HMS Speaker

HMS Speaker

HMS Speaker

HMS Speaker was a Ruler class escort carrier that served with the fleet train of the British Pacific Fleet from March 1945 until VJ Day.

The Speaker was laid down as USS Delgada Bay (CVE-40) on 9 October 1942. It was completed in the United States on 20 November 1943, but as with many American-built escort carriers it needed further work to bring it up to British safety standards, and didn't enter service for another year.

1944

In mid-September 1944 HMS Speaker relieved the deck-landing training carrier Argus, operating alongside HMS Ravager. During this period 290 pupils passed their initial deck landing training and 17 were give refresher courses on the three carriers.

On 16 December 1943 No.1840 Squadron, with its Hellcat Is, embarked on the Speaker. It then disembarked to receive the Hellcat II, re-embarking at Ayr on 31 December.

1945

The Speaker was allocated to the British Pacific Fleet, and reached the Far East in time to take part in the fighting around Okinawa. The main carriers of the British fleet were formed into Task Force 57, supported by the Fleet Train, which was designated Task Force 112. On 15 March the Speaker left port with Task Unit 112/2/5, to provide fighter cover over the replenishment fleet.

The Hellcat IIs of No.1840 Squadron provided a CAP for replenishment on 25 March, 14 April and 18-19 April, before leaving the fleet to return to Leyte.

On 27 April No.1840 Squadron disbanded into No.1839, leaving the Speaker without a squadron. From then until the end of the war it served as a ferry carrier, supplying replacement aircraft to the main fleet carriers. Aircraft were transferred on 10-11 and 22 May and the Speaker was still performing this role up to VJ Day.

On 3 September 1945 the Speaker sailed from Tokyo Bay to take 500 released prisoners of war to Sydney. Before departing she sailed around the powerful units of the British Pacific Fleet anchored in the harbour.

The Speaker was returned to the US Navy on 17 July 1946 and sold off as a merchantman.

Squadrons

No.1840 NAS

Joins with Hellcat II on 16 December 1944, then goes to Far East where provides cover for British Pacific Fleet auxiliaries. Disbanded into No.1939 Squadron on 27 April 1945.

Displacement (loaded)

11,400t standard
15,390t deep load

Top Speed

18kts

Length

495ft 3in-496ft 8in oa

Armaments

18-24 aircraft
Two 5in/38 US Mk 12 in two single mountings
Sixteen 40mm Bofors guns in eight double mountings
Twenty seven to thirty five 20mm cannon

Crew complement

646

Launched

20 February 1943

Completed

20 November 1943

To USA

1946


HMS Speaker (D90)

Kauppa-alus tilattiin Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation Seattlesta Yhdysvalloista. Sen köli laskettiin 9. lokakuuta 1942 ja alus laskettiin vesille 20. helmikuuta 1943 Yhdysvaltain laivaston saattuetukialuksena USS Delgada (runkonumero ACV-40) kumminaan James B. Sykesin puoliso. Aluksen runko siirrettiin Willamette Iron and Steelille Portlandiin muutettavaksi saattuetukialukseksi. Alus luokiteltiin uudelleen CVE-40:ksi 15. heinäkuuta. [1] Muutostyöt saatiin päätökseen 20. marraskuuta. [2]

Alus luovutettiin 20. marraskuuta lend lease -sopimuksen nojalla Britannian kuninkaalliselle laivastolle, joka nimesi aluksen HMS Speakeriksi. Alus oli marraskuun lopun koeajoissa, jotka päättyivät 8. joulukuuta. Koeajojen jälkeen alus lähti Esquimaltiin, jossa se siirrettiin telakalle muutostöitä varten. Tammikuussa 1944 alus oli koulutettavana, jolloin propulsiojärjestelmässä havaittiin vikaa. Helmikuussa alus purjehti Panamaan ja maaliskuun alussa se määrättiin kuljettamaan lentokoneita New Yorkista Britteinsaarille. [2]

Alus läpäisi 7.maaliskuuta Panaman kanavan ja seuraavana päivänä se liittyi HMS Empressin ja USS Tulagin muodostamaan osastoon Karianmerellä härjoitellakseen lentotoimintaa matkalla Norfolkiin. HMS Empressiltä noussut Avenger oli ensimmäinen alukselle laskeutunut lentokone. Alus saapui 17. maaliskuuta osaston mukana Norfolkiin, jossa se siirrettiin Yhdysvaltain laivaston telakalle havittujen vikojen korjaamiseksi. [2]

Telakalta vapauduttuaan alus lähti New Yorkiin, jossa sille siirrettiin lentokoneita ja muuta materiaalia sekä 54 siviiliä kuljetettavaksi Britteinsaarille. Maaliskuun lopulla alus lähti merelle saattueen mukana ja se saapui 8. huhtikuuta Liverpooliin, jossa lentokoneet, materiaali ja siviilit siirrettiin maihin. Alus jatkoi matkaansa Liverpoolista Clydeen, missä se jatkoi kuljetusaluksena. Alus tankattiin 10. huhtikuuta Clydessä, mistä se lähti 13. huhtikuuta Norfolkiin hakemaan uuden erän lentokoneita. [2]

Alus purki kuormansa 14. toukokuuta Liverpoolissa, jonka jälkeen se määrättiin saattuetehtäviin. Aluksen muutostyöt uuteen tehtävään määrättiin Dundeen kaupalliselle telakalle ja alus odotti Garelochissa muutostöiden alkamista. Alus siirrettiin telakalle 28. toukokuuta muutostöitä varten, mitkä sisälsivät sisäisen ja ulkoisen viestiliikenneverkon parannuksia, tutkajärjestelmien asennuksia sekä taistelunjohtokeskuksen muutoksia. Alukselle asennettiin myös prototyyppi tyypin 277 ilmavalvontatutkasta sekä parannellut Oerlikonin 20 millimetrin kaksiputkiset ilmatorjuntatykit, joilla korvattiin aiemmat yksiputkiset aseet. [2]

Alus vapautui telakalta syyskuussa, jonka jälkeen se siirrettiin Rosythiin koeajoihin. Alus siirrettiin 12. syyskuuta Rosythin telakalle vedenalaisten asennusten rutiinitarkastukseen. Se siirrettiin 16. syyskuuta Firth of Forthiin laivastonlentäjien koulutusalukseksi. Loka-marraskuussa 768 laivueen Barracuda ja Swordfish koneet tekivät yli 1 400 laskeutumista alukselle. Viikonloput alus vietti Rosythissä. [2]

Alus määrättiin joulukuussa operatiiviseen palvelukseen ja se siirtyi Belfastiin. Alus vastaanotti 16. joulukuuta 1840 laivueen kaluston ja henkilöstön. Se siirrettiin 25. joulukuuta Glasgow'ssa telakalle korjattavaksi. [2]

Brittiläisessä Tyynenmeren laivastossa Muokkaa

Alus aloitti 1. tammikuuta 1945 kouluttautumisen Clydessä uuteen tehtäväänsä. Samalla aluksella saatiin tieto yhteistoiminnasta HMS Khediven ja HMS Slingerin kanssa. Alus lähti 11. tammikuuta osastonsa mukana Clydestä liittyäkseen Brittiläiseen Tyynenmeren laivastoon. Alus vieraili Gibraltarilla ennen purjehdusta Välimerelle, jossa alus harjoitteli lentotoimintaa 17. tammikuuta etsien samalla sukellusveneitä Pohjois-Afrikan rannikolta. Alus lähti 22. tammikuuta Aleksandriasta Colomboon. Aluksen harjoitellessa lentotoimintaa Intian valtamerellä se menetti kuusi lentokonetta ja yhden lentäjän onnettomuuksissa. [2]

Alus siirsi maihin 4. helmikuuta osan 1840 laivueen henkilöstöstä Trincomaleessa, josta alus jatkoi Australiaan liittyäkseen laivastoon. Matkalla alus etsi kaksi vuorokautta kadonnutta yhdysvaltalaista rahtialusta. Se saapui 23. helmikuuta Sydneyyn, jossa loput 1849 laivueen henkilöstöstä siirrettiin maihin ja aluksen kattilat puhdistettiin. Alus liitettiin Task Force 112:een 30. lentotukialuslaivueeseen tukemaan Task Force 57:n ilmaoperaatioita Sakashima Gunton lentotukikohtia vastaan operaatiossa Iceberg One. [2]

Alus siirtyi maaliskuun alussa Manuksen tukikohtaan, josta se lähti 17. maaliskuuta operaatioalueelle Ulithiin laivaston huolto-osaston tankkeriryhmän (TG112.2) mukana. Alus muodosti sitä suojanneiden hävittäjä HMS Kempenfeltin ja sluuppi HMS Pheasantin kanssa Task Unit 112.2.5:n, jonka tehtävänä oli suojata huollettavia aluksia. Alus suojasi 25. maaliskuuta huoltoa ennen kuin liittyi operaatio Icebergiä varten koottuun Yhdysvaltain laivaston osastoon. [2]

Alus saapui 28. maaliskuuta MIDGE-alueelle suojaamaan taisteluosaston täydentämistä. Alus oli 4. huhtikuuta MOSQUITO-alueella, 7. ja 14. huhtikuuta COOTIE-alueella sekä 18 huhtikuuta uudelleen MOSQUITO-alueella suojaamassa täydennysten jakamista. Alus lähti 21. huhtikuuta paluumatkalle Manukseen Iceberg One operaation päätyttyä. Aluksen Hellcat koneet olivat lentäneet 446 tuntia ilmapuolustustehtävissä operaation aikana. [2]

Alus jatkoi 30. huhtikuuta huolto-osaston mukana tukien TF57:ää ilmaiskuissa Sakashima Gunton lentokentille operaatiossa Iceberg Two. Toukokuussa alus määrättiin kuljetus- ja täydennystehtäviin sekä kouluttamaan reservistä palvelukseen kutsuttuja lentäjiä. Alus lähti 4. toukokuuta Yhdysvaltain laivaston tukikohtaan Leytelle viemään lentokonetäydennystä, joka toimitettiin kaksi päivää myöhemmin määränpäähän. [2]

Alus oli 10. toukokuuta huolto-osaston tankkeriryhmän suojana COOTIE ONE -alueella. Se erkani osastosta 14. toukokuuta laivaston täydennyksen päätyttyä aloittaen matkan Leytelle noutamaan täydennyslentokoneita. Alus lähti paluumatkalle 19. toukokuuta. Se oli 22. toukokuuta jälleen COOTIE ONE -alueella, mistä se aloitti 25. toukokuuta paluumatkan Manukselle. Se saapui 29. toukokuuta määränpäähänsä. [2]

Kesäkuun alussa alus siirtyi Sydneyyn, jossa sen viiritunnus vaihdettiin R314:ksi. Alus määrättiin täydennystukialukseksi kuljettamaan lentokoneita Manuksesta täydennysalueille Japanin rannikon tuntumaan. Kesä-heinäkuun vaihteessa alus palasi Manukseen, jossa se oli 9. heinäkuuta alkaen. Alus lähti 18. heinäkuuta jälleen merelle. Alus oli 26. heinäkuuta täydennysalueella vastaanottamassa korjattavaksi siirrettäviä lentokoneita laivastolta. Seuraavana päivänä alus vastaanotti kolme lentokonetta HMS Strikerilta. [2]

Alus luovutti 1. elokuuta lentokoneita Force 36:n lentotukialuksille, minkä päätyttyä se aloitti paluumatkan Manukseen. Brittiläinen Tyynenmeren laivasto poistui Japanin lähivesiltä polttoainepulan vuoksi. HMS Speaker määrättiin tukemaan vapautettujen brittien ja liittoutuneiden sotavankien kotiutuksia, minkä vuoksi alus siirtyi Japaniin. [2]

Alus luovutti kymmenen Seafire ja yhden Fireflyn HMS Indefatigablelle sekä vastaanotti vastaavan määrän korjattavia lentokoneita. Alus luovutti kaikki lentokelpoiset lentokoneensa HMS Rulerille lisätäkseen majoitustiloja kuljetettaville sotavangeille. Alus sai 28. elokuuta määräyksen siirtyä Japaniin ja seuraavana päivänä ensimmäiset brittiläiset alukset saapuivat Tokionlahdelle. Aluksen lentokoneiden huoltohenkilöstö siirrettiin maihin ja he siirtyivvät edelleen HMS Rulerille. Näin voitiin vielä lisätä majoitustiloja. [2]

Syyskuun alussa alus vastaanotti matkustajia ja 3. syyskuuta se lähti Tokionlahdelta Manilaan mukanaan 473 matkustajaa. Manilassa matkustajat laskettiin maihin ja alus lähti paluumatkalle Nagasakiin kuljettakseen yhdysvaltalaisia Okinawalle. Tehtyään toisen matkan Nagasakiin alus teki matkan Hongkongiin. Manilass alukselle nousi australialaisia kuljetettavaksi Sydneyyn. Alus siirrettiin kunnostettavaksi 15. lokakuuta. Korjaus saatiin päätökseen vasta joulukuussa. [2]

Palvelukseen palattuaan alus kuljetti 721 laivueen kalustoineen Hongkongiin. Alukselle kuormattiin myös 10 tonnin nosturi sekä erilaisia tarvikkeita kuten olutta, jotka se kaikki luovutti 10. tammikuuta 1946 Hongkongissa. Alus palasi Sydneyyn mukanaan 459 matkustajaa, minkä jälkeen se aloitti kotimatkan Britteinsaarille. Matkalla alus vieraili Hongkongissa ennen paluutaan Suezin kanavan kautta. [2]

Alus saapui kesäkuussa Clydeen, jossa sen varastot tyhjennettiin ja kaikki brittiläiset varusteet poistettiin ennen palauttamista Yhdysvalloille. Työn päätyttyä alus lähti Virginiaan Norfolkiin, jossa se palautettiin Yhdysvaltain laivastolle 27. heinäkuuta. [2]

Se myytiin kauppalaivaksi 22. huhtikuuta 1947 nimellä SS Lancero. [1] Alus myytiin uudelleen 1965 ja se nimettiin SS President Osmenaksi. Vuonna 1971 alus nimettiin SS Lucky Threeksi, kun se teki koulutuspurjehduksen Taiwaniin. Alus saapui 9. kesäkuuta Taiwaniin romutettavaksi Kaohsiungiin Nan Feng Enterpriselle. [2]


Contents

Leslie worked as a radio service engineer at Barker Brothers Department Store in Los Angeles, which sold and repaired Hammond organs. [2] He bought one in 1937, hoping it would be a suitable substitute for a pipe organ. He was disappointed, however, with the sound in his home compared to the large showroom where he originally heard it. Consequently, he attempted to design a speaker to overcome this. He initially tried making a cabinet similar to Hammond's, but soon concluded that pipe organs produced a spacially varied sound because of the different location of each pipe. He set out to emulate this by making a moving speaker. He tried various combinations of speakers and speeds, and discovered that a single one running at what's now known as the "tremolo" speed worked best. After further experimentation, he decided that splitting the signal into a rotating drum and horn helped accentuate bass and treble frequencies. [3]

By 1940, Leslie decided his prototype was ready to market, and went to the Hammond Organ Company to demonstrate it. Laurens Hammond, however, was not impressed with Leslie's attempt to better his own organ design, and declined to market it. [4] The company even changed the speaker interface on their organs to make them "Leslie-proof," though Leslie quickly worked around this. [5] Leslie began manufacturing the speaker in 1941—initially under a variety of names, including Vibratone, Brittain Speakers, Hollywood Speakers, and Crawford Speakers. [6] He returned to the name "Leslie Vibratone" in 1947. [1] To counteract Hammond's slogan "Music's Most Glorious Voice," Leslie added a similar slogan, "Pipe Voice of the Electric Organ" to the plates. [1] He eventually owned nearly 50 patents on the speaker. [5]

Leslie manufactured the speaker to work with other organs besides Hammond, including Wurlitzer, Conn, Thomas and Baldwin. [6] He never particularly liked Hammond organs, once remarking "I hate those damn things." [7]

In 1965, Leslie sold the company to CBS, which had also acquired the Fender guitar company. [8] [9] In 1980, the Hammond Corporation finally bought Electro Music and the Leslie name from CBS. [5] After Hammond went out of business in 1986, a former engineer re-established Electro Music, licensing the name from Noel Crabbe, who had acquired the rights to Hammond. [10] It was subsequently sold to Suzuki in 1992, who continue to manufacture the speaker. [11]

A Leslie speaker consists of a number of individual components. The audio signal enters the amplifier from the instrument. Once amplified, the signal travels to an audio crossover, which splits it into separate frequency bands that can be individually routed to each loudspeaker. Different models have different combinations of speakers, but the most common model, the 122, consists of a single woofer for bass and a single compression driver and acoustic horn for treble. [12] The audio emitted by the speakers is isolated inside an enclosure, aside from a number of outlets that lead towards either a rotating horn or drum. An electric motor rotates both horn and drum at a constant speed. [12]

The only control common to all Leslie speakers is a dial that controls the master volume. This is normally set up once and then left, since the organ's expression pedal normally controls the volume. Leslie recommended playing the organ at full volume with all stops (drawbars) pulled out and adjusting the volume just before distortion occurs. [13] However, the distorted sound of an overdriven vacuum tube amplifier can be a desirable sound, [14] [15] to the extent that modern Leslie simulators have an explicit "overdrive" setting. [16]

Control of a Leslie speaker is normally catered for by an external two way switch, between two settings marked "chorale" and "tremolo". The switch is mounted onto the controlling instrument, so the player can easily switch settings. Some earlier models were limited to "off" and "tremolo", and some later models had all three settings. [17] The switch can be used while notes are being played, and the sound of changing between the two settings is part of the characteristic sound. [12] On both settings, the treble horn rotates slightly faster than the bass woofer about 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) for "chorale" and 400 rpm for "tremolo", compared to the woofer's 40 rpm and 340 rpm respectively. [18]

Unlike most popular music amplifiers, that use jack plugs to connect to instruments, Leslie speakers use an amphenol connector to interface directly to an organ via a console connector. The type and design of the connector depends on the organ and model of Leslie speaker. [19]

Older models that used tube power amplifiers used a variety of 6-pin connectors, while later models used a 9-pin connector. [20] In all cases, for a single organ – Leslie configuration, the mains power, audio and control signals are all carried on the connector, and the design of the pin layouts varies between organs and speakers. Care must be taken when attempting to service them since an incorrectly or poorly wired cable can cause permanent damage to the organ and / or speaker, or result in electrocution. [21] [22] It is also possible to connect multiple Leslie speakers to a single organ, by using a power relay that provides the necessary AC current. [19]

A separate device known as the combo preamp is necessary to connect a vintage Leslie to another instrument such as a guitar. This combines a separate AC input and line level input onto a single amphenol connector, and provide a footswitch to select between the speeds of the Leslie. [23] Modern products such as the Trek II UC-1A allow any instrument with a phone jack connection to use a variety of Leslie speakers. [24]

Modern Leslie speakers have an 11-pin interface that is safer to service, as the mains power is carried separately using a standard IEC mains connector. The Hammond-Suzuki Leslie 2101 also includes line in and line out jacks, so a combo preamp is no longer required. Its settings can also be controlled via MIDI. [25]

Single speed Edit

The initial models of Leslie speakers did not have the "chorale" setting. The control switch was simply a choice between "off" and "tremolo". The first model of Leslie produced was the 30A. It emulated Hammond's DXR-20 tone cabinet, which used moving drums but only produced amplitude modulation, not frequency modulation. It contained a 15-inch (380 mm) drum and the power amplifier was housed in the top of the unit, to allow easy repair. [26] This was superseded between 1947 and 1949 by the 31H, also known as the "Tall Boy". It was similar in appearance to the 30A, but contained additional louvres along the top of the cabinet. Also, reflectors were placed on the end of the horn, to allow the treble signal to exit the unit through the sides, rather than on the top. [27]

The next models Leslie produced were the 21H and the 22H, which had a cabinet in a similar styling to the better known 122, with the same dimensions and louvres. They were powered by a 40 watt tube amplifier. [28]

Dual speed Edit

The 122 is the most popular Leslie. It was specifically designed for the Hammond organ and is the model most commonly identified with it. It is 41 inches (1,000 mm) high, contains separate motors for chorale and tremolo, and a 40 watt tube amplifier. The 122 is the most adaptable to being recorded, as it has a balanced signal which eliminates mains hum and other noise. [29] The 122RV was the same model, but with an additional reverb amplifier, which fed through to a separate static speaker. [30] A slightly smaller version, the 33-inch (840 mm) 142 was available. [31] Hammond-Suzuki currently manufacture the 122A, a straight reissue of the 122, and the 122XB, which contains a modern 11-pin adapter, an IECC mains adaptor, line-in, and a jack socket for a footswitch to control the speed. This eliminates the need for a combo preamp. [32]

The 147 is the "universal" version of the 122, designed for many organs, and has a different amplifier input and motor speed control, but is otherwise identical. [33] The signal input is unbalanced, allowing a simpler connection to organs that have a built-in speaker system, such as the Hammond A100, or a Wurlitzer. The motor speed switching uses a separate AC signal, rather than the DC voltage control of the 122. In operation, the noticeable differences between the 122 and the 147 are the 122's lower susceptibility to induced noise, and a delay between operation of the speed control and the actual change in speed. As with the 122 and 142, the 145 is identical to the 147, except that it is housed in a 33-inch (840 mm) cabinet, and thus slightly easier to move. [34] As with the 122, Hammond-Suzuki manufactures a modern replacement, the 147A. [35] The model X-77, released in 1968, was designed to accompany Hammond's new tonewheel / transistor organ, the X-66. It contained seven different tab controls and six speakers. It has a completely different interface from other Leslies, using a 12-pin amphenol connector. [36]

Pro-Line Edit

By the late 1960s, gigging musicians were finding that older Leslies like the 122 were not loud enough for large venues, which led to the introduction of the "Pro Line" series. These Leslies had louder solid-state power amplifiers, and were mounted on casters for ease of portability. The first models Leslie manufactured were the 900 and 910, [37] which contained a 100 watt, three-channel power amplifier. Both could split into two sections. [38] The most popular version of the Pro-Line series was the 760. It was a smaller version of the 900 and 910, and contained a 40 watt treble and 50 watt bass amplifier. [39] A smaller, more portable version of the 760 is the 820. It is a solid-state cabinet like the 760, and it connects to the organ with a 9-pin connector as well. However, it is only 31 inches (790 mm) high and has only a single rotor with a full-range 12-inch speaker. [40]

The Pro-Line series was durable and fault-tolerant, with many models lasting for years. [41] However, because they used solid-state amplifiers, they are not as highly regarded as the older tube-based Leslies, because they lack the characteristic sound when the amp is overdriven. [42]

The smallest Leslie is the Model 16, made in 1970. It has a Fender-like speaker body and a rotating foam dispersion block. It was built for guitarists, portable, and had "Leslie" written on the front. [40] It contained just a single 10-inch speaker, and was designed to be powered by an external amplifier, and contained an additional output for an extension speaker. Control of the speaker was via two switches, one of which controlled the speed and one switched the rotors on and off. It was also released later as the Fender Vibratone. [43] [44]

Hammond-Suzuki Edit

As well as the 122A and 147A reissues, Hammond-Suzuki now makes smaller and transportable Leslies using modern technology. The 2101 is 20 inches (520 mm) high and has a rotating horn as found on the 122 and 147, along with a pair of 2-inch (51 mm) compression drivers and two 5-inch (130 mm) woofers. The unit provides two separate inputs so different instruments can be plugged into the rotary and stationary components respectively. The 2121 is a 15-inch (380 mm) stationary speaker that uses digital signal processing to emulate the rotating drum found in older Leslies. [25] The 3300 is the same as the 2121, but with a 300 watt power amplifier. [45]

The Leslie is specifically designed, via reproduction of the Doppler effect, to alter or modify sound. As the sound source is rotated around a specific pivot point, it produces tremolo (the modulation of amplitude) and a variation in pitch. This produces a sequence of frequency modulated sidebands. [46] To stop a Leslie's rotor, a special brake circuit was added to the Leslie motor controls, that incorporated an electronic relay by producing a half-wave of direct current. [47]

Much of the Leslie's unique tone is due to the fact that the system is at least partially enclosed, whereby linear louvres along the sides and front of the unit can vent the sound from within the box after the sound has bounced around inside, mellowing it. [48] The crossover is deliberately set to 800 Hz to give the optimum balance between the horn and the drum, and is considered an integral part of the speaker. [33] The tone is also affected by the wood used. Tone differences, due to cost cutting using particle board for speaker and rotor shelves instead of the previous plywood, are evident in the Leslie's sound. The thinner ply of the top of the cabinet adds a certain resonance as well. Like an acoustic instrument, a Leslie's tone is uniquely defined by its cabinet design and construction, the amplifier, crossover and speakers used, and the motors—not merely by the spinning of rotors. [49]

Because a Leslie speaker modifies as well as amplifies the sound, the output cannot simply be connected to a larger PA system if the volume onstage from the built-in amplifier is too quiet. This is particularly problematic for an older Leslie like the 122 or 147, which only has a 40 watt RMS power amplifier. [50] Instead, microphones are placed around the Leslie, and the output from these is connected to the PA. A typical setup for onstage miking is to use two microphones placed on opposite sides of the horn and a single microphone on the drum. [51]

Miking a Leslie is also important in a recording studio, as the choice and positioning of microphones determines the overall recorded sound. A popular recommendation is two Shure SM57s on the horn and a Sennheiser MD421 on the drum. [52] [53] Recording Magazine's Dave Martin suggests a similar setup, with various microphone models used as stereo pairs on the horn but using an Electro-Voice RE20 on the drum instead. [54] Keith Emerson recorded his Leslie using a single mic each on the horn and the drum, but with the covers removed. [55]

While the Leslie speaker is still made and sold, similar effects can now be obtained via analogue electronic devices and digital emulation. Chorus and phase shifter devices can give an approximation of the sounds produced by a Leslie speaker. The Uni-Vibe, a four-stage phase shifter, was specifically marketed as a low-cost Leslie substitute for guitarists, and used a foot-operated fast/slow switch similar to the combo preamp. The pedal was popular, and notable users included Jimi Hendrix, David Gilmour and Robin Trower, but vintage units tend not to be in good condition now due to the degradation of capacitors in the unit. [56] Although the sound of a Leslie speaker heard in person is quite distinct, digital clones have become increasingly better at emulating it. [48]

Most modern keyboards that emulate the Hammond organ also include a Leslie simulator, including Hammond's own XK-3c and the Nord Electro. [57] However, there is still a market for standalone simulators. Hughes & Kettner's Rotosphere has received good reviews for accurately producing the sound of a Leslie speaker with a tube amplifier. [58] The Neo Ventilator has been particularly praised for its accuracy in emulating the sound of a Leslie. Sound on Sound ' s Mark Ashfield described it as "quite simply the best Leslie speaker simulator to date", [59] while a Keyboard Magazine reviewer was "blown away by how authentic the Ventilator sounds". [57] In 2013, Hammond-Suzuki started manufacturing their own Leslie simulator in a stomp box. [60] California based company Strymon released the Lex pedal, a rotary speaker emulator pedal, suitable for a variety of applications, including guitar.

Early adopters Edit

Leslie never advertised his speakers. After demonstrating a prototype with Bob Mitchell, an organist with radio station KFI in Los Angeles, a contract was made to install another prototype in the station's studios, where Mitchell would be the only organist authorized to use it. Mitchell was so impressed that he tried to patent the speaker, but discovered that he could not. Soon afterwards, Mitchell became an organist with the Mutual Broadcasting System, and played a Hammond with the Leslie on its shows, ensuring national exposure for the sound. [61] The Leslie was subsequently a standard component of several notable jazz organists, including Jimmy Smith, Jack McDuff, Jimmy McGriff and Shirley Scott. [62] Graham Bond was the first notable British organist to play a Hammond through a Leslie. [63]

Pioneering usages Edit

A popular misconception is that the Beatles were the first to experiment with processing other sounds through a Leslie speaker. [64] In fact, producer Lou Adler had been experimenting with the technique as early as 1963, [65] and one of the first recordings to feature vocals recorded through a Leslie speaker was the 1964 single "She Rides with Me" by singer Paul Petersen. [66] According to Petersen, "I got a call from Lou Adler on New Years Eve 1963 in Las Vegas. He asked me to come to LA right away to cut a Brian Wilson song. When I got to RCA's studio, the track had already been cut by Brian. The only people there were Lou and two engineers. Lou rigged up the Leslie organ sound for the vocals, and that was it." [65] Adler also used the effect on the simultaneously-released "He Don't Love Me" by Shelley Fabares. [65] Wilson himself used the effect on the guitar sound for the Beach Boys' July 1965 song "You're So Good to Me". [67]

Although "She Rides with Me" was not a hit record, Leslie-processed sounds soon became a prominent feature of psychedelic music. [66] The Beatles first recorded with a Leslie in June 1965 when George Harrison was overdubbing one of his lead guitar parts on "It's Only Love". [68] In the belief of author Andy Babiuk, the band's "Tomorrow Never Knows" (1966) marked the first time that a vocal was recorded using a microphone wired directly into the input of a Leslie. [69] According to writer Glenn Povey, the Beatles inspired other guitarists to use the speaker. Harrison played through a Leslie in his guest appearance on Cream's song "Badge" (1969), and David Gilmour used a similar setup when recording with Pink Floyd. [70]


The Full Intensity and Nuance of Cinema Surround Sound

Complementing Acheron

Designed to complement Meyer Sound’s Acheron screen channel loudspeakers, the self-powered HMS maintains a wide dynamic range, exceptional fidelity, and precise clarity during the most demanding of digital soundtracks. It is available in four models: HMS-5, HMS-10, HMS-12, and HMS-15, ranging in size, weight, driver size, and power to accommodate a wide range of venues and applications.

The Intelligence of I ntelligent DC

Equipped with IntelligentDC technology and receiving DC power and balanced audio from composite Phoenix 5-pin connectors, all except the HMS-15AC are powered from an external DC source, eliminating the need for AC conduits while preserving the advantages of self-powered systems.

Tonal Accuracy for Cinemas

Optimized for use in cinemas, high-end private theatres, screening rooms, and other surround applications, the self-powered, full-range HMS line exhibits extraordinarily flat amplitude and phase responses for tonal accuracy.

The compact HMS-5's transducers include two 5-inch low- frequency, long-excursion cone drivers and one 2-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 80-degree horn.

HMS-10

The HMS-10's transducers include one 10-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and one 2-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 80-degree horn.

HMS-12

The HMS-12’s transducers include one 12-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and one 3-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 100-degree horn.

HMS-15

The HMS-15's transducers include a 15-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and a 3-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a constant-directivity 80-degree horizontal by 50-degree vertical horn. The HMS-15 requires two channels of DC power from an MPS�HP external power supply. The HMS-15AC model is available for AC installations.

The compact HMS-5's transducers include two 5-inch low- frequency, long-excursion cone drivers and one 2-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 80-degree horn.

HMS-10

The HMS-10's transducers include one 10-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and one 2-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 80-degree horn.

HMS-12

The HMS-12’s transducers include one 12-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and one 3-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a symmetrical, constant-directivity 100-degree horn.

HMS-15

The HMS-15's transducers include a 15-inch low-frequency, long-excursion cone driver and a 3-inch diaphragm high-frequency compression driver on a constant-directivity 80-degree horizontal by 50-degree vertical horn. The HMS-15 requires two channels of DC power from an MPS�HP external power supply. The HMS-15AC model is available for AC installations.


HMS ‘Speaker’ sails into Sydney from Manila with returning former POWs of Japan – Australia’s dark war history with Waterside Workers

The above men are believed to be 2/4th at Sydney Wharf. Do you recognise anybody? Please let us know (email: [email protected]). 2nd from Right: ‘Cowboy’ Matthews.

33 of the above 65 West Australians were from 2/4th:

Many POWs from Japan travelled home to Australia by alternative means and routes.

Probably Manila, Philippines. c. September 1945. Former Prisoners of War (POWs), probably of the 2/4th Machine Gun Battalion previously held at Wakinohama POW camp, stand outside a camp building, about to have a welcome bottle of beer at the No. 5 Replacement camp near Manila. They were at the camp prior to their return home. (Donor J. Lane)
Due to rough weather, the small British aircraft carrier HMS ‘Speaker’ departed Manila on 4th October 1945, a day or so later than scheduled with 556 former POWs from Japan onboard and arrived Sydney 14 October 1965.

Little-known is that the Australian Waterside Workers Union went on 36 hours strike ensuring HMS ‘Speaker’ anchored outside Sydney Heads waiting to dock. The news was kept quiet from all onboard ‘Speaker’ and for those waiting – authorities were desperate to avoid a huge confrontation between the returning former POWs, ship’s crew, those families waiting and the unionists!

One can well imagine how the former POWs would have dealt with the wharfies – they had not seen Australia and their families for more than three and a half years – most were suffering ill-effects from their ordeal and some were very ill. The former POWs were only too aware they would not have survived another winter in Japan. Their ordeal and brutal incarceration had lasted far too long and many knew they would not have survived another month let alone another Japanese winter.

Instead HMS ‘Speaker’s’ captain announced to his crew and the former POWs ‘Sydney was not yet ready for them, they had arrived ahead of their estimated schedule – the ship would undergo maintenance – the crew painting various areas of the ship!’
This was not the first time wharf strikes had taken place during Australia’s war. Official records show there were 4123 strikes in Australia, with 3662 in NSW resulting in 5,824,439 working days lost directly through strikes. Greed and corruption was rife.

Aside from days lost, there was reported pilfering/theft of food and essential parts going overseas for war equipment, go-slows and sabotage. This extraordinary history frustrated and angered not only the Australian Navy, the British and Americans had threatened to move their main port of supplies elsewhere (including New Zealand). There had been instances of naval crew loading their own goods from wharves. Also instances of confrontation between wharfies and seamen.

Many believed this saga proved such additional pressure for Australia’s wartime Prime Minister John Curtin, that it may well have been a factor in his premature death.

Interesting is the fact that the former POWs onboard, certainly from 2/4th, (and probably across Australia) remained unaware of this incident. It has been rarely referred to in personal histories. Once back in Australia, the men simply wanted to see family and friends and go home. West Australians who landed in Sydney were desperate to make their way home, seeking the fastest way available. The Government and Unions successfully ‘put away’ this part of Australia’s war-time history.


Delgada được đặt lườn dựa trên kiểu tàu hàng "C3" vào ngày 9 tháng 10 năm 1942 tại xưởng đóng tàu của hãng Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding ở Seattle, Washington nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 20 tháng 2 năm 1943, được đỡ đầu bởi Bà James B. Sykes, và được xếp lại lớp với ký hiệu lườn CVE-40 vào ngày 15 tháng 7 năm 1943. Nó được chuyển cho Anh Quốc vào ngày 20 tháng 11 năm 1943 theo chương trình Cho thuê-cho mượn, và được đổi tên thành HMS Speaker (D90), và đã phục vụ trong chiến tranh như một chiếc thuộc lớp Ameer.

Sau khi được gắn thiết bị và được thủy thủ đoàn Hải quân Hoàng gia làm quen trong một ngày chạy thử máy, Speaker được chính thức đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 20 tháng 11 năm 1943, trong một buổi lễ có sự hiện diện của hãng đóng tàu và các quan chức Hải quân Mỹ, và đến ngày 6 tháng 12 nó sẵn sàng lên đường.

Dù sao, chiếc tàu sân bay vẫn cần được cải biến để phù hợp với những tiêu chuẩn Anh, và những công việc ban đầu được thực hiện tại ụ tàu Burrards ở Vancouver, Canada. Chúng bao gồm kéo dài sàn đáp, trang bị dẫn đường, cải biến sàn chứa máy bay, chỗ nghỉ và kho chứa bổ sung các biện pháp an toàn, thiết bị tiếp nhiên liệu ngoài biển, vũ khí, hệ thống liên lạc nội bộ, thông tin vô tuyến và nhiều thứ cần thiết khác.

Những hoạt động chuẩn bị Sửa đổi

Hoàn tất những công việc tại Vancouver, Speaker đi qua kênh đào Panama vào ngày 8 tháng 3 năm 1944, ghé qua Norfolk, Virginia trước khi chất lên tàu máy bay đóng thùng, dự trữ và hành khách tại đảo Staten, New York. Speaker khởi hành đi Liverpool vào ngày 8 tháng 3 trong một đoàn tàu vận tải hướng về phía Đông, và đến nơi vào ngày 8 tháng 4. Nó quay lại Hoa Kỳ tiếp tục thực hiện một chuyến vận chuyển máy bay thứ hai.

Vào ngày 17 tháng 5, Speaker đến Greenock. Được đòi hỏi để hoạt động như một tàu sân bay tấn công hỗ trợ cho các hoạt động của lục quân, nó tiếp tục trải qua những cải biến tại hãng Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Company ở Dundee. Trong khi chờ đợi những chiếc F6F Hellcat thuộc Phi đội 1840 Không lực Hải quân Hoàng gia phối thuộc cho nó hoàn tất việc huấn luyện, Speaker đã hoạt động như là tàu sân bay huấn luyện từ ngày 16 tháng 10 đến ngày 14 tháng 12. Gần 1.500 lượt hạ cánh đã được thực hiện bởi những chiếc máy bay Barracuda, Swordfish và Helldiver.

Địa Trung Hải và Ấn Độ Dương Sửa đổi

Cuối tháng 12, Phi đội 1840 lên tàu với những chiếc Hellcat Mk. III kiểu mới được trang bị rocket và Speaker khởi hành đi Gibraltar và Địa Trung Hải vào ngày 11 tháng 1 năm 1945 cùng với các tàu chị em HMS Slinger, HMS Khedive và ba tàu khu trục. Đang khi băng ngang Địa Trung Hải, hải đội đã tiến hành một cuộc truy lùng tàu ngầm ngoài khơi Bắc Phi sau khi có báo cáo nhìn thấy của tàu buôn, nhưng đã không thành công. Chúng dừng chân một chặng ngắn tại Alexandria và được tiếp nhiên liệu tại Aden, trước khi tiếp tục hành trình để gia nhập Hạm đội Viễn Đông Anh Quốc tại Colombo thuộc Ceylon (Sri Lanka ngày nay). Việc thực hành bay được tiến hành trên đường đi, và một máy bay cùng phi công đã bị mất trong một tai nạn tại biển Đỏ.

Khi đến Colombo vào ngày 4 tháng 2, SpeakerSlinger được lệnh tiếp tục hành trình để gia nhập Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương Anh Quốc tại Sydney, Australia. Khi ở ngoài khơi Western Australia, hai chiếc tàu sân bay đã tham gia vào việc tìm kiếm những người sống sót từ một tàu vận chuyển binh lính bị chìm. Chúng đi đến Sydney vào ngày 23 tháng 2, nơi tám máy bay của Speaker cùng phi công được cho chuyển sang tàu sân bay HMS Indomitable. Trong khi ở lại cảng, công việc sửa chữa và bảo trì được hoàn tất trong khi thủy thủ đoàn được hưởng một kỳ nghỉ phép ngắn tại nhà ở địa phương.

Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương Anh Quốc Sửa đổi

Speaker rời Sydney vào ngày 9 tháng 3 đi đến căn cứ tiền phương của Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương tại đảo Manus, ngang qua eo biển Jomard, nơi nó tham gia tìm kiếm những người còn sống sót của chiếc USS Robert Sylvester. Sau một chặng dừng ngắn, và giờ đây thuộc thành phần Hải đội Tàu sân bay 30, nó lên đường vào ngày 18 tháng 3 cùng với Striker và một đội hộ tống do HMS Kempenfelt dẫn đầu, với nhiệm vụ tuần tra chiến đấu trên không cho khu vực tiếp nhiên liệu của Anh trong Chiến dịch Iceberg, cuộc đổ bộ lên Okinawa. Nhóm hộ tống cho lực lượng "tiếp liệu" bao gồm các tàu khu trục, tàu xà-lúp, tàu frigate và tàu corvette của Anh và Australia, như là Pheasant, Crane, Woodcock, Whimbul, Avon, Derg, Findhorn, Parrett, Bathhurst, Cessnock, PirieWhyalla. Mặc dù bản chất thường lệ của nhiệm vụ và sự thiếu vắng các hoạt động tác chiến, tinh thần của lực lượng tiếp liệu và hộ tống vẫn rất cao.

Vào ngày 23 tháng 5, Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương rút lui về Leyte để tiếp tế những phi công và máy bay còn lại của Speaker cùng một số nhân viên kỹ thuật được cho chuyển sang Indomitable để tăng cường sức mạnh ở tuyến đầu. Speaker được chuyển trở thành một kiểu tàu sân bay tiếp liệu, cung cấp máy bay thay thế bù đắp vào tổn thất của hạm đội trong tác chiến, nhận lại máy bay hư hỏng để sửa chữa, chuyển những người bị thương sang tàu bệnh viện Oxfordshire.

Chiến dịch Iceberg hoàn tất vào giữa tháng 5 và Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương quay trở về Sydney để sửa chữa, bổ sung tiếp liệu và để thủy thủ đoàn được nghỉ ngơi. Trên đường đi, Speaker đã nhận lên tàu một binh sĩ Australia bị bệnh từ tàu chuyển quân Mỹ Pontius H. Ross để được phẫu thuật cấp cứu.

Sau chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Khi chiến tranh chấm dứt, Speaker được hoàn trả cho Hoa Kỳ vào ngày 27 tháng 7 năm 1946, rồi được bán để hoạt động hàng hải thương mại tư nhân vào ngày 22 tháng 4 năm 1947 dưới tên gọi Lancero, sau đó đổi tên thành President Osmena vào năm 1965 rồi thành Lucky One vào năm 1971. Nó được tháo dỡ tại Đài Loan vào năm 1972.


Harris, Pelosi Make History At Joe Biden’s First Congressional Speech

Vice President Kamala Harris and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi made history on Wednesday, marking the first time two women shared the stage sitting behind President Joe Biden during his first congressional speech.

“Madame Speaker, Madame Vice President,” Biden began his speech, gesturing to the women behind him. “No president has ever said those words from this podium, and it’s about time.”

Harris has already made history during Biden’s presidency by becoming the first Black person, Indian American and woman to hold the position of the vice presidency.

During a president’s speech to the joint session of Congress, it is custom for two politicians in power to sit behind him: the vice president and the speaker of the House. Should the president be unable to carry the duties of his office, the constitutional line of succession begins with the vice president ― in this case, Harris, a woman ― and then the House speaker ― in this case, Pelosi, also a woman.

“It says a lot about a country, and a lot about Joe Biden, and it says certainly a lot about both women who have made it to that place. It’s going to be very emotional for me,” former Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.), who once served alongside Pelosi in the House and whose Senate seat Harris filled when she retired, told CBS.

Both Pelosi and Harris grew their political careers in California’s Bay Area, and knocked down systemic barriers meant to prevent women ― particularly women of color ― from rising in the ranks. Pelosi grew up with a father and brother who both served as Baltimore’s mayor, and a mother who stayed politically active by organizing Democratic women.

Harris, whose political experiences were also shaped by her upbringing, was the daughter of Indian and Jamaican civil rights activists who met each other while out protesting. The vice president has repeatedly said that her mother would often tell her: “You may be the first to do many things. Make sure you’re not the last.”

Earlier Wednesday, Pelosi told MSNBC’s Andrea Mitchell that the historic nature of two women sitting in their respective positions for the speech is “pretty exciting.”

“It’s wonderful to make history. It’s about time,” she told Mitchell. “I made history when I was the first speaker to be standing behind President [George W.] Bush. And he made note of that. Now this is just so exciting.”

The California Democrat served as speaker from 2007 to 2011, and then again in 2019 when Democrats regained control of the House. Republicans John Boehner and Paul Ryan served in the position between Pelosi’s speakership.

“For our daughters and granddaughters, today we have broken the marble ceiling,” she said when elected speaker for the first time in 2007. “Now the sky is the limit. Anything is possible.”

About 200 people attended Biden’s congressional speech ― largely due to the pandemic ― a change from the usual 1,600 people who are present for the event. It’s also the first time in several years that the president, vice president and speaker all belong to the same political party.


History of Speaker

The History of Natural Sound Speakers (Since 1967)

Having interrupted the launch of new HiFi products from the late 1950s to the 1960s in order to focus its development resources on the revolutionary new Electone electronic organ, in 1967 Yamaha began its history as a HiFi speaker manufacturer by repurposing and improving the Electone’s NS (Natural Sound) Speaker for HiFi audio use. Released in 1974 and featuring the world’s first pure beryllium diaphragm, the NS-1000/1000M won worldwide acclaim for its clear and open sound, and after that models such as the NS-451 and NS-10M, producing good quality sound at a reasonable price thanks to the unique sheet method of manufacturing. Not to mention the AST-1, which employed active servo technology to expand speaker limits by actively controlling air vibrations and built confidence in the overall strength of Yamaha’s ingenious approach to sound.

Inspired by musical instrument making, this was the first large speaker unit to bring the world the natural sound it was asking for.

NS-30/NS-20

Released in 1967, the NS-20 and NS-30 were Yamaha’s historic first Natural Sound speakers. Both featured an irregular three-way configuration based on the JA-6002 (an 89x63cm diaphragm used in the NS-30) and JA-5002 (the 68x50cm version used in the NS-20) units originally developed by Yamaha for the Electone and improved for HiFi audio use. Each was configured the same way apart from the size of the unit and cabinet. The cabinet sizes were determined based on the large dimensions of the NS-30’s JA-6002 unit and the NS-20’s JA-5002 unit, their single-unit measurements of 1030mm high x 740mm wide x 315mm deep and 860mm high x 620mm wide x 310mm deep being standard for the large studio monitors of the time. To put it simply, the NS-30 had a baffle size comparable to the JBL4343 and the NS-20 had a baffle size comparable to the Diatone 2S-305. With a unique Styrofoam diaphragm, this unit bore the name Natural Sound Speaker (NS Speaker) and was the origin of the "natural sound" slogan Yamaha has continued to use ever since.

The front of the NS speaker mounted fully on the rear side of the cabinet (the back of the unit) was also substantially open state, full range driven, and by mounting the two-way consisting of a 30cm (NS-30) or 20cm (NS-20) "squawker" and 5cm tweeter on the front side it had the configuration of a sound field type speaker, actively taking advantage of the effects of reflected sound. For that reason, to borrow a phrase from the documentation of the day, like an upright piano it was recommended that the NS speaker be placed away from the wall behind it. Interestingly, the documentation of the time used different values for a recommended distance from the wall, the domestic Japanese documentation suggesting "5 to 10cm" and the overseas documentation "6 inches" (around 15cm). From this we can guess that there was a business judgment at the time that 15cm would be a tough sell for small Japanese rooms. Actual sales in North America and elsewhere achieved a respectable level, but it faced difficulty in the domestic market due to its size and installation requirements.

Creating a major sensation for their all-time originality, the NS speaker lineup later expanded to include the smaller JA-5004 (58x46cm diaphragm), JA-3501 (51x38cm) and JA-3502 (45x32cm) units along with a modular stereo set and wall mountable compact speakers. For five years it served as the face of Yamaha speakers until the 1973 release of the NS-570, which became the recommended speaker for the first run of Yamaha HiFi components, the 700 series. After 1974, the NS-600 and NS-1000M series of general use round speakers were big hits and the NS speaker disappeared from the product lineup, but the idea of considering room acoustics in playback like a musical instrument manufacturer soon led to the creation of the world’s first Digital Sound Field Processor, the DSP-1, in 1986 and on to a home theater product series.

Won countless fans with its natural and delicate "European sound" and beautiful plain wood cabinet.

NS-690/NS-670

In the fall of 1972, Yamaha introduced the NS-620/NS-630/NS-650 intermediate diffusion bookshelf speakers, the first part of its new all-round unit NS-600 Series. The following spring in 1973, the advanced NS-670 and NS-690 units appeared, completing the transition from the ingenious NS Speaker to a conventional round unit. Even in the NS-600 series, the three lower models that appeared in 1972 dropped the walnut finish baffle unit for an orthodox external design, while the two higher models that appeared in 1973 took on the same castor open pore finish as the next-generation HiFi components released in the same period. Its redesign featured a modern-looking three-sided enclosure structure that did not show a cross-section of the side plate.

Except for the NS-670 woofer, which used the JA-2501A, an improved model for the NS-650, the NS-690 and NS-670 speaker units were completely redesigned, establishing the technologies that became standard in Yamaha speakers like a large ferrite magnet and copper ribbon wire edgewise-wound voice coil woofer, a tangential edge molded soft dome midrange with a back cavity packed with sound absorbing material to lower the FO (lowest resonance frequency), and a soft dome tweeter integrating the voice coil bobbin and diaphragm.

The midrange and tweeter were made of an original double-coated material made up of a base of thermoplastic resin on fabric serving mainly to maintain the shape and viscoelastic rubber-based resin acting primarily to dampen resonance. As well as becoming the standard for later Yamaha soft dome units, it was also used in elements such as the NS-1000M woofer edge. An aluminum diecast frame made using Yamaha’s alloy technology was adopted in all units, and its metallic feel combined with a mechanical structure was highlighted in comparison with the natural texture of the wooden exterior design to give the Yamaha speaker what could be called an all-new identity. In combination with the CA-1000 Integrated Amplifier on sale at the same time, the delicate, natural tone of the NS-690 made it a smash hit for its "European sound" unavailable in conventional domestic systems. It shared its popularity with the NS-1000M, which was introduced the following year.

The world’s first pure beryllium diaphragm in a masterpiece professional monitor that gained Yamaha much respect.

NS-1000M

The first speaker system to make use of Yamaha’s pure beryllium diaphragm, as legendary as our SIT (vertical power FET) HiFi technology, the NS-1000/NS-1000M was released in 1974. Lightweight with high rigidity and hardness and a sound propagation velocity more than twice that of titanium and magnesium, from early days beryllium had drawn attention as an ideal diaphragm material. Its brittleness, however, made it difficult to work with, and its susceptibility to corrosion meant that up to then it had never been put into practical application. By utilizing the electron beam vacuum deposition method used in state-of-the-art LSI manufacturing and a special alloy technology developed since its piano frame building days, Yamaha developed a unique deposition molding manufacturing process that produced a diaphragm of 99.99% pure beryllium plasma, for the first time in the world bringing a pure beryllium diaphragm to the commercial marketplace.

The NS-1000/1000M featured the first units to use this pure beryllium diaphragm, the JA-0801 8.8cm midrange and JA-0513 3.3cm tweeter, and along with the JA-3058 (NS-1000)/JA-3058A (NS-1000M) 30cm woofer developed especially for this product it formed a 3-way bookshelf model with precise tone over a wide frequency range, sparkling clarity in the middle and high ranges that won it acclaim around the world as soon as it was released. Notably, it unanimously earned the highest rating in Western audio magazines that up until then had largely ignored Japanese-made speakers, becoming the first luxury speakers made in Japan to become a worldwide hit. Two years after it hit the market, in 1976, the Swedish state-owned broadcasting corporation chose the NS-1000M as its official monitor speaker, and with orders for 1000 units it surpassed prestigious European manufacturers Tandberg, Celestion, Bang & Olufsen and Bowers & Wilkins. Moreover, in 1978 the Finland national broadcaster ordered 200 units of the NS-1000M, cementing its firm position as a professional monitor speaker.

Positioned as a high-end unit for home use and priced at 145,000 yen at the time of its release, the NS-1000 featured an ebony luxury urethane paint finish exterior, while the NS-1000M, priced at 108,000 yen and aimed at use from the home to the studio, sported a birch semi-gloss black paint finish. With a somewhat large thick-walled cabinet and removable saran net, the NS-1000 weighed in at 39kg, 8kg heavier than the 31kg NS-1000M. As is evident from the difference in price, the cabinet finish of the NS-1000 was lavish enough to rival that of a luxury wood grain piano, but the fearless black design and overwhelming cost-performance of the NS-1000M made it the focus of popular attention. The upgraded NS-2000 released in 1982 and the NS-1000X released in 1986 reinforced the reputation of the original machine, and in the 23 years until the end of all beryllium diaphragm unit production in 1997 it was a long-lasting hit with more than 200,000 units sold.


HMS Speaker (D90)

Kauppa-alus tilattiin Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation Seattlesta Yhdysvalloista. Sen köli laskettiin 9. lokakuuta 1942 ja alus laskettiin vesille 20. helmikuuta 1943 Yhdysvaltain laivaston saattuetukialuksena USS Delgada (runkonumero ACV-40) kumminaan James B. Sykesin puoliso. Aluksen runko siirrettiin Willamette Iron and Steelille Portlandiin muutettavaksi saattuetukialukseksi. Alus luokiteltiin uudelleen CVE-40:ksi 15. heinäkuuta. [1] Muutostyöt saatiin päätökseen 20. marraskuuta. [2]

Alus luovutettiin 20. marraskuuta lend lease -sopimuksen nojalla Britannian kuninkaalliselle laivastolle, joka nimesi aluksen HMS Speakeriksi. Alus oli marraskuun lopun koeajoissa, jotka päättyivät 8. joulukuuta. Koeajojen jälkeen alus lähti Esquimaltiin, jossa se siirrettiin telakalle muutostöitä varten. Tammikuussa 1944 alus oli koulutettavana, jolloin propulsiojärjestelmässä havaittiin vikaa. Helmikuussa alus purjehti Panamaan ja maaliskuun alussa se määrättiin kuljettamaan lentokoneita New Yorkista Britteinsaarille. [2]

Alus läpäisi 7.maaliskuuta Panaman kanavan ja seuraavana päivänä se liittyi HMS Empressin ja USS Tulagin muodostamaan osastoon Karianmerellä härjoitellakseen lentotoimintaa matkalla Norfolkiin. HMS Empressiltä noussut Avenger oli ensimmäinen alukselle laskeutunut lentokone. Alus saapui 17. maaliskuuta osaston mukana Norfolkiin, jossa se siirrettiin Yhdysvaltain laivaston telakalle havittujen vikojen korjaamiseksi. [2]

Telakalta vapauduttuaan alus lähti New Yorkiin, jossa sille siirrettiin lentokoneita ja muuta materiaalia sekä 54 siviiliä kuljetettavaksi Britteinsaarille. Maaliskuun lopulla alus lähti merelle saattueen mukana ja se saapui 8. huhtikuuta Liverpooliin, jossa lentokoneet, materiaali ja siviilit siirrettiin maihin. Alus jatkoi matkaansa Liverpoolista Clydeen, missä se jatkoi kuljetusaluksena. Alus tankattiin 10. huhtikuuta Clydessä, mistä se lähti 13. huhtikuuta Norfolkiin hakemaan uuden erän lentokoneita. [2]

Alus purki kuormansa 14. toukokuuta Liverpoolissa, jonka jälkeen se määrättiin saattuetehtäviin. Aluksen muutostyöt uuteen tehtävään määrättiin Dundeen kaupalliselle telakalle ja alus odotti Garelochissa muutostöiden alkamista. Alus siirrettiin telakalle 28. toukokuuta muutostöitä varten, mitkä sisälsivät sisäisen ja ulkoisen viestiliikenneverkon parannuksia, tutkajärjestelmien asennuksia sekä taistelunjohtokeskuksen muutoksia. Alukselle asennettiin myös prototyyppi tyypin 277 ilmavalvontatutkasta sekä parannellut Oerlikonin 20 millimetrin kaksiputkiset ilmatorjuntatykit, joilla korvattiin aiemmat yksiputkiset aseet. [2]

Alus vapautui telakalta syyskuussa, jonka jälkeen se siirrettiin Rosythiin koeajoihin. Alus siirrettiin 12. syyskuuta Rosythin telakalle vedenalaisten asennusten rutiinitarkastukseen. Se siirrettiin 16. syyskuuta Firth of Forthiin laivastonlentäjien koulutusalukseksi. Loka-marraskuussa 768 laivueen Barracuda ja Swordfish koneet tekivät yli 1 400 laskeutumista alukselle. Viikonloput alus vietti Rosythissä. [2]

Alus määrättiin joulukuussa operatiiviseen palvelukseen ja se siirtyi Belfastiin. Alus vastaanotti 16. joulukuuta 1840 laivueen kaluston ja henkilöstön. Se siirrettiin 25. joulukuuta Glasgow'ssa telakalle korjattavaksi. [2]

Brittiläisessä Tyynenmeren laivastossa Muokkaa

Alus aloitti 1. tammikuuta 1945 kouluttautumisen Clydessä uuteen tehtäväänsä. Samalla aluksella saatiin tieto yhteistoiminnasta HMS Khediven ja HMS Slingerin kanssa. Alus lähti 11. tammikuuta osastonsa mukana Clydestä liittyäkseen Brittiläiseen Tyynenmeren laivastoon. Alus vieraili Gibraltarilla ennen purjehdusta Välimerelle, jossa alus harjoitteli lentotoimintaa 17. tammikuuta etsien samalla sukellusveneitä Pohjois-Afrikan rannikolta. Alus lähti 22. tammikuuta Aleksandriasta Colomboon. Aluksen harjoitellessa lentotoimintaa Intian valtamerellä se menetti kuusi lentokonetta ja yhden lentäjän onnettomuuksissa. [2]

Alus siirsi maihin 4. helmikuuta osan 1840 laivueen henkilöstöstä Trincomaleessa, josta alus jatkoi Australiaan liittyäkseen laivastoon. Matkalla alus etsi kaksi vuorokautta kadonnutta yhdysvaltalaista rahtialusta. Se saapui 23. helmikuuta Sydneyyn, jossa loput 1849 laivueen henkilöstöstä siirrettiin maihin ja aluksen kattilat puhdistettiin. Alus liitettiin Task Force 112:een 30. lentotukialuslaivueeseen tukemaan Task Force 57:n ilmaoperaatioita Sakashima Gunton lentotukikohtia vastaan operaatiossa Iceberg One. [2]

Alus siirtyi maaliskuun alussa Manuksen tukikohtaan, josta se lähti 17. maaliskuuta operaatioalueelle Ulithiin laivaston huolto-osaston tankkeriryhmän (TG112.2) mukana. Alus muodosti sitä suojanneiden hävittäjä HMS Kempenfeltin ja sluuppi HMS Pheasantin kanssa Task Unit 112.2.5:n, jonka tehtävänä oli suojata huollettavia aluksia. Alus suojasi 25. maaliskuuta huoltoa ennen kuin liittyi operaatio Icebergiä varten koottuun Yhdysvaltain laivaston osastoon. [2]

Alus saapui 28. maaliskuuta MIDGE-alueelle suojaamaan taisteluosaston täydentämistä. Alus oli 4. huhtikuuta MOSQUITO-alueella, 7. ja 14. huhtikuuta COOTIE-alueella sekä 18 huhtikuuta uudelleen MOSQUITO-alueella suojaamassa täydennysten jakamista. Alus lähti 21. huhtikuuta paluumatkalle Manukseen Iceberg One operaation päätyttyä. Aluksen Hellcat koneet olivat lentäneet 446 tuntia ilmapuolustustehtävissä operaation aikana. [2]

Alus jatkoi 30. huhtikuuta huolto-osaston mukana tukien TF57:ää ilmaiskuissa Sakashima Gunton lentokentille operaatiossa Iceberg Two. Toukokuussa alus määrättiin kuljetus- ja täydennystehtäviin sekä kouluttamaan reservistä palvelukseen kutsuttuja lentäjiä. Alus lähti 4. toukokuuta Yhdysvaltain laivaston tukikohtaan Leytelle viemään lentokonetäydennystä, joka toimitettiin kaksi päivää myöhemmin määränpäähän. [2]

Alus oli 10. toukokuuta huolto-osaston tankkeriryhmän suojana COOTIE ONE -alueella. Se erkani osastosta 14. toukokuuta laivaston täydennyksen päätyttyä aloittaen matkan Leytelle noutamaan täydennyslentokoneita. Alus lähti paluumatkalle 19. toukokuuta. Se oli 22. toukokuuta jälleen COOTIE ONE -alueella, mistä se aloitti 25. toukokuuta paluumatkan Manukselle. Se saapui 29. toukokuuta määränpäähänsä. [2]

Kesäkuun alussa alus siirtyi Sydneyyn, jossa sen viiritunnus vaihdettiin R314:ksi. Alus määrättiin täydennystukialukseksi kuljettamaan lentokoneita Manuksesta täydennysalueille Japanin rannikon tuntumaan. Kesä-heinäkuun vaihteessa alus palasi Manukseen, jossa se oli 9. heinäkuuta alkaen. Alus lähti 18. heinäkuuta jälleen merelle. Alus oli 26. heinäkuuta täydennysalueella vastaanottamassa korjattavaksi siirrettäviä lentokoneita laivastolta. Seuraavana päivänä alus vastaanotti kolme lentokonetta HMS Strikerilta. [2]

Alus luovutti 1. elokuuta lentokoneita Force 36:n lentotukialuksille, minkä päätyttyä se aloitti paluumatkan Manukseen. Brittiläinen Tyynenmeren laivasto poistui Japanin lähivesiltä polttoainepulan vuoksi. HMS Speaker määrättiin tukemaan vapautettujen brittien ja liittoutuneiden sotavankien kotiutuksia, minkä vuoksi alus siirtyi Japaniin. [2]

Alus luovutti kymmenen Seafire ja yhden Fireflyn HMS Indefatigablelle sekä vastaanotti vastaavan määrän korjattavia lentokoneita. Alus luovutti kaikki lentokelpoiset lentokoneensa HMS Rulerille lisätäkseen majoitustiloja kuljetettaville sotavangeille. Alus sai 28. elokuuta määräyksen siirtyä Japaniin ja seuraavana päivänä ensimmäiset brittiläiset alukset saapuivat Tokionlahdelle. Aluksen lentokoneiden huoltohenkilöstö siirrettiin maihin ja he siirtyivvät edelleen HMS Rulerille. Näin voitiin vielä lisätä majoitustiloja. [2]

Syyskuun alussa alus vastaanotti matkustajia ja 3. syyskuuta se lähti Tokionlahdelta Manilaan mukanaan 473 matkustajaa. Manilassa matkustajat laskettiin maihin ja alus lähti paluumatkalle Nagasakiin kuljettakseen yhdysvaltalaisia Okinawalle. Tehtyään toisen matkan Nagasakiin alus teki matkan Hongkongiin. Manilass alukselle nousi australialaisia kuljetettavaksi Sydneyyn. Alus siirrettiin kunnostettavaksi 15. lokakuuta. Korjaus saatiin päätökseen vasta joulukuussa. [2]

Palvelukseen palattuaan alus kuljetti 721 laivueen kalustoineen Hongkongiin. Alukselle kuormattiin myös 10 tonnin nosturi sekä erilaisia tarvikkeita kuten olutta, jotka se kaikki luovutti 10. tammikuuta 1946 Hongkongissa. Alus palasi Sydneyyn mukanaan 459 matkustajaa, minkä jälkeen se aloitti kotimatkan Britteinsaarille. Matkalla alus vieraili Hongkongissa ennen paluutaan Suezin kanavan kautta. [2]

Alus saapui kesäkuussa Clydeen, jossa sen varastot tyhjennettiin ja kaikki brittiläiset varusteet poistettiin ennen palauttamista Yhdysvalloille. Työn päätyttyä alus lähti Virginiaan Norfolkiin, jossa se palautettiin Yhdysvaltain laivastolle 27. heinäkuuta. [2]

Se myytiin kauppalaivaksi 22. huhtikuuta 1947 nimellä SS Lancero. [1] Alus myytiin uudelleen 1965 ja se nimettiin SS President Osmenaksi. Vuonna 1971 alus nimettiin SS Lucky Threeksi, kun se teki koulutuspurjehduksen Taiwaniin. Alus saapui 9. kesäkuuta Taiwaniin romutettavaksi Kaohsiungiin Nan Feng Enterpriselle. [2]


Авіаносець «Спікер» був закладений 9 жовтня 1942 року на верфі «Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation» під назвою «USS Delgada (CVE-40)». Спущений на воду 20 лютого 1943 року. Переданий ВМС Великої Британії, вступив у стрій під назвою «Спікер» 20 листопада 1943 року.

Після вступу у стрій протягом 1944 року «Спікер» використовувався як навчальний авіаносець.

Протягом січня-лютого 1945 року «Спікер» здійснював перевезення літаків з Англії в Австралію. З березня по травень 1945 року авіаносець входив до складу групи супроводу плавучого тилу британського Тихоокеанського флоту. Брав участь у битві за Окінаву, де його літаки здійснювали прикриття кораблів постачання під час операції.

У червні-серпні 1945 року корабель пройшов ремонт

27 липня 1946 року авіаносець «Спікер» був повернутий США, де 25 вересня того ж року був виключений зі списків флоту. 22 квітня 1947 року корабель був проданий для переобладнання на торгове судно, яке використовуватись під назвою «Lancero» (у 1965 році перейменоване на «President Osmena», у 1971 році - на «Lucky One»).