In pre-Christian times the Irish and the proto-Scots worshipped King Darius the Great as a god!
This paper extrapolates the argument offered in version 1 at both ends. At the "front" end consideration is given to the detail of the legends showing what is possible and detailing time windows. It turns out not only that those writing the legends down were very well acquainted with the classics but also that writing off the legends is a parade of arrogance. At the "rear" end an attempt is made to give more detail of the settlement patterns of the various tribes identified and how these were overlaid by subsequent arrivals.
di Lady Francesca Speranza Wilde
Traduzione italiana e note a cura di Laura Rimola
La storia delle dodici donne cornute venne pubblicata da Lady Francesca Speranza Wilde nel 1887 – inizialmente con il titolo The Horned Woman, o “la Donna Cornuta”, e successivamente come The Horned Women, “Le Donne Cornute” – e se da una parte si collega alla sacralità di Slievenamon, la cosiddetta Montagna delle Donne, sede di uno dei più importanti sidhe irlandesi, dall’altra potrebbe rappresentare una delle prime importanti versioni della leggenda che descrive la visita delle enigmatiche Fatae filatrici nelle case delle donne, volta ad ispezionare il loro filato oppure a punirle per aver infranto i divieti di filatura nei giorni sacri. La leggenda, infatti, venne in seguito narrata numerose volte e in svariate versioni, soprattutto in relazione alle festività invernali, e le streghe cornute vennero sostituite da entità ambivalenti, talvolta benefiche e luminose, talaltra ferine e spietate, oltre che, spesso, ancora dotate di corna. Nella zona alpina in particolare, queste sono rappresentate dalla splendente Berchta con il suo selvaggio corteo e da altre figure simili, legate all’inverno, al destino e alla sacra arte della filatura.
Brigid, the Celtic Goddess of Spring
Her name is often said to be Brigid, but she has also been called Brigit, Brig, Brighid, Bride, etc. She was an ancient Irish goddess who was associated with spring, poetry, medicine, cattle, and arts and crafts. Brigid’s feast day was celebrated around February 1 and was called Oimlec ( Imbolc). The original Irish text says the following about her:
''Feast of the Bride, feast of the maiden.
Melodious Bride of the fair palms.
Thou Bride fair charming,
Pleasant to me the breath of thy mouth,
When I would go among strangers
'Thou thyself wert the hearer of my tale.''
The name Brigid may come from the word ''Brigani'' meaning ''sublime one''. It was Romanized as Brigantia when that empire was powerful. This form of the name was used to name the river Braint (now Anglesey), Brent (Middlesex), and also Brechin in Scotland. Brigid appears to be related to the Roman goddess Victoria, but sometimes she was presented as similar to Caelstis or Minerva instead.
According to Cormac's Glossary (written by 10th century monks) she was a daughter of the god Dagda, a protector of a tribe. She was worshiped as a goddess of poetry, fertility, and smiths. Her identification with Minerva comes from the interest of both goddesses in bards and artists.
In ancient times, smiths were not only recognized for their craft, but their work was also connected with magic. Brigid was strongly associated with the symbol of fire as well. She was a part of the Tuatha Dé Danann , an Irish supernatural race known from mythology. She may have also been one of the triple deities of the Celts.
Plate of god Dagda of the Gundestrup cauldron. ( Public Domain )
Little is known of Cernunnos, for almost nothing was written about him. He was a god of wild places, and often appeared as a bearded man with antlers. Some scholars believed his name and characteristics originally belonged to a number of horned gods that were then mixed together. Others have suggested Cernunnos’ traits were taken from Greco-Roman deities of similar appearance. In any case, it is best to remember that these gods were not necessarily the same entity, but instead emerged from similar cultural origins.
Cernunnos was a god of the wild who ruled over pristine nature and uncivilized ways. Animals were his subjects, and free-growing fruits and vegetable his bounty. Classical depictions of the deity included gatherings of animals such as elk, wolves, snakes, and aurochs. Such gatherings were possible thanks to Cernunnos’ abillity to bring natural enemies into peaceful communion with one another. This ability may have cast Cernunnos as a protector and provider amongst rural tribes and hunters.
Similarly, Cernunnos may have been a fertility god or god of life. In some classical societies, the natural world was the origin of all life. Under this schema, the god of the wilds would also have served as a god of life, creation, and fertility.
Cernunnos was often shown with a torc—a traditional Celtic necklace that was made of metal. In some depictions he merely holds one, while in others he wears them either on his neck or antlers. Some scholars have connected Cernunnos to oak trees, which served as prominent symbols in Celtic lore and druidry.
Cernunnos began a particularly active second life in the 19th century, when spiritual movements seeking to revive pre-Christian European beliefs grew in popularity. The deity appeared prominently in Margaret Murray’s The God of the Witches as the embodiment of horned deities the text stated that Cernunnos was the god of witches during pre-Christian times, and that his worship continued in secret pockets throughout Europe following the spread of Christianity. Despite the books problematic nature and many generalizations (particularly in regard to Cernunnos), it did bring the horned god back into the public eye.
Cernunnos, the Horned God of neopagan traditions, is lord of both life and death he grows old as the year progresses before being reborn and starting the cycle anew. He exists in tandem with the divine feminine, the Goddess, who is at once both mother and lover in many traditions, his power stems from her. Note that Cernunnos neopagan attributes do not necessarily reflect his pre-Christian characteristics.
Cernunnos - Celtic Horned God - Gundestrup Cauldron Version
Cernunnos is the ancient horned god of The Celts often referred to as the “Lord of the Wild Things”, he rules over nature, animals and both life and death. Much of his story is lost to history but depictions of a horned god are evident throughout ancient cultures who aren’t directly linked to one another.
Many pagans today honour Cernunnos as the male aspect of the goddess, the embodiment of masculinity, power and fertility. He grows old as the wiccan wheel of the year progresses before being reborn at Beltane and starting the cycle anew in tandem with the Goddess of the divine feminine.
This seated version of Cernunnos is a depiction of his image from the Gundestrup cauldron, a silver cauldron found in Denmark dated approximately 150 BCE to 1BCE. In this representation of the horned god he is seated holding a Torc in his right hand and a horned serpent in the left. We found nearly one hundred examples of his imagery from the Gallo-Roman period, mostly in north-eastern Gaul as well as among the Celtiberians and in both Pagan and Wiccan reference material.
Cernunnos is depicted with horns or antlers, and is associated with stags, horned serpents, dogs, bulls, and rats.
Product Details: This version of Cernunnos is finished in bronze patina with green accents He stands 10cm tall, 7.5cm wide, 5.5cm deep and weights 27g.
All of our products are designed and individually 3D printed here in our home studio using a bio-safe, non-toxic, vegetable, wood fibre or sugar-cane based PLA. We then hand-finish each piece, usually smoothing and sanding them using a natural wood fibre material and then acrylic paints or glazes. The cured finishes are non-toxic but the metallic finishes do have the actual metals in them. This is a clean and local process and our materials are selected from those made in Canada or the USA. We are 100% NOT “Made in China” and take some pride in that. Through careful research and testing, we have found a great way to get around the toxic resin and moulding processes used in most of the statues on the market.
Contemporary revival [ edit ]
The scant attestation of the name Cernunnos has not prevented a great deal of speculation from moderns who find the idea of such a deity fetching. Cernunnos has been linked with Shiva Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपतिनाथ), Shiva in his aspect as lord of the animals there is no actual evidence other than the presence of animals, and the allegedly yogic posture of the figure of the Gundestrup cauldron that links the Celtic and Hindu deities.
On even scantier evidence, Cernunnos has been identified as the "Horned God" or "Devil" worshipped by Margaret Murray's pseudohistorical witchcraft cult, and as such became the male deity worshiped alongside the Goddess in most forms of Wicca. Murray also identifies Cernunnos with Herne the Hunter , the malignant ghost of a suicidal hunter mentioned in Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor. Herne, endowed with "great ragged horns", curses cattle and makes unpleasant noises in the manner of a poltergeist. [note 2] The Gardnerian tradition of Wicca sometimes uses Cernunnos as the name of this deity.
Relief Gundestrup cauldron
This relief is made after a depiction on the Celtic or Dacian Gundestrup cauldron. The Gundestrup cauldron dates from the 2nd century BC and was excavated in Gundestrup, Denmark. The decorations on the sides depict Celtic rituals and divinities. For example you can see a battle scene, where warriors die and are revived from a cauldron by a deity. Another depiction shows the Celtic god of nature, Cernunnos, with his antlers.
This relief is made after side B and depicts a Celtic god. The god wears a torque and is accompanied by two male deities.
This relief measures 42 x 69 cm. It is silver coloured and can be hung to a wall or stand on its own.
Size: 25 x 17 x 2 cm
Mounting: wall mount
Material: gypsum alabaster (patinated)
Suitable for outside use: Yes
Suitable for painting: No
Based on a historic original: Yes
Transport weight: 5000 *
This item is produced in limited quantities only. This means that every piece is unique. Sizes & finish may vary lightly from piece to piece.
Product details: Size: 25 x 17 x 2 cm / Mounting: wall mount / Material: gypsum alabaster (patinated) / Suitable for outside use: Yes / Suitable for painting: No / Weight: 2000g / Based on a historic original: Yes /
Celtic statue Glauberg
Snettisham torque replica
Snettisham torque replica
Celtic Glauberg bust
Celtic-Roman sea horse fibula
Celtic-Roman sea horse fibula
Celtic brooch Auvers Sur Oise
Celtic brooch Auvers Sur Oise
Relief Gundestrup cauldron
Relief Gundestrup cauldron
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Panel of the Gundestrup cauldron
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Dagda in Context
The Tuatha Dé Danaan were a group of gods founded by the goddess Danu who once ruled Ireland. They fought off many other invaders and older Irish gods to retain control, sometimes granting certain regions to other races as a way of setding a batde. The Tuatha Dé Danaan were eventually driven underground by a race known as the Milesians. However, the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danaan continued to appear in Celtic myths centuries later and appear to have taken on immortal status.
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