Thor AKA-49 - History

Thor AKA-49 - History

Thor

(AKA-49 : dp. 7,000 (tl.); 1. 426'0", b. 68'0" ; dr. 16'0" (lim.); s. 16.9 k. (tl.); cpl. 303; a. 1 6", 8 40mm.; cl. Artemis; T. S4-SE2-BE1) Vanadu (AKA-49) was laid down on 18 April 1946under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1910) at Providence, R.I., by the Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc. launched on 8 June 1946, sponsored by Mrs. J. Henry Gill; acquired by the Navy on 9 July 1946, and commissioned the same day, Lt. Comdr. E. B. Williams in command.

Following shakedown out of Hampton Roads, Vanadis arrived at Newport, R.I., on 4 August and began shuttling back and forth between that port and Hampton Roads. In mid December, the attack cargo ship headed for the Gulf of Mexico. After visiting Mobile Ala.; Gulfport, Miss.; and Jacksonville, Fla., she arrived at Boston. On 6 February, she reported to the Commandant, 1st Naval District, for inactivation. Vanadis was placed out of commission on 27 March 1946. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 5 June 1946; and, on 2 July, she was transferred to the Maritime Commission.

After almost nine years of inactivity-berthed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet at James River, Va.—Vanadis was reacquired by the Navy on 14 April 1966 and reinstated on the Navy list as AKA-Is. On 30 June, she entered the Bethlehem Steel Co.'s yard at Baltimore, Md., for conversion to a cable repair ship. She was redesignated ARC-4; and, on 14 November 1955, she was renamed Thor. On 3 January 1956, Thor completed her conversion and was recommissioned, Comdr. R. H. Thomas in command.

The cable repair ship operated in the Atlantic through 1966. In February 1967, she reported to the Pacific Fleet and, until the fall of 1968, operated out of San Francisco repairing and laying cables. She returned to the Atlantic in September 1958 and served there until the summer of 1961, when she was temporarily assigned to the Pacific again. The cable repair ship returned to operations in the Atlantic in December. Following an overhaul at Boston in the spring of 1962, Thor deployed to the Pacific once more for cable repair operations in the northern reaches of that ocean. In October, she returned to the eastern side of the Isthmus of Panama and busied herself with cable repair duties and oceanographic projects in the Caribbean Sea. For the next five and one-half years, Thor continued to repair and lay cables in the western Atlantic and in the West Indies. Occasionally, she also participated in more oceanographic projects. During that half decade, she ranged as far north as Nova Scotia and as far south as the Caribbean. Periodically, she also conducted operations in the Gulf of Mexico.

On 20 April 1968, the ship departed Norfolk and steamed, via the Panama Canal and San Diego, for the Central Pacific. She conducted special operations in the vicinity of Midway Island and returned to Hawaii on 16 June for several days before departing Pearl Harbor on the 24th for the Marianas. She reached Guam on 5 July and spent the next month repairing cable around that island. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 13 August and operated in the Hawaiian Islands until she headed back toward the mainland on 7 November. Following a brief stop at Long Beach, Calif., Thor returned to Norfolk on 6 December.

Over the next four years, Thor deployed to the Pacific three times. In August 1969, after seven months of operations along the east coast, she headed, via the Panama Canal and San Diego, to Pearl Harbor. Through November, she conducted operations near Midway Island and then returned to the Atlantic via Pearl Harbor, Long Beach, and the Panama Canal. In February 1970, she entered the Bethlehem Steel Shipyard in Boston to begin a year-long overhaul and repair period. In mid-February 1971, the cable repair ship resumed normal operations until late June when she deployed to the Pacific once more. She reached Hawaii on 29 July and departed again on 9 August for cable operations in the northernmost reaches of the Pacific, near the Aleutians chain. She completed those repairs late in the month and, after visits to Esquimalt, British Columbia, and San Diego, retransited the canal on 20 September and arrived in Portsmouth, N.H., eight days later. During the first seven months of 1972, the cable repair ship operated along the eastern seaboard again. On 24 July, Thor departed Norfolk for her last assignment in the Pacific Ocean. She arrived at Alameda Calif., on 11 August and conducted cable laying operations from there into late November. On the 24th, the ship cleared Alameda. She passed through the Panama Canal on 4 December and arrived back at Portsmouth on the 12th.

On 17 January 1973, Thor embarked upon her last overseas cruise as a commissioned ship in the Navy. She arrived in Swansea, England, 10 days later and, after two days in port, put to sea for cable operations. From 14 to 18 February, she visited the Submarine Base at Holy Loch, Scotland, before resuming cable operations near the Arctic Circle. She completed her assignment at the end of the month and, after another visit to Holy Loch during the first week in March headed back to the United States. On 17 March, she
returned to the Portsmouth naval shipyard to begin preparations for decommissioning incident to her transfer to the Military Sealift Command.

Thor (ARC-4) was decommissioned at Portsmouth on 2 July 1973 and simultaneously transferred to the custody of the Military Sealift Command. USNS Thor (T-ARC-4) operated with the Military Sealift Command, primarily in the Pacific, until April 1974 when she was returned to the Maritime Administration to be placed in reserve. Since then, she has been berthed with the National Defense Reserve Fleet at Suisun Bay, Calif.


Forty-Three Defendants with Ties to a Drug Cartel in Mexico Charged with Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Conspiracy Individuals Allegedly Responsible for State and Federal Crimes, Including Murder, Kidnapping, Firearms, and Drug Trafficking Violations

SAN DIEGO, CA—A criminal complaint was unsealed today charging 43 defendants with participating in a federal racketeering (RICO) conspiracy. The RICO conspiracy alleged in the complaint involves the commission of both state and federal crimes, including murder, conspiracy to commit murder, kidnapping, conspiracy to commit kidnapping, robbery, conspiracy to commit robbery, drug trafficking and money laundering offenses. As set forth in the complaint, the defendants are members and associates of the Fernando Sanchez Organization (FSO), an offshoot of the Arellano-Felix drug-trafficking cartel.

The complaint also alleges that Jesus Quiñones Marques, the Director of International Liaison for the Baja California Attorney General’s Office, was aware of the FSO’s illegal activities and used his position to obtain confidential law enforcement information for the use of the FSO. According to the complaint, he was involved in making arrangements to have various rivals of the FSO arrested and detained by Mexican law enforcement officials.

The charges stem from a long-term investigation, entitled “Operation Luz Verde” (green light), conducted by the multi-agency San Diego Cross Border Violence Task Force (CBVTF), which was formulated to target those individuals involved in organized crime-related violent activities affecting both the United States and Mexico. Law enforcement personnel assigned to the CBVTF made extensive use of court-authorized wiretaps and other sophisticated investigative techniques to develop the body of evidence that led to the charges in this case.

“The presence of foreign-based drug-trafficking organization members and associates in San Diego will not be tolerated. The San Diego law enforcement community leverages every asset to ensure that this fine city never becomes the safe haven from which drug-trafficking organizations stage their operations as drug wars and law enforcement scrutiny disrupt narco-business. These traffickers will simply not be allowed to walk our streets and live among our neighborhoods, and we will certainly not tolerate the seepage of drug-related violence in our communities. We are committed to disrupting their operations and will concentrate our efforts to stop them from committing their day-to-day criminal activities here,” said United States Attorney Laura E. Duffy.

FBI Special Agent in Charge Keith Slotter commented, “Today's arrests are the result of a long term multi-agency investigation. Dedicated personnel from agencies at all levels of government worked in unison to combat this dangerous and violent criminal enterprise. Today we are rewarded with dozens of arrests that truly have an impact on safety and well-being within our local communities.”

“The arrests made at the conclusion of this investigation illustrate the commitment of DEA and our law enforcement partners to dismantling these drug trafficking organizations at every level,” said DEA San Diego Special Agent in Charge Ralph W. Partridge. “The citizens of San Diego can feel safer today knowing that these violent offenders are off of our streets.”

“The San Diego Police Department is proud to have participated in such a successful operation. The message that San Diego law enforcement is sending to organized crime is clear: cross border violence and cartel activities will NOT be tolerated in the City of San Diego,” said San Diego Police Chief William Lansdowne. “Any portion of a criminal enterprise that is planned, coordinated, or conducted in San Diego will be investigated and prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law, maintaining San Diego as one of America’s safest cities for our citizens and visitors. Cartels should make no mistake: our business is to end their business.”

“ATF has participated in disrupting a violent criminal organization that was supplying the tools for Mexican cartels to kill law enforcement and innocent citizens,” said Special Agent in Charge John A. Torres of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). “ATF’s mission is to prevent violent crime in this country and prevent illegal firearms from crossing into Mexico.”

The complaint (Case Number: 10MJ2489) charges the following defendants with Title 18, United States Code, Section 1962(d) and, if convicted, they face 20 years in prison:

Armando Villareal Heredia, aka Gordo Age: 32 Guadalajara, Mexico
Ruben Dario Castro Perez, aka Compadre Age: 35 Federal Custody
Ivan Candelario Magana Heredia, aka Soldado Age: 33 Guadalajara, Mexico
Jose Alfredo Najera Gil Age: 33 Tijuana, Mexico
Carlos Cosme Age: 34 Chula Vista, CA
Mario Escamilla, aka Unico Age: 29 State Custody
Ignacio Escamilla Estrada, aka Uno Age: 49 Tijuana, Mexico
Fausto Escamilla, aka Taliban Age: 25 Mexican Custody
Edgar Gustavo Escamilla, aka Dies Age: 28 Mexican Custody
Jesus Quinones Marquez, aka Rinon Age: 49 Tijuana, Mexico
Jose Antonio Ortega Nuno Age: 44 Tijuana, Mexico
Edgar Lopez De-Anda Daher, aka Pollito Age: 28 Tijuana, Mexico
Jose Alejandro Florez Meza, aka Shakira Age: UK Tijuana, Mexico
Alicia Martinez, aka Comadre Age:33 San Diego, CA
Juan Carlos Magana Heredia Age: 29 Federal Custody
Oscar Daniel Montoya Mora Age: 28 Tijuana, Mexico
Jorge Alberto Ponce, aka Betote Age: UK Tijuana, Mexico
Mikael Daniel Blaser, aka Troubles Age: 20 Poway, CA
Jonathan Valle, aka Reaper Age: 25 Federal Custody
Armando Castillo, aka Choco Age: 20 Federal Custody
Omar Martinez, aka Nino Age: 19 San Diego, CA
Enrique Salinas, Jr., aka Playboy Age: 26 Chula Vista, CA
Raul Moreno, aka Flaco Age: 23 Chula Vista, CA
Miguel Soria, aka Mikey Age: 19 State Custody
Perla Carolina Jimenez, aka P Age: 28 Chula Vista, CA
Luz Maria Benavidez Martinez, aka Araceli Age: 31 Chula Vista, CA
Bridgette Reynoso, aka B Age: 23 San Diego, CA
Jorge Humberto Lora, aka Georgie Age: 31 Chula Vista, CA
Christopher Adrian Ruiz, aka Sneaky Age: 36 Federal Custody
Richard Gilbert Favela, aka Tiny Age: 26 Imperial Beach, CA
Humberto Torres Mendoza, aka Tito Age: 25 Colton, CA
Juan Carlos Rique Aguirre, aka JC Age: 26 Mexico
Telle Kreschmer Age: 21 San Diego, CA
Hector Montes, aka Toxic, aka Little Spikey Age: 23 State Custody
Jose Contreras, aka Pepe Age: 28 San Diego, CA
Hassain Alzubaidy, aka Arab Age: 25 Moreno Valley, CA
Ivan Mora Age: 21 San Diego, CA
Ulises Valenzuela Age: 31 Chula Vista, CA
Benjamin Avendano, aka Peso Age: 19 Federal Custody
Jennifer Escamilla Age: 26 Tijuana, Mexico
Araceli Varela, aka Uvia Age: 33 San Diego, CA
Rocio Lopez Age: 37 San Diego, CA
Kevin Luis, aka Listo Age: 28 San Diego, CA

United States Attorney Duffy praised the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) for the coordinated team effort in the culmination of this investigation. Agents and officers from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, San Diego Police Department, Drug Enforcement Administration, San Diego County Sheriff’s Office, Chula Vista Police Department, U.S. Marshals Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, California Department of Justice and the San Diego County District Attorney’s Office participated in this OCDETF investigation. The OCDETF program was created to consolidate and utilize all law enforcement resources in this country’s battle against organized crime and major drug trafficking organizations.

The case is being prosecuted in San Diego federal court by Assistant U.S. Attorneys Todd W. Robinson and James P. Melendres.

A complaint is not evidence that the defendants committed the crimes charged. The defendants are presumed innocent until the government meets its burden in court of proving guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.


Jewelry Maker’s Marks: A Brief History

To be considered an antique, a piece of jewelry must be 100 years or older, while vintage jewelry must be more than 20 years old to be classified as such. “Retro” jewelry refers to pieces made during the 1940s and ‘50s and are characterized by the use of large and colorful gemstones.

In the United States, the National Gold and Silver Stamping Act of 1906 required jewelers to include an accurate purity mark, which indicates the materials used in a given piece. In 1961, the American government also mandated that jewelry manufacturers include a maker’s mark, which indicates the producer of a piece of jewelry.

Hallmarking in Great Britain has had a long history, dating back to the 14th century. Today’s standards are regulated by the Hallmarking Act of 1973. Any piece of British jewelry made prior to 1999 was required to include what is known as a date letter stamp, a letter corresponding to the year that it was registered with the assay office. Assay offices are official governmental establishments who are tasked to assay, or test, the purity of jewelry metals and in some cases, to hallmark the jewelry.

Jewelry marks in France date back even earlier, with known examples first seen in the 13th century. An important year to know if you’re collecting French antique jewelry is the year 1797, when it was required to have a maker’s mark framed within a lozenge, a diamond-shaped charge that is often placed on the field of a shield.


Cable layer

A cable layer or cable ship is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electric power transmission, military, or other purposes. Cable ships are distinguished by large cable sheaves [1] for guiding cable over bow or stern or both. Bow sheaves, [2] some very large, were characteristic of all cable ships in the past, but newer ships are tending toward having stern sheaves only, as seen in the photo of CS Cable Innovator at the Port of Astoria on this page. The names of cable ships are often preceded by "C.S." as in CS Long Lines. [3]

The first transatlantic telegraph cable was laid by cable layers in 1857–58. It briefly enabled telecommunication between Europe and North America before misuse resulted in failure of the line. In 1866 the SS Great Eastern successfully laid two transatlantic cables, securing future communication between the continents.


What Does Your Forum User Name Mean?

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.

MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

Service Attendant

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.

MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

RailFanLNK

Conductor

Railrookie. says it all. I'm new to rail travel but have learned so much. I have went back to some of the posts that I put on a 1 1/2 years ago and sheesh. shucks. how embarrassing! :huh: I have learned so much in 1 1/2 years from the forum, reading books on trains and primarily Amtrak (all learned from this forum) hanging out and talking to Amtrak employees of the CZ in LNK and talking to the ticket agent in LNK. One of the cooler moments is talking back and forth with a forum member and finding out he was the guitarist in a punk band I followed in the 1980's. I about died when he said, "have you ever heard of. " that was cool in itself!

MrFSS

Conductor
Conductor

GG-1 is my favorite, the best motor, used on the NEC from 1937 - 1983 by the Standard Railroad of the World, the Pennsylvania Rail Road.

Squeakz2001

Service Attendant

My name has stuck with me since high school:

Squeakz= I squeak when I laugh. People have called me 'squeaky' for a long time!

2001= the year I graduated high school.

Conductor

Rafi: it's my name. You'll also see me as "rafster" on the flyertalk board: old high school nickname.

Everydaymatters

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.

Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Bill Haithcoat

Conductor

MrFSS

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.
Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Gswager

Conductor
OBS Chief

Had8ley

Conductor

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.
MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

Well Tom I would have thought you were a former railroader. We used to call the brakemen that laid off on week-ends "Mr. Friday, Saturday and Sunday." We couldn't get our name on Juno so we just put an 8 in the middle.

MrFSS

Conductor

The Metropolitan

OBS Chief

Hate to admit it, but I always HOPED someone would initiate a topic like this.

My name was actually chosen prematurely. I live a short distance from what was once the "other" PRR Main Line (the old Northern Central) in the Northeast, running between Baltimore and Harrisburg. I first became intrigued by this line as a child in the late 70's, when it was just a disconnected freight line, and finally rode it in 1992 when our Light Rail line opened along it.

In its heyday, the line hosted trains from Washington/Baltimore to St. Louis, Chicago, and Buffalo. History Buff that I am, when I joined the forum, I wanted to choose my name to match the cream of the crop passenger train that plyed this line I was so fascinated by. Looking through an old timetable, I thought I had found it, and promptly chose "The Metropolitan" as the name had that stylish 40's feel of a premier train.

Later I would learn that the Washington train "Metropolitan" was little more than a connecting train to the "real Metropolitan" that operated through to New York.

Had I really done my homework right, I would have chosen "LIBERTY LIMITED" as this was the stylish train that I could board at Penn Station Baltimore, head up my beloved Northern Central into Harrisburg, and continue West towards Chicago without ever changing trains.

I did look to try to change the label, but couldn't figure out how. Ah, well, "The Metropolitan" is still cool.

So there is the whole story of my name, probably far more than anyone cared to know!

I'll also admit I was always curious why the "8" was in the middle of "had8ley." I'd have never thought the reason to be so simple! LOL!

AlanB

Conductor

Spot1181

Lead Service Attendant

Spot=the white spot I've had in my hair since I was 18 ( Mrs. Spot calls it a skunkstreak now, which makes her Mrs. Skunk?

1181= the mail route I carry in Cincinnati. spot1181.

Tourlink99

Train Attendant

Trainboy325

Service Attendant

Trainboy started out as a joke when I began my involvement with the Lake Wales Model Railroad Club in Lake Wales, Florida, my hometown. When the City of Lake Wales was creating its email system and the railroad club was going to get an account for responding to visitors and potential members. I was at the time the club's vice president as well as a part time employee of the City which allowed me access to the intranet system to monitor the email account. It was suggested by club members and my dad to be the "Trainboy" since the club was made up mostly of retired men and I was the only teenager in the group. So it stuck, becoming my identity for the railroad club's government account administrator and used it as my username when I got my AOL account during high school. It has remained my email name since. The 325 represents the Depot Museum's address in town: 325 S. Scenic Highway, Lake Wales, FL 33853.

I'm proud to have been part of building this wonderful place. The museum is in the former Atlantic Coast Line station in Lake Wales built in 1928 as part of ACL's plan to compete against the FEC for an inland route to Miami that spun off it's mainline in Haines City running down to Everglades City/Clewiston. The museum focuses on Lake Wales' history as a whole, but railroading is by far the most popular and visible theme of the complex. The museum has three rolling stock pieces on display: a Seaboard caboose salvaged from Wildwood, FL, a Pullman Business Car owned by the Central of Georgia during its working life and a Whitcomb yard switcher that used to owned by the Army Corps of Engineers that was used in Italy for post-war reconstruction and later used by a phosphate mining company in Mulberry, FL. The railroad club has it's home in the former Seaboard freight station that was relocated from it's original site in town next door to the ACL station building. It has a large HO scale layout depicting the eastern seaboard with Central Florida a major subject on the largest section. In addition, N, G and O scale layouts are on display.

The last part is a little off topic, but was worth mentioning since it's so much of a part of who I am today as a railfan, former railroad employee and historic preservation advocate as an employee of the National Park Service.


Norwegian ethnologist Thor Heyerdahl sails papyrus boat

On May 17, 1970, Norwegian ethnologist Thor Heyerdahl and a multinational crew set out from Morocco across the Atlantic Ocean in Ra II, a papyrus sailing craft modeled after ancient Egyptian sailing vessels. Heyerdahl was attempting to prove his theory that Mediterranean civilizations sailed to America in ancient times and exchanged cultures with the people of Central and South America. The Ra II crossed the 4,000 miles of ocean to Barbados in 57 days.

Heyerdahl, born in Larvik, Norway, in 1914, originally studied zoology and geography at the University of Oslo. In 1936, he traveled with his wife to the Marquesas Islands to study the flora and fauna of the remote Pacific archipelago. He became fascinated with the question of how Polynesia was populated. The prevailing opinion then (and today) was that ancient seafaring people of Southeast Asia populated Polynesia. However, because winds and currents in the Pacific generally run from east to west, and because South American plants such as the sweet potato have been found in Polynesia, Heyerdahl conjectured that some Polynesians might have originated in South America.

To explore this theory, he built a copy of a prehistoric South American raft out of balsa logs from Ecuador. Christened Kon-Tiki, after the Inca god, Heyerdahl and a small crew left Callao, Peru, in April 1947, traversed some 5,000 miles of ocean, and arrived in Polynesia after 101 days. Heyerdahl related the story of the epic voyage in the book Kon-Tiki (1950) and in a documentary film of the same name, which won the 1952 Oscar for Best Documentary.

Heyerdahl later became interested in the possibility of cultural contact between early peoples of Africa and Central and South America. Certain cultural similarities, such as the shared importance of pyramid building in ancient Egyptian and Mexican civilizations, perhaps suggested a link. To test the feasibility of ancient transatlantic travel, Heyerdahl built a 45-foot-long copy of an ancient Egyptian papyrus vessel in 1969, with the aid of traditional boatbuilders from Lake Chad in Central Africa. Constructed at the foot of the Pyramids and named after the sun god Ra, it was later transported to Safi in Morocco, from where it set sail for the Caribbean on May 24, 1969. Defects in design and other problems caused it to founder in July, 600 miles short of its goal. It had sailed 3,000 miles.

Undaunted, Heyerdahl constructed a second papyrus craft, the Ra II, with the aid of Aymaro Indian boatbuilders from Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. With a multinational crew of seven, the Ra II set sail from Safi on May 17, 1970. After a voyage of 57 days and 4,000 miles, the ship arrived in Barbados. The story of this voyage is recorded in the book The Ra Expeditions (1971) and in a documentary film.

In 1977, Heyerdahl led the Tigris expedition, in which he navigated a craft made of reeds down the Tigris River in Iraq to the Persian Gulf, across the Arabian Sea to Pakistan, and finally to the Red Sea. The goal of the expedition was to establish the possibility that there was contact between the great cultures of Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and Egypt across the sea. Heyerdahl later led research expeditions to Easter Island and an archeological site of Tucume in northern Peru. For the most part, Heyerdahl’s ideas have not been accepted by mainstream anthropologists.


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What Does Your Forum User Name Mean?

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.

MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

Service Attendant

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.

MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

RailFanLNK

Conductor

Railrookie. says it all. I'm new to rail travel but have learned so much. I have went back to some of the posts that I put on a 1 1/2 years ago and sheesh. shucks. how embarrassing! :huh: I have learned so much in 1 1/2 years from the forum, reading books on trains and primarily Amtrak (all learned from this forum) hanging out and talking to Amtrak employees of the CZ in LNK and talking to the ticket agent in LNK. One of the cooler moments is talking back and forth with a forum member and finding out he was the guitarist in a punk band I followed in the 1980's. I about died when he said, "have you ever heard of. " that was cool in itself!

MrFSS

Conductor
Conductor

GG-1 is my favorite, the best motor, used on the NEC from 1937 - 1983 by the Standard Railroad of the World, the Pennsylvania Rail Road.

Squeakz2001

Service Attendant

My name has stuck with me since high school:

Squeakz= I squeak when I laugh. People have called me 'squeaky' for a long time!

2001= the year I graduated high school.

Conductor

Rafi: it's my name. You'll also see me as "rafster" on the flyertalk board: old high school nickname.

Everydaymatters

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.

Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Bill Haithcoat

Conductor

MrFSS

Conductor

Everydaymatters-the name got its start several years ago when I was a research patient at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda. I saw little bald-headed kids wheeling their IV tubes around. I spoke to adults who were there because they had a rare form of cancer that had doctors baffled. I met people who knew their lung disease was terminal, but hoped that some new research project would produce a new medicine to make it easier to live with.
Every day was crucial. Every day mattered. Thus, the name Everydaymatters.

By the Way - The research project I was in resulted in them finding the common protein for the type of pulmonary fibrosis I have. That opens doors for more research - possibly even a cure That made every painful test I went through worth every second of it. My buttons were bustin' to have been part of a research project that had such great results.

Gswager

Conductor
OBS Chief

Had8ley

Conductor

I mentioned in another thread we should have a thread with this title. I have already been PM'd asking me to start it. So, I'll go first.
MrFSS is short for Mr Financial Settlement Services. That is a subsidiary company of the big company I retired from a few years ago. We only had a few employees in our little group, and to many of my customers I was know as = MrFSS. It stuck and I keep using it today. Haven't worked there in a few years, but I still hear from folks now and then.

So, if you have a story as to why you have the user name you use and want to share it, this is the place!

Well Tom I would have thought you were a former railroader. We used to call the brakemen that laid off on week-ends "Mr. Friday, Saturday and Sunday." We couldn't get our name on Juno so we just put an 8 in the middle.

MrFSS

Conductor

The Metropolitan

OBS Chief

Hate to admit it, but I always HOPED someone would initiate a topic like this.

My name was actually chosen prematurely. I live a short distance from what was once the "other" PRR Main Line (the old Northern Central) in the Northeast, running between Baltimore and Harrisburg. I first became intrigued by this line as a child in the late 70's, when it was just a disconnected freight line, and finally rode it in 1992 when our Light Rail line opened along it.

In its heyday, the line hosted trains from Washington/Baltimore to St. Louis, Chicago, and Buffalo. History Buff that I am, when I joined the forum, I wanted to choose my name to match the cream of the crop passenger train that plyed this line I was so fascinated by. Looking through an old timetable, I thought I had found it, and promptly chose "The Metropolitan" as the name had that stylish 40's feel of a premier train.

Later I would learn that the Washington train "Metropolitan" was little more than a connecting train to the "real Metropolitan" that operated through to New York.

Had I really done my homework right, I would have chosen "LIBERTY LIMITED" as this was the stylish train that I could board at Penn Station Baltimore, head up my beloved Northern Central into Harrisburg, and continue West towards Chicago without ever changing trains.

I did look to try to change the label, but couldn't figure out how. Ah, well, "The Metropolitan" is still cool.

So there is the whole story of my name, probably far more than anyone cared to know!

I'll also admit I was always curious why the "8" was in the middle of "had8ley." I'd have never thought the reason to be so simple! LOL!

AlanB

Conductor

Spot1181

Lead Service Attendant

Spot=the white spot I've had in my hair since I was 18 ( Mrs. Spot calls it a skunkstreak now, which makes her Mrs. Skunk?

1181= the mail route I carry in Cincinnati. spot1181.

Tourlink99

Train Attendant

Trainboy325

Service Attendant

Trainboy started out as a joke when I began my involvement with the Lake Wales Model Railroad Club in Lake Wales, Florida, my hometown. When the City of Lake Wales was creating its email system and the railroad club was going to get an account for responding to visitors and potential members. I was at the time the club's vice president as well as a part time employee of the City which allowed me access to the intranet system to monitor the email account. It was suggested by club members and my dad to be the "Trainboy" since the club was made up mostly of retired men and I was the only teenager in the group. So it stuck, becoming my identity for the railroad club's government account administrator and used it as my username when I got my AOL account during high school. It has remained my email name since. The 325 represents the Depot Museum's address in town: 325 S. Scenic Highway, Lake Wales, FL 33853.

I'm proud to have been part of building this wonderful place. The museum is in the former Atlantic Coast Line station in Lake Wales built in 1928 as part of ACL's plan to compete against the FEC for an inland route to Miami that spun off it's mainline in Haines City running down to Everglades City/Clewiston. The museum focuses on Lake Wales' history as a whole, but railroading is by far the most popular and visible theme of the complex. The museum has three rolling stock pieces on display: a Seaboard caboose salvaged from Wildwood, FL, a Pullman Business Car owned by the Central of Georgia during its working life and a Whitcomb yard switcher that used to owned by the Army Corps of Engineers that was used in Italy for post-war reconstruction and later used by a phosphate mining company in Mulberry, FL. The railroad club has it's home in the former Seaboard freight station that was relocated from it's original site in town next door to the ACL station building. It has a large HO scale layout depicting the eastern seaboard with Central Florida a major subject on the largest section. In addition, N, G and O scale layouts are on display.

The last part is a little off topic, but was worth mentioning since it's so much of a part of who I am today as a railfan, former railroad employee and historic preservation advocate as an employee of the National Park Service.


The FN-49 Rifle (AKA SAFN-49)

The FN-49 rifle is a classic battle rifle. It was designed by Dieudonne J. Saive in the dark days before the Second World War. Saive fled Belgium prior to its occupation by Germany with his new design. Working at the Royal Arsenal at Enfield, he continued his design work throughout the war, but the British military showed little interest in changing from their proven Lee-Enfield rifles to a new, unproven semi-automatic rifle. So it was that when the war ended D. Saive returned home to Belgium to continue his work there for Fabrique Nationale.

The Belgian military adopted the FN-49 in .30-06, and the rifle was built in seven other different calibres, for a total of 11 different nations. Total production was 176,264 rifles. The production and distribution were as follows:
-6.5mm: 5 produced for testing
-7mm Mauser: 8,003 produced for Venezuela
-.30 M2 (.30-06): 125,072 produced for Belgium, Belgian Congo, Luxembourg, Indonesia, Colombia, and Brazil.
-7.5mm: 1 produced for testing
-7.62mm: 1 produced for testing
-7.65mm: 5,541 produced for Argentina
-7.92mm (8mm Mauser): 37,641 produced for Egypt and for British tests

There were variations on the original rifle including Sniper versions with a leather cheek pad, and the scope and mount. There were (rare) 20 round magazine versions produced.

The FN-49 saw action in the Korean War with the Belgian force in the UN contingent. Its performance was reportedly favorable in comparison to that of the M1 Garand rifle in use by the US forces.

Legal Status

The FN-49 could possibly fall under either the &ldquoAssault Rifle&rdquo provisions of the Crime Bill, or the National Firearms Act (Title II of the 1968 GCA), this depends on what features the rifle has. Since the rifle does exist in a selective fire configuration, those machine guns would require registration under the NFA. I don&rsquot know if any NFA registered selective fire FN-49&rsquos exist in the US. The rifle does fall under the provisions of the Crime Bill since it has a detachable magazine, it has a threaded barrel and a bayonet lug.

In Canada, the FN-49 is considered a non-restricted rifle, but due to Canadian laws, the FN-49&rsquos 10 round magazine must be permanently blocked to five rounds or less. The new firearms control legislation in Canada requires the rifle to be registered (along with all other firearms) prior to 2003. Transfer of ownership is regulated by possession of a FAC (Firearms Control Certificate) or FPAL (Firearms possession and Acquisition License) and the transfer will cost $25. In Canada, only the Semi-auto version may be owned, unless the owner registered their select fire version in 1978.

The FN-49 is a gas operated, air cooled, magazine fed semi-automatic or fully-automatic rifle that fires from a closed bolt.

The gas system on the FN-49 is located above the barrel. There is a gas port 6.25 inches back from the muzzle that allows gas from the fired cartridge to be tapped off and directed into the gas cylinder. There is a threaded, adjustable sleeve around the gas cylinder that allows the amount of gas used by the system to be adjusted. This allows the extra gas to be vented, rather than sent through the system, allowing unneeded energy to exit the gas system that results in less wear and tear on the parts.

The breech block is a one piece tipping bolt, similar to the Tokarev SVT-38, SVT-40 and AVT-40 rifles. The breech block locks into place against a locking shoulder that is press-fitted into the receiver from one side. The breech block is cammed into and out of place by the breech block carrier. The breech block carrier has a spring guide in its upper portion, and it recoils on a double spring one inside the other. (The inner spring is actually two springs, joined in the middle by an internal spring guide rod.)

The trigger mechanism for the semi-auto version is different from that of the select fire version. The semi-auto version has only the trigger sear and the auxiliary sear. There is no provision for the installation of the safety sear, or the auto selector. There is a &ldquoCocked&rdquo indicator that projects through the base of the trigger guard, near the front to indicate that the hammer is cocked back. The projection is useful for checking the status of the rifle in the dark.

The safety catch is located on the right-hand side of the trigger group. When engaged, the safety has two engagement points. The cross pin to which the safety is attached operates like an FAL safety with the flat plane and the rounded surface. The flat plane is cut so as to allow the trigger to move, then when the safety is rotated into position, the rounded portion physically prevents the trigger from moving. Additionally, on the side of the trigger is a milled groove in which a pin on the arm of the safety travels. When the safety is engaged, this pin locks in the groove and prevents the trigger from being able to move to the rear. Additionally, the arm of the safety catch blocks fingers from entering the trigger guard.

The semi-automatic version of the rifle has what is called the &ldquoAuxiliary sear.&rdquo This sear catches the hammer when it is re-cocked by the rearward motion of the breech block carrier, and does not release the hammer until the trigger is released.

The selective fire version of the rifle has an &ldquoAuxiliary sear&rdquo that operates the same as the semi-auto version, but with the activation of the Auto selector, the Auxiliary sear no longer engages the hammer when it is pushed down to re-cock. Instead, the &ldquoSafety Sear,&rdquo which is installed in the receiver engages a small notch on the right-hand side of the hammer. The Safety sear is tripped by an extension which engages with the breech block carrier when it is fully forward. In this fashion, the Safety sear will only release the hammer to fall when the breech block is in position and the breech block carrier is in battery. When the Auto selector is set to Semi-automatic, the rifle operates in the same fashion as the Semi-auto rifle, but with the additional protection of the &ldquoSafety sear&rdquo which still engages the hammer and prevents it from falling until the breech block carrier is fully forward.

The rifle may be used to fire rifle grenades, if the rifle grenade attachment is affixed to the end of the barrel. Prior to firing grenades, the barrel end cap must be put on (remove the muzzle brake if fitted) and the grenade launcher must then be attached. The launcher is attached to the barrel cap with a hinged clamp and a wing-nut. The gas plug must be rotated 180 degrees so that the &ldquoR&rdquo is visible instead of the &ldquoA.&rdquo

The rifle has a detachable 10 shot box magazine which does not retain the bullets when it is removed from the action. This is because the feed lips are integral to the receiver. This may seem odd to some, but considering that most contemporary rifles were 5-shot fixed magazines, this is not out of line with the thinking of the day. The magazine can be loaded singly, or with clips. The clips can be inserted into the charger that is integral to the top-cover of the rifle, and pushed down into the magazine. The FN-49 has a last-shot hold open device which locks open on an empty magazine. There is also a bolt hold open device so that the magazine can be topped off.

The receiver has a sliding dust cover that protects the opening into the receiver from the elements.

The sights are calibrated out to 1000 meters. The front sight is a blade protected by a set of ears. It is drift adjustable, similar to the Lee-Enfield front sight. The rear sight is a peep tangent sight which is adjustable for elevation and screw-adjustable for windage. This allows the rifle to be roughly sighted with the front sight, and the fine adjustments to windage are done from the rear sight.

There were several types of bayonets available for the FN-49, including 9&rdquo double edged daggers, and 15 inch single edged Mauser style bayonets. The 15&rdquo bayonets were used mostly by Venezuela, but both types of bayonet are considered to be correct for the rifle.

Field Stripping

Before Field stripping this (or any other rifle) MAKE SURE THAT THE RIFLE IS UNLOADED. Apply the safety catch, point the rifle in a safe direction and pull back on the charging handle to check that there are no bullets in the rifle. If there are no bullets in the rifle, the breech block carrier will lock to the rear on the empty magazine. If there are bullets in the rifle, continue to cycle the action until the magazine and chamber are empty, and the breech block carrier locks open on the empty magazine.

Close the breech by depressing the follower of the mag, pulling the breech block carrier slightly to the rear and slowly lower it.

At the upper rear of the receiver is a little tab. Swing it through 180 degrees so that it blocks the view through the rear sight. Doing this will also expose the cleaning rod hole that allows access to the bore.

Push the top cover forward about 1 cm (3/8&rdquo) and lift it up. It can now be brought to the rear. This will remove the top cover and the operating springs.

Next, grasp the cocking handle and pull the breech block carrier 8 centimeters to the rear. It can then be lifted out, bringing the breech block with it.

Flip the breech block carrier upside down and lift the breech block out. Lift from the front, and slide it to the rear to allow the lugs to slide out of their ways through the rear of the breech block carrier.

Taking the breech block apart requires a screwdriver, awl, bullet, or some sort of pointed tool. 2 cm (3/4&rdquo) from the front of the bolt, on the right-hand side is a groove. Insert the pointed tool into this groove and lift the extractor spring off the extractor. Rotate the spring down through 90 degrees.

Remove the extractor and set it aside.

Press in on the rear of the firing pin and lift the extractor spring out. This will free the firing pin and spring to come out the rear of the breech block. The firing pin safety stop (the little free-floating piece of metal in the top of the breech block) may be removed if necessary.

The magazine catch will release the magazine for cleaning.

To remove the gas piston, depress the catch on the gas cylinder plug and rotate it so that the catch faces toward the barrel. Pull it out, then slide the gas piston and spring out.

To reassemble the rifle, reverse this process. Ensure that when the gas cylinder plug is replaced that the &ldquoA&rdquo is facing up.

Example rifle

The rifle examined was a Belgian rifle in .30-06, produced by FN Herstal in Belgium. Serial number was 86711 with all parts matching. The rifle was in good condition, but the bore was slightly dark. The finish was nice grey Parkerizing, except for the breech block which appears to have been lightly blued.

There was a small amount of pitting and surface rust in a few spots (side of the magazine, dust cover, rear sight, and barrel nut were notable) but overall the finish of the rifle was good.

The wood is a dark walnut, and has its share of dings and scrapes, but no cracks were evident. There is a cast metal buttplate with a butt-trap and door, but the cleaning kit was missing. There was no sling included, no bayonet, and the combination tool was absent as well.

There was a scope rail milled into the left side of the receiver, but no scope was included, and from the lack of wear it would appear that no scope has ever been installed.

Upon disassembly of the rifle, the lack of wear, and the lack of carbon build up in the gas system indicates that the rifle has definitely fired less than 500 rounds, probably less than 250. The action has been hand cycled, but the breech block carrier shows little wear where the gas piston impacts.

The rifle examined is a select fire version of the FN-49, but the selector switch has been removed, so the automatic function could not be tested or evaluated.

To conform with Canadian legal requirements, the 10 shot magazine had been plugged internally to accept only five rounds.

The rifle was test-fired at the Nova Scotia Rifle Association&rsquos Bull Meadow rifle range. The outdoor 100 meter range was selected. From the accompanying photos, it&rsquos evident that winter has struck the range. The temperature was about -10 degrees (Celsius) on the afternoon that the firing was done. The rifle was given a pre-firing cleaning prior to departure for the range. The bore was cleaned and the action lubricated with Break-Free CLP.

The first group fired was 15 cm (6&rdquo) low and 10 cm (4&rdquo) left of the bull, but the group size was only 5.8 (2.25&rdquo) cm for the best four shots. The 5th shot opened the group to 13.6 cm (5.35&rdquo.) Corrections were made, but this was the best group of the day. The next two best groups were 11.4 cm (4.49&rdquo) and 11.6 cm (4.56&rdquo.) In each case, the 5th shot opened the group to more than 20 cm (8&rdquo.)

A total of 40 rounds of Winchester Super-X hunting ammunition (the only 30-06 available) was fired in this session. No jams or failures were noted throughout the session. The session was ended at dusk. Ejected cases were tossed about 2 meters forward and right of the shooter.

The author found the recoil to be more of a heavy push than a slamming impulse. The other shooter found the rifle to have considerably more recoil than the AR-15 that was also along that day, but did not find it excessive.

The accuracy attained during the shooting session may have been affected by the cold (rather, the author&rsquos shivering might have affected the accuracy.) The first group, fired with warm hands and unfogged glasses is probably more reflective of the accuracy that the rifle is able to attain than the later groups.

Conclusions

The FN-49 was a very well built rifle for its time. Too well built in fact, since most of its parts are milled, rather than stamped. This means that the manufacturing costs for this rifle were very high. For this reason, it was unable to compete with more modern battle rifles.

This is not the end of the FN story, however, for Saive went on to help design and build the FN-FAL, one of the most prolific battle rifles in the world. The lineage of the FAL can be traced back directly to the FN-49, from the adjustable gas system, to the tipping bolt and headspacing method. Monsieur Saive&rsquos Model 49 rifle was not the end, rather it was a beginning.

I&rsquom a Naval Electronics Technician (Acoustic) in the Canadian Navy (yes, we do have a Navy.) I&rsquove spent the last six years with the Navy Rifle team, and have shot at the Canadian Nationals several times, and have had the privilege or representing Canada and the Navy at Bisley in 1996 and 1997 with the Canadian Forces team. If you have any questions or comments for me, please feel free to contact me via e-mail, my address is: [email protected] If I don&rsquot know the answer, I&rsquoll try to find it.

Small Arms Of the World.
E.C. Ezell.
Stackpole Books, 1983.
PP 263, 264

Rec.guns FAQ: III.D.2.b.615.
Fabrique Nationale FN-49
John Landry. 1998.
http://www.recguns.com/IIID2b616.html

Nova Scotia Rifle Association
(902)-456-7468

This article first appeared in Small Arms Review V2N8 (May 1999)
and was posted online on May 27, 2016


Character traits

Frigga was a strong woman, a majestic queen, and perfectly able to stand at Odin's side. Despite her attention to protocol, she was a loving and tender mother to both her sons. When Odin brought the infant Loki to Asgard after the war with the Jotuns, Frigga accepted him as her own without any hesitation, although she believed that Odin should have told him the truth about his origins all along. While she clearly attempts to believe in only the good in her sons, she was also intuitive and perceptive about other intentions. She was also generally accepted as a good judge of character.


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