Live TV Satellite Photos - History

Live TV Satellite Photos - History

(7/11/62) The first international satellite broadcast of television took place. Satellite TV communication slowly tranformed the way the world received news information.

Television

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Television (TV), the electronic delivery of moving images and sound from a source to a receiver. By extending the senses of vision and hearing beyond the limits of physical distance, television has had a considerable influence on society. Conceived in the early 20th century as a possible medium for education and interpersonal communication, it became by mid-century a vibrant broadcast medium, using the model of broadcast radio to bring news and entertainment to people all over the world. Television is now delivered in a variety of ways: “over the air” by terrestrial radio waves (traditional broadcast TV) along coaxial cables (cable TV) reflected off of satellites held in geostationary Earth orbit (direct broadcast satellite, or DBS, TV) streamed through the Internet and recorded optically on digital video discs (DVDs) and Blu-ray discs.

The technical standards for modern television, both monochrome (black-and-white) and colour, were first established in the middle of the 20th century. Improvements have been made continuously since that time, and television technology changed considerably in the early 21st century. Much attention was focused on increasing the picture resolution (high-definition television [HDTV]) and on changing the dimensions of the television receiver to show wide-screen pictures. In addition, the transmission of digitally encoded television signals was instituted to provide interactive service and to broadcast multiple programs in the channel space previously occupied by one program.

Despite this continuous technical evolution, modern television is best understood first by learning the history and principles of monochrome television and then by extending that learning to colour. The emphasis of this article, therefore, is on first principles and major developments—basic knowledge that is needed to understand and appreciate future technological developments and enhancements.


Free, browsable data

If you are just curious about seeing the most recent high-resolution image you can find for a given area of interest, and you don’t care about getting access to the raw images or using what you see for some commercial purpose, far-and-away the best tool you can use is Google Earth’s Explore New Satellite Imagery Tool. It’s a phenomenal way to visually check on recent imagery around the world and it even attributes the source of the imagery at every zoom level:

Google also has a neat project called Google Earth Timelapse, which allows you to see imagery of how the world has changed over the decades, which can be a lot of fun:

Some other great sources of non-commercial, non-downloadable imagery are:


Landsat satellites have been continuously collecting global imagery every two weeks for the past 46 years.

More satellites eventually joined the Landsats to increase the scope, variability and frequency of open public data about land, vegetation and water bodies. They are Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 missions within ESA’s Copernicus programme, Terra and Aqua MODIS by NASA and USGS, CBERS satellites, etc.

Here’s some infographic so you don’t get lost in the wealth of satellite missions and can easily figure out which satellite to get old satellite images from.

Where Can You Find Free Historical Satellite Images

LandViewer is one of the go-to online platforms for getting historical satellite images starting from 1982. It enables quick image search by location and date across nearly 10 open-source imagery collections, and free download.

The available collections feature imagery of low and medium spatial resolution ranging between 60 to 10 meters/pixel, global coverage, and revisiting periods from 16 days down to several days.

Landsat-4 satellite image taken over Maryland in 1982.

If you’re looking for old satellite images of an area dated before 1982, you can go to USGS Earth Explorer and comb through Landsat 1, Landsat 2 or Landsat 3 datasets that aren’t available in LandViewer.

There’s an additional source of historical images – aerial datasets collected by aircraft as the name suggests. Aerial historical images don’t provide global coverage or continuity, but have better spatial resolution. For example, in LandViewer you can find 1-meter free aerial imagery from NAIP mission (National Agriculture Imagery Program) for U.S. territory ranging from 2010 to 2017. If you’re a historian looking for old aerial views of European cities during World War II, consider visiting Google Earth.


Copernicus Open Access Hub: Up-to-date Free Satellite Imagery

Formerly the “Sentinels Scientific Data Hub”, the ESA’s open access portal is able to quench anyone’s thirst for
Sentinel data.

Imagery. Currently, Copernicus Open Access Hub brings to users the
latest free satellite images from all active Sentinels: radar imagery from Sentinel-1, optical multispectral
Sentinel-2 imagery, Sentinel-3 land products for environmental monitoring, atmosphere and air quality data from
Sentinel-5P.

Search. Copernicus Hub’s interface is very laconic, which doesn’t necessarily mean convenient. You can’t
upload a file with your AOI, and to run a search by coordinates you have to type in a text query using specific operators. For example, to apply the
cloud cover filter you need to enter “[0 to 5]”. It does make sense for professionals but is difficult to digest for
non-experts.

Download. To download recent satellite images free, you just need to add them to the cart.

Analysis. There are no analytical tools or even image visualization on a map. You can only preview a tile in
the “Quicklook” mode alongside very detailed metadata.

Copernicus Open Access Hub can be recommended as a source of all the Sentinels’ free satellite imagery. However, if
you’re after data from Sentinel-1 or 2, consider trying out other data sources offering the same images with a
slightly better user experience.


Contents

The Persian Gulf War was a heavily televised war. New technologies, such as satellite technology, allowed for a new type of war coverage. [1] The media also had access to military innovations, such as the imagery obtained from "camera-equipped high-tech weaponry directed against Iraqi targets", according to the Museum of Broadcast Communications. For the first time, people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off from aircraft carriers from the actual perspective of the machinery. The images of precise land bombing and use of night vision equipment gave the reporting a futuristic spin which was said to resemble video game imagery and encourage the "war drama". [2] Because of the pool system, however, most television networks relied heavily on the information and imagery supplied by the military. [2] This limited the media’s ability to cover the war, despite those new technologies that created the potential for live coverage.

The war was covered live since its beginnings by the three main American networks, as well as the emerging CNN. On the night of January 16, when the air strikes began, ABC's Peter Jennings, CBS's Dan Rather, and NBC's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the quietness of the city. But, moments later, Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground. On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, who was also reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. On the "NBC Nightly News", correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun.

However, it was CNN which gained the most popularity for their coverage, and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the development of the network. CNN was the only 24‑hour coverage news network and by the time the war began they had already been doing this type of coverage for 10 years. [3] When the war broke out they already possessed the necessary equipment and personnel and were ready to follow events in Baghdad on a 24‑hour basis. "They had the reporters, satellite, linkups, the engineers, the producers and expert commentators in place or on standby". [3] In addition when the government warned American journalists that their security might be put at risk because of the bombings, CNN’s Baghdad correspondents Bernard Shaw, John Holliman, and Peter Arnett, as well as the rest of their team chose to stay behind. [3] Furthermore, when the Iraqi authorities decided to expel the rest of the Western correspondents CNN’s team was able to stay behind because producer Robert Winner had spent the last months trying to build cooperative relations with government officials in Baghdad. [2] During the first days of the bombing the CNN team was able to report live via radio from their hotel suite in the Rashid Hotel, while no other network was able to do this. [3] The CNN live coverage from the hotel was also significant since it was unedited. This event was a critical turn to the 24-hour news coverage. Out of the CNN correspondents the one who received the most attention was Peter Arnett who became known for the controversy of his reportages. His reports on the Coalition’s POWs, on the bombing of what was claimed to be a milk factory by the Iraq authorities, and on the bombing of the bunker outside Bagdad where nearly 400 civilians were killed, were particularly controversial and resulted in him being tilted as anti-patriotic by some. [3]

Overall media and television reporting during this first Gulf War has received several criticisms. People like Columbia’s professor Douglas Kellner have argued that the media framed the war as an exciting narrative, turning it into a kind of dramatic, patriotic spectacle and that the anchors of the major American TV networks such as CBS presented a view that seemed to identify solely with the American Military point of view. [4] In the book The Persian Gulf TV War he has also argued that television networks and other media did not provide a balanced account of the events because this did not further the business interests of commercial networks. [5]

General Norman Schwarzkopf referred to the driver of a vehicle in a famous news conference during Gulf War on January 30, 1991 as "The luckiest man in Iraq". He showed a video of a laser-guided bomb destroying a bridge just after the vehicle had driven over it. [6] [7] [8]

In Britain, the BBC devoted the FM portion of its national speech radio station BBC Radio 4 to an 18-hour rolling news format creating Radio 4 News FM. The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and the liberation of Kuwait. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live.

Two BBC journalists, John Simpson and Bob Simpson (who, despite sharing a surname, are unrelated), defied their editors and remained in Baghdad to report on the progress of the war. They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light." [9]

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom addressed the nation on February 24, 1991, on the war having consulted with Prime Minister John Major and government ministers. This was the first time the Queen had spoken in a televised address in addition to her annual Christmas message. [10]

Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January 1991, the headline "WAR IN THE GULF" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.

U.S. policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the United States grew throughout the course of the war. It wasn't only the limiting of information in the Middle East, media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage. [11] [12] [13]

At the same time, the coverage of this war was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and U.S. journalists returned en masse to Baghdad. Tom Aspell of NBC, Bill Blakemore of ABC, and Betsy Aaron of CBS News filed reports, subject to acknowledged Iraqi censorship. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately.

A British crew from CBS News (David Green and Andy Thompson), equipped with satellite transmission equipment traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the following day.

Middle East media and audiences Edit

Arab media industry was strictly controlled by governments. State-owned TV stations were also being supervised. As the mouthpiece of the authority, Ab news media only broadcast what the government wanted the public to know. News in this context is called "protocol news", reporting war information closely following the government agenda.1 Witnessing the significant influence of CNN’s Gulf War coverage, Arab states realized how satellite television reporting could grant a country considerable leverage during war times. Witnessing the dramatic impact of CNN's international coverage of the 1991 Gulf War, several Arab states realized the strategic value of satellite television during times of conflict. Many of the Gulf States began launching their own national satellite TV networks. Arab governments saw satellite news as the ideal vehicle for extending and exerting influence beyond their own borders. The success of CNN among Arab audiences during the Gulf War led to the establishment of the Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC) in London. Events such as the Gulf war and the 2003 invasion of Iraq created major realignments in Saudi social and political boundaries. [14]

Alternative media outlets provided views in opposition to the Gulf War. Deep Dish Television in collaboration with Paper Tiger Television its sister organization, compiled segments from independent producers in the U.S. and abroad, and produced a ten-hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project. The first program of this series War, Oil and Power was compiled and released in 1990, before the war broke out. News World Order was the title of another program in the series it focused on the complicity of the media in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage. In San Francisco, as a local example, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations. Local media outlets in cities across the country screened similar oppositional media.

The organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) critically analyzed media coverage during the Gulf War in various articles and books, such as the 1991 Gulf War Coverage: The Worst Censorship was at Home. [15]

Although a short war, communication from the administration during the Gulf War was significant. Learning lessons from the television coverage of the Vietnam War, the Pentagon strategically communicated the Gulf War to the American public by placing certain restrictions on press coverage. [16] Select journalists were allowed to visit the front lines in "press pools." These reporters had to be accompanied by U.S. military. [17] [18] The military's communication policy regarding Operation Desert Storm were disclosed in a 10-page document entitled the Annex Foxtrot, drafted by Captain Ron Wildermuth, the chief aide for public affairs. This was the first conflict in which reporters had to be escorted by military officials called the Department of Defense National Media Pool. Officials claimed national security and classifying information from the enemy as reason for these new policies. Defense Secretary Dick Cheney was primarily responsible for the oversight of these press restrictions, and modeled the restrictions after the press blackout during the invasion of Panama in 1989. [18]

The Pentagon televised daily briefings primarily conducted by Lieutenant General Thomas Kelley. White House Chief of Staff John Sununu said the only time information was withheld was when it threatened national security.

The press did attempt to fight back to the administration's access policies during the Gulf War. Bureau chiefs from print and television collaborated on a letter to President Bush communicating concerns about the restrictions in Saudi Arabia particularly. [19] Ted Koppel, host of ABC's "Nightline" criticized the administration's policies stating, "I'm not sure the public's interest is served by seeing what seems to have been such a painless war, when 50,000 to 100,000 people may have died on the other side." [18]


The 16 Most Important Moments in Naked TV History

Just when we thought that to break through the cable-TV noise you needed to flail some testicles with a cat-o'-nine-tails or watch someone's mom have sex, HBO proves all you need is a randy court stenographer, played by Alexandra Daddario, and the lack of a T-shirt.

Kris Jenner, America’s Most Naked Grandma, 2014

One can’t watch a simple reality-TV show about the children of formerly famous decathletes without seeing pilated breasts. Can nudity even have impact anymore? Have boobs finally jumped the shark? (Note to self: Is it possible to find a coffee mug with a picture of boobs jumping a shark?) Is it over? Yeah, probably not.

The Enduring Reign of Sideboob

Pamela Anderson, Sideboob Pioneer, Baywatch, September 1992

There was a time, before the Internet showed Paris Hilton’s sideways red-carpet boob, when there was very little nakedness on TV. It was the era of sideboob, and it’s not over. We don't know who thought of it, but they should be richer than Pam Anderson by now.

Natalie Dormer Becomes the Most Disrobed Lady in History (of shows we admit to watching)

It's not just Game of Thrones, it's The Tudors! And something from the BBC! And with any luck, season two of True Detective!

The Creative Nakedness of Game of Thrones

Perhaps no other show has done more than _GoT _to pioneer the imaginative wearing of less. Prime example: Cave-Bath Steamed Nipples (above). This is why nubile wildings exist.

Men Get Gratuitously Not Naked

David Cross bathing in Jorts on “Arrested Development”, 2003

Right now, you can turn on your television and see a naked woman doing basically anything a human is capable of doing—broadcasting the news, showering in prison. Sometimes these women even interact with men! And what are the men wearing when they join these casually nude women in bed, or in the shower, or in any old place? Pants. Or shirts. Or furs. Recall, for instance, the Game of Thrones scene where poor naked Rose Leslie's Ygritte stands, exposed, in front of Kit Harington's Jon Snow, who is sporting…a mammoth-sized animal pelt over pants, and probably a shirt and some armor. It's embarrassing, the way we are spared the sight of something we see every day. It's actually more awkward than the real thing. And if programmers won't go full frontal, we have "A Modest Proposal" (see above David Cross in Arrested Development even bathed in jorts.)—Zach Baron

Okay, And Sometimes Men Get Gratuitously Naked

Surprise Nakedness, Part 1: Late Show with David Letterman

Feeling celebratory, Drew Barrymore bares her half birthday suit to David Letterman on the Late Show for his forty-eighth.

Surprise Nakedness, Part 2: The Super Bowl Halftime Show

During the Super Bowl halftime show, Janet Jackson reveals that a giant ninja star is tragically stuck in her right nip!

Surprise Nakedness, Part 3: MTV Movie Awards

Brüno (a.k.a. Sacha Baron Cohen, in full Victoria's Secret Angel regalia) straddles Eminem. He's super jazzed about it!

NYPD Blue Breaks All the Rules

Dennis Franz's pioneering butt on NYPD Blue, Fall 1993

"I wanted to have adults in realistic sexual situation," says NYPD Blue co-creator Steven Bochco. Which meant more breasts and butts—male and female—than any network show at the time. There would be no Game of Thrones, if there was no NYPD Blue.


Contents

As early as 1946, the idea of cameras in orbit to observe the weather was being developed. This was due to sparse data observation coverage and the expense of using cloud cameras on rockets. By 1958, the early prototypes for TIROS and Vanguard (developed by the Army Signal Corps) were created. [3] The first weather satellite, Vanguard 2, was launched on February 17, 1959. [4] It was designed to measure cloud cover and resistance, but a poor axis of rotation and its elliptical orbit kept it from collecting a notable amount of useful data. The Explorer VI and VII satellites also contained weather-related experiments. [3]

The first weather satellite to be considered a success was TIROS-1, launched by NASA on April 1, 1960. [5] TIROS operated for 78 days and proved to be much more successful than Vanguard 2. TIROS paved the way for the Nimbus program, whose technology and findings are the heritage of most of the Earth-observing satellites NASA and NOAA have launched since then. Beginning with the Nimbus 3 satellite in 1969, temperature information through the tropospheric column began to be retrieved by satellites from the eastern Atlantic and most of the Pacific Ocean, which led to significant improvements to weather forecasts. [6]

The ESSA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites followed suit from the late 1960s onward. Geostationary satellites followed, beginning with the ATS and SMS series in the late 1960s and early 1970s, then continuing with the GOES series from the 1970s onward. Polar orbiting satellites such as QuikScat and TRMM began to relay wind information near the ocean's surface starting in the late 1970s, with microwave imagery which resembled radar displays, which significantly improved the diagnoses of tropical cyclone strength, intensification, and location during the 2000s and 2010s.

Observation is typically made via different 'channels' of the electromagnetic spectrum, in particular, the visible and infrared portions.

Some of these channels include: [7] [8]

  • Visible and Near Infrared: 0.6–1.6 μm – for recording cloud cover during the day
  • Infrared: 3.9–7.3 μm (water vapor), 8.7–13.4 μm (thermal imaging)

Visible spectrum Edit

Visible-light images from weather satellites during local daylight hours are easy to interpret even by the average person clouds, cloud systems such as fronts and tropical storms, lakes, forests, mountains, snow ice, fires, and pollution such as smoke, smog, dust and haze are readily apparent. Even wind can be determined by cloud patterns, alignments and movement from successive photos. [9]

Infrared spectrum Edit

The thermal or infrared images recorded by sensors called scanning radiometers enable a trained analyst to determine cloud heights and types, to calculate land and surface water temperatures, and to locate ocean surface features. Infrared satellite imagery can be used effectively for tropical cyclones with a visible eye pattern, using the Dvorak technique, where the difference between the temperature of the warm eye and the surrounding cold cloud tops can be used to determine its intensity (colder cloud tops generally indicate a more intense storm). [10] Infrared pictures depict ocean eddies or vortices and map currents such as the Gulf Stream which are valuable to the shipping industry. Fishermen and farmers are interested in knowing land and water temperatures to protect their crops against frost or increase their catch from the sea. Even El Niño phenomena can be spotted. Using color-digitized techniques, the gray shaded thermal images can be converted to color for easier identification of desired information.

Each meteorological satellite is designed to use one of two different classes of orbit: geostationary and polar orbiting.

Geostationary Edit

Geostationary weather satellites orbit the Earth above the equator at altitudes of 35,880 km (22,300 miles). Because of this orbit, they remain stationary with respect to the rotating Earth and thus can record or transmit images of the entire hemisphere below continuously with their visible-light and infrared sensors. The news media use the geostationary photos in their daily weather presentation as single images or made into movie loops. These are also available on the city forecast pages of www.noaa.gov (example Dallas, TX). [11]

Several geostationary meteorological spacecraft are in operation. The United States' GOES series has three in operation: GOES-15, GOES-16 and GOES-17. GOES-16 and-17 remain stationary over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively. [12] GOES-15 will be retired in early July 2019. [13]

Russia's new-generation weather satellite Elektro-L No.1 operates at 76°E over the Indian Ocean. The Japanese have the MTSAT-2 located over the mid Pacific at 145°E and the Himawari 8 at 140°E. The Europeans have four in operation, Meteosat-8 (3.5°W) and Meteosat-9 (0°) over the Atlantic Ocean and have Meteosat-6 (63°E) and Meteosat-7 (57.5°E) over the Indian Ocean. China currently has four Fengyun (风云) geostationary satellites (FY-2E at 86.5°E, FY-2F at 123.5°E, FY-2G at 105°E and FY-4A at 104.5 °E) operated. [14] India also operates geostationary satellites called INSAT which carry instruments for meteorological purposes.

Polar orbiting Edit

Polar orbiting weather satellites circle the Earth at a typical altitude of 850 km (530 miles) in a north to south (or vice versa) path, passing over the poles in their continuous flight. Polar orbiting weather satellites are in sun-synchronous orbits, which means they are able to observe any place on Earth and will view every location twice each day with the same general lighting conditions due to the near-constant local solar time. Polar orbiting weather satellites offer a much better resolution than their geostationary counterparts due their closeness to the Earth.

The United States has the NOAA series of polar orbiting meteorological satellites, presently NOAA-15, NOAA-18 and NOAA-19 (POES) and NOAA-20 (JPSS). Europe has the Metop-A, Metop-B and Metop-C satellites operated by EUMETSAT. Russia has the Meteor and RESURS series of satellites. China has FY-3A, 3B and 3C. India has polar orbiting satellites as well.

DMSP Edit

The United States Department of Defense's Meteorological Satellite (DMSP) can "see" the best of all weather vehicles with its ability to detect objects almost as 'small' as a huge oil tanker. In addition, of all the weather satellites in orbit, only DMSP can "see" at night in the visual. Some of the most spectacular photos have been recorded by the night visual sensor city lights, volcanoes, fires, lightning, meteors, oil field burn-offs, as well as the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis have been captured by this 450-mile-high space vehicle's low moonlight sensor.

At the same time, energy use and city growth can be monitored since both major and even minor cities, as well as highway lights, are conspicuous. This informs astronomers of light pollution. The New York City Blackout of 1977 was captured by one of the night orbiter DMSP space vehicles.

In addition to monitoring city lights, these photos are a life saving asset in the detection and monitoring of fires. Not only do the satellites see the fires visually day and night, but the thermal and infrared scanners on board these weather satellites detect potential fire sources below the surface of the Earth where smoldering occurs. Once the fire is detected, the same weather satellites provide vital information about wind that could fan or spread the fires. These same cloud photos from space tell the firefighter when it will rain.

Some of the most dramatic photos showed the 600 Kuwaiti oil fires that the fleeing Army of Iraq started on February 23, 1991. The night photos showed huge flashes, far outstripping the glow of large populated areas. The fires consumed millions of gallons of oil the last was doused on November 6, 1991.

Snowfield monitoring, especially in the Sierra Nevada, can be helpful to the hydrologist keeping track of available snowpack for runoff vital to the watersheds of the western United States. This information is gleaned from existing satellites of all agencies of the U.S. government (in addition to local, on-the-ground measurements). Ice floes, packs, and bergs can also be located and tracked from weather spacecraft.

Even pollution whether it is nature-made or man-made can be pinpointed. The visual and infrared photos show effects of pollution from their respective areas over the entire earth. Aircraft and rocket pollution, as well as condensation trails, can also be spotted. The ocean current and low level wind information gleaned from the space photos can help predict oceanic oil spill coverage and movement. Almost every summer, sand and dust from the Sahara Desert in Africa drifts across the equatorial regions of the Atlantic Ocean. GOES-EAST photos enable meteorologists to observe, track and forecast this sand cloud. In addition to reducing visibilities and causing respiratory problems, sand clouds suppress hurricane formation by modifying the solar radiation balance of the tropics. Other dust storms in Asia and mainland China are common and easy to spot and monitor, with recent examples of dust moving across the Pacific Ocean and reaching North America.

In remote areas of the world with few local observers, fires could rage out of control for days or even weeks and consume millions of acres before authorities are alerted. Weather satellites can be a tremendous asset in such situations. Nighttime photos also show the burn-off in gas and oil fields. Atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles have been taken by weather satellites since 1969. [15]

Not all weather satellites are direct imagers. Some satellites are sounders that take measurements of a single pixel at a time. They have no horizontal spatial resolution but often are capable or resolving vertical atmospheric layers. Soundings along the satellite ground track can still be gridded later to form maps.


The cast of Friends on a trip to Las Vegas in 1994 before the show premiered. The show’s director took them on a trip so they could bond more, he told them: “This is your last shot at anonymity. Once the show comes on the air, you guys will never be able to go anywhere without being hounded."

Can you imagine what it’s like to lose your anonymity in the blink of an eye? That’s exactly what happened to the cast of Friends when their show premiered on September 22, 1994 on NBC. The series followed six friends as they faced complex issues of life and love in New York City. The cast were all plucked out of obscurity to star in the series, but now they’re some of the most famous faces on the planet.

Before the show premiered they were taken on a trip to Las Vegas by the show’s director as a last hurrah before they faced the scrutiny of the public eye. Series director Jimmy Burrows took them to the city of sin for an evening of pre-fame dinner and gambling, but he also wanted to make sure they knew what they were in for. Jennifer Aniston recalled:


John Baird operates a television system with 30 lines of resolution system running at five frames per second.

Bell Telephone and the U.S. Department of Commerce conducted the first long-distance use of television that took place between Washington, D.C., and New York City on April 7. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover commented, “Today we have, in a sense, the transmission of sight for the first time in the world’s history. Human genius has now destroyed the impediment of distance in (this) new respect, and in a manner hitherto unknown.”

Philo Farnsworth files for a patent on the first completely electronic television system, which he called the Image Dissector.

The Federal Radio Commission issues the first television station license (W3XK) to Charles Jenkins.

Vladimir Zworykin demonstrates the first practical electronic system for both the transmission and reception of images using his new kinescope tube.

John Baird opens the first TV studio however, the image quality is poor.

Charles Jenkins broadcasts the first TV commercial.

The BBC begins regular TV transmissions.

Iowa State University (W9XK) starts broadcasting twice-weekly television programs in cooperation with radio station WSUI.

About 200 television sets are in use worldwide.

Coaxial cable—a pure copper or copper-coated wire surrounded by insulation and aluminum covering—is introduced. These cables were and are used to transmit television, telephone, and data signals.

The first experimental coaxial cable lines were laid by AT&T between New York and Philadelphia in 1936. The first regular installation connected Minneapolis and Stevens Point, Wisconsin, in 1941.

The original L1 coaxial cable system could carry 480 telephone conversations or one television program. By the 1970s, L5 systems could carry 132,000 calls or more than 200 television programs.

CBS begins its TV development.

The BBC begins high-definition broadcasts in London.

Brothers and Stanford researchers Russell and Sigurd Varian introduce the Klystron. A Klystron is a high-frequency amplifier for generating microwaves. It is considered the technology that makes UHF-TV possible because it gives the ability to generate the high power required in this spectrum.

Vladimir Zworykin and RCA conduct experimental broadcasts from the Empire State Building.

Television was demonstrated at the New York World's Fair and the San Francisco Golden Gate International Exposition.

RCA's David Sarnoff used his company's exhibit at the 1939 World's Fair as a showcase for the first presidential speech (by Franklin D. Roosevelt) on television and to introduce RCA's new line of television receivers, some of which had to be coupled with a radio if you wanted to hear the sound.

The Dumont company starts making TV sets.

Peter Goldmark invents 343 lines of the resolution color television system.

The FCC releases the NTSC standard for black and white TV.

Vladimir Zworykin develops a better camera tube called the Orthicon. The Orthicon has enough light sensitivity to record outdoor events at night.

Peter Goldmark, working for CBS, demonstrated his color television system to the FCC. His system produced color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a cathode ray tube.

This mechanical means of producing a color picture was used in 1949 to broadcast medical procedures from Pennsylvania and Atlantic City hospitals. In Atlantic City, viewers could come to the convention center to see broadcasts of operations. Reports from the time noted that the realism of seeing surgery in color caused more than a few viewers to faint.

Although Goldmark's mechanical system was eventually replaced by an electronic system, he is recognized as the first to introduce a broadcasting color television system.

Cable television is introduced in Pennsylvania as a means of bringing television to rural areas.

A patent was granted to Louis W. Parker for a low-cost television receiver.

One million homes in the United States have television sets.

The FCC approves the first color television standard, which is replaced by a second in 1953.

Vladimir Zworykin developed a better camera tube called the Vidicon.

Ampex introduces the first practical videotape system of broadcast quality.

Robert Adler invents the first practical remote control called the Zenith Space Commander. It was preceded by wired remotes and units that failed in sunlight.

The first split-screen broadcast occurs during the debates between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy.

The All-Channel Receiver Act requires that UHF tuners (channels 14 to 83) be included in all sets.

A joint international collaboration between AT&T, Bell Labs, NASA, British General Post Office, the French National Post, Telegraph, and Telecom Office results in the development and launch of Telstar, the first satellite to carry TV broadcasts. Broadcasts are now internationally relayed.

Most TV broadcasts are in color.

On July 20, 600 million people watch the first TV transmission made from the moon.

Half the TVs in homes are color sets.

Giant screen projection TV is first marketed.

Sony introduces Betamax, the first home video cassette recorder.

PBS becomes the first station to switch to an all-satellite delivery of programs.