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Charelston & Western Carolina Ten- Wheeler
Chareleston & western Carolina Ten Wheeler Cylinder 18 x 24 inches Driving Wheels diameter 56 inches, Driving axle journals 7 1/2 z 8 1/2 inches.
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In common with other western North Carolina mountain counties, the area that is now Henderson County developed slowly through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although settlers from the mid-Atlantic region had streamed southward into the Piedmont during the colonial period, migration lagged well behind in the western reaches of North Carolina. Early settlement was restricted by the presence of the Cherokee Indians, while the rugged, mountainous terrain and lack of adequate transportation to eastern markets hindered growth well into the nineteenth century (Blackmun 1977: 268-272).
Until the 1785 Treaty of Hopewell, present-day Henderson County was part of Cherokee Indian territory. Although the Cherokee towns in North Carolina were situated to the west, along the Hiwassee, little Tennessee, and Tuckasegee rivers, Cherokee tribal lands extended eastward beyond the foothills of the Blue Ridge. After the signing of the Treaty of Hopewell, the Cherokees were forced to relinquish eastern lands. The new eastern boundary of tribal lands cut through present-day Henderson County and legally opened the northeastern corner of the county to white occupation. Despite the legal boundaries, families of newcomers migrated beyond the treaty line into arable bottom lands and high hollows, and by the end of the century, whites controlled all of present-day Henderson County. Among the new inhabitants were veterans of the American Revolution who received land grants to encourage settlement and those who came from adjoining areas in both North and South Carolina (Perdue 1979 Fain 1980: 5-11, 15-20 Bowers and Fullington 1988: E 1-E2).
Settlers encountered a landscape distinguished by its wide and fertile river valleys, formed by the French Broad River and myriad tributaries. Henderson County is located at the southeastern edge of the North Carolina Blue Ridge Mountains, and the central section (elevation approximately 2,200 feet) occupies one of the broadest valleys in western North Carolina. Despite this relatively accessible terrain, the absence of navigable waterways and the poor condition of overland routes restricted long-distance trade and population growth (Sharpe 1958: 841-842).
However, the completion of the Buncombe Turnpike in 1827 began a period of economic and cultural expansion. This important road (which roughly follows U.S. 25) stretched from Greenville, South Carolina, to Greeneville, Tennessee, and established Henderson County as the southern gateway into the Blue Ridge. The Buncombe Turnpike, which became a plank road between Greenville and Asheville in 1851, carried wealthy, low country planters into the southern portion of the county. Here they developed summer colonies in Flat Rock and Fletcher, and bestowed on this area an unusually cosmopolitan flavor (Fain 1980: 21-23). At the same time, the north-south pike sparked commerce and the beginnings of a cash-crop economy. Although the preponderance of landowners continued to engage in subsistence agriculture, more and more farmers now shipped surplus produce and stock via the plank road to distant markets. Consequently, the county's population steadily increased, reaching 5,000 by 1840 and surpassing 10,000 (including 1,740 slaves) by the onset of the Civil War (Blackmun 1977: 202-204 Gifford 1979 Fain 1980: 24-25, 49 Bowers and Fullington 1988: E.2).
In response to this growth, the General Assembly created Henderson County from the southern section of vast Buncombe County in 1838. Two years later, following a general election, the county seat of Hendersonville was established at a propitious site along the Buncombe Turnpike (Fain 1980: 8). The new judicial seat, which was also the first town in the county, was laid out on 79 acres of land near Mud Creek. This tract was donated primarily by the area's largest landowner, Judge Mitchell King of Flat Rock and Charleston, South Carolina (Blackman 1977: 269-272 Fain 1980: 19 Bowers and Fullington 1988: E.2). (The name Henderson came from Judge Leonard Henderson of Granville County. The General Assembly was looking for a way to honor Judge Henderson who had passed away in 1833. The proponents of the new county agreed to name the county after him in exchange for eastern support of the new county.)
The original Hendersonville survey was executed by James Dyer Justice. The Justice plat consisted of 40 lots laid off in quarter block portions, generally bounded by present King and Washington streets (east and west), Caswell Street (south), and Seventh Avenue (north). This plat included a center square on Main Street that was set aside for the new, stuccoed brick, Greek Revival courthouse, put in service in 1844. To beautify the landscape and encourage property sales, Judge King had rows of trees planted along Main Street from the courthouse north to Academy Street (now Fourth Avenue). King also specified that Main Street be 100 feet wide so that "a carriage and four horses could turn around without backing" (Barber and Bailey 1988: 55, 63 Fain 1980: 31-36).
Hendersonville matured slowly during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Chartered in 1847, the town attracted a small collection of merchants, lawyers, and other professionals, as well as innkeepers whose clientele were travelers along the Buncombe Turnpike. Colonel Valentine Ripley, who operated a stage line, opened the first hotel and owned a collection of the commercial buildings, including the stone Ripley Building, which still stands in the Main Street Historic District (Bowers 1988). A few boarding houses also appeared, catering to summer visitors seeking a haven from the oppressive heat of the lowland South (Barber and Bailey 1988: 54, 59-64).
Town growth fostered the formation of religious and scholastic institutions. St. James Episcopal Church (HN 130) was established in Hendersonville in 1843 as a mission church of St. John in the Wilderness Church, which had been organized by prominent coastal South Carolinians in Flat Rock in 1836. In 1848, the town's Baptists erected their first house of worship on a half-acre site east of Main Street. Methodists built their initial church in 1852, and that same year Presbyterians hired builder Henry Tudor Farmer of Flat Rock to construct their first church (Barber and Bailey 1988: 45-54).
In 1858, the Western Baptist Convention laid out plans for the construction of the Western North Carolina Female College at Hendersonville. In 1860, the massive stone Greek Revival college building, three stories high, was nearing completion at the corner of Fleming Street and Third Avenue at a cost of $18,000. The large stone columns supporting the recessed front porch were said to have been fashioned by Eliza Corn, wife of stone mason Drewry Corn, who supervised the overall construction. The building project was interrupted by the Civil War. In 1865, Major General George W. Stoneman's band of Union forces stabled horses in the building and burned the interior during its raid of the area. After the war, construction was finally completed, and the institution was named Judson College. In later years, this facility housed Hendersonville's first graded school (Fain 1980: 365 Barber and Bailey 1988: 42).
While the college and the courthouse were ambitious examples of the builders' Greek Revival, the architecture of the antebellum period in Henderson County typically demonstrated conservative, regional patterns (Williams 1981). Local builders perpetuated a small variety of traditional, symmetrical domestic designs, notably the two-story, one-room-deep house type (the I-house). Variations of this common form, usually with a side-gable roof, end chimneys, and a three-bay facade, were erected in Henderson County and throughout the Upland South into the early twentieth century (Southern 1978). The C.M. Pace House (ca. 1850) at 813 Fifth Avenue West is one of the few remaining antebellum buildings in Hendersonville. Although remodeled, this house retains its two-story rectangular form, gable roof, and exterior brick end chimneys. The Leander Justice House (HN 133), an 1890s version of this basic I-house type, survives in the Druid Hills neighborhood.
NEAFA Member Highlight: Tom Wheeler, Carolina Eastern-Crocker
Tom Wheeler (L) and Bill Crocker (R) of Carolina Eastern Crocker have been serving western New York agriculture community together since 1999.
Tom Wheeler has been at the helm of Carolina Eastern-Crocker (CEC) in western New York as its general manager since it was established in 1999 as a joint effort between Bill Crocker and Carolina Eastern, based out of Charleston, South Carolina. “We run all of the operations in Western NY, and Carolina Eastern supplies us our fertilizer inputs. Both companies have been family owned for three generations as well.”
Wheeler worked with Crocker for three years before CEC came to be. “CEC has three locations currently,” said Wheeler. “Our LeRoy location was originally founded by the Crocker family in 1930 to service the local agricultural community, which is where I started at in 1996. In 2003 we expanded to Stafford, NY, which is where our central offices are now, and in 2017 we opened another facility in Pavilion, NY. We currently cover all of Western New York from the border with Lake Ontario to Pennsylvania.” CEC serves on NEAFA’s Agronomy Committee, through employee and certified commercial applicator Joe Augello.
The company provides numerous products and services to the region. “We have dry and liquid fertilizers, organic fertilizers from our Pavilion location, crop protection products, agricultural lime, gypsum, and seeds,” said Wheeler. “We also provide custom application and spraying of fertilizers, including variable rate application, and we sell fine ground corn meal among the numerous other services and products that we offer.”
Wheeler himself comes from a long agricultural background, growing up with a small registered Holstein herd and graduating from Alfred State College with a degree in Animal Science. Being there since the start of CEC in 1999, Wheeler has seen continued expansion and growth that has improved what the company has to offer its customers. “We’ve grown dramatically from our early days here at CEC,” said Wheeler. “We started as a small company that had one road tractor, one 6 wheel auger delivery truck for fertilizer, and only 2-3 trucks that first year in our original LeRoy location. Now we have 13 road tractors and 10 auger trucks, plus a number of seasonal rentals for both, over 25 trailers, delivery trucks and employ approximately forty full time and thirty seasonal staff members. We’ve grown dramatically in all aspects, from our fertilizer options and corn meal, they’ve all grown dramatically. CEC is now one of the largest Pioneer Seed dealers in the northeast.
Through it all, Wheeler has found the camaraderie of the industry to be something that he enjoys. “The people that you meet is a great part of working here,” said Wheeler. “You develop relationships and friendships with your customers while working with farmers to make their businesses better, and it’s nice to see them do well because of our help.”
Blount was born on Easter Sunday at Rosefield, the home of his maternal grandfather, John Gray, near Windsor in Bertie County, North Carolina.  : 5 He was the eldest child of Jacob Blount (1726–1789) and Barbara Gray Blount. The Blounts had gradually risen to prominence in the first half of the 18th century as William's grandfather and father had steadily built the family fortune. In the years following William's birth, Jacob Blount built a plantation, Blount Hall, in Pitt County, North Carolina.  : 7
Outside of tutors, William and his brothers had little formal education but were involved in their father's business ventures at a young age. Jacob Blount raised livestock, cotton and tobacco, produced turpentine, and operated a mill and horse racing track for the local community.  : 7 His land acquisitions, consisting of several thousand acres by the end of the 1760s, taught his sons the profit potential of aggressive land speculation.  : 11
During the Regulator Movement of the late 1760s and early 1770s, the Blounts remained loyal to the North Carolina government. Jacob Blount, a justice of the peace, furnished Governor William Tryon's army with supplies as it marched to defeat the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance in 1771. William Blount, along with his brothers Jacob and John Gray Blount, were among Tryon's soldiers, though they saw little action.  : 17
As tensions heightened between Britain and the American colonies in the 1770s, the Blount family gradually aligned themselves with the Patriot cause. In April 1776, Jacob Blount was appointed paymaster of the 2nd North Carolina Regiment, and William Blount was appointed paymaster for the New Bern District Brigade of the North Carolina militia the following month.  : 32 William's brothers, Reading and Thomas Blount, accepted commissions in the Continental Army. The Blounts provided provisions for the Colonial army and militias, and they profited both financially and politically from the war.  : 43 They also began looking westward, with John Gray Blount acquiring a portion of Richard Henderson's Transylvania Purchase in mid-1776.  : 32 
In December 1776, William Blount was appointed paymaster of the 3rd North Carolina Regiment and spent the first few months of 1777 with the unit as it marched north to join George Washington's main forces in the defense of Philadelphia.  : 36 In November 1777, political rivals in the North Carolina legislature removed Blount as paymaster, though he was restored to the office in April 1778.  : 38 He helped organize regiments for the defense of Charleston, which fell to the British in 1780 as a result of the Siege of Charleston. William's brother, Thomas, was captured during its fall.  : 38
In early 1780, Blount was appointed official commissary to General Horatio Gates, who had arrived in North Carolina to command southern colonial forces.  : 42 Blount was present at Gates's defeat at the Battle of Camden in August 1780, and in the confusion of the battle, lost $300,000 of soldiers' pay.  : 43
In late 1779, Blount ran for the vacant New Bern state House of Commons seat against Richard Dobbs Spaight in a campaign described by Blount's biographer, William Masterson, as "violent in an age of fierce elections."  : 40 Spaight won by a narrow margin, but Blount successfully convinced election officials that voter fraud had occurred, and the election was voided.  : 41 In the weeks following the Battle of Camden, Blount again ran for the seat, and this time was successful. He took his seat in the House of Commons in January 1781.
In May 1782, Blount was elected one of North Carolina's four delegates to the Continental Congress. At the Congress's 1782 session, Blount helped defeat a poll tax and a liquor tax, and opposed a reduction of the army. He also agreed to consider a land cession act to satisfy North Carolina's massive tax debt owed to the Confederation.  : 57–59 Blount left Philadelphia in January 1783 and resigned from the Congress three months later to accept an appointment to the North Carolina House of Commons steering committee.  : 66
During the House's 1783 and 1784 sessions, Blount introduced several bills that would prove critical in the early history of what is now Tennessee. One bill, known as the "Land Grab Act," opened the state's lands west of the Appalachians (i.e., the parts of Tennessee not under Indian domain) to settlement. One individual who took advantage of this act was militia captain James White, who acquired a tract of land that would later become Knoxville, Tennessee. Another bill rendered soldiers with at least two years of military service eligible for land grants.  : 69 Some soldiers used their grants to acquire land in the Tennessee Valley, while others sold their grants to the Blounts and other land speculators. In 1784, Blount sponsored a bill establishing the city of Nashville in what was then the Cumberland settlements.  : 88
In June 1784, Blount sponsored another bill critical to early Tennessee history—a bill calling for North Carolina lands west of the Appalachians (i.e., modern Tennessee) to be ceded to the Continental Congress to satisfy the state's share of the nation's tax burden. The bill was hotly contested but passed by a 52-43 margin.  : 89 Opponents of the cession gained control of the House and repealed the act in October,  : 94 but not before a movement by the Tennessee Valley residents to establish a separate state, known as the State of Franklin, had gained momentum. A friend of both North Carolina Governor Richard Caswell and Franklinite leader John Sevier, Blount waffled on the Franklin issue for the next four years.  : 99
In spite of the cession debacle, Blount was elected to the Continental Congress for the 1785 session.  : 94 As he prepared to depart, however, word came that the Congress had appointed a commission to negotiate a new treaty, eventually known as the Treaty of Hopewell, with the southern tribes. Fearing the new treaty would be unfavorable to North Carolina, Blount, with Governor Caswell's blessing, headed south in hopes of negotiating a separate treaty for the state. He arrived too late, however, and the Hopewell Treaty negotiated by the commissioners returned a sizeable portion of western lands claimed by North Carolina speculators to the Indians. Fearing a backlash back home, Blount merely signed the treaty as a witness.  : 103–6
In March 1786, Blount hurried to New York to take his seat in the Continental Congress, hoping to prevent ratification of the Hopewell Treaty, but once again arrived too late, and the treaty was ratified.  : 114 Disappointed, he went home, but with anger rising over his handling of the Hopewell Treaty, he returned to the Continental Congress in November 1786.  : 118 In 1787, he was a candidate for president of the Congress, but Arthur St. Clair was chosen instead.  : 121
In March 1787, Blount was chosen as one of five delegates to represent North Carolina at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Blount arrived at the convention on June 20, after debates had already begun.  He sent Caswell a copy of the Virginia Plan (in violation of Convention rules), and, expressing pessimism in the Convention's outcome, he stayed for just a few days before heading to New York to rejoin the Continental Congress in early July.  : 126 He was present for the Congress's debate and passage of the Northwest Ordinance, and heard Henry Knox's report recommending a North Carolina land cession.  : 128 By August 7, however, he had returned to the Convention in Philadelphia for final debates. Still reeling from the fallout from the Hopewell Treaty, he was wary of signing the final document, but was finally convinced by Gouverneur Morris to do so.  : 133
Confident that North Carolina would gain more than it would lose with the new Constitution, Blount returned home to campaign for its ratification. Elected to the North Carolina Senate from Pitt County in 1788 and 1789, Blount and his allies successfully countered attempts by anti-federalists Willie Jones and William Lenoir to thwart adoption of the new Constitution, and North Carolina voted for its ratification in November 1789.  : 147–165 On December 1, the state legislature voted to cede its trans-Appalachian lands to the new federal government. Blount sought one of North Carolina's inaugural U.S. Senate seats in November 1789 but was defeated by Benjamin Hawkins.  : 166–7
Congress accepted North Carolina's western cession, which consisted of what is now Tennessee, on April 2, 1790. In May, the Southwest Territory was created from the new cession and was to be governed under the Northwest Ordinance. On June 8, President George Washington appointed Blount governor of the new territory. Blount visited Washington at Mount Vernon on September 18 and was sworn in by Supreme Court Justice James Iredell two days later.  : 182–3 In October 1790, he set up a temporary capital at William Cobb's house, Rocky Mount, in what is now Piney Flats, Tennessee, and began organizing a government for the new territory. 
The western frontiersmen were initially skeptical of Blount, who came across as an aristocratic Easterner. Blount managed to gain their trust, however, by recommending John Sevier and James Robertson as brigadier generals of the territorial militia, and appointing Landon Carter, Stockley Donelson and Gilbert Christian as colonels. Former Franklinites appointed to lower government offices included Joseph Hardin, William Cage, James White, Dr. James White and Francis Alexander Ramsey. Others receiving appointments included future president Andrew Jackson, future governor Archibald Roane and naval officer George Farragut.  : 189–90 Blount hired his half-brother, Willie Blount, as a personal secretary,  : 212 and recruited Fayetteville, North Carolina, publisher George Roulstone to establish a newspaper for the new territory, known as the Gazette.  : 181
In December 1790, following his trip to the Cumberland territories, Blount's family joined him at Rocky Mount. The following year, he chose James White's Fort, near the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers, as the territory's new capital. He named the capital "Knoxville" after his superior, the United States Secretary of War Henry Knox.  : 208 Following the initial sale of lots in October 1791, he began construction of his mansion in the new city.
Throughout his term as governor, Blount was torn between angry western frontiersmen, who demanded war against hostile Indians, and a War Department that consistently pushed for peaceful negotiations with the Indians.  : 233 In June 1791, he negotiated the Treaty of Holston with Cherokee leader John Watts and several other chiefs, resolving land claims south of the French Broad and obtaining permission for a permanent road between the territory's eastern settlements and the Cumberland settlements. In spite of this treaty, Chickamauga attacks increased the following year.  : 203 Frustrated settlers demanded federal troops intervene, but the War Department refused, blaming settlers for intruding on Indian lands.
William Cocke, an ex-Franklinite, blamed Blount for the lack of action against the Chickamaugas and began publishing attacks against Blount in the Gazette. Blount responded with a series of articles (published under pseudonyms) rejecting Cocke and calling for patience.  : 234–6 Following attacks by the Chickamaugas against Ziegler's Station in 1792 and against Cavet's Station in 1793, however, Blount was unable to contain the rage of frontiersmen, and called up the militia. Sevier led the militia south into Georgia and attacked and destroyed several Chickamauga villages. Knox blasted Blount for the invasion and refused to issue pay for the militiamen.  : 236 Blount finally negotiated a truce with the Chickamauga at the Tellico Blockhouse in 1794.
Toward the middle of his term, Blount began implementing the steps stipulated in the Northwest Ordinance for a territory to gain statehood. One of these steps was to call for the election of a legislature and submit nominees for appointments to a territorial council, which Blount did in 1794.  : 263–4 On September 15, 1795, he directed county sheriffs to conduct a census. The census placed the territory's population at 77,000, substantially more than the 60,000 required for statehood. Blount ordered a state constitutional convention to be held at Knoxville in January 1796, which he personally attended as part of the Knox County delegation.  : 284–7 The government of the new state, Tennessee, convened in late March 1796, before it had been officially admitted to the Union.  : 292
Blount realized he had little chance of defeating Sevier in a race for governor of the new state, so he instead sought one of the state's two United States Senate seats. He received this appointment (along with William Cocke) on March 30, 1796, and headed to Philadelphia to campaign for Tennessee's statehood. Blount's brother, Thomas (then a Congressman from North Carolina), along with James Madison, convinced the house to vote for Tennessee's admission to the Union on May 6. The Senate voted to admit the new state on May 31.  : 292–5
Throughout the 1780s and 1790s, William Blount and his brothers gradually bought up large amounts of western lands, acquiring over 2.5 million acres by the mid-1790s.  : 298 Much of this land was bought on credit, pushing the family deeply into debt. In 1795, the market for western lands collapsed, and land prices plummeted. A number of land speculators, including Blount associate David Allison, went bankrupt.  : 301 Blount partnered with Philadelphia physician Nicholas Romayne in an attempt to sell land to English investors, but their efforts were unsuccessful.  : 300 Compounding Blount's problems, Timothy Pickering, who despised Blount, replaced Henry Knox as Secretary of War in 1795.  : 271
Following France's defeat of Spain in the War of the Pyrenees, land speculators, already on the financial brink, worried that the French would eventually gain control of Spanish-controlled Louisiana and shut off American access to the Mississippi River.  : 302 In hopes of preventing this, Blount and his friend, an American Indian agent named John Chisholm, concocted a plan to allow Britain to gain control of Florida and Louisiana, and in return give free access to both New Orleans and the Mississippi River to American merchants. The plan called for territorial militias, with the aid of the British fleet, to attack New Madrid, New Orleans, and Pensacola.  : 307
To help carry out the plan, Blount recruited Romayne, who never showed more than lukewarm support for the idea, and a Knoxville merchant named James Carey. Chisholm, meanwhile, sailed to England to recruit British supporters. In April 1797, Carey was at the Tellico Blockhouse near Knoxville when he gave a government agent a letter from Blount outlining the conspiracy. The agent turned the letter over to his superior, Colonel David Henley in Knoxville, and Henley in turn sent it to Pickering (who had since become Secretary of State). Elated at the opportunity to crush Blount, Pickering turned the letter over to President John Adams.  : 316
Determining that the actions of Blount, now a senator from Tennessee, constituted a crime, Adams sent Blount's letter to the Senate, where it was presented on July 3, 1797, while Blount was out for a walk. When Blount returned, the clerk read the contents of the letter aloud as Blount stood in stunned silence. Vice President Thomas Jefferson asked Blount if he had written the letter. Blount gave an evasive answer and asked that the matter be postponed until the following day, which was granted.  : 316
On July 4, Blount refused to return to the Senate and had fellow Tennessee Senator William Cocke read a letter which again requested more time.  : 319 The Senate rejected this request and formed an investigative committee. Ordered to testify before the committee, Blount initially attempted to flee by ship to North Carolina, but federal deputies seized the ship and most of his belongings. On July 7, Blount, after consulting with attorneys Alexander Dallas and Jared Ingersoll, testified before the committee and denied writing the letter. The following day, the House of Representatives voted 41 to 30 to hold impeachment hearings, and the Senate voted 25 to 1 to "sequester" Blount's seat, effectively expelling him, with Henry Tazewell casting the lone dissenting vote.  : 321–2
Rather than await trial, Blount posted bail and fled to Tennessee.  : 323 John Chisholm remained in England in a debtors' prison for several months and confessed the entire scheme upon his return. Romayne was arrested and forced to testify before the committee, where he confessed to his part in the conspiracy.  The House continued to consider evidence for Blount's impeachment in early 1798. At one session on January 30, a bizarre brawl erupted between two congressmen, Matthew Lyon and Roger Griswold. [ clarification needed ] The Senate convened as a Court of Impeachment on December 17, 1798 though Blount refused to attend, in spite of a visit to Knoxville from James C. Mathers, the Senate sergeant-at-arms,  : 339 the Senate heard arguments from his counsel, who argued lack of jurisdiction because Blount was neither an Officer within the meaning of Article II, nor was he an Officer since he had been expelled and now held no Federal office. On January 11, 1799, the Senate voted 14 to 11 to dismiss the impeachment for lack of jurisdiction.  The ruling left unclear which (or both) of the two arguments were dispositive, though it became generally accepted that impeachment did not extend to senators. 
The unraveling of the conspiracy destroyed Blount's reputation at the national level and touched off a series of accusations between Federalists and Anti-federalists. George Washington called for swift justice against Blount and hoped he would be "held in detestation by all good men."  Abigail Adams called the conspiracy a "diabolical plot"  and bemoaned the fact that there was no guillotine in Philadelphia.  : 318 Pickering argued the conspiracy was part of a greater French plot and accused Thomas Jefferson of being involved. Oliver Wolcott suggested the conspiracy was an attempt to blackmail Spain.  : 317
While Blount's national reputation was ruined, he remained popular in Tennessee. Upon his return to Knoxville in September 1797, he was paraded triumphantly through the city by a military procession led by James White and James Stuart. Most of his old Tennessee allies, among them Andrew Jackson, Joseph Anderson, James White, Charles McClung and William C. C. Claiborne, remained loyal, and helped repair his image among locals. Blount, likewise, adopted a staunchly pro-Western attitude.  : 325–8
In 1798, Congress appointed commissioners to survey the boundary between U.S. and Cherokee lands set by the Treaty of Holston. Concerned the commissioners would run the boundary in a way that favored the Cherokee over the settlers, Blount and Sevier sent agents to harass the commissioners.  : 335 To further push Western interests, they sent representatives to federal treaty negotiations at the Tellico Blockhouse in 1798, frustrating federal negotiators sent by Congress and confusing Cherokee representatives.  : 337
In his report on the Tellico treaty, one of the commissioners, Elisha Hall, accused Blount of trying to thwart the treaty, and Blount sued him for libel.  : 337 After the suit was thrown out by Judge David Campbell, Blount sought Campbell's impeachment, calling him a "meddling blockhead."  : 339 In October 1798, William Blount was elected to Knox County's state senate seat, following James White's resignation. On December 3, he was named Speaker of the Senate.  : 339 He spent his first few days in office pushing for Judge Campbell's impeachment. The House voted to impeach Campbell on December 17, but he was acquitted by the Senate on December 26.  : 340–1
In March 1800, an epidemic swept through Knoxville, and several members of the Blount family fell ill. Blount was tending to his sick family when he, too, fell ill on March 11.  : 345 After 10 days, he died on the night of March 21, 1800. He was buried at the First Presbyterian Church Cemetery a few blocks from his home in Knoxville. His half-brother, Willie, consolidated the family estate and took charge of the education of Blount's children.  : 346
Blount County, Tennessee, is named after Blount, as is the town of Blountville in Sullivan County. Grainger County and Maryville are both named after his wife, Mary Grainger Blount.  William Blount High School and Mary Blount Elementary School, both in Blount County, Tennessee, are named after Blount and his wife, respectively. Blount County, Alabama, is named after William's younger half-brother Willie Blount. Blount Street in Raleigh, North Carolina,  and Blount Street in Madison, Wisconsin,  are both named in Blount's honor. Other entities named for Blount include Fort Blount, which operated in Jackson County in the 1790s, and Blount College, the forerunner of the University of Tennessee, which was founded in Knoxville in 1794. 
Blount's home, Blount Mansion, still stands in Knoxville, and is currently a museum operated by the non-profit Blount Mansion Association. The house has been designated a National Historic Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Blount's childhood home in Pitt County, North Carolina, Blount Hall, burned down in the 1960s, though a historical marker stands near the site.
A life-size bronze statue of Blount is part of the "Signers' Hall" exhibit at the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia.  A plaque in the first floor rotunda of the North Carolina State Capitol honors Blount and the two other North Carolina signers of the Constitution, Richard Dobbs Spaight and Hugh Williamson. 
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This arrest was made on a main highway and across the street from a […]. Read more » Lin Wood was recently endorsed for state Republican Party Chairman by Trump supporter and My Pillow CEO Mike Lindell. Politics was never supposed to be a career, for anyone. That’s not what the founding fathers envisioned. They each left their homes and businesses, went to serve the […]. Read more » The Mayflower Compact stated the Pilgrims had come to the new world “Having undertaken for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith.” We recently raised the question how a nation “founded for the glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith” [as the American Founders wrote before debarking the Mayflower […]. Read more » The SC Republican Party has been divided between following a full fledged conservative direction or maintaining the current moderate leaning left agenda. Challenges to that agenda appeared in a recent lawsuit and are coming to a head now. Photo courtesy MSNBC. SC State Circuit Court judge Perry Gravely ruled on May 12th that the […]. Read more » Heading into the workforce after college and living on your own is hard enough without a global crisis messing with the job market. But listen, you can make a steady income and win with your money if you make a few smart moves starting right now. Here are my top tips for staying in control […]. Read more » Defamation attorney Lin Wood (L) will be squaring off against current SC Republican Party State Chairman Drew McKissick at the SC Republican State convention May 15th. The contest is for control of the Party and whether it will continue as middle of the road or move in a more conservative direction. The race for […]. Read more » Arizona protesters outside Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix. Photo courtesy Rose Law Group Reporter The audit in Arizona is proceeding but with great pushback and resistance. The left leaning media, Democrat politicians, complicit Republicans, and compromised election officials suggest that this is just one great conspiracy theory. However, this doesn’t ring true. Here is […]. Read more » />Twenty eight years ago this April seventy six men, women and children were murdered in a government sanctioned holocaust outside Waco, Texas, at a place called Mt. Carmel. April 19th, 1993, was a day that would indeed “go down in infamy”. EDITOR’S NOTE: Whether you love the Davidians, hate them, think they were guilty or […]. Read more »
Charelston and Western Carolina Ten- Wheeler - History
Western North Carolina and the American Civil War
|Western North Carolina and the Civil War|
|Western North Carolina, aka North Carolina Mountains, and Civil War|
|Western North Carolina in the Civil War|
|Western North Carolina consisted of rural mountain communities in 1860|
|Western North Carolina and the Civil War|
|Western North Carolina consists of the Mountain Region landform.|
|WNC and Shelton Laurel Massacre|
|A Civil War Massacre in Western North Carolina|
|Western North Carolina Civil War Railroads Map|
|Maps showing Extent of Western North Carolina Railroads in 1860|
|WNC and the Civil War|
|Western North Carolina Civil War History|
|The vital East Tennessee Railroads in 1860|
|North Carolina Civil War Map of Battles|
|Western North Carolina and the Civil War|
To confront the large Union armies converging on the State of Virginia when the war began in 1861, most Southern states, including North Carolina, had been compelled to move most of their regiments and battalions to her defense. Gen. Robert E. Lee had to make very difficult decisions during the war, and exigencies were sometimes decided simply on the lesser of the two evils. In 1861-62, Lee, according to D.H. Hill. Jr., remained fearful that Gen. Ambrose Burnside, having already secured the North Carolina coast , would find out the defenseless condition of North Carolina and forward his troops toward Raleigh. So each night Lee telegraphed officials in Raleigh to inquire if any enemy movement had been seen in the area that day.
During the first eighteen months of the Civil War, 1861-1862, the Union strategy was to blockade the entire Southern coastline while simultaneously securing its major ports and forts. To accomplish its objectives, the Union military would unleash 24 hour naval bombardments while conducting amphibious landings at strategic locations along the Old North State's shores. By the end of 1862, with the exception of Wilmington and Fort Fisher, North Carolina had suffered the loss of practically every major fort and port city as the combined Union army and navy quickly suppressed the State's mosquito fleet and few troops available to defend the region. From the State's forts spanning along the barrier islands to those fortresses and earthen works defending the inland port cities along the Albemarle, Currituck and Pamlico sounds, all, with the exception of few, had been lost to the Union in the initial eighteen months of the conflict.
With the scant Confederate military quickly removed from the coast, the Union army would unleash a series of expeditions and raids by pushing inland and burning bridges and tearing up railroads as its principal objectives.
Early in the Civil War, William Holland Thomas , a Cherokee chief, Confederate colonel, and senator, believed that employing guerrilla warfare in an grand strategy to defend the familiar Southern terrain against large advancing Union armies marching in lockstep rank and file formations, similar to the British during the American Revolution, was the plausible approach in forcing Washington to sue for peace. He maintained the conviction that any effort employed by the Confederacy to take the war into the North and to meet and fight them on the battlefield of attrition was doomed before its application.
Lacking any formal military education, alongside the exigencies of war and the political infighting of the Confederate generals at Richmond, Thomas' strategy was never taken seriously. While Thomas never adhered to the boastful doctrine that a good Southerner could whip ten Yankees, he, however, had been adopted and raised by a Cherokee chief who had taught Thomas that to understand the enemy is to understand the art of tracking and hunting wildlife such as bear, mountain lions, and dear.
To defend the mountains , Confederate President Jefferson Davis wrote a letter of confidence , dated January 4, 1865, in Thomas' Legion for the task, but in 1865, with all Confederate forces fighting in Virginia and only a skeleton force left to defend an extremely thin gray line across Southern Appalachia, it was far too little and perhaps four years too late. In the closing acts of the conflict, Union General George Stoneman led a mounted force of nearly 6,000 troops, known as Stoneman's Raid , throughout the North Carolina and southwestern Virginia mountains, destroying bridges and also nonmilitary assets, while plundering and stealing from civilian households as they traversed back and force between Old Carolina and Virginia.
Albert Wheeler Todd
Albert Wheeler Todd (April 20, 1856 – December 30, 1924)  was an architect in Charleston, South Carolina. He is known for his neoclassical architecture (colonial revival architecture), the design on his own home  and of a home for Tristram Hyde. Todd was the senior partner at the firm of Todd & Benson which became Todd, Simons & Todd. Joseph F. Leitner worked with him. Todd also served in the legislature from 1910 until 1924 and was a State Senator.  
Todd was born in Anderson, South Carolina. He practiced in Augusta, Georgia before relocating to Charleston in 1899. 
Todd's firm Todd & Benson is credited with designing Academy of Our Lady of Mercy.  He is credited with the remodel of a row of older buildings into the Commercial Club building (later converted into the Timrod Inn), and (with Albert Simmons) design of the Thompson Memorial Infirmary (later Riverside Hospital). 
Todd died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 30, 1924. Todd had at least six grandchildren. 
The importance of Charleston to the Confederate cause, after the Union implemented their Anaconda Plan, can be summarized in the words of Gen. Robert E. Lee, "The loss of Charleston would cut us off almost entirely from communications with the rest of the world and close the only channel through which we can expect to get supplies from abroad, now almost our only dependence." After the Battle of Port Royal, the Union planned an expedition against Charleston, capturing Edisto and John's Island, and by June 2, they had 20 vessels in the Stono Inlet. Union troops on Edisto moved to Seabrook's Island, then across John's Island to Legareville and onto James Island at the Thomas Grimball plantation. 
The defenders of Charleston had laid breastworks across the 125 yard wide peninsula separating Folly Island from Morris Island. This Seccessionville work was referred to as the Tower Battery, because of its reconnaissance platform. Thomas G. Lamar was in command of the battery, while Brig. Gen. States Rights Gist was in overall command of James Island. The battery included a Columbiad, two 24-lb rifled artillery pieces, and several 18-lb guns, all manned by 500 men. Secessionville itself consisted of a few summer homes belonging to the James Island planters.   : 33–35,159,259
James Island defenses consisted of Fort Pemberton on the west along the Stono River south of Wappoo Creek, extending southwards to the Tower Battery, and back up to Fort Johnson to the east along the Charleston Harbor. Confederate troops manning the defenses included the 24th South Carolina Infantry Regiment under the command of Col. Clement H. Stevens, the Charleston Battalion (1st South Carolina Battalion) under the command of Lt. Col. Peter Charles Gaillard, Thomas Lamar's 1st Battalion of South Carolina Artillery, the Eutaw Battalion under the command of Lt. Col. Simonton, the Palmetto Battalion under the command of Maj. E. B. White, the 2nd Battalion of South Carolina Artillery under the command of Maj. J. W. Brown, Co. D of the 3rd Battalion South Carolina Cavalry, and the Macbeth Light Artillery. They were joined by the 4th Louisiana Battalion under the command of Lt. Col. John McEnery, the Pee Dee Battalion (9th South Carolina Battalion) under the command of Lt. Col. Alexander D. Smith, the 47th Georgia Volunteer Infantry and the 22nd South Carolina.  : 20,30,57–58,105,144,152
In early June 1862, Union Maj. Gen. David Hunter transported the Union divisions of Brig. Gens. Horatio G. Wright and Isaac I. Stevens, under the immediate direction of Brig. Gen. Henry Benham, to James Island, where they entrenched at Grimball's Landing near the southern flank of the Confederate defenses. Benham landed 6,600 men from the 3rd New Hampshire, 8th Michigan Infantry , 7th Connecticut Infantry, 28th Massachusetts, 100th Pennsylvania Infantry, 46th New York Volunteer Infantry, 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, and 79th New York "Highlanders" on the southeastern end of James Island, and marched toward Charleston. 
On June 10, Gen. John C. Pemberton sent the 1st South Carolina Rifle Regiment and the 4th Louisiana Battalion, under the command of Col. Hagood, supported by the 47th Georgia Volunteer Infantry under the command of Col. Gilbert W.M. Williams, to Grimball's plantation. His intent was to establish a Confederate battery in opposition to the Union gunboats. However, the 47th New York Volunteer Infantry, 45th Pennsylvania Infantry, and the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry put up an effective defense and the Confederates were repulsed.   : 127–137
On June 14, Brig. Gen. Nathan "Shanks" Evans arrived with two regiments and took command of Confederate forces. For the next two days, the Federal and Confederate batteries exchanged fire. Capt. Joshua Jamison's 100-man detachment from the 22nd South Carolina joined the battery on the morning of the 16th.  : 154,157,171
At about 4:30 a.m. on June 16, the Northern troops attacked the Confederate fort at Secessionville where Colonel Thomas G. Lamar commanded about 500 men who had a number of very heavy artillery guns and a good field of fire. Marshy terrain to the north and south would constrict any Union advance. In the lead was the 8th Michigan and behind them was the 7th Connecticut and the 28th Massachusetts. The 8th Michigan were "mowed down in swaths" from "a shower of musket balls and discharges of grape and canister" from the Confederate cannon, according to one Union officer. Yet, some of the Union infantrymen made it into the fort fighting the Confederate artillerymen hand to hand before Confederate infantry reinforcements arrived to help Lamar's decimated men. These were Lt. Col. Alexander D. Smith's 9th South Carolina Battalion, up from Secessionville. Lt. Col. Peter Gaillard's Charleston Battalion soon followed and the battle became a rifle match along the battery wall and swamp lines. Lt. Col. Joseph Hawley's 7th Connecticut's advance halted when their left flank became mired in the marsh mud and their right received canister and grape. The 28th Massachusetts followed the 7th into the same mire and both regiments became intermingled as the Confederates continued to shoot and shell the confused mass of men. In the meantime, Lt. Col. John McEnery's 4th Louisiana Battalion advanced to reinforce Lamar's garrison, while Simonton's Eutaw Battalion advanced along Battery Island Road to face the Union left flank.  : 170,176–188,192,196,200,207,243,259 
A Union battery, the 1st Connecticut under Capt. Alfred P. Rockwell, finally started firing on the Confederate garrison as the Highlanders of the 79th New York under Lt. Col. David Morrison advanced. Confederate artillery fire forced the 79th to the right flank of the fort where they joined the remnants of the 8th Michigan. The 79th mounted the top of Tower Battery and went over the wall. In the end however, they were repulsed, as had the 8th Michigan before them, when reinforcements failed to appear. The 100th Pennsylvania Roundheads, under the command of Maj. David Leckey, tried to support the Highlanders, but their attack stalled as did the previous ones with Confederate canister and grape. Col. Rudolph Rosa's 46th New York tried to line up on the 100th's left, but some retreated with the fleeing Irish 28th Massachusetts and the 7th Connecticut, while the remainder received Confederate canister. Finally, Col. Daniel Leisure ordered a general retreat. Isaac Stevens ordered the 28th Massachusetts, 100th Pennsylvania, 46th New York, 8th Michigan, 79th New York, and the 7th Connecticut to retreat back towards the hedges. The attack had lasted less than 45 minutes.  : 192,197–213,217,243,259 
Yet, the Union advances were not over. On the other side of the marsh to the north was a piece of land the 3rd New Hampshire under Lt. Col. John H. Jackson, supported by Maj. Edwin Metcalf's 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artilley, used to advance upon the right flank of Tower Battery. However, 150 yards of marsh prevented any Union advance upon the fort's defenders, while Confederate batteries to the north fired into their backs. By then, the 4th Louisiana had advanced to the fort's defense. Additionally, the Eutaw Battalion had advanced to the 24th South Carolina's east-west picket line off the Battery Island Road, in a heavy thicket north of the Union's 3rd Rhode Island and 3rd New Hampshire. The 3rd New Hampshire were now encircled in a ring of fire, forcing their retreat back to the west, while the 3rd Rhode Island, who had advanced upon the Confederate thicket to the north, were also forced to retreat.  : 65,166,219–239
Thomas Lamar was hailed as "The Hero of Secessionville." While Benham feared further casualties amongst his six shattered regiments after three assaults, and declared the battle a "reconnaissance in force."  : 224,252
Hunter relieved Benham of his command for disobedience, citing the 10 June directive forbidding an attack on Charleston or Fort Johnson, and placed under arrest. On 27 June, Hunter ordered the abandonment of James Island and by 7 July, all Union forces were gone.  : 280–281,288,291
On 26 Jan. 1863, Judge Advocate General of the United States Army Gen. Joseph Holt decided Benham's attack was justified and was not prohibited by the 10 June directive. However, Benham would never again be given a field command.  : 297
Charelston and Western Carolina Ten- Wheeler - History
PCA HISTORICAL CENTER
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There are currently 88 presbyteries, or regional divisions, within the PCA, the most recent being Hills and Plains Presbytery (88th), formed by division out of North Texas Presbytery, with inclusion of counties in Arkansas and Missouri.
Dissolution and/or merger of older Presbyteries accounts for any discrepancy on the numbering of Presbyteries. A list of dissolved or merged Presbyteries is provided at the end of this page.
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[last updated 19 July 2017.]
Georgia Foothills Presbytery (76th) - [map of churches]
Organized 1 July 2006, formed by division from North Georgia Presbytery.
Boundaries: Gwinnett and Walton counties north of US Highway 78 and east of the Chattahoochee River, and all of Hall, Barrow, Jackson, Clarke, Oconee, Habersham, and Union counties also the counties of Oglethorpe, Elbert, Madison, Hart, Franklin, Banks, White, Stephens, Rabun, and Towns.
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