View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-we-conquered-the-deadly-smallpox-virus-simona-zompi
For 10,000 years, humanity suffered from the scourge of smallpox. The virus killed almost a third of its victims within two weeks and left survivors horribly scarred. But Simona Zompi commends the brave souls — a Buddhist nun, a boy, a cow, a dairymaid and physician Edward Jenner — who first stopped the spread of this disastrous disease, to make us smallpox-free today.
Lesson by Simona Zompi, animation by Augenblick Studios.
The person in Figure 1.2.1 is getting a flu vaccine. You probably know that getting a vaccine can hurt — but it’s usually worth it. A vaccine contains dead or altered forms of germs that normally cause a disease, such as flu or measles. The germs in vaccines have been inactivated or weakened so they can no longer cause illness, but are still “noticed” by the immune system.
They stimulate the immune system to produce chemicals that can kill the actual germs if they enter the body, thus preventing future disease. How was such an ingenious way to prevent disease discovered? The short answer is more than two centuries of science.Figure 1.2.2 A young child in Bangladesh is covered with skin lesions from smallpox. Until it was eradicated, this highly contagious infection caused many deaths, and those that survived were often severely scarred for life.
Pathways of the Adaptive Immune Response
There are some general similarities in the way in which the separate adaptive immune responses occur in T cell and B cell responses. In both pathways, a foreign antigen is recognized by the B or T cell. From there, cytokines produced by helper T-cells promote clonal expansion of lymphocytes. From this clonal expansion, two types of B or T cells are produced- cells that directly fight the pathogen invasion and cells that remain behind to provide long-term immunity . Finally, once the pathogen invasion has been eradicated, the plasma cells and killer T cells go through apoptosis (programmed cell death).
Zahvaljujući razvoju vakcine, besnilo, koje odlikuje nestalno ponašanje, više nije pretnja u Sjedinjenim Državama, iako igra veliku ulogu u njihovom filmu i književnosti.
Međutim, u ovom slučaju, većina vakcina koje su pomogle u spašavanju ljudskih života ne koriste se na ljudima, već životinjama koje mogu da prenose bolest svojim ugrizom. Državni pogrami sadrže smernice za vakcinaciju kućnih ljubimaca i divljih životinja, kao i praćenje onih sa potencijalnim besnilom.
- Latinska Amerika ima jedan od najboljih programa protiv besnila na svetu. Ujeo me je u Meksiku besan pas kada sam imao šest godina. Uhvatili su ga, posle nekoliko dana je preminuo, a i ja bih verovatno, da nisam dobio vakcinu - navodi Najera.
How We Conquered the Deadly Smallpox Virus - Simona Zompi - History
The history of eradicating smallpox involved an improbable team of, among others, a Buddhist nun, a cow, and an English physician (across generations and nations). Simona Zompi’s TED-Ed Lesson How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus walks us through the cinematic story, but what other additional fact about smallpox did Simona want to include in her lesson?
What’s your favorite fact about smallpox that didn’t make it into the TED-Ed Lesson?
Many more immunology-related lessons can be learned from the history of smallpox eradication. One of them is so-called herd immunity. In order to eradicate smallpox, mass vaccination campaigns were undertaken worldwide. In addition, systems were developed to detect and contain outbreaks. However, not 100% of the population needed to be vaccinated in order to achieve eradication. According to the concept of herd immunity, at least 80% of the population needed to be vaccinated. With diseases like smallpox that are passed from person to person, herd immunity makes it more difficult to transmit the disease when a certain number of the population is immune. For example, if person A is infected and person B is vaccinated, person B cannot get infected and thus would stop the transmission chain and would not be able to transmit the disease to person C who is not vaccinated. So, when a critical portion of the population is immunized, more of the community is protected.
To learn even more about smallpox, please visit Simona’s TED-Ed Lesson.
Whether to vaccinate or not is currently a hot topic in social discourse. Despite the majority view that childhood vaccination is safe and effective, websites and social media content opposing such vaccination are common. In this study, we searched the internet platforms Google, Facebook and YouTube for childhood vaccine information. We made every attempt to minimise selection bias generated by internet algorithms. We compared the displayed stances of vaccine information retrieved. Most of the information had a clearly stated stance on vaccines or made some sort of recommendation on whether or not to vaccinate. Despite our careful attempt to search comprehensively and systematically for vaccine information with as little bias as possible, this search yielded a sizeable minority of vaccine negative information. This research shows that negative vaccine information persists and is readily accessible online despite algorithm and policy changes in recent years, even when searching in the least biased way possible. It is important that vaccine-promoting entities and agencies continue to make every effort to maximize their presence online so that parents searching the internet to answer the question 'should I vaccinate my child?' continue to receive vaccine positive information.
Past simple or present perfect simple or continuous?
Put the verbs into the correct tense (simple past or present perfect simple).
1. A: (you / taste / ever) ____________sushi?
2. B: Yes, I (eat) ________ sushi at least five times so far.
3. A: When (you / eat) _________ sushi for the first time?
4. B: I (eat) _________ sushi for the first time on my dad’s 50th birthday. He (invite) _______ the whole family to a Japanese restaurant.
5. A: (you / like) ________ it?
6. B: Absolutely. In fact, it (be) _______ so good that we (be) ________ to that restaurant three times yet. And on my mum’s birthday, we (order) _______ some sushi and (have) _______ it at home.
Fill in the correct form (Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous).
1. You (eat / not) ______ up yet.
2. He (speak / not) _______ on the phone for half an hour, just a couple of minutes.
3. They (work / not) _______ since 5 o’clock. They just started an hour ago.
4. We (know / not) _______ them for a long time.
5. She (hang / not) _______ up all the pictures yet.
Bio EEI E. coli - Biology bibliographies - in Harvard style
Your Bibliography: Andrade, C. and Rao, S., 2011. The MMR vaccine and autism: Sensation, refutation, retraction, and fraud. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, [online] 53(2), p.95. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136032/> [Accessed 9 September 2016].
Memory B-Cell | ASU - Ask A Biologist
In-text: (Memory B-Cell | ASU - Ask A Biologist, n.d.)
Your Bibliography: Askabiologist.asu.edu. n.d. Memory B-Cell | ASU - Ask A Biologist. [online] Available at: <https://askabiologist.asu.edu/memory-b-cell> [Accessed 9 September 2016].
E. coli – the biotech bacterium | Biotech Learning Hub
In-text: (E. coli – the biotech bacterium | Biotech Learning Hub, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Biotechlearn.org.nz. 2016. E. coli – the biotech bacterium | Biotech Learning Hub. [online] Available at: <http://biotechlearn.org.nz/themes/bacteria_in_biotech/e_coli_the_biotech_bacterium> [Accessed 8 September 2016].
The Cell Wall of Bacteria
In-text: (The Cell Wall of Bacteria, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Boundless.com. 2016. The Cell Wall of Bacteria. [online] Available at: <https://www.boundless.com/microbiology/textbooks/boundless-microbiology-textbook/cell-structure-of-bacteria-archaea-and-eukaryotes-4/cell-walls-of-prokaryotes-34/the-cell-wall-of-bacteria-259-5681/> [Accessed 16 August 2016].
The Anti-Vaccination Movement - CSI
In-text: (The Anti-Vaccination Movement - CSI, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Csicop.org. 2016. The Anti-Vaccination Movement - CSI. [online] Available at: <http://www.csicop.org/SI/show/anti-vaccination_movement/www.kevinleitch.co.uk/www.kevinleitch.co.uk/www.cps.ca/english/statements/id/pidnote_jun07.htm> [Accessed 9 September 2016].
Bacteria - Growth of bacterial populations
In-text: (bacteria - Growth of bacterial populations, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Encyclopedia Britannica. 2016. bacteria - Growth of bacterial populations. [online] Available at: <https://www.britannica.com/science/bacteria/Growth-of-bacterial-populations> [Accessed 9 September 2016].
In-text: (Food poisoning, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Foodauthority.nsw.gov.au. 2016. Food poisoning. [online] Available at: <http://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/fp/food-poisoning> [Accessed 13 August 2016].
How do vaccines work? - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut
2015 - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut - YouTube
In-text: (How do vaccines work? - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut, 2015)
Your Bibliography: How do vaccines work? - Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut. 2015. [video] YouTube: Kelwalin Dhanasarnsombut.
What Are Bacteria?
In-text: (What Are Bacteria?, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Live Science. 2016. What Are Bacteria?. [online] Available at: <http://www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html> [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Boxف : Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: pleiotropic sensors and effectors of antimicrobial defences : Nature Reviews Microbiology
In-text: (Box 1 : Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: pleiotropic sensors and effectors of antimicrobial defences : Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Nature.com. 2016. Box 1 : Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: pleiotropic sensors and effectors of antimicrobial defences : Nature Reviews Microbiology. [online] Available at: <http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v5/n4/box/nrmicro1620_BX1.html> [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Bacteria – good, bad and ugly
In-text: (Bacteria – good, bad and ugly, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Sciencelearn Hub. 2008. Bacteria – good, bad and ugly. [online] Available at: <http://sciencelearn.org.nz/Science-Stories/Microorganisms/Bacteria-good-bad-and-ugly> [Accessed 16 August 2016].
How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus - Simona Zompi
In-text: (TED-Ed, 2013)
Your Bibliography: TED-Ed, 2013. How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus - Simona Zompi. [video] Available at: <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqUFy-t4MlQ> [Accessed 9 September 2016].
In-text: (E-coli, 2016)
Your Bibliography: TheFreeDictionary.com. 2016. E-coli. [online] Available at: <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/E-coli> [Accessed 16 August 2016].
E. Coli Infection From Food or Water-Topic Overview
In-text: (E. Coli Infection From Food or Water-Topic Overview, 2016)
Ted edu와 같은 non-profit, worldwide animation education 플랫폼을 만드는 것이 작은 목표이다.
개인적 작품 제작의 성향 자체가 단순한 미적, 감각적 작품 보다는 감화적 혹은 정보 전달적인 작품이 더욱 대중을 변화시킬 수 있으리라는 믿음이 있기 때문.
물론 웰메이드 애니메이션이나 필름처럼 관객의 마음을 움직이기엔 아직은 부족한 내공 탓하는 소심함도 있으리라.
우선 TED edu를 analysis and synthetic을 선정한 이유로는 무엇보다 깔금한 정보 전달력, 그리고 영어공부와 스토리보드 공부를 함께 할 수 있으리라는 판단 때문이다.
How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus - Simona Zompi
우리는 어떻게 치명적인 천연두 바이러스를 정복할 수 있었나 .
우선 씬을 분석하기 위해 잘게 쪼개 본 결과 4min 34sec의 애니메이션 임에도 불구 굉장히 많은 씬들이 존재한다.
애니메이션이란 노가다, 123개의 씬과 대표 이미지는 약 60개의 이미지로 모션으로 변화를 준 것을 볼 수 있다.
결론은 웰메이드 텍스트다. 깔끔한 논리와 전달하려는 핵심 논조, 아트웍은 두번째 이야기.
일만 년 전,
북동아프리카에 치명적인 바이러스가 발생했습니다.
그 바이러스는 공기를 통해 퍼졌고
피부세포, 골수, 비장,
그리고 림프 마디 마디를 공격했습니다.
그 불행한 감염은 열로 발전했고,
구토, 그리고 발진을 일으켰습니다.
감염된 30%의 사람들이 감염이 시작된지 2주 만에 죽었습니다.
살아남은 사람들은 몸에 여생동안 흉터와 딱지가 남았습니다.
기원전 1350년, 첫 유행성 천연두가
이집트-히타이트 전쟁동안 유행했습니다.
이집트 죄수들은 천연두를 히타이트로 확산시켰고
이는 그들의 왕을 죽이고 그의 문명을 완전히 파괴했지요.
서서히 천연두는 전세계에 퍼졌습니다.
이집트 상인들을 경유하여,
십자군 전쟁으로 아랍세계를 통해,
스페인 사람들과 포르투갈 사람들의 정복으로
아메리카로의 모든 방면으로 퍼졌습니다.
그 때 이후로 천연두는 3억에서 5억 명 가량의 수많은 사람들을 죽였습니다.
그러나 천연두는 불치병이 아니였습니다.
사실 천연두의 몰락은 오래 전 근대 약품에서 시작되었습니다.
그것은 1022년에 시작되었습니다.
"천연두의 올바른 치료법"이라 불리는 어떤 책에 따르면
남쪽 시천 프로비던스의 오 메이 션이라는 유명한 산에 살고 있는 비구니가 천연두 상처딱지를 부수고 그 가루를 건강한 사람의 콧구멍에
그녀는 천연두로부터 부작용 없이 간신히 살아남은 사람들을 보고 그대로 했습니다.
그 이상한 치료법은 효과가 있었습니다.
우두접종이라 불리우는 그 과정은 서서히 개발되어 1700년대에, 의사들은 상처로부터 재료를 얻어서 팔에 네다섯 개의 상처를 나게 해서 건강한 사람들에게 주입했습니다.
이는 꽤 효과가 있었습니다. 예방접종을 받은 사람들에게는 재감염이 없었으니까요. 그러나 이 방법은 완전하지 않았습니다.
그러나 3%에 해당하는 사람들이 고양이에 노출되면 여전히 죽었습니다.
영국의사 에드워드 제너가 우유짜는 여자에 대해 흥미로운 점을 발견하고는 오늘 날의 해결책이 나오게 되었죠.
13살 때 제너가, 국가 외과의사 및 약사 견습생일 때
브리스톨 인근에 있는 소드버리에서
낙농장의 하녀가 말하는 것을 들었습니다.
"저는 우두에 걸렸기 때문에 천연두에 걸리지 않을 거예요.
얼굴에 지저분한 마마자국도 없을거예요."
천연두와 비슷한 우두는 소를 감염시키는 피부질병입니다.
나중에 의사에 따르면,
그는 그녀가 옳았다는 것을 깨달았습니다.
우두를 겪은 여자는
죽음으로 이끄는 천연두로 더이상 발전하지 않는다고요,
천연두와 우두 바이러스는 같은 뿌리에서 나왔어요.
그러나 그 바이러스가 익숙하지 않은 숙주들에게 감염될 때,
이 경우에는 즉, 우두 바이러스가 사람들에게 감염될 때,
덜 치명적이었다는 것이지요.
그래서 제너는 우두 바이러스가 천연두로부터 사람들을 보호하기 위해
사용될 수 있는지 검사하기로 결심했습니다.
1 976년 5월, 제너는 우유 짜는 여인인 사라넴스를 발견하는데
그녀의 손과 팔에는 얼마 되지 않은 우두의 병소가 있었습니다.
블러썸이란 이름을 가진 소의 젖통에서 옮은 것이지요.
그녀의 고름집으로부터, 그는 제임스 핍스라는 정원사의 8살 된 아들에게 접종했습니다.
열과 통증이 있고 며칠이 지난 후, 그 소년은 회복된 것처럼 보였습니다.
두달 후 제너는 그 소년에게 다시 접종했습니다.
이번에는 얼마되지 않은 천연두의 병소로부터 채집한 물질로요.
아무런 질병이 발생하지 않았고, 그리고 제너는 백신이 완전하다고
결론 짓습니다. 그의 예상이 적중했지요.
제너는 나중에 우두 바이러스를 다른 여러 사람들에게 사용했습니다.
그리고 다시 그들에게 천연두로 도전했습니다.
그 질병에 대해 면역력이 있다는 것을 증명하면서요.
이러한 절차로 제너는 천연두 백신을 발명했습니다.
우두 접종과는 달리, 사람들을 보호하기 위해 사용된 천연두 바이러스는
우두바이러스보다 훨씬 더 안전했습니다.
의학기관은 그 때도 지금처럼 조심스러웠고, 그의 발견이 받아들여지기까지는 신중했습니다.
그러나 결국 백신은 서서히 수용되었고 우두접종은 1840년 영국에서
큰 백신 캠페인이 있고난 후, 19세기에서 20세기 동안 있고 난 후,
세계건강기구(WHO)는 1979년에 천연두의 근절을 확증했습니다.
제너는 영원히 기억될 것입니다.
New regulations, veganism, conspiracy theories, and more…
Changes to regulation of ‘low risk’ products: The ACCC is concerned that a regulatory gap may emerge for the following ‘low risk’ products if they are excluded from the TGA – ear candles, nappy rash cream, antiperspirants, hard surface disinfectants, sunscreens, tampons and menstrual cups, vitamins and minerals, aromatherapy and homeopathic products.
FSM Friends news & articles
Anti-Vaccine hotspots are getting hotter: “As we’ve pointed out countless times here on SBM, childhood vaccinations stand out as one of the most successful public health interventions of all time. They have saved millions of lives and prevented untold suffering. They are safe and they are effective. Despite this, we are seeing a rise in parents seeking to exempt their children from the recommended vaccine schedule and this new paper further reveals that many of these children are clustered and perfectly positioned to serve as epidemiological kindling. The reasons that these parents seek exemptions are many, and have largely been covered in previous posts. My fear is that we are past the point of reversing this trend and that only a series of large and deadly outbreaks will get through. That may not even be enough for some.”
ASCO endorses the integration of quackery into breast cancer care: “In clinical guidelines in real medicine, though, ‘recommendation’ means just that: a recommendation to use the treatment in question, graded, of course, according to the strength of the evidence. Yet here in the world of integrative medicine, ‘recommendation’ means something…squishier. One can’t help but make the analogy that integrative medicine’s evidence standard is squishier than that of real medicine.”
H.O.P.E. – A movie promoting veganism: “Humans evolved as omnivores. We like the taste of animal products. The movie wants everyone to subsist only on plants. I don’t see that as either necessary or as practically achievable. I don’t see any reason we can’t enjoy meat in moderation while also minimizing harm to the environment and treating animals humanely. H.O.P.E. is one of those pseudo-documentary movies that tell a one-sided story and promote their agenda by manipulating the viewer with appeals to emotion. Our decisions should be made on the basis of rational thought and a balanced assessment of all the scientific evidence, not on the basis of emotion.”
Vaccine policy: Dorit Rubinstein Reiss – an index of her vaccine articles on this website: For your enjoyment, a collection of the articles by Dorit Rubinstien Reiss, a law professor who has written extensively on vaccines, particularly on the legal and accountability issues surrounding vaccines and refusal.
Getting a heart check early can prevent heart attack and stroke in Indigenous Australians: “Heart disease risk can be lowered through lifestyle changes, including giving up smoking, losing weight and exercising more, as well as using medications that lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Generally, all people who have heart disease and those at high risk should be prescribed preventative medications. Yet this latest evidence shows only 53% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with existing heart disease and 42% of those at high risk were using cholesterol-lowering medications. We don’t know the exact reasons for this. It could be due to a number of things including people not getting a heart check in the first place, and not continuing to use medications when they have been prescribed.
We don’t know the exact number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people receiving a heart check, but we do know overall numbers are low and it varies by region. Estimates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes found rates of heart checks ranged from about 3% of people in participating health centres in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia to around 56% in the Northern Territory. This highlights the huge potential to prevent future heart attack and stroke in these communities by improving treatment in people at high risk.”
Great moments in Health and Science
The Eradication of Smallpox. How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus – Simona Zompi: In the 18th century in Europe, 400 000 people per year died of smallpox – a disease so deadly that 30% of people who caught it died. It is a terrible tragedy of human psychology that the more safe and protected we are from debilitating infectious diseases thanks to medical science, the more likely we are as a population to under-appreciate our privilege and to romanticise eras and cultures where infant mortality was 25%.
Today’s abused health concept
Anti-Vaxxers more likely to believe in conspiracy theories: It can be very difficult for many of us to understand why people would so steadfastly stand behind an indefensible position like anti-vaccination. Yet when ones thinking has departed from reality sufficiently that large swathes of society can simply be dismissed as ‘corrupt’, it becomes easier to understand their suspicion and non-acceptance. In general, I believe that it is important to understand, and to recognise conspiracy thinking. It has a simply amazing ability to block reason, science and rationality.