First scientific archaeological excavations attributed to US President Thomas Jefferson.
C. J. Thomsen of the Danish National Museum first uses the Three-Age System of Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age to organise its collection.
Champollion announces decipherment of hieroglyphic writing.
First excavations begun at Clava Cairns.
1828 - c. 1990
Ongoing excavations at Clava Cairns.
c. 1850 - 1913
Excavations are ongoing at the Skara Brae site.
Frank Calvert, then Heinrich Schliemann beginning in 1871 CE, excavate at the site of ancient Troy.
Heinrich Schliemann begins excavating at Mycenae.
1900 - 1905
Sir Arthur Evans excavates at Crete, discovering the palace at Knossos and naming the civilization "Minoan".
1902 - 1914
The Ishtar Gate excavation is underway and lead by Robert Koldewey.
Skara Brae site is plundered by unknown parties.
English archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley excavates at Ur (in modern-day Iraq).
English archaeologist Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
Professional excavation and preservation efforts begin at Skara Brae under V. G. Childe and J.W. Paterson.
The reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate is completed at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany.
Beginnings of processual archaeology, a scientific approach to questions and designing of models to suggest answers and test theories, in the US.
The Sweet Track found during peat excavations, Somerset, Britain.
Lindow Man discovered at Lindow Moss, a peat bog in Cheshire, England.
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Archaeology, also spelled archeology, the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities. These include human artifacts from the very earliest stone tools to the man-made objects that are buried or thrown away in the present day: everything made by human beings—from simple tools to complex machines, from the earliest houses and temples and tombs to palaces, cathedrals, and pyramids. Archaeological investigations are a principal source of knowledge of prehistoric, ancient, and extinct culture. The word comes from the Greek archaia (“ancient things”) and logos (“theory” or “science”).
The archaeologist is first a descriptive worker: he has to describe, classify, and analyze the artifacts he studies. An adequate and objective taxonomy is the basis of all archaeology, and many good archaeologists spend their lives in this activity of description and classification. But the main aim of the archaeologist is to place the material remains in historical contexts, to supplement what may be known from written sources, and, thus, to increase understanding of the past. Ultimately, then, the archaeologist is a historian: his aim is the interpretive description of the past of man.
Increasingly, many scientific techniques are used by the archaeologist, and he uses the scientific expertise of many persons who are not archaeologists in his work. The artifacts he studies must often be studied in their environmental contexts, and botanists, zoologists, soil scientists, and geologists may be brought in to identify and describe plants, animals, soils, and rocks. Radioactive carbon dating, which has revolutionized much of archaeological chronology, is a by-product of research in atomic physics. But although archaeology uses extensively the methods, techniques, and results of the physical and biological sciences, it is not a natural science some consider it a discipline that is half science and half humanity. Perhaps it is more accurate to say that the archaeologist is first a craftsman, practicing many specialized crafts (of which excavation is the most familiar to the general public), and then a historian.
The justification for this work is the justification of all historical scholarship: to enrich the present by knowledge of the experiences and achievements of our predecessors. Because it concerns things people have made, the most direct findings of archaeology bear on the history of art and technology but by inference it also yields information about the society, religion, and economy of the people who created the artifacts. Also, it may bring to light and interpret previously unknown written documents, providing even more certain evidence about the past.
But no one archaeologist can cover the whole range of man’s history, and there are many branches of archaeology divided by geographical areas (such as classical archaeology, the archaeology of ancient Greece and Rome or Egyptology, the archaeology of ancient Egypt) or by periods (such as medieval archaeology and industrial archaeology). Writing began 5,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt its beginnings were somewhat later in India and China, and later still in Europe. The aspect of archaeology that deals with the past of man before he learned to write has, since the middle of the 19th century, been referred to as prehistoric archaeology, or prehistory. In prehistory the archaeologist is paramount, for here the only sources are material and environmental.
The scope of this article is to describe briefly how archaeology came into existence as a learned discipline how the archaeologist works in the field, museum, laboratory, and study and how he assesses and interprets his evidence and transmutes it into history.
Best Archaeology TV Series, Films, and Documentaries
Given that we won’t be able to run any public archaeology events, and that loads of us are cooped up inside for the next few months, we’re planning to announce our own exciting new line-up of interactive archaeology that you can enjoy at home.
From kids’ activities, to Virtual Site Tours and fun group projects, we’ll be making sure that everyone who wants it is well-supplied with archaeology… and that you can use your home-time to learn, to laugh and to help us continue making great archaeological discoveries.
Because even if we can’t go digging right now, there’s LOADS of wonderful stuff we can do together online. If you want to be involved, make sure you sign up to our email list.
While we prepare our first round of Virtual Archaeology, we’ve pulled together a list of our favourite archaeology-themed programmes that are currently available to watch online. They’ll be guaranteed to keep you educated (and entertained) for a little while. Enjoy!
Taking top place on our list is Time Team – the show that needs no introduction. If you’re reading this list, you’ve probably already seen every episode, but that’s the great thing about this show – you can watch it again, and again, again. We know we will be! Available on: All 4
Nostalgia For The Light
Archaeology meets astronomy in Chile’s Atacama Desert. This beautiful, moving, haunting and multi-award winning documentary follows the trajectories of two very different groups of people while scientists look for stars in the skies above, families search for traces of their loved ones on the desert floor. Available on: YouTube movies
The Cave of Forgotten Dreams
Master story-teller Werner Herzog has an incredible knack for capturing the inner worlds of passionate people, and the subjects they love. In this film, originally released in spectacular 3D, he turns his attention to 20,000 year-old cave paintings, the people who made them, and the archaeologists who study them. The result is a magical, emotional and completely surprising journey into the depths of human history. Come for the archaeology, stay for the albino crocodiles. C’est incroyable! Available on: Google it…
The Monk, The Midden & The Missing Monastery
An ‘elegy to the seductive pleasures of archaeological fieldwork’, this film puts you right inside the trenches with the DigVentures team, and shows archaeology as it *really* is: the funny bits, the stressy bits, the magical discoveries and even the mundane moments. It’s our very own first feature-length film – and it’s highly entertaining, even if we do say so ourselves. Available on: DigVentures
Imagine the main cast of Time Team reunited on a small island in the North Sea for one weekend. Now imagine each of them giving a talk on their favourite archaeological discoveries, and sharing their best memories of working together. That’s exactly what happened at DigNation Festival in 2018. All the talks were recorded live, and are being released every Sunday on YouTube. Available on: DigVentures
Animal, Vegetable, Mineral?
Featuring eminent archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler, this is one of the original panel shows from the early days of TV, in which three experts try to identify mystery objects from the British Museum. It’s a classic, and provides plenty of inspiration for playing your own version of the game at home! Available on: BBC iPlayer
Lost Cities with Albert Lin
Once you get past the overly-dramatic production, this series is actually both nerdy, and watchable – it applies 3D scanning to some extraordinary ancient sites, and produces some pretty attention-grabbing discoveries. In short, if you like your archaeology mixed with hi-tech visuals and action-packed adventure, then this is the show for you. Available on: Amazon Prime
Digging Up Britain’s Past
It’s not Time Team, but it’s the closest thing going at the moment. The show’s presenters visit ongoing archaeological digs, and discuss their discoveries with experts. Plus, our digs feature in Series 1 and Series 2! When you figure out which are ‘our’ episodes, let us know… Available on: My 5
Archaeology: A Secret History
Ok, so this wasn’t the most expansive programme, and the presenter has been likened to Robert Webb’s evil twin, but we do like the idea behind the series: to discuss the origins and evolution of archaeology as a discipline in the West, and how the rulers of different eras have used it to control history. Worth a watch. Available on: Google it…
Britain at Low Tide
Every day, on a sandy beach or a rocky foreshore, fascinating evidence of Britain’s history appears and disappears as the tide rolls in and rolls back out again. In this series, Dr Tori Herridge explores the archaeology of the island’s coastline, and the historical remains we see when the tide goes out. Just a bit of all-round niceness. Available on: All 4
Britain’s Ancient Trackways
Tony Robinson puts on his walking shoes, to explore the mysteries and legends of Britain’s ancient trackways, some of which have been travelled for over 5,000 years. Be warned: this one will make you want to leave the house. Available on: All 4
‘Lost’ Kingdoms of Africa
British art historian Dr Gus Casely-Hayford explores the history of some of Africa’s old kingdoms. From Bunyoro and Buganda, to Nubia and Asante, this is a whirlwind tour of a continent, and a compelling mix of archaeological exploration and reportage. Over the course of two series, Gus digs into histories some of which you’ll know, and others which you won’t – but really should. Available on: Google it…
‘Lost’ Cities of the Maya: Revealed
Another LIDAR-based series of discoveries are revealed in this documentary as archaeologists uncover whole swathes of previously unknown settlements. Together with archaeological work on the ground, it’s creating an impressive new map of one of the greatest ancient civilisations of the world. Everyone involved looks slightly overwhelmed by the thrill of it all – which is not surprising given that the research is helping to transform what we thought we knew about the Maya. Available on: All 4
Oh hello. It’s not often that you see archaeology trending on Netflix, but this slick new fantasy-drama looks set to change that with the story of a young artist who gets sucked into investigating a discovery made during a dig at Göbeklitepe – one of our all-time favourite archaeological sites. Plus, with some cracking one-liners like “ the aim of ‘real’ archaeology is actually to understand the future. By uncovering the past, we can interpret the present” how could we resist? One to file under ‘guilty pleasures’. Available on: Netflix
Toby Jones and Mackenzie Crook struck comedic gold with this much-adored series about two oddballs scouring the English countryside for treasure. It’s a funny, honest and painfully accurate exposition of metal detecting, and all those who pursue knowledge of the past in their spare time. We love it. Available on: BBC iPlayer
Poirot: Appointment with Death
Yep, we all know Agathe Christie married an archaeologist, but even better than that, she set one of our favourite episodes of Poirot on an archaeological site in Syria. Perfect for a lazy afternoon. Available on: ITV Hub
What do you MEAN you haven’t watched this yet? The whole show opens with the famous Viking raid on Lindisfarne in AD 793 – the exact site we’ve been investigating for the last 4 years. Don’t dismiss it just because it’s a drama – the character development is intense, and the plotlines are filled with Viking religion, village politics and interpersonal struggles. Available on: Google it
The Last Kingdom
Another binge-worthy historical drama with close ties to our flagship excavation at Lindisfarne. This time, we’re following Uhtred, son of Uhtred, born a Saxon Lord, but raised as a Dane . His domain is Bebbanberg, otherwise known as Bamburgh – a stone’s throw from our site. We need say no more. Available on: Netflix
The Pillars of the Earth
Eddie Redmayne, Donald Sutherland, Sarah Parish, Mathew McFadyen and an all-star ensemble cast try to build a medieval cathedral, against a backdrop of political strife and religious turmoil. Who knew architectural construction could be so dramatic? Available on: Google it
One of the main characters of this family sitcom is Robin, a dead Neandertal, and we love him. It’s a spin-off from the much-loved Horrible Histories series, and follows Robin and his companions (a suite of other historical ghosts) as they try to haunt a country house. Fun for all ages. Available on: BBC iPlayer
Imagine the Famous Five, but in Ancient Rome. Based on a series of children’s books, Roman Mysteries follows Flavia, Nubia, Jonathan and Lupus who live in Ostia and love solving mysteries. They gain a reputation for uncovering plots and putting a stop to villains’ plans. And apparently this was the most expensive BBC drama ever produced for children. Sounds fun! Available on: Amazon Prime
Peppa Pig goes to DigCamp?! This short, stop-motion animation is pretty adorable, and is perfect for any for any Trowel Tots you’re raising – we just hope we don’t make the same noises as Peppa’s family when we make discoveries. Now, has anyone got a number for Baby Shark? We’ve got a proposal… Available on: YouTube
What’s your favourite archaeology TV show? Whether it’s trashy fantasy-drama, a top-notch documentary, or a bit of family-fun, share your recommendations in the comments!
DigVentures crowdfunds archaeological projects that everyone can be part of, in the UK and overseas. With help from people all over the world, we investigate the past and publish our discoveries online for free. Become a DigVentures Subscriber and be part of great archaeology - all year round!
Written by Maiya Pina-Dacier
Head of Community at DigVentures, Maiya digs with a trowel in one hand, and a Twitter feed in the other. She reports on all our discoveries live from the trenches, and keeps our Site Hut full of the latest archaeology news. Got a story? Just drop her a line.
How Archaeology Works
Today archaeology is a precise science. Archaeologists' tools include radioactive carbon dating and geophysical prospecting. The discipline is strongly influenced and even driven by humanities like history and art history. However, it is, at heart, intensely methodical and technical. But archaeology hasn't always been precise. In fact, it hasn't always been a science.
Archaeology originated in 15th and 16th century Europe with the popularity of collecting and Humanism, a type of rational philosophy that held art in high esteem. The inquisitive elite of the Renaissance collected antiquities from ancient Greece and Rome, considering them pieces of art more than historical artifacts.
The desire for antiquities and an interest in the ancients soon led to sponsored excavations and the development of Classical archaeology. Herculaneum and Pompeii, the two famous cities destroyed and preserved by the A.D. 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, were excavated in part because the Queen of Naples longed for ancient statuary.
Napoleon Bonaparte's 1798 invasion of Egyptushered in a new era in archaeology. In order to understand the Egyptian people and their past, Napoleon brought with him a think tank of 175 scholars: the Institute of Egypt, or the Scientific and Artistic Commission. The troop came with its own traveling library, scientific tools and measuring instruments. By 1809, the scholars and scientists published the illustrated "Description of Egypt," a book that helped launch a mania for all things Egyptian. By 1822, Jean-François Champollion had deciphered the Rosetta Stone, unveiling the secrets of ancient Egypt's hieroglyphics to the world.
Scientific archaeology continued to develop in the 19th century with advances in the studies of geology and biology. Charles Lyell helped spread the modern geologic system of uniformitarian stratigraphy, which gave archaeologists a reliable timescale on which to date items. The work of Lyell and the publication of Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" soon popularized the idea of evolution. Belief in man's antiquity exploded the study of prehistoric archaeology.
The 20th century opened with radical developments in the field: the 1904 publication of Flinders Petrie's "Methods and Aims in Archaeology" developed a systematic method for excavation. Massive finds like the 1922 discovery of King Tutankhamen's tomb or the 1926 unearthing of the Royal Tombs at Ur -- which brought the entire forgotten Sumerian civilization to life -- helped glamorize archeology. Archaeologists began to work beyond the Near East, Mediterranean and Europe, and the subject finally became an academic discipline.
In the next section, we'll dig deep and learn about an archeologist's work.
Crystal skulls are among the most mysterious of archaeological oddities. Test your knowledge in the Crystal Skull Quiz.
Off the Bulgarian coast, just over a mile beneath the surface of the Black Sea, archaeologists have discovered what they believe is the world’s oldest intact shipwreck. Measuring some 75 feet (23 meters) long, the ship is thought to be an ancient Greek trading vessel. With its . read more
A massive Viking ship has been found in Norway less than two feet below the Earth’s surface. Archaeologists at the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU) made the discovery using radar designed to permeate the ground without actually excavating any artifacts. . read more
How stratigraphy is used
In the case of societies that have left no written histories, the excavation and recording of strata, features and artifacts often provides the only method of learning about those societies. Even when recorded histories exist, stratigraphic investigations can provide an excellent complement to what is already known.
According to the law of superposition, in a given series of layers, as originally created, the upper layers are younger and the lower layers older because each layer presumably has been added to a pre-existing deposit. Based on this law, archaeologists have been able to assign dates, in relative sequence, to stratified layers. The law of superposition is not infallible. Sites often contain strata that have been disturbed by natural processes, such as floods, and human activities, such as digging. In these instances, several original layers may be intermixed, and the artifacts contained within may be out of chronological sequence. Animal burrows can also disrupt original layering.
Stratum — A geological or man-made deposit, usually a layer of rock, soil, ash, or sediment. Plural: strata.
Tell — Artificial hill or mound.
In stratigraphic excavations, deposits from a site are removed in reverse order to determine when they were made. Each deposit is assigned a number, and this number is appended to all objects, including artifacts, bones, and soil samples containing organic matter, found in the layer. Each layer provides a unique snapshot of a past culture, the environment in which it existed, and its relative period in time. Stratigraphic dating does not require the existence of artifacts, but their presence may facilitate dating the site in absolute time. Without such clues, it can be very difficult to date the layers a deep layer of sand, for example, might have been deposited very quickly in the course of a sand storm, while another layer of the same thickness could have taken hundreds of years or longer to form.
Modern archeologists also use geophysical techniques to help establish the stratigraphy of site. Methods such as ground penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetic surveys can help to establish the stratigraphic framework of a site before excavation begins.
Katie Harrow summarizes the timeline for the development of writing in Eurasia.
Language existed long before writing. We have probably been talking for between 50,000 and 100,000 years. But archaeology suggests that the first writing emerged around 6,000 years ago.
Pictograms (pictures whose meaning is directly related to the image: eg. a snake means a snake) were first in use in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. These pictograms evolved into Hieroglyphics when the meanings came to include verbs (image of an eye might now also mean ‘too see something’) and phonetics, (the snake image could mean an ‘ess’ sound).
It is no coincidence that we see the emergence of advanced written language in places like Egypt and the city states of the Tigris and Euphrates. The people here were no cleverer than their rural cousins, but their need to orderly record and store information increased as the cities grew and this provided the impetus to improve their writing systems. These in turn may have provided the capacity for further growth which would have been impossible without writing.
We can imagine that without writing, running a city, organising taxation and keeping control of a country is pretty much impossible. There is jyust too much confusion for a large well ordered state to function without written records.
Archaeology shows us a clear evolution from pictograms to cuneform from excavations of Uruk in Mesopotamia where the earliest cunefom are simply pictograms rotated through 90 degrees, formed of wedge shapes marks pressed into soft clay. Over time these become more and more stylised.
According to archeologist Günter Dreyer, director of the German Institute of Archaeology in Cairo, the earliest writing we know of comes from the ‘Dynasty Zero’ reign of a king we know as ‘Scorpion’ in Ancient Egypt around 3,300 BCE. In his tomb a number of small inscribed bone tags were found. These had grouped pictograms on them (for example a heron and a beetle) which seem to be the names of places where offerings in the tomb came from.
5,000 years ago in Egypt, the name of the early Pharoh NARMER was written on a palette using two images: A cuttlefish (NAR) and a drill or chisel (MR)(1). Names of the Pharohs were later always placed in a specific border known as a cartouche.
The Narmer Palette from Hierakonpolis is in the Cairo Museum ref: JE32169
The Egyptian Heiroglyphics included ‘ideograms’ where single images stood for whole words as well as images standing for sylables. They also had alphabet signs which were useful when a new word was needed. Foreigners names were often spelled out using these particular ‘alphabet heiroglyphs’.
Of course, once a little country develops writing it puts them at a massive advantage over all their neighbours. It is no surprise that writing emerges in the first cities of what were to become the first empires. Writing gave the Sumerians and Egyptians a massive advantage which they seem to have rigourously explioted.
The cartouche of Queen Cleopatra
In ancient Egyptian heiroglyphics an oblong enclosure with a line at one end is called a cartouche and it, indicates that the text enclosed is a royal name. This cartouche reads from right to left.
C = triangle top right
L = lion botton right
E = Bird
P = Square
A = Bird
T = Hand
R = Eye
A = Bird
On the right is another version of the same cartouche (thanks to FCIT).
The world forgot how to read cartouches for almost 2000 years until a frenchman called Champollion deciphered them in the early 1800s.
The ancient Egyptians used their heiroglyphics not only as information storage, but also as decoration, which leaves archaeology and history with a fabulous wealth of written data about the wars, politics, beliefs and daily lives of the peoples of the Nile.
3,600 years ago:
In the Levant, The Hyksos, Hittites, Canaanites and other groups are all writing in variations of cuneform scripts which had evolved from pictograms.
(press F5 key for animation)
3400 years ago, invaders from the east brought linear-a script to south western europe. In time this evolved through linear B into Ancient Greek. In the west, we use a variant of the greek alphabet today . Our numbering system comes from Arabic.
Smashing mammalian mendacities with his titanic footfalls.
Since my interest in ancient civilizations began years ago, I’ve increasingly believed we modern humans don’t know much about much. We just think we do.
Even when we use the word “modern” to describe ourselves, it resonates tones of arrogance by implying that we have made it – that we have finally graduated from stupid to smart, from religion (or superstition) to science.
We have a whole world full of evidence that supports the biblical account of Creation but we’ve been spoon-fed an interpretation of that evidence borne out of rebellion to God and therefore cannot have any basis in fact. Of course, I’m talking about human evolutionary theory – that Man was way stupid before he was way smart and even before that, he was just a molecule of scum in a puddle.
Forbidden Archaeology. We rarely hear about these discoveries because they don’t fit into the established, traditional, evolutionary timeline of the history of the earth and Mankind. For this reason, they have been dubbed Out-of-Place Artifacts, or OoPARTS, and banished to the fringe-tinged scientific discipline of Forbidden Archaeology. This implies that, somehow, these artifacts aren’t supposed to be where they’ve been found. They become anomalies. However, I would say that they are exactly where we would expect to find them when we realize the Bible is the true account of the history of Mankind.
Here’s just one very recent example I came across by accident while writing this article:
For more astonishingly eye-opening discoveries, I recommend visiting this web site. It is an OoPARTS mega-site based on the 6-day Creation account in Genesis. I can’t honestly say I support every interpretation on the site but, nonetheless, it’s quite fascinating.
Also, be sure to visit the blog that goes along with the site.
There’s a very good show on H2 called America Unearthed. It can also be viewed On Demand for those of you with this capability. I like the show because, unintentionally, it supports a biblical view of world history by casting doubt on and showing flaws in the traditionally accepted historical and archaeological timeline of the history of Mankind.
I would recommend watching the entire series, but if you were to only watch one episode, watch the one entitled The Desert Cross. Unfortunately, I can’t post the episode. Once it airs, it becomes locked on the H2 web site for some reason, but here’s the link
Not only does this episode (and the show) challenge the timeline of who was on our continent (North America) first, it also shows one of the artifacts has a dinosaur carved on it – and the artifacts are dated to 800 A.D.! The host, unable to wrap his mind around what it actually is, attributes the symbol to the likeness of a desert lizard that these travelers must have seen in the Arizona desert even though it looks no different than what an unskilled artist might draw today of an Apatosaurus (Brontosaurus) – long neck, humped back, long tail and all. You be the judge. I think it’s a dinosaur, or as they would have called it during the time these artifacts were in use, a dragon, drake or wyrm (worm). Of course, some very good questions are:
- Why would they draw one?
- How would they know what to draw unless they had actually seen one?
This, along with many other drawings and carvings of dinosaurs we never hear about, is evidence that Man co-existed with dinosaurs just like the Bible says and that the earth is indeed as young as the Bible says.
Viewer Discretion: In the most recent episode, I was disappointed to learn that the author has come out in support of the theory that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had a child and that the Knights Templar believed they were their direct descendants. This is partly based on his work on the hooked x runic symbol which has appeared on a number of inscriptions in America and around the world. This, of course, is not biblical so be warned – and it does not mean that all of his research is to be dismissed.
A few excellent books
This brings me to some of my favorite books I would recommend to anyone interested in this subject:
Dr. Jack Cuozzo, a Christian, is an Orthodontist. In this fascinating book, he tells how God arranged it so that he was actually allowed to handle, study and test some of the fossil remains that have been interpreted as early pre-human ancestors in order to support human evolutionary theory. Being an orthodontist, he subjected the skulls to certain tests never before performed on them. The main premise is that the skulls labeled as belonging to so-called Neanderthal Man are actually the skulls of the people who lived before the Flood of Noah. The human skull never stops growing and, because these people lived for hundreds of years, that gave them the pronounced jaw and forehead which evolutionary science attributes to an ape-like ancestor. Look at some pictures of really old people to see for yourself. This excellent book also contains documented photographic evidence that human evolutionary theory has been fabricated, often with Plaster of Paris, and also photographic evidence of human co-existence with dinosaurs, just as the Bible says.
The author that helped uncover my passion for this subject, and was a catalyst for me to launch my own investigations in this area, is Graham Hancock. Graham is not a Christian, but I would recommend reading the books I’ve listed below because they chronicle evidence that is blatantly ignored by mainstream archaeology about Man’s past. When you are made aware of all of the evidence that exists around the world pointing back to the dispersion of the people groups at the Tower of Babel, you will come to no other conclusion than Man chooses to ignore it out of his rebellion toward God.
I’m saddened to say, however, that Graham and his buddies, who have been so diligent in uncovering these things, have recently fallen prey to the very New Age religion practiced by all of these cultures. So, I would be wary reading his more recent books. Use your biblical discernment when studying these things.
The Bible Explorer Series
Graham has also been featured in one of Bob Cornuke’s excellent Bible Explorer Series DVDs. Dr. Cornuke, a Christian, is an explorer and the founder of the BASE Institute. He has produced these excellent DVDs of his explorations and research. It’s real boots-on-the-ground stuff. There are 4 in all: Search for the Ark of the Covenant, Search for Noah’s Ark: The Lost Mountains of Noah, Search for the Lost Shipwreck of Paul and Search for Mt. Sinai: Mountain of Fire. In Search for Mt. Sinai you can actually view video footage of the altar of the golden calf, the split Rock of Horeb, what looks like a burnt mountain top and more which are located in Iran and guarded by the Iranian military! Of course, the question is, why are they guarding it unless they know what it actually is?
Here’s an excerpt of the fascinating footage:
For those of you keen-minded individuals who would immediately notice that these DVDs challenge the traditional locations of these things, I guess you’ll just have to watch them to find out why.
The Pyramid Code
This series on the Pyramids at the Giza Plateau in Egypt is quite simply the best and most sensible explanation of their function I’ve ever heard.
I hold to the belief that the pre-Flood civilization was privy to knowledge and technology that we do not understand today, the remnant of which was spread around the world during the dispersion of the people groups at Babel. This would also account for the similarities in myths (which became religions), megalithic architecture (according to the stars above) and Flood stories that almost all ancient cultures around the word share. I was pleasantly surprised at the content of this series as it serves to support this view even though one could get the feeling that it slightly encourages viewers to explore the New Age religion. The reality is that true world history will always point to the Book of Genesis despite the intentions of the authors’ interpretation.
Unfortunately the link to the web site seems to be broken, but here’s a link to an independent site promoting the series.
Again, even though the alternative Egyptian chronology suggested in the series may not match up entirely with biblical chronology (I haven’t personally made the comparison), the important thing to take away from it is that this series shows the faults in the traditionally agreed-upon timeline of Egyptian society and the downright arrogance of those who choose to ignore these things (much like the arrogance present in the excellent Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed documentary).
This series can also be viewed on Netflix if you’re a subscriber.
Genesis Veracity Foundation
This web site will really stretch your thinking about the Book of Genesis. It supports a theory I’ve held to that the similarity in world-wide myths, religious beliefs, Flood stories and megalithic architecture is a result of the events before the Flood and the events at Babel. Imagine my delight when my pet theories were corroborated and supported by another who was studying these very things. I can’t wait to read and review the books and DVDs by this author.
What should you take away from OoPARTS and Forbidden Archaeology? Some very good questions for you to consider would be, why are these things hidden from us? Why is a world full of evidence being ignored and even covered up? The reason is the truth about the history of mankind will always point back to the Bible – Babel, the Flood, the Genesis 3:5 lie, Creation, God and, ultimately, Jesus [Colossians 1:15-20]. From Satan’s point of view, there’s always the danger that someone who discovers the truth about world history and our origins will eventually find Christ and be saved.
So, even though some of these discoverers are not Christians and sometimes attach ages of time that do not fit into the Bible’s timeline to things they’ve found, they should not be dismissed outright. It’s only proof that the evidence is so plentiful and overwhelming, even non-Christians know it exists. It’s the evidence that’s important. And it shows that the traditional timeline of human history that has been produced by human evolutionary thinking is not quite as solid as we are led to believe. In fact, it’s in no way coherent at all. This should bolster our faith and encourage us in the face of untruths. These artifacts and evidences have been professing God’s handiwork for ages and can no longer be ignored.
It is my hope that you will find these resources helpful and that this will be the first in an ongoing series about Forbidden Archaeology to be published on my web site by God’s grace.
Historic Preservation, Public History & Archaeology: A Timeline History
This interactive timeline helps you explore the history of historic preservation, archaeology, and public history in the United States of America.
Creator: Eli Pousson
Publisher: Local Preservation School
Publication Date: October 13, 2015
Updated: October 15, 2015
Understanding the history of historic preservation along with related fields including public history, archaeology, folklore, and community development, helps us understand how local preservation efforts are shaped by the history of the field and the United States of America more broadly.
The Age of Sugar
The change of power was remarkably smooth, and people went on with their day to day business the day after capitulation. The island’s upper class thought their financial interests would be best served by cooperating with the British, and immediately started to do so. One of the reasons for this was that the British had offered generous terms of capitulation: the island’s laws, customs, religion, private property, free trade, and even the French language were respected. Under British rule, however, the island was once more named Mauritius. Agriculture was modernised by replacing human labour with machines and animals, the road network was improved, and the duty on sugar was reduced. As a result, sugar cane cultivation almost tripled between 1817 and 1827.
In the meantime, Britain saw a growing resistance to slavery, and the Mauritian planters feared they soon had to emancipate their slaves. The price of slaves had skyrocketed as ships of the Royal Navy tried to curtail the slave trade, which had been abolished in Great Britain's empire in 1807 but was still practiced illegally. In the meantime, though, the sugar industry was booming and planters were in desperate need of cheap labour. To face the situation, they started to import indentured Indian and Chinese workers, who worked side by side with the slaves. In 1829, measures were taken to improve slaves' lives and racial segregation was abolished. Finally, on 12 June 1833, the British Parliament passed the Act that abolished slavery. After much resistance from the slave owners, a Proclamation was signed in January 1835 that introduced the apprentice system on Mauritius. Slaves kept on working as apprentices for a period of four years, after which they were emancipated and the slave owners received compensation. Large numbers of ex-slaves were completely neglected by the authorities and fell victim to extreme poverty. In early 1839, just before all slaves were emancipated, the population of the island consisted of 9,000 whites, about 15,000 free coloureds, and 70,000 slaves. At this time, about 20,000 people were living in Port Louis.
Plantation owners continued to import Indian labourers to replace their freed slaves. Some parts of India were troubled so badly by unemployment, floods, epidemics, famines, and the oppression of certain castes that many people were keen to emigrate. The area under sugar cane in Mauritius rose from 42,000 acres in 1831 to 129,000 in 1861. The imports of Indians grew steadily, sometimes reaching over 40,000 people per year. By 1861, there were 193,000 Indians on the island compared to 117,000 whites and coloureds. The influx of Indian indentured labour ceased in 1909, with one last shipment of 1,500 in 1923 during the sugar boom of the early 1920's. The trade in Indian workers was, in many respects, not so different from the slave trade: workers were often recruited with brutal force on their way to Mauritius, many died of diseases on the island they were subjected to travel restrictions and once they made it to the estates, workers were treated badly, including harsh corporal punishment and even imprisonment on estates. But more than the slaves had done before, the Indians resisted the cruel system of which they were part. They frequently revolted, deserted, and went back to India.
During the first five decades of British colonial administration, the number of ships calling at Port Louis increased sharply due to a sugar boom and the construction of several ship repair facilities. In addition, the two railway lines were completed in 1864 and 1865. During the 1860's, the sugar industry in the Mascarenes began to decline. The number of sugar factories fell from 258 in 1860 to 66 in 1908. Plantations were frequently divided into small plots and sold by the early twentieth century Indians had acquired almost one third of the land under cultivation. The 1890's proved to be disastrous: three epidemics, two fires, and one devastating cyclone laid waste to the island and its inhabitants. Moreover, the population had increased to 371,000 in 1901.
A small sugar boom in the 1920's brought a short-lived period of prosperity to the island, of which the planters benefited the most. In 1936 the working class tried to improve their situation by forming a political party. One year into its existence it was active in provoking strikes on the sugar estates. After the Second World War the Colonial Office was contemplating giving Mauritius independence. The population increased sharply following the successful eradication of malaria in the 1950's with the help of the Colonial Office. It further aided in carrying out public works such as irrigation systems, roads, and a renewal of harbour installations. In 1965 the Colonial Office declared that the island was ready for independence, and on 12 May 1968, after nearly four centuries of European rule, Mauritius finally became a sovereign nation.