Indus Valley

Indus Valley

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Both geography and climate had a strong effect on the development of civilization in India Physical Geography Monsoons Wet Season QUESTIONS Climate India's Geography Indus River Valley Civilization -Subcontinent spans from Central Asia to Indian Ocean,with the North/South divided by the Himilayas as well as other mountain ranges that made it difficult to enter/exit India. [1] The Importance of Geography and Climate The first Indian civilization developed in the Indus River Valley in Northwestern India about 4500 years ago. [1] Mohenjo-Daro/Geography and climate The city of Mohenjo-Daro Mohenjo- Daro Large city that was built on a high mound of earth because there was a lot of floods Geography Location- There are a prestigious civilization in the Indus River Valley, between the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra River. [2]

Climate - Our civilization experiences mostly a semi-arid climate because of our geography and location. [3]

Earliest History • About 2500 B.C., Indus Valley civilization arose on the banks of the Indus River, in what is now Pakistan and western India. [4] The Indus Valley civilization covered most of what is today Pakistan and the Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab. [5] The Rise of Classical Indian Civilization • The merger between the older Indus Valley civilization and the Indo-Aryan culture produced the Classical Indian Civilization. [4] The Indus Valley civilization of ancient India was one of the earliest civilizations in world history. [5] Whatever the explanation, the brilliant achievements of the Indus Valley civilization gave way to a new chapter in the history of ancient India. [5] The Indus Valley civilization may have been the first in world history to use wheeled transport. [5] Reconstructing Indus Valley religion is impossible, but there are intriguing indications of continuity between the religion of this civilization and the later religions of ancient India. [5] The Indus Valley is contemporary with the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. [5]

Geography presents challenges for the Indus Valley  The rivers flooded each year and left soil good for farming, but the floods did not occur at the same time each year.  The region’s weather caused problems also. [4]

If a lack of monsoons did spell the end of the Indus Valley civilization, says Hodell, "it is an example -- and there are other examples of this -- of how ancient societies have had to contend with climate. [6] Compare with the very different interpretations in Possehl, Gregory L. (2002), The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp.237-245, ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2, and Michael Staubwasser et al., "Climate Change at the 4.2 ka BP Termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene South Asian Monsoon Variability," GRL 30 (2003), 1425. [7]

In time, civilizations adapted to the specific geography and climate around them. [8] In time, civilizations advanced to the point where geography and climate affect even minor and trivial aspects of life. [8] This is the city from birds eye view Climate Climate- They're civilization experiences mostly a semi-arid climate because of our geography and location. [2] Every civilization has to confront the geography and climate surrounding it. [8] In this lesson, we will look at the relationship between geography, climate, and civilization. [8]

The Indus Valley Civilization stands as one of the great early civilizations, alongside ancient Egypt and Sumerian Civilization, as a place where human settlements organized into cities, invented a system of writing and supported an advanced culture. [9] Over 140 ancient towns and cities belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered along its course. [9] A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects from Lothal confirm that stringed musical instruments were in use in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [9] The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River in present-day Pakistan. [9] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), was an ancient civilization thriving along the lower Indus River and the Ghaggar River-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and western India from the twenty-eighth century B.C.E. to the eighteenth century B.C.E. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa. [9] Some scholars argue that a sunken city, linked with the Indus Valley Civilization, off the coast of India was the Dwawka of the Mahabharata, and, dating this at 7500 B.C.E. or perhaps ever earlier, they make it a rival to Jericho (circa 10,000-11,000 B.C.E. ) as the oldest city on earth (Howe 2002). [9] The decline of Bronze-Age civilizations in Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia has been attributed to a long-term drought that began around 2000 BC. Now paleoclimatologists propose that a similar fate was followed by the enigmatic Indus Valley Civilization, at about the same time. [6] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization. [9] Var's work is extremely significant since it also challenges the idea that the Indus Valley Civilization was pre-Aryan and that the Aryans invaded or migrated from the European zone. [9]

Location of the 1st Indian civilization was in the Indus River Valley 4500 years ago. 2. [10] Indian civilization began in the Indus River Valley and spread through the Ganges River Valley, then through the Indian subcontinent. [4]

By the start of the 4th millennium farming communities dotted the flood plain of the river Indus and from the mid-4th millennium, proto-urban settlements had appeared which shared traits which would later appear in Indus Valley cities: rigid city planning, massive brick walls and bull motifs in their art. [5] Planned plumbing and sewage systems.  About 2500BC, while the Egyptians were building pyramids, these people began building their first cities.  In Mesopotamia, cities were a jumble of streets laid down without thinking first.  In the Indus Valley, however, the builders of cities followed a grid of streets. [4] The large number of figurines found in the Indus Valley have led some scholars to argue that the Indus people worshipped a Mother Goddess symbolizing fertility, a common practice among rural Hindus even today. [5] All kinds of artefacts have been found in the Indus Valley cities: seals, glazed beads, pottery, gold jewellery, and anatomically detailed figurines in terra-cotta, bronze, and soapstone. [5] Over 400 distinct symbols (some say 600) have been recovered from the sites of Indus Valley cities, on seals, small tablets, or ceramic pots, and on over a dozen other materials. [5] Rapid changes in types of pottery suggest a series of migrations into the region, which may have been highly disruptive for the Indus Valley cities. [5] It was once widely thought that the Indus Valley cities were the victims of assaults by Aryan (Indo-European) nomadic invaders from central Asia. [5] After c. 1900 BCE, all the major Indus Valley cities were abandoned. [5] All these pieces of evidence point to the Indus Valley religion having a large measure of influence on the beliefs and practices of the Aryan peoples who came after them. [5] The engineering skills of the Indus Valley people were of a very high order. [5] Some Indus Valley seals show swastikas, which are also found in Hinduism and its offshoots, Buddhism and Jainism. [5] Like all pre-modern societies, agriculture would have played the primary role in the Indus Valley economy. [5]

Some of those who accept this hypothesis advocate designating the Indus Valley culture the "Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization," Sindhu being the ancient name of the Indus River. [9] It has long been claimed that the Indus Valley was the home of a literate civilization, but this has been challenged on linguistic and archaeological grounds. [9] The Indus civilization was predated by the first farming cultures in south Asia, which emerged in the hills of what is now called Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus Valley. [9] The Indus Valley, in present Pakistan and northwest India, was home to a civilization also known as the Harappan Civilization. [6] Among the Indus civilization's mysteries, however, are fundamental questions, including its means of subsistence and the causes for its sudden disappearance beginning around 1900 B.C.E. Lack of information until recently led many scholars to negatively contrast the Indus Valley legacy with what is known about its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, implying that these have contributed more to human development. [9]

Paleo-environmental and geoarchaeological evidence from extensive studies on the Beas River, provides critical and complementary evidence for climate change and the human ecology of the Late Holocene in the Upper Indus Valley. [11] The climate of the Indus valley ranges from that of the dry semidesert areas of Sindh and Punjab provinces to the severe high mountain climate of Kohistan, Hunza, Gilgit, Ladakh, and western Tibet. [12] The Indus Valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. [7] There is a close relationship between climate and vegetation in the Indus valley. [12]

A paper examining and interpreting climate models and the history of water supply as it pertains to the Indus Valley civilization (including dramatic changes in precipitation and shifts in the Ravi River among the rerouting of other streams and tributaries). [13] Articles concerned with regional climate, geology, rivers, land formations, environmental conditions and the effects the environment itself had on the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. [13] Describe the Indus Valley Civilizations geographic location and climate. [14] A look at climate, river-basin and other geographic factors and their relationship to the possible east-ward evolution of the Indus Valley civilization. [13]

The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilisations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation ( IVC ), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300-1300 BCE mature period 2600-1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation is also named the Harappan civilisation after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India. [7] The mature phase of the Harappan civilisation lasted from c. 2600 to 1900 BCE. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures -- Early Harappan and Late Harappan, respectively -- the entire Indus Valley Civilisation may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. It is part of the Indus Valley Tradition, which also includes the pre-Harappan occupation of Mehrgarh, the earliest farming site of the Indus Valley. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation has also been called by some the "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", as the Ghaggar-Hakra river is identified by some with the mythological Sarasvati river, suggesting that the Indus Valley Civilisation was the Vedic civilisation as perceived by traditional Hindu beliefs. [7]

An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda, Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28km from Delhi. [7] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers, but also on the ancient seacoast, for example, Balakot, and on islands, for example, Dholavira. [7]

Outposts of the Indus Valley civilisation were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Pakistani Balochistan, as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus ) in current Afghanistan, as far east as at Alamgirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India and as far south as at Malwan, in modern-day Surat, Gujarat, India. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) encompassed much of Pakistan, western India, and northeastern Afghanistan extending from Pakistani Balochistan in the west to Uttar Pradesh in the east, northeastern Afghanistan in the north and Maharashtra in the south. [7] In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan, discovered that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto- dentistry. [7] Steatite seals have images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilisation. [7] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilisation making them the first urban centre in the region. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus Valley, where the first remains were found. [7] Historians such as Heinrich Zimmer and Thomas McEvilley believe that there is a connection between first Jain Tirthankara Rishabhanatha and the Indus Valley civilisation. [7] According to Shereen Ratnagar the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has more remaining sites than the alluvium of the Indus Valley, since the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus Valley Civilisation. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. [7] Toilets that used water were used in the Indus Valley Civilisation. [7]

In India, the Harappa civilization developed in the Indus River Valley. [8] ROCKY HORROR PICTURE SHOW BREAK Early civilization -Great civilization arose in the Indus River valley ca. 2500 BC named Harappan civilization after the city Harappa. [1]

Studies of tooth enamel from individuals buried at Harappa suggest that some residents had migrated to the city from beyond the Indus Valley. [7] According to Rao, Hakra Ware has been found at Bhirrana, and is pre-Harappan, dating to the 8th-7th millennium BCE. Hakra Ware culture is a material culture which is contemporaneous with the early Harappan Ravi phase culture (3300-2800 BCE) of the Indus Valley. [7] During 4300-3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilisation area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. [7] Edakkal caves in Wayanad district of Kerala contain drawings that range over periods from as early as 5000 BCE to 1000 BCE. The youngest group of paintings have been in the news for a possible connection to the Indus Valley Civilisation. [7] According to Parpola, the culture migrated into the Indus Valley and became the Indus Valley Civilisation. [7] Dholavira, one of the largest cities of Indus Valley Civilisation. [7] The cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation had "social hierarchies, their writing system, their large planned cities and their long-distance trade mark them to archaeologists as a full-fledged 'civilisation.'" [7] Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the IVC. The most commonly used classifies the Indus Valley Civilisation into Early, Mature and Late Harappan Phase. [7] An alternative approach by Shaffer divides the broader Indus Valley Tradition into four eras, the pre-Harappan "Early Food Producing Era," and the Regionalisation, Integration, and Localisation eras, which correspond roughly with the Early Harappan, Mature Harappan, and Late Harappan phases. [7]

Yama Dixit, a paleoclimatologist at the University of Cambridge, UK, and her colleagues examined sediments from Kotla Dahar, an ancient lake near the northeastern edge of the Indus Valley area in Haryana, India, that still seasonally floods. [6] The religion and belief system of the Indus Valley people have received considerable attention, especially from the view of identifying precursors to deities and religious practices of Indian religions that later developed in the area. [7] Elsewhere in the Indus valley the inhabitants speak Indo-European languages and are Muslims, reflecting repeated incursions of peoples entering the Indian subcontinent from the west over several millennia. [12] However the function of the female figurines in the life of Indus Valley people remains unclear, and Possehl does not regard the evidence for Marshall's hypothesis to be "terribly robust". [7] According to Jean-Francois Jarrige, farming had an independent origin at Mehrgarh, despite the similarities which he notes between Neolithic sites from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a "cultural continuum" between those sites. [7] While the Indus Valley Civilisation is generally characterised as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions, this description has been challenged by Farmer, Sproat, and Witzel (2004) who argue that the Indus system did not encode language, but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies, to symbolise families, clans, gods, and religious concepts. [7] David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion derives partially from the Indus Valley Civilisations. [7] His book, Vedic Glossary on Indus Seals argues that Greek evolved from old-Brahmi, which developed originally from the Indus Valley script. [9] One Indus Valley seal shows a seated figure with a horned headdress, possibly tricephalic and possibly ithyphallic, surrounded by animals. [7] Many Indus Valley seals show animals, with some depicting them being carried in processions, while others show chimeric creations. [7] The Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and many elements of the Indus Civilisation appear in later cultures. [7] The Bronze Age village and urban societies of the Indus Valley are some-thing of an anomaly, in that archaeologists have found little indication of local defense and regional warfare. [7] "It is generally assumed that most trade between the Indus Valley (ancient Meluhha?) and western neighbors proceeded up the Persian Gulf rather than overland. [7] Art of the Bronze Age: southeastern Iran, western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. [7] According to Giosan et al. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. [7] Except for the mountainous section of Pakistan, the Indus valley lies in the driest part of the subcontinent. [12] McElreavy & Quintana-Murci (2005) note that "both the frequency distribution and estimated expansion time (

7,000 YBP) of this lineage suggest that its spread in the Indus Valley may be associated with the expansion of local farming groups during the Neolithic period." [7] It is hypothesized that the proto-Elamo-Dravidian language, most likely originated in the Elam province in southwestern Iran, spread eastwards with the movement of farmers to the Indus Valley and the Indian sub-continent." [7] Although there is no incontrovertible proof that this was indeed the case, the distribution of Indus-type artifacts on the Oman peninsula, on Bahrain and in southern Mesopotamia makes it plausible that a series of maritime stages linked the Indus Valley and the Gulf region." [7] In the 1980s, important archaeological discoveries were made at Ras al-Jinz ( Oman ), demonstrating maritime Indus Valley connections with the Arabian Peninsula. [7] In 2600 B.C.E., the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife. [9] This migration originated in what was historically termed Elam in south-west Iran to the Indus valley, and may have been associated with the spread of Dravidian languages from south-west Iran (Quintan-Murci et al., 2001)." [7] Northwestern winds sweep the upper Indus valley in winter and bring 4 to 8 inches (100 to 200 mm) of rainfall--vital for the successful growing of wheat and barley. [12] He argues that Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics owe a debt to the Indus Valley. [9]

The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus. [15] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization BCE mature period BCE) that was located in the northwestern of the Indian consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India File:CiviltàValleIndoMappa. [15] The total geographic area encompassed by sites associated with the Indus Valley civilization is over 262,500 square miles (680,000 sq. km) and includes most of modern Pakistan and parts of western India and northern Afghanistan. [16] The Indus Valley civilization was entirely unknown until 1921, when excavations in what would become Pakistan revealed the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (shown here). [17] INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Also referred to as the Harappa culture, the Indus Valley civilization was the earliest urban, state-level society in South Asia (2600-1900 b.c.) and was contemporaneous with state-level societies in Egypt and Mesopotamia. [16] Indus Valley civilization was essentially a city culture sustained by surplus agricultural produce and extensive commerce, which included trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia in what is today modern Iraq. [18] An abundance of artifacts have been found at Harappa--so much so, that the name of that city has been equated with the Indus Valley civilization (Harappan culture) it represents. [18] Indus Valley civilization (known also as Harappan culture) appeared around 2500 B.C. along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh. [18]

Invaders from central and western Asia are considered by some historians to have been "destroyers" of Indus Valley civilization, but this view is open to reinterpretation. [18] Because of its vast extent, the term "Greater Indus Valley " has come to be accepted by most scholars as representing the territories surrounding the Indus River that include sites of this civilization. [16]

There is now evidence to show that this region was subject to climate change during the period when the Indus Civilization was at its height (c.2500-1900 BC). [19] Two major climate systems dominate the greater Indus Valley. [16] Settlements of the Indus valley civilsation located in modern Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. [15] The later Vedas and other Sanskritic sources, such as the Puranas (literally, "old writings"--an encyclopedic collection of Hindu legends, myths, and genealogy), indicate an eastward movement from the Indus Valley into the Ganges Valley (called Ganga in Asia) and southward at least as far as the Vindhya Range, in central India. [18] By 2600 b.c. a fully developed Indus script was being used throughout the Indus Valley in an area that was twice the size of ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt. [16] It has its foundation in early written symbols dating to the Ravi Phase (3500-3300 b.c.) at the site of Harappa and at approximately the same time from other sites in the greater Indus Valley region. [16] While the origin and decline of specific Indus sites varies slightly from one region to the next, excavations at the site of Harappa between 1986 and 2001 have provided more than 120 radiocarbon dates that can be used to define the chronology of this major urban center and surrounding regions of the northern Indus Valley. [16]

The large island of Kutch, the peninsula of Saurasthra, and the coastal plains of north and south Gujarat represent several distinct geographical regions, but are generally included as part of the Greater Indus Valley region. [16] All domestic and public architecture throughout the Indus Valley and adjacent regions used bricks with this same strict proportion. [16] This land in the Indus valley also witness ruling by the Somara Dynasty, almost for 200 years, Samma rulers for almost 100 years. [20] The water ways of the Indus valley provided an excellent source for trade and commerce all through India's history. [21] The Guptas maintained loose control over the upper Indus Valley. [18]

"Climate change led to collapse of ancient Indus civilization, study finds." [22] Date: May 28, 2012 Source: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Summary: A new study combining the latest archaeological evidence with state-of-the-art geoscience technologies provides evidence that climate change was a key ingredient in the collapse of the great Indus or Harappan civilization almost 4000 years ago. [22]

The Indus and Ganges River create a fertile plain.  South Asia (modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) is separated from the rest of Asia by tall mountains (Himalayas, the Hindu Kush). [4] Just below the mountains are two large plains that hold the Ganges and Indus rivers.  These high mountains gave the indigenous people safety from invaders. [4] These systems could rival any urban drainage system built before the 19th century.  The uniformity in the cities’ planning and construction suggests that the Indus peoples had developed a strong central government. [4] These ancient Indus sewerage and drainage systems were far in advance of anything found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East. [5]

Geographic Location • The Indus and Ganges Rivers were the most important rivers in the Indian subcontinent. [4] An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has been discovered in the vicinity of the city of Lothal, near the coast of western India and it is almost certain, given the vast floods that the Indus river can inflict, that other cities would have had extensive water control systems. [5] The huge Indus river system waters a rich agricultural landscape. [5] This culture once extended over more than 386,000 square miles (1 million square kilometers) across the plains of the Indus River from the Arabian Sea to the Ganges, and at its peak may have accounted for 10 percent of the world population. [24] In the earlier phases of their culture, the Indus people buried their dead later, they also cremated them and buried the ashes in urns. [5] This suggests that warfare was not common.  Because the houses were mostly like one another, scholars think that the Indus culture did not have sharp differences between social classes. [4] These migrants had strong links to central Asia, and they were probably groups of Aryan herders entering the Indus region over an extended period of time, rather than as a single militant conquest. [5] The Indus plain is surrounded by high mountains, desert and ocean, and at that time there were dense forests and swamps to the east. [5] The advanced architecture and construction techniques of the Indus cities is shown by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and massive protective walls. [5] A key feature of Indus cities was a large walled citadel, and it is possible that some kind of ruling group lived in these, separated from the rest of the population. [5] Most of the boats were probably river craft, small, flat-bottomed boats perhaps with a sail, similar to those plying the Indus River today. [5] As cattle herders, they may have destroyed or neglected the dikes and canals on which the agrarian life of the Indus peoples depended. [5] The lack of any weapons is simply a function of the fact that no elite goods at all have been found in Indus graves. [5] Many of the (as yet) indecipherable Indus texts were on clay seals on what look like trade goods. [5]

Seal: Harappan Seal have been found in the Tigris Eurphrates region near Sumerians sites which indicates that theses early civilizations probably traded goods. [10] "The Harappans were an enterprising people taking advantage of a window of opportunity -- a kind of "Goldilocks civilization," Giosan said. [24] India's Golden Age - Gupta During this time Indian people made significant contributions to world civilizations in the area of

mathematics- concept of zero

medical advancements- set bones

astronomy- concept of earth as round

literature. [4] The most important element of Indian civilization to influence development of civilization was the sub-continent's river system. [23] Now Giosan and his colleagues have reconstructed the landscape of the plain and rivers where this long-forgotten civilization developed. [24] These monsoon-based rivers held too little water and dried, making them unfavorable for civilization. [24] The rivers were so vital to the success of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa that when some parts of the system dried up, the civilization went into decline. [23] The civilization developed about 5,200 years ago, and slowly disintegrated between 3,900 and 3,000 years ago -- populations largely abandoned cities, migrating toward the east. [24] The civilization is famous for its large and well-planned cities. [5]

They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures, although, as in other civilizations of the time, actual weights were not uniform from city to city. [5] Over time, monsoons weakened, enabling agriculture and civilization to flourish along flood-fed riverbanks for nearly 2,000 years. [24] This increased rain started around the year 5000 BCE, about 3000 years before we started our civilization. [3]

The core areas of the civilization clearly experienced catastrophic population decline. [5] There is evidence the Dravidian civilization went into decline because of deforestation as more land was cleared for planting. [23] Construction and City Layout - Our wonderful civilization is made of mostly fired bricks, shown on the bottom right. [3] For an historian's point of view, the most frustrating thing about this civilization is that the script has not been deciphered. [5]

Archaeological evidence suggested the river, which dissipates into the desert along the dried course of Hakra valley, was home to intensive settlement during Harappan times. [24] Mauryan Empire- Asoka • Chandragupta gained power in the Ganges Valley and then conquered northern India. • His son and grandson later added much of the Deccan area in the south to the empire. • Chandragupta had specially trained women warriors guard his palace. • Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka, is the most honored emperor. [4]

Ancient india geography & climate origins of hinduism & buddh… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [4] Geography of ChinaHow did geography and climate influence the early development of Chinese. [23]

Geography - Our land is on a Pleistocene Ridge sitting on the floodplain of the Nile River. [3] Geography: Himalayas (north) made it difficult for immigrants and invaders to enter India by land. [10] Geography will always influence how people develop economically, culturally, and politically. [23] The isolation that was set by the geography allowed the cities to focus on infrastructure and technology. [23]

Disappearance • Around 1700 BCE, the Harappan civilization disappeared without a trace. • Order was replaced with sloppy work and cities went into decline. -Some have speculated that over lumbering of the forests (fuel), volcanic eruptions, or even a devastating earthquake may have aided their decline. [4]

Some modern scholars suggest long-term changes in the climate. [5]

The proximity of the Kotla Dahar record to the area occupied by Indus populations shows that climate must be formally considered as a contributing parameter in the process of Indus deurbanization, at least in the context of the plains of northwest India. [19] The ancient Indus systems of sewage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus empire were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of modern India and Pakistan today. [9] A total of 1,022 cities and settlements had been found by 2008, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers, and their tributaries of which 406 sites are in Pakistan and 616 sites in India of these 96 have been excavated. [7]

According to that agreement, the flow of the three western rivers of the Indus basin--the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab (except a small quantity used in Jammu and Kashmir state)--is assigned to Pakistan, whereas the flow of the three eastern rivers--the Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej--is reserved exclusively for India. [12]

Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000BCE to c. 2500BCE) site to the west of the Indus River valley, near the capital of the Kachi District in Pakistan, on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, near the Bolan Pass. [7] Gallego Romero et al. (2011) notice that " he earliest evidence of cattle herding in south Asia comes from the Indus River Valley site of Mehrgarh and is dated to 7,000 YBP." [7] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus River valley developed new techniques in handicraft ( carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). [7]

It flourished along a system of monsoon-fed perennial rivers in the basins of the Ghaggar-Hakra River in northwest India, and the Indus River flowing through the length of Pakistan. [7] The dispute that thus arose and continued for some years was resolved through the mediation of the World Bank by a treaty between Pakistan and India (1960) known as the Indus Waters Treaty. [12] Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and central India, and Mesopotamia. [9] The region in which the river's waters formerly arose is known to be geologically active, and there is evidence of major tectonic events at the time the Indus civilization collapsed. [9] The people of the Indus civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. [9] In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh, Pakistan made the startling discovery that the people of Indus civilization, even from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of medicine and dentistry. [9] It is known that Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting, a powerful technology that was brought to fruition by classical Indian civilization but nearly forgotten in the twentieth century. [9] Instead of building canals, Indus civilization people may have built water diversion schemes, which, like terrace agriculture, can be elaborated by generations of small-scale labor investments. [9] It should be remembered that Indus civilization people, like all peoples in South Asia, built their lives around the monsoon, a weather pattern in which the bulk of a year's rainfall occurs in a four-month period. [9] Indus civilization people supplemented their diet with hunting. [9] We are required to completely reconsider not only certain aspects of Vedic India, but the entire relationship between Indus civilization and Vedic culture" (34). [9] By 4000 B.C.E., a distinctive, regional culture, called pre-Harappan, had emerged in this area. (It is called pre-Harappan because remains of this widespread culture are found in the early strata of Indus civilization cities.) [9] "Intensified summer monsoon and the urbanization of Indus Civilization in northwest India". [7] The Indus civilization grew out of this culture's technological base, as well as its geographic expansion into the alluvial plains of what are now the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in contemporary Pakistan. [9] There is considerable physiographic and historical evidence to prove that since the dawn of civilization--at least since the days of the Indus civilization, some 4,500 years ago--the Indus, from southern Punjab province to the sea, has been shifting its course. [12] Petrie comments that "we argue that rather than being forced to intensify or diversify subsistence practices in response to climatic change, we have evidence for the use of millet, rice, and tropical pulses in the pre-urban and urban phases of the Indus Civilization. [19] The Indus Civilization therefore provides a unique opportunity to understand how an ancient society coped with diverse and varied ecologies and change in the fundamental and underlying environmental parameters. [19] The Indus civilization is among the world's earliest civilizations, contemporary to the great Bronze Age empires of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. [9] A new study on the human skeletal remains from the ancient Indus city of Harappa provides evidence that inter-personal violence and infectious diseases played a role in the demise of the Indus, or Harappan Civilization around. [19] At a recently discovered Indus civilization city in western India, archaeologists discovered a series of massive reservoirs, hewn from solid rock and designed to collect rainfall, that would have been capable of meeting the city's needs during the dry season. [9] Although some houses were larger than others, Indus civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent egalitarianism. [9] There were Indus civilization settlements spread as far south as Mumbai (Bombay), as far east as Delhi, as far west as the Iranian border, and as far north as the Himalayas. [9] A new article in the February issue of Current Anthropology explores the dynamics of adaptation and resilience in the face of a diverse and varied environmental context, using the case study of South Asia's Indus Civilization (c.3000-1300 BC). [19] For this reason, the Indus civilization is recognized to be the first to develop urban planning. [9] Indus civilization agriculture must have been highly productive after all, it was capable of generating surpluses sufficient to support tens of thousands of urban residents who were not primarily engaged in agriculture. [9] The Indus civilization appears to contradict the hydraulic despotism hypothesis of the origin of urban civilization and the state. [9] The Indus civilization peaked around 2500 B.C.E. in the western part of South Asia. [9] The native name of the Indus civilization may be preserved in the Sumerian Me-lah-ha, which Asko Parpola, editor of the Indus script corpus, identifies with the Dravidian Met-akam "high abode/country" (Proto-Dravidian). [9] The Indus Civilization developed in a specific environmental context, where the winter and summer rainfall systems overlapped. [19] Surprisingly, the archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associate with early civilization, although this could simply be due to the sheer completeness of its collapse and subsequent disappearance. [9] Convergent global and local trends in the data sets bolster arguments for the impacts of climatic dynamics in the realignment of settlements in the Indus civilization during later stages of occupation. [11] In the early Holocene, the Indus Civilization was situated in proximity to Kotla Dahar, a deep lake, implying regular and consistent rainfall input to offset evaporation, which given its location, would have been primarily monsoonal. [19] At its peak, the Indus civilization may have had a population of well over five million. [9] For all its achievements, the Indus civilization is still poorly understood. [9] It is very difficult to square this hypothesis with what is known about the Indus civilization. [9] In the aftermath of the Indus civilization's collapse, regional cultures emerged, to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus civilization. [9]

The final stages of the Early Harappan period are characterised by the building of large walled settlements, the expansion of trade networks, and the increasing integration of regional communities into a "relatively uniform" material culture in terms of pottery styles, ornaments, and stamp seals with Indus script, leading into the transition to the Mature Harappan phase. [7] A number of seals with Indus script have been also found in Mesopotamian sites. [7] Square-shaped Indus seals of fired steatite have been found at a few sites in Mesopotamia. [7] Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct Indus symbols have been found on seals, small tablets, ceramic pots and more than a dozen other materials, including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. [7] Other cities emerging during the Urban period include Mohenjo-daro in the Lower Indus, Dholavira to the south on the western edge of peninsular India, in Kutch, Ganweriwala in Cholistan, and a fifth city, Rakhigarhi, on the Ghaggar-Hakra. [7] …north, the basins of the Indus and Ganges (Ganga) rivers (the Indo-Gangetic Plain) and, to the south, the block of Archean rocks that forms the Deccan plateau region. [12] After emerging from this highland region, the Indus flows as a rapid mountain stream between the Swat River and Hazara areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province until it reaches the reservoir of Tarbela Dam. [12] Continuing for 150 miles (240 km) in the same direction into the Pakistani-administered areas of the Kashmir region, the Indus is joined by its notable tributary the Shyok River on the right bank. [12] There are fishing boats on the lower Indus, and the upper reaches of rivers and canals above the first railway crossing are now used for floating timber down from the foothills of the Kashmir region. [12] In the mountainous region the principal waterways west of the Indus are the Swat Canals, which flow from the Swat River, a tributary of the Kābul River. [12] The Kābul River joins the Indus just above Attock, where the Indus flows at an elevation of 2,000 feet (600 metres) and is crossed by the first bridge carrying rail and road. [12] Sediment contributions from these glacial-fed rivers stopped at least by 10,000 years ago, well before the development of the Indus civilisation. [7] In Sindh province on the lower Indus, desert conditions prevail 10 to 25 miles (15 to 40 km) away from the river, and the area is dominated by sand and poor grass cover. [12] An early and influential work in the area that set the trend for Hindu interpretations of archaeological evidence from the Harappan sites was that of John Marshall, who in 1931 identified the following as prominent features of the Indus religion: a Great Male God and a Mother Goddess deification or veneration of animals and plants symbolic representation of the phallus ( linga ) and vulva ( yoni ) and, use of baths and water in religious practice. [7] Due to the sparsity of evidence, which is open to varying interpretations, and the fact that the Indus script remains undeciphered, the conclusions are partly speculative and largely based on a retrospective view from a much later Hindu perspective. [7]

There is some disputed evidence indicative of another large river, now long dried up, running parallel and to the east of the Indus. [9] Using U-Pb dating of zircon sand grains they found that sediments typical of the Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna rivers (Himalayan tributaries of the Indus) are actually present in former Ghaggar-Hakra channels. [7] Even today, in the Indus Plain not far from the river, there are thorn forests of open acacia and bush and undergrowth of poppies, vetch, thistles, and chickweed. [12] On the Indus itself there are several important headworks, or barrages, after the river reaches the plain. [12] After receiving the waters of the Punjab rivers, the Indus becomes much larger, and during the flood season (July to September) it is several miles wide. [12] Until about 1880 the Indus and the other Punjab rivers carried some navigation, but the advent of the railways and expansion of irrigation works have eliminated all but small craft that ply the lower Indus in Sindh. [12] The Shigar River joins the Indus on the right bank near Skardu in Baltistan. [12] The Indus River rises in the southwestern Tibet Autonomous Region of China and flows through the disputed Kashmir region and then into Pakistan to drain into the Arabian Sea. [12] Indus River, Pakistan: rice fields Irrigated rice fields on the bank of the Indus River in Sindh province, Pakistan. [12] Pakistanis taking shelter on higher ground after an Indus River flood, near Thatta, Sindh province, Pakistan, August 2010. [12] Attock Fort along the Indus River, northern Punjab province, Pakistan. [12] Section of the Sukkur Barrage irrigation project, on the Indus River, Pakistan. [12] Mohenjo-daro, on the right bank of the Indus River, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in South Asia to be so declared. [7] Indus River, Tibetan and Sanskrit Sindhu, Sindhi Sindhu, or Mehran, great trans- Himalayan river of South Asia. [12] "Approaching rice domestication in South Asia: New evidence from Indus settlements in northern India". [7] …India is included in the Indus drainage basin, which India shares with China, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. [12] In India a number of dams, barrages, and link canals have been built to distribute water from the eastern Indus tributaries to the Punjab and neighbouring states. [12] The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings. [7] The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. [7]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(24 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

Civilization and Floods in the Indus Valley

In addition to Dr. Dales as Field Director, the official staff included the Museum’s architect Aubrey Trik and Stephen Rees-Jones of Queen’s University, Belfast, as Conservator. Helen Trik was Registrar and Barbara Dales was Administrative Secretary. Walter O. Heinze of Swarthmore served as volunteer photographer and field assistant for part of the season. The project was supported by the JDR 3rd Fund, National Science Foundation, the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society, the Walter E. Seeley Trust Fund, and generous private donations.

One of the most intriguing aspects of archaeological research is the constant ebb and flow of our “knowledge” between fact and fiction. There is an ever present need to re-examine and re-evaluate the scattered bits of evidence with which we try to reconstruct the cultural framework of mankind’s climb to the modern world. It is not uncommon to find that yesterday’s “fact” is one of today’s discarded theories or that what is merely a calculated guess today may be a verified historical maxim tomorrow. Gradually this framework is strengthened and expanded as our factual knowledge of ancient problems increases.

Archaeology has had to expand its scope far beyond that of the traditional “dirt” approach to antiquity. More and more we hear of non-archaeologists, especially natural scientists, offering new insights into what were difficult or insoluble archaeological problems. These extra-archaeological specialists are increasing our ability to understand the broader significance of otherwise restricted and ofttimes esoteric questions. Just as a piece of three dimensional modern Op Art can be seen in its totality only by viewing it from many different vantage points, so must an archaeological problem be viewed from positions other than that of the dirt-archaeologist. The natural scientists can and are providing some of the desperately needed fresh viewpoints.

General view of Late period structures on top of HR mound.

An example of the potentials inherent in combined archaeological-natural science investigations is seen in the field program carried out this past winter by the University Museum in West Pakistan. The Museum, with the cooperation and assistance of the Pakistan Department of Archaeology, initiated a program of excavations and environmental studies centering around Mohenjo-daro, some 180 air miles north of Karachi in the Indus Valley. The environmental and geomorphological studies were conducted by Robert L. Raikes, a professional hydrologist who has also collaborated with the Museum’s project at Sybaris in Italy. Among other questions of a purely archaeological nature we were concerned with the problem of why and how the Indus–or Harappan–civilization declined and eventually vanished. One explanation which has been popular in recent years is that this earliest civilization of South Asia “wore out its landscape” and so weakened internally that it became easy prey for foreign invaders–namely, the Aryans. The idea of a massacre at Mohenjo-daro which supposedly represented the armed conquest of the city was disputed on purely archaeological grounds by the author in the Spring 1964 issue of Expedition. Other factors in the collapse of the Indus civilization have come to the attention of natural scientists during the past few years. Preliminary studies by Raikes suggested that a great natural disaster–a series of vast floods– could have been a major factor. Fresh evidence was needed from the field to test these new ideas. Thus the program of archaeological excavations at Mohenjo-daro combined with geomorphological studies of the lower Indus Valley was initiated.

Mohenjo-daro was selected as the focal point of the project for several reasons. It is the largest and best preserved of the Harappan period cities in the Indus Valley and should provide the most complete sequence of stratified materials. The earlier excavations at this site during the 1920’s and early 1930’s revealed abundant evidence for water laid deposits at several distinct levels in the ruins. Furthermore, it was hoped that new information could be obtained concerning the latest occupations of the city and the period of declining prosperity leading to the final abandonment of this once prosperous metropolis.

One of the first objectives of this year’s work was to determine the depth of occupation at Mohenjo-daro. The earliest levels have never been reached because of the present high levels of the sub-surface ground water. It is important for our studies into the history of flooding in the lower Indus Valley that we have a complete stratigraphic picture of the successive occupation levels of the city. A boring rig was obtained from a Pakistani engineering company and a series of test bores was made under the supervision of Mr. Raikes. Core samples were brought up and examined every foot or so. Pottery sherds, brick fragments, bangles and ash were found down to a maximum depth of thirty-nine feet below the present plain level. The borings were continued down some eight feet below the lowest trace of human occupation. The present ground water level is about fifteen feet below plain level. Thus it will be necessary to penetrate over twenty-five feet through water soaked levels to reach the earliest occupation. Raikes, in consulation with engineers in Pakistan, is designing a de-watering system for this purpose.

The boring rig in operation. Brick fragments, pottery sherds, bangles and ash were found to a depth of thirty-nine feet below the present plain level.

The excavations of the uppermost levels were conducted in a twenty-meter square area on top of the HR mound. Even this relatively limited exposure provided some new and interesting information on the latest period of occupation, an occupation which probably characterizes the general conditions which prevailed at the end of the Harappan period. Immediately below the surface of the mound we found at thin, poorly preserved level which suggests a squatter-type occupation. The buildings were crudely constructed of secondhand, often broken, bricks. The earlier excavators at Mohenjo-daro have reported similar remains from other areas of the site. No trace of foreign objects which could indicate the arrival of invaders of non-Harappan peoples was found. The few examples of pottery found in place on the house floors are of standard Harappan types. Noticeable, however, was the complete absence of the black-and-red painted pottery which so characterizes the mature Harappan period. Architecturally it is important to note that before the building of this latest squatter-level the abandoned rooms and alley-ways of the previous occupation were completely filled in with rubble and grey dirt. Also, crudely made packing walls were constructed to face portions of these fillings. When such fillings were removed during our excavation it was found that these structures so filled in were still in fairly good condition and should have been adequate for habitation. Why then did the last occupant of the city go to the trouble of packing these areas with from three to four feet of fill? If the overall picture we are obtaining from our other studies is correct, it becomes obvious why this elaborate filling and platform making was undertaken. It was the last of several attempts on the part of the Mohenjo-daro population to artificially raise the level of the city to keep above the height of the flood waters. The flood evidence will be described below. I mention it here merely to emphasize our impression that flooding was the principal enemy of the Mohenjo-darians, and of all the Harappan period inhabitants of the lower Indus Valley. Bands of raiders from the nearby Baluchistan hills could well have taken advantage of the chaotic conditions following the floods, but they were apparently not the cause of such conditions.

A squatter-type structure directly beneath the surface. Secondhand, often broken, bricks were used by these latest inhabitants.

A brick wash or toilet cubicle and plastered floor of the Late period. This area was completely filled up with dirt and debris to make one of the platforms upon which the latest in habitants of the city built their squatter-type houses.

I mentioned that directly beneath this shoddily built squatter level there are the remains of substantial buildings of baked brick with the paved washing (or toilet) areas and the elaborate drainage facilities typical of this civilization. Three to four closely interlocked building and rebuilding levels were uncovered this season. These levels belong to what has been called in the earlier excavation reports the Late period of the city. It has always been difficult when using these reports to define exactly what characterizes the Late period from the Intermediate and earlier periods of the city and the civilization it represents. Certain details relative to the decline in material prosperity of the population of these late levels were noticeable, however, in the new excavations. Pottery, for example, was of typical Harappan shapes but the proportion of painted to plain wares was very low. The luxury of decorating pottery with elaborately painted designs was apparently beyond the means of the late inhabitants of the city. One type of pottery vessel, usually called the Indus Valley goblet, was found in great abundance in these late levels. This confirms the earlier reports and those from other sites which maintain that this distinctive vessel was used only during the late declining years of the civilization. Other evidences of stylistic change and preferences attributable to the Late period were also found with other classes of objects. Stone stamp seals with exquisite animal representations executed in intaglio are one of the hallmarks of the mature Harappan civilization. Several of these seals were found in our late levels but it is fair to assume that such beautiful–and no doubt expensive–objects were kept by families and individuals long after the time when they were manufactured. Another type of stamp seal, cheaply made of paste or frit, with only geometric designs, appears to be common only to the later period of the city. A few scattered examples have been previously recorded (with reservations by the excavators) from Intermediate levels at Mohenjo-daro but they are rare indeed. The geometric seals would then appear to be a potentially useful dating object. Clay animal figurines provide another relative dating criterion. The figurines of the mature Harappan period–mostly of bulls–are superb examples of ceramic artistry. The sensuously modeled bodies, the sensitive faces, and the attention to detail place the best examples of these figurines in a class of artistic excellence with the intaglio representations of animals on the stone stamp seals. In our Late period levels on the top of HR mound not a single example of these excellent animal figurines was found. Figurines were abundant but they were of a crude, almost toy-like quality. The bodies are poorly proportioned and the faces range in appearance from the comic to the grotesque. From the published reports on the earlier excavations at Mohenjo-daro and other Harappan sites it is clear that such figurines are found throughout all levels of the civilization. Our excavations this year seem to show, however, that this is the only style of animal figurine made during the declining years of the civilization. Examples such as those just cited can be helpful for relative dating purposes but cannot tell us anything about the actual year-dates of the city or the civilization. For this purpose carbon samples of wood and grain were collected and will be tested by the radiocarbon dating procedure.

The so-called Indus goblets. These are known only in late levels at Harappan sites and provide one of the few reliable dating criteria for the internal chronology of the Indus civilization.

Stamp seals from the Late period levels. Such seals appear to be products of the waning years of the Indus civilization.

One of the most unexpected finds of the season came on the second day of excavations. Only about two feet below the surface of the mound was found a group of three human skeletons–a middle-aged man, a young woman, and a small child. A few feet away, in the same stratum, were later found two more adult skeletons. These were obviously not burials in the formal sense of the word. The skeletons were enmeshed in a thick accumulation of bricks, broken pottery and debris and were definitely not resting on a street or floor level. This accumulation did not apparently belong to the time of the structural remains in close proximity to the skeletons. What actually happened to these unfortunate persons must remain an enigma. All we can safely say is that their skeletons were found in an archaeological context which must be dated to some undetermined time after the so-called Late period at Mohenjo-daro. They may belong to the time of the latest squatter settlement but too little of this uppermost level was preserved to allow dogmatic claims for dating. It is reasonable to believe that the thirty-seven or so skeletons found in the earlier excavations were also found under similar circumstances. Certainly no fuel has been added by the new discoveries to the fires of they hypothetical destruction of the city by invaders.

A clay bull figurine of the superb quality typical of the mature Harappan period. Such figurines were not found in the Late period levels at Mohenjo-daro. An animal figurine of the crude handmade variety typical of the Late period at Mohenjo-daro.

It must be admitted that further excavations at Mohenjo-daro, or any other Harappan period site, stand little chance of answering the vital question of why and how this most extensive of the earliest Old World civilizations vanished from the historical scene. Different types of research, such as the geomorphological studies of Mr. Raikes, may hold the key to this vexing problem. His attention was first drawn to this problem by published descriptions of thick deposits of alluvial clay at various levels in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro. The highest of these “perched” strata of flood deposit is now some thirty feet above the plain level. Up until now there has been no satisfactory explanation for the presence of such deposits. Raikes recorded some 150 exposed clay deposits at widely separated locations in the Mohenjo-daro ruins. Some of these proved to be decayed mud-brick fillings and platforms rather than flood deposits. They are, nonetheless, important because we can now see that the construction of such high platforms at this and other sites was closely connected with the whole problem of flooding. Mention has already been made of the artificial packing and platform building in the latest levels at Mohenjo-daro. Overwhelming evidence for such building practices was uncovered in our clearing of the western edge of the HR mound.

The first of five human skeletons discovered just beneath the surface of the HR mound.

A monumental solid mud-brick platform, or embankment, lines the edge of the city mound. An exploratory excavation showed that it is at least twenty-five feet in height. At present plain level it is faced with a solid fired brick wall, five to six feet thick, which was traced for a distance of over three hundred meters along the base of the mound. This enormous complex, especially if it surrounds the entire lower town area of Mohenjo-daro, cannot be explained merely as a defensive structure against military attack. It appears that the walls and platforms were intended to artificially raise the level of the city as protection against floods. It is still too early to outline in detail the sequence of natural events which could have produced the flooding around Mohenjo-daro but some tentative suggestions should be made. “That the prime cause of the floodings was of a tectonic nature cannot, on present evidence, be reasonably doubted,” says Raikes in his Interim Report. These uplifts, or rather series of uplifts, occurred between Mohenjo-daro and the Arabian Sea, possibly near the modern town of Sehwan. Whether these uplifts were the result of bedrock faulting or of eruptive extrusions of “volcanic” mud remains to be seen. Geologists agree, nonetheless, that the uplifting did occur. The “dam” created by this uplift process backed up the waters of the Indus River. The degree of evaporation, sedimentation, and water losses through the “dam” itself are technical matters requiring much more study. These factors are important in estimating the rate of water rise and spread in the reservoir created behind the “dam.” What is apparent even now, however, is that–again in Raikes’s words–“flooding would have been by gradual encroachment from downstream with plenty of warning.” As the Mohenjo-darians saw the waters gradually approaching from the south they would have had ample time to construct the massive brick platforms such as exist throughout the city. Eventually the reservoir, which could well have been over a hundred miles long, engulfing all the towns and villages in the lower Indus Valley, would have become silted. The inflow of water would have exceeded the losses resulting from seepage and evaporation, and the rising waters would have overtopped the “dam.” A period of rapid water loss and down-cutting of the sedimentation in the valley would follow.

The poor state of preservation of the newly discovered skeletons is illustrated by these two examples. Their decayed and battered condition is partly explained by the fact that they were found almost directly beneath the surface of the mound.

It can be only a guess but it has been estimated that the time required to silt up the reservoir could possibly be as little as one hundred years. During this period, places like Mohenjo-daro may have been temporarily abandoned but this has not yet been displayed archaeologically. At any rate, once the waters began to subside, rebuilding was undertaken. Unfortunately the uplifting-flooding cycle repeated its destructive course, possibly as many as six times. As Sir Mortimer Wheeler, who excavated at Mohenjo-daro in 1950, has recently put it, the population was being worn out by the natural environment (opposite to his original suggestion that the population was wearing out the landscape). A study of silt deposits at other sites near Mohenjo-daro, such as Jhukar and Lohumjo-daro, suggests the same flooding regime. It is essential that detailed surveys and test trenchings of other sites in the lower Indus Valley be made. If consistent patterns of siltation and rebuildings can be worked out for other sites in this area, we will have gone a long way toward substaining the crucial role of tectonic movement and flooding in the life and death of at least the southern part of the Harappan “empire.”

The five human skeletons uncovered this year were associated with the thick accumulation of bricks and debris between these parallel walls near the surface of the HR mound.

Other factors were involved in the decline of the Harappan fortunes in the north. Flooding may have been a problem there too but not to the overwhelming degree it was in the south. Unfortunately, the archaeological evidence for the end of the northern cities is even more laconic than that for the south. There is an apparently consistent pattern, however, that is common to each of the few Harappan settlements which has been excavated in the north. There seems to be a sharp termination of occupation at these sites during what is recognized on present evidence as the mature phase of the Harappan civilization. Then there was a long period of abandonment followed after several centuries by the settlement of entirely new cultural groups. Most common seem to be the makers of a distinctive painted grey-ware pottery.

A gigantic solid mud-brick embankment was found along the edge of the HR mound. A pit was dug twenty-five into the brickwork without reaching the bottom of the structure.

The southern regions would seem to hold out the best promise of archaeological answers to the question of what happened to the Indus population after their civilization was defeated by the relentlessly re-occurring floods. Over eighty Harappan period sites have been located by Indian archaeologists in the Gujarat area of western India. Many of these sites are of the Late period and clearly preserve evidence suggesting a gradual transition of the once proud Harappan traditions into those which were indigenous to that part of India. The strength and vitality of the Harappan culture was vanishing ot the point where even the use of writing lost its importance. It is perhaps hopeful to reflect on the possibility that at least in the days of four thousand years ago man’s most overwhelming and stifling enemy was to be found in the forces of nature rather than in the vagaries of his fellow man.

The Indus Valley Civilizations

Sometime around 6,000 B.C. a nomadic herding people, who some now think to be Dravidians, settled into villages in the Mountainous region just west of the Indus River. There they grew barley and wheat, harvesting it using sickles with flint blades. They lived in small houses built with adobe bricks. After about 5000 B.C. the climate in their region changed, bringing more rainfall, which apparently enabled them to grow more food, for they grew in population. They began domesticating sheep, goats and cows and then water buffalo.

Molded tablet showing a man spearing a water buffalo with one foot pressing the head down and one arm holding the tip of a horn. A gharial (Crocodile) is depicted above the sacrifice scene, and a figure seated in yogic position, wearing a horned headdress is to the right.
Three sided molded tablet. This side shows a flat bottomed boat with a central hut that has leafy fronds at the top of two poles. Two birds sit on the deck and a large double rudder extends from the rear of the boat. On the second side is a snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth. The third side has eight symbols of the Indus script.

Then after 4000 B.C. they began to trade with distant areas in central Asia and areas west of the Khyber Pass. They also began using bronze and other metals. In time the total area of the Indus civilization, became larger than that of the old kingdom of Egypt. Their cities were characterized by buildings of elaborate architecture, constructed of fired brick, with sewage systems and paved streets.

Female figure with headdress and Jewerly. Harappa - 2,600 - 1,900 B.C.

Female figure with headdress and Jewerly. Harappa - 2,600 - 1,900 B.C.

Typical of these large planned cities, is Mohenjo-daro, which along with it's great buildings, had city streets laid out in a grid. The city is thought to have housed roughly 50,000 people, and had a granary, baths, assembly halls and towers. The city was divided into two parts, west of the city there stood a citadel surround by a wall.

The Citadel area of the city was built on top of a mound of bricks almost 12 metres high. A large staircase ran up the side of this mound. Several large buildings and structures on the Citadel mound suggest that this area may have been used for public gatherings, religious activities or important administrative activities as well as defense. In the second century B.C. a stupa (a dome-shaped structure - serving as a Buddhist shrine) was built on the top of this mound.

The Citadel included an elaborate tank or bath, created with fine quality brickwork and sewer drains, this area was then surrounded by a verandah. Also located here was a giant granary, a large residential structure, and at least two aisled assembly halls. To the east of the citadel was the lower city, laid out in a grid pattern.

The streets were straight and were drained to keep the area sanitary. Mohenjo-Daro had a building with an underground furnace and dressing rooms, suggesting bathing was done in heated pools - as in modern day Hindu temples. The people of the city used very little stone in their construction. They preferred bricks, two types of bricks mainly - fired bricks, and wood bricks - which were created by using burnt wood ash.

At Mohenjo-daro archaeologists have found several large platforms and foundations made out of brick. Column bases and shallow holes still exist in the platforms, suggesting that they were meant to hold wooden columns or supports. However, the walls of these buildings do not survive. Since brick walls usually do survive, many archaeologists now believe that some large buildings at Mohenjo-daro were probably built out of wood.

They used timber to create the flat roofs of their buildings, there are brick stairways leading to the roofs of many houses, suggesting that roofs were used as recreational areas - as in early Anatolia. Houses were of various sizes, some were small, and others were large with interior courtyards and indoor bathrooms. Several craftsman workshops have been found, such as metalworking, carpentry, and shell-working.

Defensively Mohenjo-daro was a well-fortified city. Though it did not have city walls, it did have towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south. These fortifications taken into consideration, as well as a comparison to the Harappa ruins to the northeast, lead to the conclusion that perhaps Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout (Harappa is less well preserved due to early site defilement), and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites. It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites, that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, however the extent and functioning (and even the placement and type) of an administrative center remains unclear. Lothal was situated at the head of the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat. Here archaeologists have found large warehouses ready to hold goods for export.

The people of Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and the other cities, shared a sophisticated system of weights and measures, used arithmetic with decimals, and had a written language that was partly phonetic and partly ideographic. The Indus people also utilized seals for signatures and pictorial presentation, as did the people to the northwest in Elam and Sumer. The Indus valley people carried on active trade relations with the middle-east in gold, copper utensils, lapis lazuli, ivory, beads and semiprecious stones.

The Indus religion was animistic, they used the Unicorn, cattle, elephants and other animals to represent their gods. They are seemingly the originators of the Unicorn, . The Indus seals are amulets addressed to the gods and were worn on the body.

In the Seal below, we have a depiction of the Deity (in this case Maal/Mal) as a Unicorn, and then the votive inscription was written above the Deity (in Harappan script).

The manger, under the head of Maal is made up of several Indus signs. It reads Puu-i- Paa, or " A flourishing Condition, Thou distribute it".

8. Hygiene and Sanitation

Excavations have shown that hygiene and sanitation was a top priority for the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, but also that their citizens had rather clean, healthy, and safe lifestyles. A vast amount of public baths, an outstanding water conservation system, water supply throughout every house, tidy sewage systems, and the impressive underground wastewater systems all highlight the role of hygienic practices in the lives of its citizens.

The waste bins that had been installed everywhere along the streets of Mohenjo-Daro are even more noteworthy. It demonstrates that even when looking at all other earlier civilizations, the society of the Indus Valley was far ahead of the times when it came to civic aspects. These waste bins were essentially brick containers and were used mainly for getting rid of any unwanted items and for garbage disposal by the citizens.

Indus Valley Civilization — Religion

The exact belief system of the Indus Valley Civilization is difficult to define because the written language has not yet been deciphered, and there were no direct successors, nor colonialists, to interpret and record prevailing beliefs. Furthermore, the civilization left behind little physical evidence of their beliefs, and that evidence that has been unearthed is open to a wide range of interpretation. We are therefore left to speculate the belief system by ascribing meaning to the physical evidence left by the archaeological record, in order to understand the ideologies of these ancient people. That being said, the belief system of the Indus Valley people is important to consider because it is likely to have contained many precursors to deities and religious practices of religions that developed later in the region.

Despite the fact that no temples have been found dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization, the religion is said to have believed in the otherworld as well as in gods and goddesses. In 1931, John Marshall identified a number of prominent features of the Indus religion, namely the Great Mother Goddess (female sexuality is deeply ingrained in Indus religion and ideology), a Great Male God and veneration of animals. Also among the important depictions are the symbolic representation of the phallus (linga) and vulva (yoni), and the importance of bath and water in religious practice.

Many images found in Harappan sites are thought to be the predecessors to Vedic ideology. A stone seal known as the “Proto-siva”, which depicts a male character sitting on a dias in a yogic position surrounded by animals, was thought by Marshall to be a forerunner of Shiva, the well-known Hindu deity. While other scholars have purported that this figure is actually a “Proto-Brahma”/ “Brahma-Bull” (the great creator) or other god, the general consensus is that the figure is a precursor to later belief systems in India and beyond. Other figures in yoga postures, Shiva-like Gods, fire altars and swastikas may provide further evidence of the connection.

Ancient History: Indus Valley Civilization Study Notes | Ancient Harappan Civilization – WBCS Guruji

So let’s start…

What is the history of Indus valley civilization?

Indus Valley Civilization was originally called Harappan Civilization after the discovery of this site. Indus Valley Civilization was one of the four earliest civilizations of the world.

  1. Mesopotamia Civilization
  2. Egypt Civilization
  3. China Civilization
  4. Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus or Harappan Civilization is older than the Chalcolithic culture. Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Culturecovered parts of Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and West Uttar Pradesh.

About Indus Valley Civilization-

A red sandstone naked male Torso has been found. It is identified with Rigveda. other finding stone symbol pf lingam and yoni, Virgin goddess wooden mortar, box, dice nude dancing female, etc. In the Granaries of Indus Valley Civilization, there were two tows and six granaries, the combined floor space of these granaries had the same area as the Great Granary ar Mohenjodaro.

Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization-

The Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization culture was distinguished by its system of town planning. The towns were divided into two parts. Upperparts of Citadel and Lower parts. One of the remarkable things about the arrangement of the houses in the cities is that they followed the grid system.

Drainage System of Indus Valley Civilization –

The Drainage system was very impressive. In almost all cities every big or small house had its own courtyard and bathroom. Water flowed from the houses to the streets which had drained. These drains were covered with bricks and sometimes with stone slabs. The street drains were equipped with manholes. The quality of domestic bathrooms and drains is remarkable. The drainage system of Harappa (Indus Valley Civilization) is almost unique.

Social Life of Indus Valley Civilization –

It is not proved that existed any classes or castes. But based upon the mounds it can be assumed that there existed classes and not castes according to the occupation of the people like a peasant, artisans, etc. Also, there were three forms of burial. It is believed that the dead body was burnt.

Political Life of Indus Valley Civilization –

There is no clear idea about the political life of the Indus Valley Civilization. But no temple has been found at any Harappan site.

Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization –

The Indus Valley Civilization of Harappan economy was based on irrigated surplus agriculture, cattle rearing, proficiency in various crafts and brisk trade.

Religious Life of Indus Valley Civilization –

In Indus Valley Civilization, numerous terracotta figures of women have been found. These indices the worship of Mother Goddess. The Chief male deity, Pashupati Shiva is represented in seals in the sitting posture of a yogi, surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros, buffalo, and two deers appear at his feet. This god is depicted as having a three-horned head.

Animals were also worshipped in the Harappan times and many of them are represented on seals. The most important of them is the one-horned animal unicorn.

Art and Architecture of Indus Valley Civilization –

Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan pots were generally decorated with the designs of trees and circles. The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. Harappan peoples used different types of pottery. Harappan pottery was highly utilitarian in character.

The script of Indus Valley Civilization –

The Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization script is yet deciphered. The style is called Boustrophedon.

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Chanhudaro: Bead-Makers of the Indus Valley

The Indus Valley Civilisation is almost always synonymous with the famous sites of Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Dholavira and Kalibangan. But in the shadow of its more famous sister cities is Chanhudaro, in the Sindh region of Pakistan.

Dated to the 3 rd millennium BCE and located just 130 km from Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro was an important manufacturing hub, and it made one of the most prized items in ancient times – carnelian beads, among other things.

The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, is the earliest-known urban culture in the Indian subcontinent. The first city to be discovered was Harappa in 1921, followed by Mohenjodaro in 1922.

Chanhudaro was discovered in 1931, ten years after the discovery of Harappa, in an undivided India. Archaeologist N G Majumdar – credited with the discovery of 69 Harappan sites – had earlier worked on the Mohenjodaro excavations in 1923 and, on behalf of the Archaeological Survey of India, was studying ancient sites in the Sindh region. He was the first to excavate the site of Chanhudaro in 1931 and followed it up with a detailed report.

Majumdar’s dig was followed by another, in 1935, by the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. This is the first-ever American excavation in the Indian subcontinent. Led by British archaeologist Ernest J H Mackay, the expedition aimed at bridging the gap between the Harappan period and a later civilization. The excavation was conducted after studying Majumdar’s report which mentioned traces of post-Harappan civilization on the site.

The city of Chanhudaro, inhabited in the 3rd millennium BCE, was much smaller than Mohenjodaro. It seems to have been a flood-prone city. The Indus River, currently 20 km from Chanhudaro, is believed to have been much closer in Harappan times and was then only 3 km away. According to Mackay, the three mounds excavated at the site were once a single entity, which was later fragmented due to a severe flood.

Not only that, deep down in the trenches were river silts, believed to be from earlier floods that were less severe. Mackay believes the city was affected at least twice by floods, during the Harappan period.

Interestingly, Chanhudaro is the only Harappan city without a citadel.

According to archaeologist J M Casal, “Though being a city, Chanhu-Daro never was so large as Mohenjo-Daro or Harappa which could explain that it was built without any rampart. It then seems logical to think that when the first threat made itself clear, the inhabitants, fearing for their riches and for their lives fled from the city and looked for refuge outside.”

Archaeologists have found evidence of three cultures at Chanhudaro. The lowest levels belong to the Harappan culture (3rd millennium BCE), the earliest of the three followed by the Jhukar culture (2nd millennium BCE) and the Jhangar (late 2nd-1st millennium BCE) culture in the topmost layer.

One of the features common to all cities of the Harappan civilization is their meticulous town planning. Despite its small size, Chanhudaro is no different. As in other Harappan cities, burnt bricks were used to build houses.

Also, there are remains of a well-planned drainage system, another key feature of Harappan cities. Remains of bathrooms have been found in the Harappan strata at Chanhudaro and, incredibly, there is evidence of drains that run under bathroom floors and connected to drains under the main street. The main streets have two drains, one on either side, running across its length.

These drains, around 6 inches below street level, were thoughtfully designed. They are sloping so that water could flow smoothly and evenly. They even had rounded junctions so that the flow of water was smooth. Houses that were not connected to the main street had cess pits made from old storage jars with holes in their base for water to seep into the soil.

Despite its small size, Chanhudaro was an important commercial town, along with large cities like Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal. Although less wealthy, it was a manufacturing centre, making carnelian beads, seals, toys and weights.

Despite being so diminutive, the scale of production at Chanhudaro was much larger compared to big cities like Mohenjodaro. It is believed that most of the people who lived here were engaged in manufacturing, and some of the structures found at the site might have been workshops, warehouses or industrial quarters.

Hundreds of copper and bronze artefacts have been found at Chanhudaro. A variety of tools and weapons too have been uncovered, including spearheads, chisels, arrowheads, fish hooks, long- and short-blade axes, saws, large knives and razors. The copper and bronze artefacts are not restricted to tools. Dishes, pots, pans and toys too were made of copper and bronze.

Considering the sheer scale of artefacts found, Mackay called Chanhudaro as the “Sheffield of ancient India”. An important artefact found was a figurine of a male spear-thrower, which is on display at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA.

Perhaps the most interesting find is a female skull found inside a storage jar at Mound II. It was placed in a jar along with several copper objects. Interestingly, no other bones are found anywhere at the site. How this skull ended up in a jar is still a mystery.

A Manufacturing Centre

Beads : A bead factory, including a furnace, has been uncovered at Chanhudaro. A large number of beads too have been found, ranging from raw materials to the finished product. Interestingly, drills used on carnelian were also found.

The most significant beads recovered are carnelian beads, which were probably an expensive commodity at the time and used only by the elite.

The most common type of carnelian beads were red beads with a white design. These designs were made using an alkali that was heated. As a result, the paint was permanently fixed onto the stone.

These beads were an important trading commodity. The Harappans are known to have traded with Mesopotamia, evidence of which comes from carnelian beads manufactured at Chanhudaro found in Mesopotamia, especially in tombs. Ironically, not much by way of jewellery has been found at Chanhudaro, apart from some shell and pottery bangles and rings. Small combs were probably used as hair accessories by women. A small ivory comb, intricately decorated on both sides, has been recovered from Chanhudaro.

Seals : Seals were also made at Chanhudaro, and many Harappan seals and sealings have been found at the site. Made of steatite, the seals bore an inscription on the top. Most of these seals bore an image of an urus ox, a one-horned animal, which was the most favoured animal on seals at Chanhudaro as it probably occupied an important place in their mythology.

Apart from the urus ox, images of the tiger, elephant and bison appear on some seals. The seals are mostly square or rectangular round seals were comparatively rare at Harappan sites, and one such seal has been found at Chanhudaro.

Toys: Interestingly, large quantities of toys have been found across the site, giving us a glimpse into the fascinating varieties of toys used by children in the Harappan period at Chanhudaro. Toy carts made of terracotta and bronze, a miniature ram on two wheels pulled by a string, a bull with a moving head and a figure with moving arms were some of the toy varieties. Whistles too have been found in large quantities at Chanhudaro. They were made of pottery in the shape of a hen and were either undecorated or ornamented.

Post-Harappan Cultures

It seems the Harappan people were periodically plagued by floods, which is why Chanhudaro was probably abandoned. The ruined city remained deserted till it was occupied by the people belonging to the Jhukar culture, a post-Harappan Bronze Age culture in Sindh, in the 2nd millennium BCE.

We don’t know much about the origin of these people. They were a small community and not very wealthy. They lived in small houses. The pottery of this period is not as refined as that of the Harappans and is coarser. Unlike the seals of the Harappan period, Jhukar seals are mostly round and lack any inscriptions. They were less refined than Harappan seals and are mostly made of clay. This period also saw a decline in long-distance trade.

Following this period, the site of Chanhudaro was occupied by the Jhangar people, in the late 2 nd -1 st millennium BCE. These are believed to have been a nomadic and pastoral tribe, who occupied this site for a very short period. Not many traces of their habitation have been found at Chanhudaro and the pottery used by them was unpolished and handmade.

After the Partition of India in 1947, the site of Chanhudaro came under Pakistani and excavations are still being carried out. The latest was in 2015, by a French mission along with the Government of Pakistan.

Cover Image: Etched carnelian beads found by Mackay at Chanhudaro, courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

The people of the Indus Valley farmed, herded, hunted, gathered, and fished. They raised cotton and cattle (and to a lesser extent, water buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs), barley, wheat, chickpeas, mustard, sesame, and other plants. They had gold, copper, silver, chert, steatite, lapis lazuli, chalcedony, shells, and timber for trading.

The Indus Valley civilization was literate -- we know this from seals inscribed with a script that is now only in the process of being deciphered. [An aside: When it is finally deciphered, it should be a big deal, as was Sir Arthur Evans' deciphering of Linear B. Linear A still needs deciphering, like the ancient Indus Valley script.] The first literature of the Indian subcontinent came after the Harappan period and is known as Vedic. It doesn't appear to mention the Harappan civilization.

The Indus Valley civilization flourished in the third millennium B.C. and suddenly disappeared, after a millennium, in about 1500 B.C. -- possibly as a result of tectonic/volcanic activity leading to the formation of a city-swallowing lake.

Next: Problems of the Aryan Theory in Explaining Indus Valley History

  1. "Imaging River Sarasvati: A Defence of Commonsense," by Irfan Habib. Social Scientist, Vol. 29, No. 1/2 (Jan. - Feb., 2001), pp. 46-74.
  2. "Indus Civilization," by Gregory L. Possehl. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Brian M. Fagan, ed., Oxford University Press 1996.
  3. "Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization," by Gregory L. Possehl. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 19, (1990), pp. 261-282.
  4. "The Role of India in the Diffusion of Early Cultures," by William Kirk. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 141, No. 1 (Mar., 1975), pp. 19-34.
  5. +"Social Stratification in Ancient India: Some Reflections," by Vivekanand Jha. Social Scientist, Vol. 19, No. 3/4 (Mar. - Apr., 1991), pp. 19-40.

A 1998 article, by Padma Manian, on world history textbooks gives an idea of what we may have learned about the Indus Civilization in traditional courses, and debated areas:


Whilst one cannot conclude with absolute certainty that the Hindu Epics are actually about the Anunnaki, the chronology, technology and relationship to the Sumerian accounts of Anunnaki activity in the Indus Valley following the Great Deluge makes the possibility worthy of consideration and further examination.

There are also suggested further links to Anunnaki activity at Krishna’s Lost City of Dwarka.

The Anunnaki Ancient Astronuat Theory continues to provoke interest and debate on the question of our origins and whether the Historical Timeline of Civilization provided by the current historical paradigm is correct.

Zechariah Sitchin contributed to and perhaps sparked this debate, and his research is detailed in the best-selling Earth Chronicles series which I found interesting and thought provoking.

If you would like to explore and discuss more interesting Alternative History on the Anunnaki, you can check out our Article Archive on The links below.

Also take some out to try our new Archives Assistant Imhotep who will help you navigate and find answers to any questions that you may have on a Topic covered on the site.

In the featured documentary, the Ancient Astronaut Archive investigates the Anunnaki presence in Ancient India.

Watch the video: ΠΑΝΑΘΗΝΑΪΚΟΣ - Αθηναικός 83 - 55-Τάφου του Ινδού