after one Matthew Baird, who various sources list as either a railroad director, lawyer, surveyor, yodeling brakeman or any combination thereof. Maybe he was a yodeling lawyer.

Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , October 2009

History in a Pecan Shell

Still waters run deep. Don't let the town's current tranquility fool you.

This place has survived a fire (1884), a tornado (1895), cattle drives, hard winters (notably 1884-85), long droughts (drouths) (1886-87) and a spectacular three locomotive collision caused by a runaway engine in 1907. This incident may have given the Katy railroad their idea for The Crash at Crush. By the time the railroad in Baird was informed about the loose locomotive, there was no time to wake people and sell tickets. Baird had a roundhouse and maintenance shops for the T & P.


What goes around comes around (unless it's a runaway locomotive) .

Callahan County's Seat of Government was originally in Belle Plain, about 3 miles south. They had it all: a college (Belle Plain College), a courthouse and a spanking new stone jail.

When the railroad come through, the newspaper and main businesses moved to Baird and the people then wished they had made the jail out of something much lighter. They dismantled it, numbered the stones, and then reassembled it in its present location (100 W. 5th Street in Baird).

Ironically, it was Belle Plain that caused the demise of Callahan City, drawing away major businesses and population when Belle Plain became the County Seat.

Callahan City's cemetery is about all that's left of that town, while Belle Plain still has ruins of the College buildings.

Baird, Texas Landmarks & Attractions

The Old Callahan County Jail

When the railroad come through, and Belle Plain businesses moved to Baird, the townspeople dismantled their new county jail, numbered the stones, and then reassembled it at its present location. (100 W. 5th Street)

The New Jail in Baird

"I recently reviewed your site and was very interested in the information about the New Jail in Baird.

My mother (Nora A. Reed Bridges) was born in that jail in 1897. Also, two brothers were born there. My maternal grandfather, J.M. Reed was the jailer and my grandmother cooked for the inmates. They moved from there to the Haskell area where my grandfather was a blacksmith and deputy sheriff." - James R Bridges, June 04, 2005

Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , October 2009

The Texas and Pacific Depot c. 1911
One of the larger ones on the former T & P route.
The T & P had depots from Marshall to Sierra Blanca,
where it merged with the Southern Pacific



Aviation cadets take a break in front of the T & P Depot at Baird in January of 1943

I found the [above] photo in my Dad's World War II album. He was an aviation cadet on a transcontinental troop train that stopped in Baird in January 1943. Baird was a rest stop for these guys after long train trips from the east. I am not sure how long these troop trains stopped in Baird, but it must have been welcomed by the thousands of GI's who were being transported long distances in crowded conditions. In my Dad's case, he documented the trip through some great photos, not just of Baird but pointing his camera out of the Pullman window to show the steam engine chugging across the Mississippi River at New Orleans and entering the Mojave Desert in California.

Most of the GIs in the photo were in pre-flight training enroute to the Santa Ana, California training base. You can see that the GI in the foreground is wearing the aviation cadet wings on his cap or "cover". This was their uniform until they completed training and were commissioned as Second Lieutenants and awarded their official wings. In WWII, Santa Ana was both a pre-flight training base and holding area for aviation cadets until they were ordered to advanced training bases. In my Dad's case, he was slotted to Bombardier pre-flight training in Santa Ana (mostly academic non-flying work) and then advanced flight training at Kirkland Field, NM. There was still two and one-half years of tough combat ahead and I wonder how many men in the photo survived the war. - David Schoeck, Dana Point, CA, January 09, 2008

Photo courtesy Mike Price , December 2007
More Texas Lodges

Looking south on Market Street
Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , October 2009

Baird street scene, with the Callahan County Courthouse in distance
Photo courtesy Charlene Beatty Beauchamp

Tiled Market Street Sign
Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , October 2009

Tiled Third Street Sign
Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , October 2009


Cowley was born August 24, 1898, in Belsano, Cambria County, Pennsylvania, to William Cowley and Josephine Hutmacher. [2] He grew up in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh, where his father, William, was a homeopathic doctor. Cowley attended Shakespeare Street elementary school and in 1915 graduated from Peabody High School, where his boyhood friend Kenneth Burke was also a student. Cowley's first published writing appeared in his high school newspaper. [2]

He attended Harvard University, but his studies were interrupted when he joined the American Field Service during World War I to drive ambulances and munitions trucks for the French army. He returned to Harvard in 1919 and became editor of The Harvard Advocate. He graduated with a B.A. in 1920. [2]

Cowley was one of the many literary and artistic figures who migrated to Paris in the 1920s. He became one of the best-known chroniclers of the American expatriates in Europe, as he frequently spent time with writers like Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, E. E. Cummings, Edmund Wilson, Erskine Caldwell, and others associated with American literary modernism. In Blue Juniata, Cowley described these Americans who travelled abroad during the postwar period as a "wandering, landless, uprooted generation" [3] similarly Hemingway, claiming to have taken the phrase from Gertrude Stein, called them the "lost generation". [4] This sense of uprootedness deeply affected Cowley's appreciation for the necessities of artistic freedom. It moreover informed his ideal of cosmopolitanism in contrast to the fervent nationalism(s) that had led to World War I. [5] Cowley recounted his experiences in Exile's Return, writing, "our whole training was involuntarily directed toward destroying whatever roots we had in the soil, toward eradicating our local and regional peculiarities, toward making us homeless citizens of the world". [6]

While Cowley associated with many American writers in Europe, the sense of admiration was not always mutual. Hemingway removed direct reference to Cowley in a later version of The Snows of Kilimanjaro, replacing his name with the description, "that American poet with a pile of saucers in front of him and a stupid look on his potato face talking about the Dada movement". [7] John Dos Passos's private correspondence revealed the contempt he held for Cowley, but also the care writers took to hide their personal feelings in order to protect their careers once Cowley had become an editor of The New Republic. [7] Regardless, Exile's Return was one of the first autobiographical texts to foreground the American expatriate experience. Despite not selling well during its first publication, it established Cowley as one of the most trenchant emissaries of the Lost Generation. Literary historian Van Wyck Brooks described Exile's Return as "an irreplaceable literary record of the most dramatic period in American literary history." [ citation needed ]

While in Paris, Cowley found himself drawn to the avant-garde sensibilities of Dada, and also, like many other intellectuals of the period, to Marxism and its attempts to demystify the socioeconomic and political conditions that had plunged Europe into a devastating war. [2] He travelled frequently between Paris and Greenwich Village in New York, and through these intersecting social circles came into close proximity, though he never officially joined, with the U.S. Communist Party. In 1929, Cowley became an associate editor of the left-leaning magazine The New Republic, which he steered in "a resolutely communist direction" [8] The same year, he translated and wrote a foreword to the 1913 French novel 'La Colline Inspirée', by Maurice Barrès. [9] By the early 1930s, Cowley became increasingly involved in radical politics. In 1932, he joined Edmund Wilson, Mary Heaton Vorse, and Waldo Frank as union-sponsored observers of the miners' strikes in Kentucky. Their lives were threatened by the mines' owners, and Frank was badly beaten. [ citation needed ] When Exile's Return was first published in 1934, it put forth a distinctly Marxist interpretation of history and social struggle.

In 1935, Cowley helped to establish a leftist collective, The League of American Writers. Other notable members included Archibald MacLeish, Upton Sinclair, Clifford Odets, Langston Hughes, Carl Sandburg, Carl Van Doren, Waldo Frank, David Ogden Stewart, John Dos Passos, Lillian Hellman, and Dashiell Hammett. Cowley was appointed Vice President, and over the next few years became involved in numerous campaigns, including attempts to persuade the United States government to support the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. He resigned in 1940, owing to concerns that the organization was too heavily influenced by the Communist Party.

In 1941, near the outset of the United States' involvement in World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Cowley's associate, poet and "popular front" interventionist Archibald MacLeish, as head of the War Department's Office of Facts and Figures (precursor to the Office of War Information). MacLeish recruited Cowley as an analyst. This decision resulted in anti-communist journalists such as Whittaker Chambers and Westbrook Pegler publicly exposing Cowley's left-wing sympathies. Cowley soon found himself in the crosshairs of congressman Martin Dies (D-Tex.) and the House Un-American Activities Committee. Dies accused Cowley of belonging to seventy-two communist or communist-front organizations. [10] This number was certainly an exaggeration, but Cowley had no recourse to deny it. MacLeish soon came under pressure from J. Edgar Hoover and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to dismiss Cowley. In January 1942, MacLeish sent his reply that the FBI needed a course of instruction in history. "Don't you think it would be a good thing if all investigators could be made to understand that Liberalism is not only not a crime but actually the attitude of the President of the United States and the greater part of his Administration?", he said. [ citation needed ] Nevertheless, Cowley resigned two months later, vowing to never write about politics again.

In 1944, having been more or less silenced politically, Cowley began a career as a literary advisor, editor, and talent scout at Viking Press. He was hired to work on the Portable Library series, which had started in 1943 with As You Were: A Portable Library of American Prose and Poetry Assembled for Members of the Armed Forces and Merchant Marine. In its inception, the Portable Library was an anthology of paperback reprints that could be mass-produced cheaply and marketed to military personnel. It also emphasized an American literary tradition that could be construed as patriotic during wartime. Yet Cowley was able to steer the series toward what were, in his esteem, underappreciated writers.

He first set out to edit The Portable Hemingway (1944). At the time, Hemingway was largely considered to be a sparse and simplistic writer. Cowley departed from this perception in his introductory essay, claiming instead that Hemingway could be read as tortured and submerged. This revaluation remains the dominant critical opinion today. Literary critic Mark McGurl argues that Hemingway's tip-of-the-iceberg style has become one of the most emulated in twentieth-century American prose, his name all but synonymous with the "pathos of understatement" and "the value of craft as represented by the practice of multiple revision". [11]

The Portable Hemingway sold so well that Cowley was able to convince Viking to publish a Portable Faulkner in 1946. William Faulkner was, at the time, slipping into literary obscurity. By the 1930s, he was working as a Hollywood screenwriter and in danger of seeing his works go out of print. Cowley again argued for a dramatic revaluation of Faulkner's position in American letters, enlisting him as an honorary member of the Lost Generation. Robert Penn Warren called The Portable Faulkner the "great watershed" moment for Faulkner's reputation, and many scholars view Cowley's essay as having resuscitated Faulkner's career. [12] Faulkner won a Nobel Prize in 1949. He later said, "I owe Malcolm Cowley the kind of debt no man could ever repay". [2]

Cowley then published a revised edition of Exile's Return in 1951. The revisions downplayed some of the more overtly Marxist tenets, and more obviously emphasized the return of the exile as a necessary step toward reestablishing a nation's solidarity: "the old pattern of alienation and reintegration, or departure and return, that is repeated in scores of European myths and continually re-embodied in life", Cowley wrote. [13] This time the book sold much better. Cowley also published a Portable Hawthorne (1948), The Literary Tradition (1954), and edited a new edition of Leaves of Grass (1959), by Walt Whitman. These were followed by Black Cargoes, A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (1962), Fitzgerald and the Jazz Age (1966), Think Back on Us (1967), Collected Poems (1968), Lesson of the Masters (1971) and A Second Flowering (1973).

Cowley taught creative writing at the college-level beginning in the 1950s. Among his students were Larry McMurtry, Peter S. Beagle, Wendell Berry, as well as Ken Kesey, whose One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1962) Cowley helped publish at Viking. Writing workshops were a recent development at the time (the Iowa Writers' Workshop was founded in 1936), yet by midcentury their proliferation was of note for both writers and publishers. Cowley taught also at Yale, Michigan, Minnesota, Washington, California at Irvine and Berkeley, and even the prestigious Stegner Fellowship at Stanford, among other places, but he seldom maintained a full-time teaching appointment. Literary and cultural critic Benjamin Kirbach argues that this flitting back-and-forth between universities and the publishing industry allowed Cowley to reconcile his cosmopolitan ideal within the constraints of the academy. Kirbach writes: "Cowley's itinerancy—his seemingly effortless movement between universities and the publishing industry, between writers individual and collective—played a crucial role in institutionalizing [literary] modernism" in the twentieth century. [14]

As an editorial consultant to Viking Press, he pushed for the publication of Jack Kerouac's On the Road. Cowley's work anthologizing 28 Fitzgerald short stories and editing a reissue of Tender Is the Night, restructured based on Fitzgerald's notes, both in 1951, were key to reviving Fitzgerald's reputation as well, and his introduction to Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio, written in the early 1960s, is said to have had a similar effect on Anderson's reputation. Other works of literary and critical importance include Eight More Harvard Poets (1923), A Second Flowering: Works & Days of the Lost Generation (1973), And I Worked at the Writer's Trade (1978), and The Dream of the Golden Mountains: Remembering the 1930s (1980). [ citation needed ] And I Worked won a 1980 U.S. National Book Award in the one-year category Autobiography. [15] [a]

When The Portable Malcolm Cowley (Donald Faulkner, editor) was published in 1990, the year after Cowley's death, Michael Rogers wrote in Library Journal: "Though a respected name in hardcore literary circles, in general the late Cowley is one of the unsung heroes of 20th-century American literature. Poet, critic, Boswell of the Lost Generation of which he himself was a member, savior of Faulkner's dwindling reputation, editor of Kerouac's On the Road, discoverer of John Cheever, Cowley knew everybody and wrote about them with sharp insight. . . . . Cowley's writings on the great books are as important as the books themselves . . . . All American literature collections should own this." [ citation needed ]

To the end, Cowley remained a humanitarian in the world of letters. He wrote writer Louise Bogan in 1941, "I'm almost getting pathologically tender-hearted. I have been caused so much pain by reviewers and political allrightniks of several shades of opinion that I don't want to cause pain to anybody." [16]

Cowley married artist Peggy Baird they were divorced in 1931. His second wife was Muriel Maurer. Together they had one son, Robert William Cowley, who is an editor and military historian. [ citation needed ]


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