The American Age of Industrialization [1880-1899] PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS - History

The American Age of Industrialization [1880-1899] PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS - History


The Industrial Age in America: Sweatshops, Steel Mills, and Factories

About a century has passed since the events at the center of this lesson—the Haymarket Affair, the Homestead Strike, and the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. For some people in our nation, these incidents illustrated the unfair conditions faced by workers as the United States assumed its position as the most highly industrialized nation in the world. For others, they demonstrated the difficulty of managing industries. Such disagreements continue to this day. Where do we draw the line between acceptable business practices and unacceptable working conditions? Can an industrial—and indeed a post-industrial—economy succeed without taking advantage of those who do the work?

Note: This lesson may be taught either as a stand-alone lesson or as a complement to another EDSITEment lesson The Industrial Age in America: Robber Barons and Captains of Industry.

Guiding Questions

What were working conditions like during the Age of Industrialization?

How did workers respond to these conditions?

Where do we draw the line between acceptable business practices and unacceptable working conditions?

To what extent do issues and arguments regarding early industrialization remain relevant today?

Learning Objectives

Evaluate the actions taken by the managers and workers involved in the incidents studied.

Analyze the working conditions that led to the Haymarket Affair, the Homestead Strike, and the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.

Evaluate the significance of the featured events to the labor movement, the industrialists involved, and the attitude of the American people toward working conditions in the United States.

Construct an argument regarding working conditions today using evidence drawn from primary and secondary source materials.

A More Perfect Union
History & Social Studies

Lesson Plan Author:

Lesson Plan Details

NCSS.D1.2.9-12. Explain points of agreement and disagreement experts have about interpretations and applications of disciplinary concepts and ideas associated with a compelling question.

NCSS.D2.His.1.9-12. Evaluate how historical events and developments were shaped by unique circumstances of time and place as well as broader historical contexts.

NCSS.D2.His.2.9-12. Analyze change and continuity in historical eras.

NCSS.D2.His.3.9-12. Use questions generated about individuals and groups to assess how the significance of their actions changes over time and is shaped by the historical context.

NCSS.D2.His.4.9-12. Analyze complex and interacting factors that influenced the perspectives of people during different historical eras.

NCSS.D2.His.5.9-12. Analyze how historical contexts shaped and continue to shape people’s perspectives.

NCSS.D2.His.12.9-12. Use questions generated about multiple historical sources to pursue further inquiry and investigate additional sources.

NCSS.D2.His.14.9-12. Analyze multiple and complex causes and effects of events in the past.

NCSS.D2.His.15.9-12. Distinguish between long-term causes and triggering events in developing a historical argument.

NCSS.D2.His.16.9-12. Integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about the past.

  • Review the lesson plan. Locate and bookmark suggested materials and other useful websites. Download and print out selected documents and duplicate copies as necessary for student viewing.
  • Download the Labor Events Chart, available as a PDF. Print out and make an appropriate number of copies of any handouts you plan to use in class.
  • For concise background information on the featured labor actions, consult the following resources:
    • General Summary of Major Events (1876-1925): Timeline: Events of 1876-1999 on the EDSITEment resource Learner.org
    • Haymarket Affair (from The Dramas of Haymarket on the website of The Chicago Historical Society, the source for the material on the EDSITEment resource American Memory and a direct link from the home page of Chicago Anarchists on Trial):

    American Memory (Library of Congress) . Includes a number of collections of print and non-print materials (photographs, posters, archival sources) pertaining to immigration, such as Pioneering the Upper Midwest and The Chinese in California, 1850-1925 .

    Aspiration, Acculturation, and Impact : Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930. "Immigration has shaped the contours of this nation's history from its founding to the present day. Immigration has shaped the nation's cities, its institutions, industries, and laws, its literature and its culture. Harvard's world-renowned library and museum holdings reflect these realities through guidebooks, ethnic publications, policy documents, diaries, photographs, and organizatonal records that chronicle the continuing impact of immigration on the United States." Sidney Verba, Carl H. Pforzheimer University Research Professor and Founder of the Open Collections Program at Harvard University. Immigration to the US, 1789-1930 is a web-based collection of selected historical materials from Harvard's libraries, archives, and museums that documents voluntary immigration to the United States from the signing of the Constitution to the onset of the Great Depression. For Internet users worldwide, Immigration to the US provides unparalleled, free and open digital access to a significant selection of unique source materials&mdashmore than 410,000 pages, 100 individually cataloged maps, and 7,800 photographs.

    Border and Migration Studies . A collection that explores and provides historical background on more than thirty key worldwide border areas, including: U.S. and Mexico the European Union Afghanistan Israel Turkey The Congo Argentina China Thailand and others. Featuring at completion 100,000 pages of text, 175 hours of video, and 1,000 images, the collection is organized around fundamental themes associated with border and migration issues.

    Dillingham Commission Reports. During the 2nd and 3rd sessions of the 61st Congress, reports on Immigration issues were issued to the Senate by the Dillingham Commission. The immigration reports include statistical reviews, emigration and immigration conditions in Europe and other parts of the world, occupations of immigrants (including extensive coverage of immigrants in the industries of the time), living conditions, conditions of immigrants in major metropolitan and agricultural areas, the schooling of immigrant children, social and cultural organizations and societies of immigrants, and immigration legislation at the state and federal levels. The 41 volumes of these reports were digitized and converted into PDF format under the supervision of Stanford University Libraries' Social Sciences Resource Center. Note: To download the documents you have to create a profile.

    The Finlandia University Finnish American Historical Archive offers two collections of potential interest: Finnish Folklore and Social Change in the Great Lakes Mining Region Oral History Project 1972-1978 (Funded in part by the National Endowment For The Humanities) and the F.F.S.C.G.L.M.R. Digitization Project 2010-2011 (Funded in part by the Keweenaw National Historic Park Advisory Commission). Scroll down past the alphabetical listings and it will include a short description of what each interview focused on. If a transcript is available, it will have a .pdf link under the interviewee's name. If audio clips are available, there will be a link at the bottom of the interview description. Not all interviews have transcripts or excerpts. Often, that means the interview was in Finnish, and it hasn't yet been fully translated. It is also possible to order copies of full interviews on CD. The cost would be $10/interview + shipping.

    Immigration. This feature presentation links educators to primary sources from the Library of Congress' online collections. These Web resources can make history come alive for students! The feature provides an introduction to the study of immigration to the United States. It is far from the complete story, and focuses only on the immigrant groups that arrived in greatest numbers during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The presentation was shaped by the primary sources available in the Library's online collections and these questions:

    • What happened to the Native American as waves of immigrants arrived from other nations?
    • Which nations yielded the most significant numbers of immigrants to the United States?
    • Why did each immigrant group come to the United States?
    • When did each immigrant group come to the United States?
    • Where did the groups settle, both initially and in subsequent migrations?
    • How were the immigrants received by the current citizens of this nation?
    • How did United States government policies and programs affect immigration patterns?
    • How did United States government policies and programs affect immigrants' assimilation into the life of the nation?
    • What role did the distribution of resources (natural and man-made) play in the immigration and subsequent migration patterns of immigrants?
    • How did economic conditions impact the immigrants' experience?
    • How did cultural heritage affect an immigrant's place of settlement?
    • What impact did immigrant cultural traditions have on the United States?

    Immigration and Multiculturalism : Essential Primary Sources / K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner, editors. Detroit, Mich. : Thomson Gale, c2006. This volume of primary source documents focuses on some of the leading social issues of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries: immigration and multiculturalism. It contains approximately 175 full and excerpted documents---speeches, legislation, magazine and newspaper articles, essays, memoirs, letters, interviews, novels, songs, and works of art---as well as overview information that places each document in context. Entries are organized into chapters that feature a general overview of the chapter's subtopic. Also included is an introduction to the topic, a chronology of major events associated with the topic, and a general index.

    Immigration Challenges for New Americans : Photographs, maps detailing immigration patterns, official documents, song sheets and streaming audio recount the immigrant experience in America, their reasons for leaving their homelands, and the reactions of established Americans. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

    Immigration History Research Center. An "interdisciplinary research center in the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota. Founded in 1965, the IHRC promotes research on international migration with a special emphasis on immigrant and refugee life in the U.S."

    In their own words : letters from Norwegian immigrants / edited, translated and introduced by Solveig Zempel. Minneapolis, Minn. : University of Minnesota Press, c1991. 225pp. E184.S2 I5 1991 (also availalbe online)

    John Novak Digital Interview Collection. Consists of interviews about immigration, migration, and the Civil Rights Movement. The interviewees, who range in age from 20 to 90, speak of their experiences moving to and within the United States. Listen to interviews from Esperanza Perez whose Mexican mother crossed the border to give birth to her daughter so that she could be an American citizen, Earnest Stamps who recounts his train ride to Detroit and his wonderment upon arrival at the Michigan Central Station, or Yvonne Revell who was a participant in the Greensboro Sit-in demonstrations. The project began in 2004 as part of a Teacher-Scholar award received by Professor Dena Scher in the Psychology/ Social Sciences Department of Marygrove College. In 2006, librarian Michael Barnes adapted the digital interviews into a special collection within the auspices of the Marygrove College Library.

    Migration to New Worlds explores the movement of peoples from Great Britain, Ireland, mainland Europe and Asia to the New World and Australasia. Split across two modules, and including collections from 26 archives, libraries and museums, Migration to New Worlds brings together the movement and memories of millions across two centuries of mass migration. Migration to New Worlds: The Century of Immigration concentrates on the period 1800 to 1924 and covers all aspects of the migration experience, from motives and departures to arrival and permanent settlement. Adam Matthew database.

    North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries and Oral Histories. North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries and Oral Histories includes 2,162 authors and approximately 100,000 pages of information, so providing a unique and personal view of what it meant to immigrate to America and Canada between 1800 and 1950. Composed of contemporaneous letters and diaries, oral histories, interviews, and other personal narratives, the series provides a rich source for scholars in a wide range of disciplines. In selected cases, users will be able to hear the actual audio voices of the immigrants. The collection will be particularly useful to researchers, because much of the original material is difficult to find, poorly indexed, and unpublished most bibliographies of the immigrant focus on secondary research and few oral histories have been published. Access restricted to the MSU community and other subscribers.

    North American Women's Letters and Diaries, Colonial-1950. When complete, North American Women's Letters and Diaries will be the largest collection of women's diaries and correspondence ever assembled. Spanning more than 300 years, it will bring the personal experiences of 1,500 women to researchers, students, and general readers. Sample search: click on Browse, then Personal Events, and then choose Emigration for a list of 141 documents. Access restricted to the MSU community and other subscribers.

    Oral History Interviews (Hope College/Holland Joint Archives).. An extensive collection of oral history transcripts covering a variety of events, ethnic groups, and citizens of Holland, Michigan. Includes sections on members of the Hispanic community (1990), Dutch immigrants (1992), Hispanic residents (1993), and Asian and African American Residents (1994).

    Oral History Online. Try searching the terms immigrant or immigration.

    Red Star Line Museum (Belgium). Between 1873 and 1934, the legendary Red Star Line transported more than two million European passengers to America. At the port in Antwerp, Belgium, emigrants in steerage class underwent disinfection and medical examinations while clerks scrutinized their documents. Today three warehouses stand as a testament to this emigrant experience. In 2012, Red Star Line / People on the Move will open a new museum at this historic location. It will be a place of remembrance, experience, debate and research into international mobility, both past and present. Millions of passengers travelled with Red Star Line, they told hundreds of stories to their (grand)children about their journey. Read selected stories.

    Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600 - 2000. A resource for students and scholars of U.S. history and U.S. women's history. Organized around the history of women in social movements in the U.S. between 1700 and 2000, the website seeks to advance scholarly debates and understanding at the same time that it makes the insights of women's history accessible to teachers and students at universities, colleges, and high schools. The database includes more than 25,000 pages of documents pertaining to Women and Social Movements, a dictionary of social movements and organizations, a chronology of U.S. women's history, and teaching tools with lesson ideas and document-based questions related to the website's document projects. Sample search: click on Browse, then Immigration for 162 documents


    Activity 2. Robber Barons or Captains of Industry?

    Divide the class into four student groups (or eight, if you'd like each industrialist/financier to be researched by two groups). Assign one of the individuals below to each group. Distribute to the groups the chart "Robber Baron or Captain of Industry?" (PDF). Using the following resources and/or any other approved sources available in your classroom or online, each group should fill in the chart for their assigned individual.

    Andrew Carnegie

    "It shall be the rule for the workman to be Partner with Capital, the man of affairs giving his business experience, the working man in the mill his mechanical skill, to the company, both owners of the shares and so far equally interested in the success of their joint efforts."

    —Andrew Carnegie

    Cornelius Vanderbilt

    "I have been insane on the subject of moneymaking all my life."

    —Cornelius Vanderbilt

    "You have undertaken to cheat me. I won't sue you, for the law is too slow. I'll ruin you."

    —Cornelius Vanderbilt

    J. Pierpont Morgan

    John D. Rockefeller

    When the groups are finished with their research, have each present its conclusions and supporting evidence to the class. Is each assigned figure a robber baron or captain of industry or something in-between? Which of the individuals' actions were those of a captain of industry? Of a robber baron?


    Primary Sources: American History

    On this page you can find primary source material - both websites and books in the WSA Library - on American History.

    Look for primary sources in WSA databases.

    For WSA library books and websites covering a multiple time periods and geographical locations, see:

    Primary sources on specific time periods:

    US History - 18th Century and Earlier
    US History - 19th Century
    US Civil War and Reconstruction
    Gilded Age - 1878 - 1899
    US Imperialism (Spanish-American War, 1898)
    US History - 20th and 21st Centuries
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    John Fitzgerald Kennedy
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    Impeachment - Donald J. Trump


    The American Age of Industrialization [1880-1899] PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS - History

    See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.

      • The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries
      • The Revolution in the Manufacture of Textiles
      • The Revolution in Power
        • Railroads
        • Steam Ships
        • The Lives of Workers
        • Urban Life: New Social Classes
        • Social Reformism
        • The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries
          • Abraham Cowley (1618-1667): Of Agriculture, 1650 [At this Site]
          • Turnips 1695 - 1845 [At this Site]
          • John A. Mazis: The Potato [Modern Account][At UMN]
          • Field Rotation
          • Animal Breeding
          • 2ND Arnold Toynbee (1852-1883): Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England [At McMaster][Full Text] , 1786 [At this Site]
            Attacking the effects of machinery. , 1791 [At this Site]
            Defending machinery.
          • WEBThe Steam Engine Library
            Full texts of many books on the history of the Steam Engine. A splendid resource.
          • WEBThe Kew Bridge Steam Museum [In the UK]
          • Thomas Newcomen: The Newcomen Engine [At Internet Archive, from exeter.ac.uk][Sketch picture]
          • James Watt (1736-1819): The Steam Engine, c. 1769 [At this Site][Picture]
          • Thomas H. Marshall: James Watt, 1925 [At Steam Engine Library][Full Text]
          • Richard Guest: Compendious History of the Cotton Manufacture, 1823, excerpts [At this Site]
            On the application of steam power to cotton looms and the social effects.
          • William Radcliffe: Origin of. Power Loom Weaving, 1828, excerpts [At this Site]
            On the application of steam power to cotton looms.
          • Railroads
          • Steam Ships
            • Line of American Packets Between New York and Liverpool, Evening Post, New York, October 27, 1817 [At AMDOCS]
              Not steam ships, but an indication of the growth of a market.
            • Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859): The S.S. Great Britain, 1839 [At History UK][Picture+text]
              The first ocean-going steam propeller ship.
            • Two Steamboat Disasters at a Time, The U.S. Nautical Magazine and Naval Journal Vol. IV (1855), p 259. [At AMDOCS]
            • List of the Great Engineers [At Internet Archive, from Heriot-Watt] , (1791-1871) [At Exeter University]
              Babbage was a major pioneer in computing.
            • Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859): Works [At University of Dundee][Modern summary]
              , [At this Site] [At this Site]
          • Camillo de Cavour: Railways in Italy
          • Social and Political Effects

            • The Lives of Workers
                , 1794, excerpts [At this Site]
            • The Life of the Industrial Worker in Ninteenth-Century England [At Victorian Web]
            • Edwin Chadwick (1803-1890): Report on Sanitary Conditions, 1842 [At Victorian Web]
                , 1819 [At this Site]
            • Friedrich Engels: Industrial Manchester, 1844, excerpts [At this Site]
              From The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844.
            • Andrew Ure (1778-1857): The Philosophy of the Manufacturers, 1835, excerpts [At this Site]
              • Florence Nightingale (1820-1910): Rural Hygiene [At this Site]
                Life on the farm was not that much of an improvement over a factory. But, eventually, the social activists turned their eyes on the countryside as well.
              • William Blake: Preface to 'Milton', 1804 [At Spartacus.net]
              • William Wordsworth (1770-1850): The Excursion, 1814 [At this Site]
              • Charles Dickens: Hard Times, Excerpts [At Internet Archive, from PIMA]
              • Charles Dickens: Hard Times, Chapter 2 [At Mt Holyoke]
              • Elizabeth Gaskell: North and South, 1855, excerpts [At Internet Archive, from Clinch Valley College]
              • Elizabeth Gaskell: Mary Barton - A tale of Manchester life [At Project Gutenberg][Full Text]
              • Elizabeth Gaskell: North and South [At Project Gutenberg][Full Text]
              • Elizabeth Gaskell: Cranford [At Project Gutenberg][Full Text]
              • Thomas Carlyle: Signs of the Times: The "Mechanical Age [At this Site]
              • Emile Zola (1840-1902): Germinal, 1885, extracts [At WSU]
              • Andrew Carnegie (1835­1919): The Gospel of Wealth, 1889 [At this Site]
              • Horatio Alger: The Boy who Makes Good

              The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

              © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]


              The American Age of Industrialization [1880-1899] PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS - History

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              1. This project is both very large and fairly old in Internet terms. At the time it was begun (1996), it was not clear that web sites [and the documents made available there] would often turn out to be transient. As a result there is a process called "link rot" - which means that a "broken link" is a result of someone having taken down a web page. In some cases some websites have simply reorganized sub-directories without creating forwarding links. Since 2000, very few links to external sites have been made. An effort is under way to remove bad links.

              2. All links to documents marked [at IHSP] should be working.

              3. Users may attempt to locate texts not currently available, or where the links have changed via The Internet Archive/Way Back Machine. Alternately, a search via Google may locate another site where the document is available.

              Subjects covered by the source texts in each Section.

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                                        The 19th Century and Western Hegemony

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                                                  Other Western European Countries

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                                                      Canada: Another North American Society

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                                                                                                        • Biology: The DNA Revolution
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                                                                                                        • The Internet
                                                                                                        • The World Environment: Cornucopeian Plenty or a Crisis Situation

                                                                                                        The Internet Modern History Sourcebook is one of series of history primary sourcebooks. It is intended to serve the needs of teachers and students in college survey courses in modern European history and American history, as well as in modern Western Civilization and World Cultures. Although this part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project began as a way to access texts that were already available on the Internet, it now contains hundreds of texts made available locally.

                                                                                                        The great diversity of available sources for use in modern history classes requires that selections be made with great care - since virtually unlimited material is available. The goals here are:

                                                                                                        • To present a diversity of source material in modern European, American, and Latin American history, as well as a significant amount of materal pertinent to world cultures and global studies. A number of other online source collections emphasize legal and political documents. Here efforts have been made to include contemporary narrative accounts, personal memoirs, songs, newspaper reports, as well as cultural, philosophical, religious and scientific documents. Although the history of social and cultural elite groups remains important to historians, the lives of non-elite women, people of color, lesbians and gays are also well represented here.
                                                                                                        • To present the material as cleanly as possible, without complicated hierarchies and subdirectories, and without excessive HTML markup. What you get here is direct access to significant documents, not the efforts of some whizkid "website designer". In other words, we are interested here in the music, not the Hi-fi!.
                                                                                                        • Within the major sections, to indicate a few high quality web sites for further source material and research.

                                                                                                        The texts on these pages come from many sources:

                                                                                                        • Files posted to various places on the net. In some cases, the source URL no longer exists.
                                                                                                        • Shorter texts created for class purposes by extracting from much larger texts. In some cases, the extracts have been suggested by a variety of commercial sourcebooks.
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                                                                                                        • Texts sent to me for inclusion.
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                                                                                                        Efforts have been made to confirm to US Copyright Law. Any infringement is unintentional, and any file which infringes copyright, and about which the copyright claimant informs me, will be removed pending resolution.

                                                                                                        Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or location].

                                                                                                        Locally available texts are marked by [At this Site].

                                                                                                        WEB indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.

                                                                                                        The Modern History Sourcebook is part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project . The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

                                                                                                        © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 22 Sept 1998: latest revision 9 April 2019

                                                                                                        The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

                                                                                                        © Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]


                                                                                                        How did industrialization change the nature of American society? What was its impact on Native Americans? On farmers? On women?

                                                                                                        Industrialization played a great role in the shaping of American society. It was known as the “Gilded Age” from 1869-1901. There were both social and economical changes taking place. One of the major changes was the construction of the transcontinental railroad that finished in 1869. Railroads created an increased demand in manufacturing since the businesses could now produce and sell in larger amounts. The new industrializations were controlled by businessmen as appose to generations before where politicians were in charge of everything. Major figures such as Andrew Carnegie owner of the Carnegie Steel Company, John Rockefeller owner of the Standard Oil Company, Cornelius Vanderbilt who laid miles of railroad tracks, were some of the first very successful business owners who made millions of dollars during these years. While major business were moving forward economically, other groups of people, such as farmers were experiencing negative changes in their lifestyles.

                                                                                                        Even though the farmers were still putting in the same amount of work, the prices of their crops were decreasing. It made more sense economically to ship large amounts of crops across the country. So for most of the farmers this was a big loss, because they could not produce nearly enough to compete with bigger businesses. Some businesses were becoming more efficient, eliminating others in the same industry, simply because they could “do it better”. This led to farmers and their families move to the cities in hopes of finding a better life. Often times they would all live in one room in an apartment, which did not have proper plumbing and other utilities. Living in such conditions caused many diseases, increasing the percentage of deaths in the city. In 1874, due to an increase of urbanization, 1 out of 4 people were out of work in the cities. Many unemployed workers came together and formed different unions and tried protesting multiple times.

                                                                                                        Industrialization also had a major impact on the lives of women and children. Women were subjected to work the same amount of hours as men, however they got paid half of the men wages. They were often hired to do the jobs that men wanted to do, working in unsanitary and dangerous conditions. Even though it is hard to believe, industrialization did have a positive effect on women. They were finally earning their place in the society and becoming more independent. Child labor was also exploited in the factories. About 1.5 million children were working, instead of studying in New York City during the industrialization years.

                                                                                                        And the last major group of people that suffered from industrialization were the Native Americans. As the railroad use became more common, many people moved westward and destroyed the Native American homes. There were many major massacres such as Sand Creek Massacre in 1864 where many Indian women and children were killed. Then in 1860 and 1870 Sioux Wars happened in Colorado. Even though the tribes put up a fight and tried to defend their homes, they were defeated and forced to move from their homes. During these years, reservations became popular, especially in Dakotas, New Mexico and Oklahoma.


                                                                                                        Teaching With Documents: Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor

                                                                                                        "There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work."

                                                                                                        -- Lewis Hine, 1908

                                                                                                        After the Civil War, the availability of natural resources, new inventions, and a receptive market combined to fuel an industrial boom. The demand for labor grew, and in the late 19th and early 20th centuries many children were drawn into the labor force. Factory wages were so low that children often had to work to help support their families. The number of children under the age of 15 who worked in industrial jobs for wages climbed from 1.5 million in 1890 to 2 million in 1910. Businesses liked to hire children because they worked in unskilled jobs for lower wages than adults, and their small hands made them more adept at handling small parts and tools. Children were seen as part of the family economy. Immigrants and rural migrants often sent their children to work, or worked alongside them. However, child laborers barely experienced their youth. Going to school to prepare for a better future was an opportunity these underage workers rarely enjoyed. As children worked in industrial settings, they began to develop serious health problems. Many child laborers were underweight. Some suffered from stunted growth and curvature of the spine. They developed diseases related to their work environment, such as tuberculosis and bronchitis for those who worked in coal mines or cotton mills. They faced high accident rates due to physical and mental fatigue caused by hard work and long hours.

                                                                                                        By the early 1900s many Americans were calling child labor "child slavery" and were demanding an end to it. They argued that long hours of work deprived children of the opportunity of an education to prepare themselves for a better future. Instead, child labor condemmed them to a future of illiteracy, poverty, and continuing misery. In 1904 a group of progressive reformers founded the National Child Labor Committee, an organization whose goal was the abolition of child labor. The organization received a charter from Congress in 1907. It hired teams of investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions and then organized exhibitions with photographs and statistics to dramatize the plight of these children. These efforts resulted in the establishment in 1912 of the Children's Bureau as a federal information clearinghouse. In 1913 the Children's Bureau was transferred to the Department of Labor.

                                                                                                        Lewis Hine, a New York City schoolteacher and photographer, believed that a picture could tell a powerful story. He felt so strongly about the abuse of children as workers that he quit his teaching job and became an investigative photographer for the National Child Labor Committee. Hine traveled around the country photographing the working conditions of children in all types of industries. He photographed children in coal mines, in meatpacking houses, in textile mills, and in canneries. He took pictures of children working in the streets as shoe shiners, newsboys, and hawkers. In many instances he tricked his way into factories to take the pictures that factory managers did not want the public to see. He was careful to document every photograph with precise facts and figures. To obtain captions for his pictures, he interviewed the children on some pretext and then scribbled his notes with his hand hidden inside his pocket. Because he used subterfuge to take his photographs, he believed that he had to be "double-sure that my photo data was 100% pure--no retouching or fakery of any kind." Hine defined a good photograph as "a reproduction of impressions made upon the photographer which he desires to repeat to others." Because he realized his photographs were subjective, he described his work as "photo-interpretation."

                                                                                                        Hine believed that if people could see for themselves the abuses and injustice of child labor, they would demand laws to end those evils. By 1916, Congress passed the Keating-Owens Act that established the following child labor standards: a minimum age of 14 for workers in manufacturing and 16 for workers in mining a maximum workday of 8 hours prohibition of night work for workers under age 16 and a documentary proof of age. Unfortunately, this law was later ruled unconstitutional on the ground that congressional power to regulate interstate commerce did not extend to the conditions of labor. Effective action against child labor had to await the New Deal. Reformers, however, did succeed in forcing legislation at the state level banning child labor and setting maximum hours. By 1920 the number of child laborers was cut to nearly half of what it had been in 1910.

                                                                                                        Lewis Hine died in poverty, neglected by all but a few. His reputation continued to grow, however, and now he is recognized as a master American photographer. His photographs remind us what it was like to be a child and to labor like an adult at a time when labor was harsher than it is now. Hine's images of working children stirred America's conscience and helped change the nation's labor laws. Through his exercise of free speech and freedom of the press, Lewis Hine made a difference in the lives of American workers and, most importantly, American children. Hundreds of his photographs are available online from the National Archives through the National Archives Catalog .

                                                                                                        Resources

                                                                                                        Foner, Eric, and John A. Garraty, eds. The Reader's Companion to American History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

                                                                                                        Nash, Gary B., et al. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1990.

                                                                                                        Tindall, George Brown, with David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1992.

                                                                                                        The Documents

                                                                                                        Garment Workers, New York, NY
                                                                                                        January 25, 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523065

                                                                                                        Basket Seller, Cincinnati, OH
                                                                                                        August 22, 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523070

                                                                                                        Boys and Girls Selling Radishes
                                                                                                        August 22, 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523071

                                                                                                        Boy Working in a Shoe-Shining Parlor, Indianapolis, IN
                                                                                                        August 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523072

                                                                                                        Boys in a Cigar Factory, Indianapolis, IN
                                                                                                        August 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523076

                                                                                                        Boy Running "Trip Rope" in a Mine, Welch, WV
                                                                                                        September 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523077

                                                                                                        Children Working in a Bottle Factory, Indianapolis, IN
                                                                                                        August 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523080

                                                                                                        The Noon Hour at an Indianapolis Cannery, Indianapolis IN
                                                                                                        August 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523088

                                                                                                        Glass Blower and Mold Boy, Grafton, WV
                                                                                                        October 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523090

                                                                                                        Girls at Weaving Machines, Evansville, IN
                                                                                                        October 1908
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523100

                                                                                                        Young Boys Schucking Oysters, Apalachicola, FL
                                                                                                        January 25, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523162

                                                                                                        Girl Working in Box Factory, Tampa, FL
                                                                                                        January 28, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523166

                                                                                                        Nine-Year Old Newsgirl, Hartford, CT
                                                                                                        March 6, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523174

                                                                                                        Boy Picking Berries, Near Baltimore, MD
                                                                                                        June 8, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523205

                                                                                                        Workers Stringing Beans, Baltimore, MD
                                                                                                        June 7, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523215

                                                                                                        Boys Working in an Arcade Bowling Alley, Trenton, NJ
                                                                                                        December 20, 1909
                                                                                                        National Archives and Records Administration
                                                                                                        Records of the Department of Commerce and Labor, Children's Bureau
                                                                                                        Record Group 102
                                                                                                        National Archives Identifier: 523246


                                                                                                        The American Age of Industrialization [1880-1899] PRIMARY SOURCE DOCUMENTS - History

                                                                                                        Many Pasts (excerpts from over 900 primary sources)
                                                                                                        Digital Blackboard (web-based activities)
                                                                                                        Search Page See "Development of the Industrial US, 1870-1900" and "Emergence of Modern America, 1890-1930."

                                                                                                        Digital History, from the University of Houston, the Gilder Lehrman Center for American History, the National Park Service, et al. Among its many resources are:

                                                                                                        Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900 (seven topics with overview and primary documents)
                                                                                                        Progressive Era to New Era, 1900-1929 (seven topics with overview and primary documents)

                                                                                                        • National Museum of American History Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A History of American Sweatshops, 1820 to the Present
                                                                                                          Edison After Forty: A Challenge of Success
                                                                                                          Edison Invents: All About Thomas Edison and his Inventions
                                                                                                          The 1896 Washington Salon and Art Photographic Exhibition
                                                                                                        • National Museum of Natural History Camping with the Sioux: Fieldwork Diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher
                                                                                                          Squint Eyes: Artist & Indian Scout
                                                                                                        • National Portrait Gallery Theodore Roosevelt: Icon of the American Century
                                                                                                        • National Postal Museum Customers and Communities (evolution of mail delivery)
                                                                                                        • Smithsonian American Art Museum The Gilded Age
                                                                                                          The Lure of the West
                                                                                                          American Impressionism

                                                                                                        Making of America (digital collections of 19th and early 20th c. books and periodicals)

                                                                                                        Making of America, from the University of Michigan Libraries
                                                                                                        Making of America, from Cornell University Libraries

                                                                                                        Internet Documentaries, from the Dept. of History, Ohio State University

                                                                                                        American Experience (WGBH/PBS teacher resources, historical overviews, timelines, transcripts, audio-visual galleries)

                                                                                                        American Literature Pages, from Prof. Donna Campbell, Dept. of English, Washington State University including

                                                                                                        Google Directories: U.S. History & Literature

                                                                                                        MUSIC (sites with audio clips)

                                                                                                        Public Domain Music, with lyrics and audio clips

                                                                                                        Women Suffrage Songs, from Suffragists Speak: 1910-1920: A Multimedia Resource, from the University of California, Berkeley

                                                                                                        ________________
                                                                                                        See also the Supplemental Links included with each selection in the Toolbox.


                                                                                                        Watch the video: Παρουσίαση των Ροών της Κατεύθυνσης Μαθηματικού Εφαρμογών ΣΕΜΦΕ - ΕΜΠ