Marquette AKA-M - History

Marquette AKA-M - History

Marquette

Counties in Michigan and Wisconsin.

(AKA-M: dp. 6,761; 1. 459'2" ; b. 63'; dr. 26'4"; s. 16.5 k.; cpl. 247; a. 1 5", 8 40mm.; cl, Andromeda; T. C2-S-Bl)

Marquette (AKA-W), built under Maritime Commission contract by the Federal Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Kearny. N.J., was launched 29 April 1945; sponsored by Mrs. Sydney 11. Wertheimer: acquired by the -Navy On loan charter from the Maritime Commission 19 June 1945: and commissioned 20 June 1945, Comdr. John E Gabrielson in command.

Two weeks prior to the end of hostilities in the Pacific Marquette, an attack cargo ship, departed the east coast for Pearl Harbor. Arriving there 23 August, she loaded cargo for the western Pacific and departed for Guam 20 September. From Guam she continued on to Manu and Brisbane, where she picked tip a cargo of food for the Philippines. Upon arrival at Samar, she discovered her cargo was no longer needed and had been transferred to UNRRA for use in Greece. She then proceeded I Piraeus, via Suez, discharged her cargo, and returned I Norfolk 19 April 1946.

Marquette was then assigned to the Atlantic Fleet and for almost 9 years served as a unit of that fleet's amphibious force. She participated regularly in type, squadron, and amphibious exercises which ranged from Greenland
to the Caribbean. Her activities also included periodic deployment with the 6th Fleet and, 15 August to 21 September 1947, a Brazilian cruise with congressional observers for the Rio Conference embarked. This conference
resulted in the signing of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, 2 September.

Marquette's five 6th Fleet deployments, with units of the 2d Marine Division on board, were conducted in 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952, and 1954. During these Mediterranean cruises she operated primarily In the eastern and southern sections of that sea. On her first such deployment, in July 1948, Marquette was the scene of a conference between the U.N. mediator in Palestine, Count Folke Bernadotte, and the command Ing officers of units of TF 167 as tension tinder the newly instituted, and extremely uneasy, truce between Israel, Transjordan, and Egypt continued to mount. On each successive deployment she was a source of stability in the troubled eastern 'Mediterranean.

On 5 January , Marquette departed Norfolk for California. Arriving, San Pedro. oil the 23d, she joined Transport Squadron 7, Pacific Fleet. In mid-January she sailed to San Francisco, where she decommissioned 19 July and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet. On 9 January 1960, she was turned over to the Maritime Commission and placed in the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Into 1969 she is berthed at Olympia, Wash.


What did your Marquette ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Clerk were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Marquette. 19% of Marquette men worked as a Laborer and 15% of Marquette women worked as a Clerk. Some less common occupations for Americans named Marquette were Clerk and Waitress .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940


Major in History

The major in history consists of 33 credit hours: three required courses (9 credit hours) and eight upper division courses (24 credit hours).

Upper-division history courses: Eight courses (24 credit hours) with at least one course from each of the three groups listed below:

  • Group I, United States: HIST 3101-3199, HIST 4103-4199
  • Group II, Europe: HIST 3201-3299, HIST 3751, HIST 4200-4299
  • Group III, Asia, Africa and Latin America: HIST 3300-3499, HIST 4300-4600

The 24 credit hours selected must also include one HIST 4953 Readings in History course and one HIST 4955 Undergraduate Seminar in History course. HIST 4953 Readings in History , HIST 4955 Undergraduate Seminar in History and HIST 4931 Topics in History may be used to satisfy the group distribution requirement based on course content.

  • Students may enroll in HIST 5000-level graduate courses (cross-listed for undergraduates at the HIST 4000-level) with permission of the instructor.
  • At the discretion of the department, credit in history may be allowed in exceptional cases for courses taken in other departments of the university.

Students who complete HIST 1101 cannot also earn credit for HIST 2101 or 2102.

Department of Public Instruction Certification - Major in History

Major in History for Elementary and Secondary Education Majors

College of Education students majoring in Elementary or Secondary Education must complete the same requirements for the History major as listed above.

History B.A./M.A. Accelerated Degree Program

The Department of History offers a five-year accelerated B.A./M.A. degree program in history. Students admitted to this program may count some courses taken during their senior undergraduate year toward both the B.A. and M.A. degrees, thereby reducing the typical time needed to accomplish both degrees from six years to five. This option is especially well-suited for students pursuing careers in public history and allied fields. For additional information about requirements, interested students should see the Graduate Bulletin and contact the Department of History.


Chapter History

In 1908, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority became America’s first Greek-letter organization established by Black college women. Her roots date back to Howard University in Washington, D.C., where the idea for formation was conceived by Ethel Hedgeman Lyle of St. Louis, Missouri.

After her incorporation as a perpetual body in 1913, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated® gradually branched out and became the channel through which selected college-trained women improved the socioeconomic conditions in their city, state, nation, and the world.

Alpha Mu Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Incorporated®, was chartered on February 16, 1929. Our chapter has a rich heritage of women making a difference in the Indianapolis community and beyond in the areas of education, health, family & community strengthening, environmental concerns, and global issues.

Mary A. Johnson, Dean of Girls at Crispus Attucks High School was the first President of Alpha Mu Omega Chapter and also joining her as President were seven of our twenty-eight charter members: Eugenia D. Burbridge Asbury, Hattie Jones Edwards (who was also a National 1st Vice President), Thelma Frost Jackson, Ethel Kuykendall, Pauline Morton Finney, and Phyllis Wheatley Waters.

The Indianapolis Business Journal Book of Lists has cited Alpha Mu Omega as the second largest women’s professional organization in the city of Indianapolis, boasting a membership of over 540 that includes the most prominent and influential civic and business leaders in the city. Our chapter membership represents every facet of the Indianapolis community. Our members are educators, business women, lawyers, doctors, theologians, entrepreneurs and homemakers – to name a few.

Alpha Mu Omega is extremely proud of the diversity of our current chapter membership. We are home to many Silver Members (25+ years of service), Golden Members (between 50 – 74 years of service), and historically to multiple Diamond Members (75+ years of service). In addition to dedicated life-long members, we have members who are also newly initiated (1-3 years of service) and recent college graduates. The great diversity of our chapter helps to foster the strong and sincere bonds of sisterhood.


Jacques Marquette was born in Laon, France, on June 1, 1637. He came of an ancient family distinguished for its civic and military services. Marquette joined the Society of Jesus at age 17. [3] He studied and taught in France for several years, then the Jesuits assigned him to New France in 1666 as a missionary to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. When he arrived in Quebec, he was assigned to Trois-Rivières on the Saint Lawrence River, where he assisted Gabriel Druillettes and, as preliminary to further work, devoted himself to the study of the local languages and became fluent in six different dialects. [4]

In 1668, Marquette was moved by his superiors to missions farther up the Saint Lawrence River in the western Great Lakes region. That year he helped Druillettes found the mission at Sault Ste. Marie in present-day Michigan. [5] Other missions were founded at Saint Ignace in 1671 (Mission Saint-Ignace) [3] and at La Pointe on Lake Superior in present-day Wisconsin. At La Pointe, he encountered members of the Illinois tribes, who told him about the important trading route of the Mississippi River. They invited him to teach their people, whose settlements were mostly farther south. Because of wars between the Hurons at La Pointe and the neighboring Lakota people, Marquette left the mission and went to the Straits of Mackinac he informed his superiors about the rumored river and requested permission to explore it.

Leave was granted, and in 1673 Marquette joined the expedition of Louis Jolliet, a French-Canadian explorer. They departed from Saint Ignace on May 17, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry. [3] They sailed to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. From there, they were told to portage their canoes a distance of slightly less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. Many years later, at that point, the town of Portage, Wisconsin was built, named for the ancient path between the two rivers. They ventured forth from the portage, and on June 17, they entered the Mississippi near present-day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

The Joliet-Marquette expedition traveled to within 435 miles (700 km) of the Gulf of Mexico but turned back at the mouth of the Arkansas River. By this point, they had encountered several natives carrying European trinkets, and they feared an encounter with explorers or colonists from Spain. [7] They followed the Mississippi back to the mouth of the Illinois River, which they learned from local natives provided a shorter route back to the Great Lakes. They reached Lake Michigan near the site of modern-day Chicago, by way of the Chicago Portage. In September, Marquette stopped at Saint Francis Xavier mission in present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin, while Jolliet returned to Quebec to relate the news of their discoveries. [8]

Marquette and his party returned to the Illinois territory in late 1674, becoming the first Europeans to winter in what would become the city of Chicago. As welcomed guests of the Illinois Confederation, the explorers were feasted en route and fed ceremonial foods such as sagamite. [9]

In the spring of 1675, Marquette traveled westward and celebrated a public Mass at the Grand Village of the Illinois near Starved Rock. A bout of dysentery he had contracted during the Mississippi expedition sapped his health. On the return trip to Saint Ignace, he died at 37 years of age near the modern town of Ludington, Michigan. After his death, natives from the Illinois Confederation returned his bones to the chapel at Mission Saint-Ignace. [10]

A Michigan Historical Marker at this location reads:

Father Jacques Marquette, the great Jesuit missionary and explorer, died and was buried by two French companions somewhere along the Lake Michigan shore on May 18, 1675. He had been returning to his mission at St. Ignace, which he had left in 1673, to go exploring in the Mississippi country. The exact location of his death has long been a subject of controversy. A spot close to the southeast slope of this hill, near the ancient outlet of the Pere Marquette River, corresponds with the death site as located by early French accounts and maps and a constant tradition of the past. Marquette's remains were reburied at St. Ignace in 1677. [11]

Adjacent to gravesite of Marquette on State Street in downtown Saint Ignace, a building was constructed that now houses the Museum of Ojibwa Culture.

However, a Michigan Historical Marker in Frankfort, MI reads:

Marquette's Death: On May 18, 1675, Father Jacques Marquette, the great Jesuit missionary and explorer, died and was buried by two French companions somewhere along the Lake Michigan shore of the Lower Peninsula. Marquette had been returning to his mission at St. Ignace, which he had left in 1673 to go on an exploring trip to the Mississippi and the Illinois country. The exact location of Marquette’s death has long been a subject of controversy. Evidence presented in the 1960s indicates that this site, near the natural outlet of the Betsie River, at the northeast corner of a hill which was here until 1900, is the Marquette death site and that the Betsie is the Rivière du Père Marquette of early French accounts and maps. Marquette’s bones were reburied at St. Ignace in 1677. [12]

Places Edit

    [13]Marquette County, Wisconsin
  • Several communities, including: Marquette, Michigan Marquette, Wisconsin Marquette, Iowa Marquette, Illinois Marquette Heights, Illinois Pere Marquette Charter Township, Michigan [14] and Marquette, Manitoba in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in Lake Huron in Minnesota Marquette Lake in Quebec and Pere Marquette Lake, which drain into Lake Michigan at Ludington, Michigan in Quebec Pere Marquette River in Michigan
  • Pere Marquette Park in Milwaukee, WI near Grafton, Illinois , Chicago, Illinois , Gary, Indiana , a public beach in Muskegon, Michigan , in Michigan
  • The Pere Marquette Railway
  • "Cité Marquette," former US-City-Base (1956–1966) built by Americans based on the NATO Air Force Base in Couvron (38th Bombardment Wing), Laon, France (his birthplace). , a towboat company using a silhouette of the Pere in his canoe as their emblem. [15] in Chicago Marquette Building in Detroit Marquette Building in Saint Louis, Missouri Pere Marquette Hotel in Peoria, Illinois
  • Marquette Avenue, a large street in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Monuments Edit

Marquette is memorialized by various statues, monuments, and historical markers:

    near Saint Ignace, Michigan [16] , along with Louis Jolliet, near Lyons, Illinois
  • Statues have been erected to Marquette various locations, including at Detroit, Michigan Fort Mackinac, Michigan Marquette, Michigan Milwaukee, at Marquette University Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, Utica, Illinois Laon, France the National Statuary Hall of the United States Capitol the Quebec Parliament Building
  • The Legler Branch of the Chicago Public Library displays "Wilderness, Winter River Scene," a restored mural by Midwestern artist R. Fayerweather Babcock. The mural depicts Marquette and Native Americans trading by a river. Commissioned for Legler Branch in 1934, the mural was funded by the Works Projects Administration. [17]

Marquette has been honored twice on postage stamps issued by the United States:


Trails to mark back story of Gary’s Marquette Park: ‘We wanted to enhance the park and look to its history’

Thank you for supporting our journalism. This article is available exclusively for our subscribers, who help fund our work at the Chicago Tribune.

Visitors to Gary’s Marquette Park will soon have more to do than just loll around at the beach and gaze at the Chicago skyline.

The Friends of Marquette Park, a long-established nonprofit network of volunteers, has built four new trails that pay homage to the landmark park’s history along Lake Michigan’s southern shore.

The group unveiled the new signs, designed by former St. Joseph County parks director Evie Kirkwood, of South Bend, at its annual meeting at the Marquette Park Pavilion June 15.

“We wanted to enhance the park and look to its history,” said Friends volunteer Susan Cohen. “(Octave) Chanute flew here for the first time Nelson Algren paddled in this lagoon with Simone de Beauvoir.”

Kirkwood, also a graphic designer, had never visited Marquette Park. She looked at it with the fresh eyes of a newcomer and parks veteran.

“Parks do many things for communities … savvy municipalities know parks can be positive influences on neighborhoods and drive change,” she said.

The Friends of Marquette Park have been a valuable asset to the city’s struggling parks department.

“You have developed a template that works,” said Park Board President Dwight Gardner during the meeting. “We’ll try to take the Friends of Marquette Park template and apply it to other parks.”

Mayor Jerome Prince said he hopes to not only enhance parks, but the entire city. “Just take a drive around the conditions are unsettling. Here, we can glean some ideas and take them back to create a sustainable community.”

The trails include a long loop of 2.51 miles, a short loop of 1.37 miles, a beach loop of .29 miles and some handicap accessible sections. The signs point out the trailhead and points of interest along the way.

One of the trails passes by a dune named Chanute Hill, for the aviation pioneer Octave Chanute who tested his early gliders there in 1896.

Other markers point to oak savanna woods, migratory bird migration sites, native flowers and the Grand Calumet Lagoon. At least two shipwrecks are believed to be in the lake area near, as well.

Other sites include the prairie-style Marquette Park Pavilion, built in 1924 and the statue of Pere Jacques Marquette that greets visitors. An explorer and Jesuit missionary, he traveled through the area in 1675.

Chicago writer Nelson Algren, best known for “The Man with the Golden Arm,” bought a small cottage near the lagoon in 1950 and stayed for a few years writing short stories, essays and books. A museum in his honor was established on Lake Street in 2016.

Over the years, Friends of Marquette Park have assisted the city’s parks’ department in sprucing up the Father Marquette statue, planting native flowers and bushes, offering water safety programs.

Once the signs are framed and installed throughout the park, the group plans to hold a dedication event.


1st I want you to consider a few truths regarding the FDA guidelines or RDA [recommended dietary allowance] of vitamins, minerals, and food group portions demonstrated by the colorful My Food Plate and its predecessor the Food Pyramid. While the plate does give fruits and vegetables a more prominent division of our diet than grains, it still gives grains a 25% allocation to your meals. The Food Pyramid had recommended a gargantuan 9-11 servings of carbohydrates in a single day.

Food industry monopolist Monsanto has had their hand in the FDA for a long time. Grains are cheap to produce & are added to foods like meat that we’d never consider to examine. They also cause cows to develop e-coli. Monsanto has “poisoned the water hole” so to speak by putting cancerous chemicals in our food supply, sued family farmers when their own Frankenstein seed contaminated the farmers’ seed, bankrupted many by keeping them in legal limbo, & even caused 1000s of Indian farmers to commit suicide by drinking pesticides. [click here to tell Pres. Obama to cut the ties between Monsanto & the FDA — takes only 20 sec]

Before my days of behind the scenes nutritional research, back when my kids were toddlers, I would lament how in the world could I fit

10 healthy carbohydrates a day in & still provide a rich diet of fruits and vegetables. It became clear quickly that it was an either/or situation. While I tried to offer a fruit at each breakfast, then at least 1 if not 2 veggies at lunch, 2-3 vegetables at dinner, cushioned with at least 1 fruit snack throughout the day, affordability often gave way to dependence on grains. At least I did use oatmeal as our mainstay rather than pre-packaged cookies and cakes. Now if I can just track down organic oatmeal…

When it came to my selection of fruits I relied on unsweetened applesauce, oranges, bananas, and canned varieties. Wow, have I come a long way, baby. Out of my choices at least half of them were just plain sorry. I will give bananas a bit of credit since the 1g of fat in each does help provide their developing brains and nervous system with the fatty protective myelin sheath that insulates nerves. While it is famous for potassium, it turns out to be an inferior source compared to raw potatoes, cantaloupe, strawberries, and even raw cacao beans (or dark chocolate if cacao is inaccessible to you).

Oranges were a great source (but are also a choking hazard, so beware – helps to peel the inner white linings off to reveal the raw pulp), but the canned applesauce reported zero nutrients. FRESH raw apples – including chewing the seeds extra well – are, however, superb choices. Canned fruit (pineapples, peaches, fruit cocktail) is loaded in corn syrup.

Corn syrup (and corn oil) has been linked as a direct cause of diabetes, obesity, and soaring triglyceride fat levels, and cancer. Quite simply it is so concentrated that it overloads the pancreas in 1 form & chokes out cell walls in the other. Our family has come to refer to it as “diabetic juice” and “cancer Kool-aid.”

Which brings to mind another fact: raw fruits are better sources than juice for the simple reason that juice contains an overabundance of servings, is not fresh unless juiced yourself, and is pasteurized. On the flip side, freshly juicing vegetables is the most fantastic way to get your quota in without sore jaws and bloat. The fact that industrial farms have depleted our soils with pesticide and chemical fertilizer use, as well as picking produce green & shipping it cross-country or world-wide means what you’re eating isn’t as nutritious as it could be. There is no source more superior than locally grown organic foods.

The following video shows why you should be choosing fruits and vegetables with HIGH antioxidant values. They reduce inflammation which will help clear your skin, fight disease, and heal worn out cells. Doing so prevents a milieu of life threatening conditions.

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Profile profile for MotenC

A.B., Washington University in Saint Louis, African and African American Studies/Anthropology
M.A., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Afro-American Studies
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, History

Dr. Crystal M Moten is curator of African American history in the Division of Work and Industry. A south side of Chicago native, she has taught at small liberal arts colleges on the east coast and in the upper Midwest. Her research interests include the intersectional connections between African American labor, business, and civil rights history with emphasis on post-world war II Black freedom movements in the urban Midwest.

  • History of African American Business and Entrepreneurship
  • 20th Century African American History
  • Civil Rights and Social Movement History
  • Women’s and Gender History

Book Project:

This Woman’s Work: Black Women’s Intellectual and Economic Activism in Postwar Milwaukee (manuscript in progress)


Marquette Historical Society

We hope you have an interesting and fun experience on your visit. The Historical Society welcomes comments, information and suggestions on the postings presented.

Feel free to contact us at:

Marquette Historical Society

240 West Second Street

Marquette, WI 53947

NOW AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE @ $10.00 A COPY, OR MAILED TO YOU FOR $13.00. SEND YOUR CHECK TO: MARQUETTE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, PO BOX 31, MARQUETTE, WI 53947. CHECK MADE OUT TO- MARQUETTE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. THANK YOU.

D UE TO THE COVID PANDEMIC AND RESTRICTIONS ON SOCIAL GATHERING, THE EVENT SCHEDULED FOR JUNE 13TH IS CANCELED. WE ARE EXPLORING THE POSSIBLILITY OF RE-SCHEDULING THE EVENT FOR SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 6TH AT THE VILLAGE HALL. PLEASE CHECK THIS SITE TO BE INFORMED OF ANY NEW DEVELOPMENTS. ANYONE WHO HAS ALREADY PURCHASED A TICKET IS ENTITLED TO A REFUND, OR CAN APPLY IT TO THE THE SEPTEMBER EVENT IF THEY SO CHOOSE. TAKE CARE AND STAY SAFE!!

The Marquette Historical Society is pleased to announce this family friendly event set for June 13, 2020.To purchase tickets, send your check to: Marquette Historical society, PO Box 6, Marquette, WI 53947. $5.00 ticket covers both events. Pre-purchased tickets will be picked up at the door the day of the event. There will be a small number of "walk-in" tickets available.

Tickets are also on sale at the following places: Kingston Millpond Library, Princeton Library, Montello Library and More Healthy Foods in Montello.

Come and join us for an interesting and enjoyable evening.

Our event is part of a collaborative effort between the Montello Historic Preservation Society and the Potage Historical Society under the banner "Stories Along the Upper Fox River" to share the rich history of the Fox River. Each society is sponsoring their own events throughout the summer. So, checkout their websites and support local history.


County Laois aka Queens County in the 1830s

A snapshot of pre-famine local history, as described in the "Topographical Dictionary of Ireland" by Samuel Lewis, 1837. (Much of the information collected here was submitted by members of the local gentry and clergy of the time). [Note: County Laois was originally called "Queen's County" from 1556 to 1920, after which it was renamed. Ancestors who emigrated prior to 1920 would have given Queen's as their county of origin].

QUEEN'S County, an inland county of the province of LEINSTER, bounded on the east by the counties of Kildare and Carlow, on the north by the King's county, on the west by the same and Tipperary county, and on the south by the counties of Kilkenny and Carlow.

  • It extends from 52° 46' to 53° 10' (N Lat.), and from 6° 56'. to 7° 48' (W. Lon.) and comprises an area, according to the Ordnance survey, of 396,810 statute acres, of which 335,838 are cultivated land, and 60,972 are unprofitable mountain and bog.
  • The population, in 1821, amounted to 134,275 and in 1831, to 145,851.

The slight notices of Ptolemy respecting the interior of Ireland lead to the inference that this county was inhabited by the Brigantes but Whitaker asserts that the Scoti were the first settlers in it. Afterwards, it was divided into Leix, which comprehended all that part of the county contained within the river Barrow to the north and east, the Nore to the south, and the Slieve-Bloom mountains to the west and Ossory, which included the remainder. So early as the middle of the third century the latter of these divisions, with parts of the adjoining counties, was ranked as a kingdom, and annexed by Conary, King of Ireland, to his native dominion of Munster, instead of being, as formerly, attached to Leinster.

Subsequent passages of history prove it to have been a district of considerable importance. When Malachy was forming a confederacy of all the native princes against the Danes, the king of Ossory was specially required to conclude a peace with the people of the northern half of the island, in order that all should be at liberty to act against the common enemy and in the time of Cormac Mac Culinan he had the command of the first division of that monarch's army in his unjust and unfortunate invasion of Leinster, and fell in the battle of Maghailbe, in which Cormac himself was slain. His dominions were afterwards disposed of by Flan, King of Ireland.

Both Leix and Ossory were visited by St. Patrick in his peregrinations through the island to establish the Christian religion. In the war waged by Roderic O'Conor, King of Ireland, against Dermod Mac Murrough, King of Leinster, which led to the invasion under Strongbow, the king of Ossory was one of the princes who were specially summoned by the former of those potentates. The district was then subject to the Mac Gillypatricks or Fitzpatricks, who acted with so much vigour against Mac Murrough that, when the English had partially established themselves in the country, Mac Murrough prevailed on them to join him in an invasion of Ossory, which they ravaged, notwithstanding the gallant resistance made by Donald Fitzpatrick, then king. Though defeated, this toparch persevered in his determination not to treat with Mac Murrough, and was again defeated and forced to seek refuge in Tipperary. He afterwards formed an alliance with Maurice Prendergast, who, upon some offence received from the king of Leinster, had quitted the service of that monarch, and both invaded the neighbouring territory of Leix, which they ravaged with little opposition, until O'More, then dynast of it, was compelled to apply to Mac Murrough, by whom, aided by the English, he was quickly reinstated.

Prendergast and Donald subsequently quarrelled, and the former, after skilfully extricating himself from an ambuscade laid for him by the other, retired with his followers in safety into Wales. Donald, though twice defeated, was not subdued. The position of his territory on the confines of Munster and Leinster afforded him opportunities of intercepting the communications between Waterford and Dublin, of which he availed himself so effectually, that a league was formed against him by Strongbow (who on Dermod's death succeeded to the kingdom of Leinster) and O'Brien, King of Limerick. But the appeal to arms was prevented by a treaty, in effecting which Maurice Prendergast, who had returned to Ireland, rendered his old ally good service. From this time Donald continued faithfully attached to his new friends. His territory was the place of rendezvous for their army when it was preparing to march against Donald O'Brien, King of Limerick, who had now declared against the English and he proved his adherence still further by guiding the army through the woods till it encamped before Limerick.

At this time the whole of the district now forming the Queen's county was known by the name of Glenmaliere and Leix the latter division was made a county palatine and on the division of the immense possessions of William, Earl Marshal, between his five daughters, it was allotted to the youngest, who had married William de Braosa, lord of Brecknock. Their daughter Maud married Roger Mortimer, lord of Wigmore, and from this connection the imperial house of Austria, and the royal families of Great Britain, France, Prussia, Denmark, Holland, Sardinia, and Saxony, derive their descent. Mortimer preferring to reside on his English estates, employed one of the O'Mores to defend and manage his Irish property, who, within twenty years after, became so powerful that he held it as his own, and became one of the most turbulent opponents of the English settlers in that part of the pale. So fully was his authority recognised as lord of the district, that he was summoned by the English government to oppose Bruce and the Scotch.

For two centuries after, the district was the seat of an almost incessant war between the O'Mores and the English, which was carried on without any occurrence of much historical importance on either side. During the same period the Mac Gillypatricks, or Fitzpatricks, maintained their independence in Ossory, but generally adhered to the English. In the 5th year of Mary, both districts were reduced to shire ground, and incorporated under the name of the Queen's county, the assize town being named Maryborough, in honour of the Queen. But this new arrangement did not immediately tranquillize the country.

At the close of the reign of Elizabeth, Owen Mac Rory O'More was so powerful that Sir George Carew, president of Munster, accompanied by the Earls of Thomond and Ormonde, was induced to hold a parley with him, to bring him back to his allegiance, in which they were entrapped in an ambuscade, and the Earl of Ormonde made prisoner, and detained till he paid a ransom of £3000. The daring insurgent himself was shortly after killed in a skirmish with Lord Mountjoy and the followers of the O'Mores were driven into the counties of Cork and Kerry, then nearly depopulated.

At this juncture many English families, to whom grants of the lands thus forfeited had been made, settled here. Seven of them, whose founders were most influential in securing the new settlements, acquired the names of the Seven Tribes. The families so called were those of Cosby, Barrington, Hartpole, Bowen, Ruish, Hetherington, and Hovenden or Ovington, of whom the first only has retained its possessions that of Barring ton, still extant, has alienated its property all the rest are extinct in the male line. In the reign of Charles I., large grants of land were made to Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, now forming the extensive manor of Villiers, which has descended through the female line to the present Duke. In the same reign, and during the unsettled period of the Commonwealth, the families of Pigott, Coote, Prior, Parnell, and Pole settled here: those of Vesey, Dawson, Staples, Burrowes, and Johnson, obtained lands in it after the Revolution.

The county had its full share of the calamities of the civil war in 1641, at the beginning of which the insurgents secured Maryborough, Dunamase and other places of strength. The Earl of Ormonde arriving at Athy from Dublin, detached parties for their relief on his retreat the whole of the county submitted to General Preston, but was forced again to submit to the royal arms.

In 1646, Owen Roe O'Nial seized upon several forts in it. In 1650, Cromwell's forces entered the county and met with much resistance: in the course of the struggle most of its fortresses were dismantled by his generals, Hewson and Reynolds. During the Revolution of 1688, a signal victory was gained by the troops of William at a noted togher or bog-pass near Cappard, where they defeated a much superior number of the Irish. After the termination of the war, the country was so harassed by the ravages of the rapparees that the resident gentlemen applied to King William to have a force of infantry and dragoons quartered in it, and specified the castle of Lea as one of the principal stations for their reception.

The county is partly in the diocese of Killaloe, partly in those of Dublin and Glendalough, partly in that of Kildare, but chiefly in those of Ossory and Leighlin.

For purposes of civil jurisdiction it is divided into the baronies of Ballyadams, Cullinagh, Maryborough East, Maryborough West, Portnehinch, Slievemargue, Stradbally, Tinnehinch, and Upper Ossory. It contains

  • the greater part of the borough and market-town of Portarlington
  • the disfranchised borough, market, and assize town of Maryborough
  • the ancient corporate and market and post-town of Ballinakill
  • the market and post-towns of Mountmellick, Mountrath, Stradbally, and Abbeyleix
  • the post-towns of Burros-in-Ossory (Borris-in-Ossory), Rathdowney, Ballybrittas, Clonaslee, and Ballyroan
  • and the suburb of the borough of Carlow called Graigue:
  • the largest villages are those of Ballylinan, Castletown, Emo, Newtown and Arles.

It sent eight members to the Irish parliament, two for the county at large, and two for each of the boroughs of Portarlington, Maryborough, and Ballinakill. Since the Union it has been represented by three members, two for the county, and one for Portarlington: the election for the county takes place at Maryborough. The constituency, as registered up to Feb. 1st, 1836, consisted of 405 £50, 270 £20, and 1210 £10, freeholders 5 £50, 16 £20, and 97 £10, leaseholders 26 £50, and 72 £20, rent-chargers and 37 clergymen of £50, in right of their respective incumbencies, 3 of £20, and 2 of £10 making a total of 2143 registered voters.

  • Queen's county is included in the Home Circuit: the assizes are held at Maryborough and general sessions of the peace at Maryborough, Mountmellick, Mountrath, Stradbally, Burros-in-Ossory, and Abbeyleix, twice in the year at each of these places. The county gaol is at Maryborough, and there are bridewells in Burros-in-Ossory, Stradbally, and Abbeyleix.
  • The localgovernment is vested in a lieutenant, 18 deputy-lieutenants, and 82 other magistrates besides whom there are the usual county officers, including four coroners.
  • There are 42 stations of the constabulary police, having a force of a sub-inspector, 9 chief officers, 45 sub-constables, 291 men and 15 horses besides which there are three stations of the peace preservation police.
  • The amount of the Grand Jury presentments, in 1835, was £21,575. 15. 7., of which £293. 16. 0. was for the roads, bridges &c., of the county at large £4124. 16. 0 ¼. for those of the baronies £9835. 15. 0 ¾. for public buildings, charities, officers' salaries, and incidents £6680. 8. 2. for the police and £541. 0. 4. for the repayment of advances made by Government.
  • The district lunatic asylum for the Queen's and King's counties, Westmeath, and Longford, is at Maryborough as is also the county infirmary, and there are dispensaries at Abbeyleix, Ballybrittas, Ballymoyler, Ballinakill, Clondonagh, Errill, Mountrath, Mountmellick, Newtown, Coleraine, Portarlington, Rathdowney, Stradbally, Swan, Ballickmoyler, Burros-in-Ossory, and Clonaslee, which are supported by Grand Jury presentments and private subscriptions, in the proportion of one third of the former to two-thirds of the latter. In the military arrangements it is included in the eastern district, and contains one barrack for infantry at Maryborough, constructed for the reception of 61 non-commissioned officers and men.

The surface of the county is generally either flat or gently undulating with small hills, exhibiting a pleasing variety rather than picturesque effect. The inequality is mostly caused by the escars, ridges of which traverse the county in several parts: they are mostly formed of rounded nodules of limestone, calcareous sandstone, and coal shale, the parent rocks of which are found in the county or close to its confines. The principal of these escars, called the Ridge, rises near Athlone and thence proceeding across the King's county, enters the Queen's at Mountmellick and proceeds to Rathleague through the extremity of Maryborough, forming in this county an unbroken line about 6 miles long, varying in height from 12 to 45 feet, being generally broad at the base and narrowing upwards to the width of a few feet to the north of Maryborough a road is carried along its summit south of the town it is planted. Near the same place a very copious spring bursts from it, called the Blessed well of Maryborough, and much resorted to by the peasantry, who perform devotional ceremonies, called stations, round it.

Beyond Rathleague the escars maintain a southeastern course, and are broken and interrupted, but they soon resume a regular ridge-like form and divide into two branches, one southwards to the Doon of Clopoke, the other eastwards to Stradbally, again forming an unbroken line of more than 6 miles. The tract extending from Urlingford, in Kilkenny county, to Dawson's Grove near Monastereven, on the confines of Kildare, is the most improved of any in Leinster. It is generally well planted, not in isolated patches close to the mansion-houses, but over the whole face of the landscape, so as to give it much the appearance of an English woodland scene. The Dysart hills, which are situated in this rich tract of country, add much to its variety and beauty they are wholly composed of limestone, and their direction is north and south between the baronies of Maryborough, Stradbally, and Cullinagh, not forming a continuous elevation, but in most cases standing singly: the rock of Dunamase and the Doon of Clopoke are two of the most striking of them.

To the west the land rises into the lofty range of the Slieve-Bloom mountains, which form a marked line of division between this and the King's county: their summit is called "the Height of Ireland," from a popular opinion that it is the most elevated point in the island near it is the Pass of Glandine, a narrow defile, impassable for carriages, and forming the only mountain communication between the King's and Queen's counties. The northern side of the mountains of this range is very fertile, while the southern, though more exposed to the genial influence of the sun, is nearly barren and mostly covered with heath. Towards the southern boundary of the county the ground rises into the Slievemarigue hills, which separate it from Kilkenny. The only lake is that of Lough Annagh, called also Lough Duff, on the border of the King's county, to which one-half of it is considered to belong.

The soil, which rests chiefly on a substratum of limestone, varies from a stiff clayey loam, well adapted to the growth of wheat, to a light sand, which, however, produces good barley, turnips and potatoes.

  • In the Slieve-Bloom mountains the surface inclines to a black, and in some parts, a yellow clay, of unequal depth, covering a mouldering rock or gritty gravel its general character is spongy, wet, boggy even where highest, and very rocky.
  • The Dysart hills are fertile to their summits, which, though too steep for the plough, afford rich pasturage for sheep.
  • The soil of the southern barony of Cullinagh is a gravelly silicious clay towards the mountains in the central parts it is a rich loam, and in the south, light and sandy: the largest bullocks in the county are fattened on the rich pastures in the low lands.
  • In the northern barony of Portnehinch the soil is light and unproductive, unless in some favoured spots where a persevering course of judicious cultivation has improved its character.
  • Bogs are frequent in every part, chiefly about Maryborough they may all be considered as branches of the great central bog of Allen. The turf from them yields both white and red ashes that affording the latter is most esteemed either for manure or fuel.
  • In some places are large tracts of marshy land called callows, which are inundated during winter but in summer afford excellent pasturage.
  • The land on the banks of the Barrow is alluvial and forms rich and valuable meadows.

The average size of farms, particularly in the tillage districts, is not more than from 12 to 14 acres some noblemen and landed proprietors hold large tracts of land in their own hands, the superior cultivation of which is very effective as a leading example towards ,the general improvement of agriculture in the county.

  • Wheat is now generally grown even in the mountain districts: barley is also extensively cultivated: potatoes and oats form an essential part of the rotation system.
  • Green crops are often seen, particularly turnips, of which the Swedish is most esteemed: rape and vetches are extensively raised clover is to be seen everywhere flax is planted only in small quantities for domestic consumption.
  • The implements and carriages employed in rural economy are generally of the most improved description: both bullocks and horses are used in ploughing, generally in pairs: where the soil is very deep and stiff, two pairs of the latter are sometimes put in the same team. The manures are, lime and limestone gravel, here called corn gravel, procured with little labour or expense, and composts from the farm-yard.
  • The common fence is of whitethorn planted on ditches well constructed but too often subsequently neglected: stone walls are also raised for the same purpose, particularly for the demesnes of the nobility and gentry.

All the improved breeds of English cattle have been introduced into the county. The most esteemed dairy cows are a cross between the Durham and native breed, as they are good milkers, of large size and easily fattened. Dairies are numerous and productive cheese is made in small quantities but butter, which is of very good quality, is the chief produce. Pigs are reared in very great numbers no farm-house is without them, but the breed is inferior to that in the southern counties goats are also kept by all the small farmers and cottiers. The horses are a light, small-boned, active race, good for the saddle but not well fitted for heavy agricultural labour.

A great part of the county, particularly the mountainous districts to the north-west, was once covered with timber, in proof of which it may be stated that in the neighbourhood of Lough Annagh, oak, fir and yew trees are found in numbers lying a few feet below the surface, some of the roots adhering to the trunks and others remaining in their original position, the trunks having been burnt off and the charred cinder adhering in all its freshness to both trunk and root: large trunks and roots of trees are also perceptible in the lake, with their timber sound and remarkably tough. In the reign of Elizabeth, Captain Leigh received the thanks of that queen for having valiantly led the English cavalry from Birr to Athy, through the woods and forests of Oregan. The country has since been entirely cleared of its old woods but new plantations have sprung up in most parts.

The farm-houses, like the farms, are generally small many have neat gardens and orchards, which, with the hedgerow trees, give them the appearance of much rural comfort. Draining and irrigation are but little attended to.

The principal portion of the county belongs to the great floetz limestone field, which forms the base of the greater part of the level country of Ireland the Slieve-Bloom mountains in the north-west, are of the sandstone formation, and at the Slievemargue in the south-east the coal formation commences. The limestone field abounds with escars, already noticed. The coal formation commences near Timahoe, and extends east and south-east to the Barrow, and southwards almost to the Nore. It forms the northern extremity of the Kilkenny field, from which it is separated only by a small river, and the coal is in every respect similar in each part: the portion included in the Queen's county extends about 3 miles by 2. The strata range as in Kilkenny, but the dip being to the west, the pits on this side are deeper.

There are five collieries at work namely, Newtown, Wolf Hill, Doonane, Poulakele and Moydebegh those of Rushes and Tollerton, though very valuable, are not wrought at present. The pits at Newtown are from 45 to 48 yards deep, all those around Moydebegh are from 61 to 64 yards.

  • The coal at Newtown and Doonane is equal to the best Kilkenny coal, and sells at 20s. per ton at the pits that of the other collieries, though somewhat inferior, never sinks below the price of 17s. per ton. Hence the poor people, even in the immediate vicinity of the pits, cannot afford to use it, and it is entirely purchased by maltsters, brewers, distillers and smiths, by whom it is much sought after, inasmuch as, being almost pure carbon, without any admixture of bitumen, it requires no preliminary preparation even for malting purposes it is conveyed to all the surrounding counties chiefly in one-horse carts.
  • In the summer of 1836, 64 pits were at full work, for unwatering which five steam-engines were employed, but the coal is mostly raised by horses. The works furnished employment to 700 men, and the value of the coal raised is estimated at upwards of £78,000 per ann. Yet, notwithstanding these advantages, the workmen, from their irregular and inconsiderate habits, are miserably poor and the district is frequently disturbed by broils and tumults, so that police stations are thickly distributed throughout this portion of the county.

Iron ore shews itself in some parts, and mines were wrought until the failure of the supply of timber for fuel caused them to be relinquished: a branch of the iron-manufacture which had been successfully carried on at Mountrath, when timber was plentiful, has been discontinued for the same reason. Copper and manganese have also been found. Slate quarries have been opened at Roundwood, in Offer-lane, and at Cappard. Near Mountmellick are quarries of soft silicious sandstone, which is wrought into chimney-pieces and hearth-stones that are in great demand.

Ochre, fullers' earth, and potters' clay are met with. Potteries have been long established in the neighbourhood of Mountmellick, in which large quantities of tiles, crocks, and garden pots are made.

The other manufactures are confined to cottons, flannels, friezes and stuffs of a coarse durable kind for the clothing of the peasantry.

  • Much broadcloth was woven in Mountmellick for the Dublin market, and a broad stuff called "Durants" was also manufactured there and at Maryborough but the trade has long declined. The same observation is applicable to serges, the use of which has been in a great measure superseded by that of cotton cloth.
  • Cotton factories were erected at Cullinagh, Abbeyleix, and on the Barrow near Athy, but all failed the only one at present in the county is at Mountrath.
  • In Mountmellick are an iron-foundry and extensive breweries, a distillery, and tanneries.
  • At Donoughmore is a very extensive starch-manufactory, the produce of which is almost exclusively sent to Dublin.
  • Flour-mills at Mountmellick, Coleraine, Maryborough, Castletown, Rathdowney, Donoughmore, Abbeyleix and Stradbally, besides several in other parts, are each capable of manufacturing 12,000 barrels of flour annually.

The Nore is the only river of any magnitude that passes through the county: it rises in the Slieve-Bloom mountains and enters Kilkenny near Durrow, receiving in this part of its course the Tonnet with its branch stream the Dolour, the Old Forge river, the Cloncoose with its branches the Cromoge and Corbally, the Trumry, the Colt, and the Erkin or Erkenny. The Barrow, which rises in the same mountain range, and forms the northern and part of the eastern boundary of the county, receives the Blackwater, the Trihogue, and the Owenass or Onas: it is navigable for barges from Athy downwards, and quits the county for that of Carlow at Cloghgrennan.

The Grand Canal enters the county at Clogheen near Monastereven, and is carried along near its eastern boundary for eight miles to Blackford, where it re-enters the county of Kildare, and shortly after communicates with the Barrow at Athy. A branch has been carried from Monastereven by Portarlington to Mountmellick.

The roads are numerous throughout every part of the county: in general they are well laid out and kept in good order.

The intended railway from Dublin to Kilkenny is to cross the Barrow from Kildare at Ardree below Athy, and will proceed by Milford, Grange, Shruel, and Graigue to Cloghgrennan, and proceed thence by Leighlin-Bridge to the city of Kilkenny.

LAOIS HISTORICAL SITES & ANTIQUITIES

Relics of antiquity of every description known in Ireland are to be found here.

  • There is a pillar tower nearly perfect, at Timahoe, in a valley near the ruins of a monastic building.
  • On Kyle hill, about two miles from Burros-in-Ossory, is a rude seat of stone, called by the common people the Fairy Chair, which is supposed to have been an ancient judgment-seat of the Brehons.
  • Near the south-western verge of the county is an ancient Irish fortress, called Baunaghra or "Kay's Strength," little known on account of its retired situation on the top of a high hill surrounded by a deep circular fosse with a mound or wall on the summit.
  • The other principal relics are described under the heads of the parishes in which they are situated.

Monastic institutions, of a very early date, were numerous, but most of them have so completely fallen into decay, that even their site cannot now be ascertained.

  • The ruins of Aghaboe, whither the seat of the see of Ossory was removed from its original situation at Saiger, in the King's county, until its final removal to Kilkenny, still exist in such a state of preservation as to afford some idea of the extent and character of the buildings.
  • The ruins of Aghmacart are also visible, as are traces of those of Killedelig, Killermogh, Mundrehid or Disert-Chuilin, and Teampul-na-Cailliagh-dubh, near Aghaboe. The churches of Dysartenos and Killabane have been preserved as parish churches. The site of the monastery of Leix is known only by the existence of the town of Abbeyleix: that of Timahoe is conjectured, with much probability, from the round tower there.
  • Rostuirc was near the Slieve-Bloom mountains Stradbally or Monaubealing stood near the town of Stradbally Teagh-Schotin and Slatey were in Slievemargue: the sites of Cluainchaoin, Cluainimurchir, Disert Fularthaigh, Disert Odrain, Kilfoelain, and Leamchuil or Lahoil, are wholly unknown.

Among the remains of military antiquities is the rock of Dunamase, described in the account of the parish of Dysartenos. Lea castle, on the Barrow, eight miles from Dunamase, is supposed to have been built about the same period, its architecture much resembling that of the other, and it was still further secured by its natural position, being protected on one side by the Barrow, and on the other by a deep morass: it was incapable, however, of holding out against Cromwell, by whom it was taken and destroyed.

The castles of Shean, Moret, Ballymanus, and five others in the same part of the county, were built by Lord Mortimer, as posts of defence for the English tenants whom he endeavoured to settle on his estates. Shean or Sim castle was built on a conical hill: though not of great extent, it was a place of considerable strength, but not a vestige of it is now in existence. Burros-in-Ossory was a strong fort on the Nore, belonging to the Fitzpatricks, and the great pass to Munster: it was the scene of a very bloody engagement in the war of 1641. Ballygihin, Castletown, Watercastle, and Castlefleming, with several others, belonged to branches of the same family. Shanbogh, in the same district, was a castellated mansion, which served as a protection against the rapparees who infested the deep woods with which this part of Ireland was then covered. Grantstown, Ballagh, Clonbyrne, Gortneclay, Coolkerry, and Kilbreedy are in the same barony.

  • Castlecuff in Tinnehinch, built about 1641, by Sir Charles Coote, celebrated for his military prowess, is a very large ruin: he also built the castle of Ruish-hall. The castles of Clara, Ballinakill, Coolamona, Tinnehinch, and Castlebrack, are in the same district: the last-named contains some subterraneous apartments, which were opened and partially explored, but presenting nothing more than other small caves, and the air being very foul, no attempt was made to penetrate to the extremity of any of them.
  • The ruins of an old castle at Ballyadams, which gives name to the barony, are still visible another is to be seen at Grange. Shrule castle was in the south-western extremity of the county, near the town of Carlow. The entrance into the ruins of Cloghgrennan castle separated the county of Carlow from the Queen's county.
  • The remains of Rathaspeck castle were applied to the building of the neighbouring parish church.
  • A conical heap of stones on the summit of a very lofty hill, near the boundary of Stradbally barony, is known by the name of Cobler's castle.

The modern mansions of the nobility and gentry are noticed under the heads of their respective parishes.

The middle classes of the gentry pay much attention to the improvement and embellishment of their grounds their dwelling-houses are handsome and convenient, with suitable offices.

The habitations of the peasantry, though in many parts superior to those of the neighbouring counties, are very deficient in appearance or in internal comfort.

  • Abbeyleix and Castletown are exceptions, much attention being paid to the houses there
  • in the baronies of Maryborough and Upper Ossory they are comfortable,
  • but in the northern barony of Tinnehinch they are very poor, being little better than hovels, and in the neighbourhood of the collieries still worse.

A plot of ground of from half an acre to an acre is generally attached to the peasant's hut, as a potato garden, for which he pays in labour from 20s. to 50s. rent.

The fuel throughout the entire county is turf, the coal being exclusively used for manufacturing purposes wood was formerly so abundant, that a clause was introduced into many old leases binding the tenant to use no other kind of fuel and at the present time the ancient custom of dues and services is inserted in many leases.

A strong attachment to old customs is pointed out as one of the striking characteristics of the peasantry: but that this adherence is not caused by prejudice alone is proved by their adoption of improved practices of agriculture, when the success of others had ultimately convinced them of their superior advantages. Another fact, illustrative of this observation, is, that the peasantry in all parts, even in the mountainous districts, speak English fluently, the Irish being never heard except with some of the very old people.

The custom of frequenting wells for devotional purposes is declining fast. Of the chalybeate springs the most remarkable are those at Cappard, Killeshin, Mountmellick, and Portarlington: the first-named is the strongest, but none of them are in much repute for their sanative qualities beyond their own immediate neighbourhood.

There is a very singular artificial curiosity, called the Cut of Killeshin, about three miles from Carlow, on the road to the collieries. It is a pass through a lofty hill above half a mile long, and from 10 to 40 feet deep according to the rise of the ground, but not more than four feet four inches wide, cut through the solid rock, so that cars have barely room to pass along it. The constant flow of water and the friction of the carriage wheels have occasioned this extraordinary excavation. The carrier, as he approached the gap at either end, shouted loudly, and the sound was easily conveyed to the other extremity through the cavity. Should the cars have met within the cut, the driver of the empty car was bound to back out, a task of no small difficulty along this narrow and ill-constructed road. A new road has been opened, which has obviated the necessity of making use of this pass. Contiguous to this cut are the ruins of Killeshin church, with an antique and highly ornamented entrance archway, surrounded by an inscription in Saxon characters, now illegible. Adjoining the church was a rath with a deep fosse. This place was remarkable for having once been the chief town in the county, though not a stone building of it is now standing except the ruins just mentioned.

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