Battle of Medellin, 28 March 2008, Phase Three

Battle of Medellin, 28 March 2008, Phase Three

Battle of Medellin, 28 March 2008, Phase Three

Phase three of the battle of Medellin of 28 March 1809. At this point the French cavalry have turned the Spanish left and right wings, and the Spanish left wing is being rolled up.

A History of the Peninsular War vol.2: Jan.-Sept. 1809 - From the Battle of Corunna to the end of the Talavera Campaign, Sir Charles Oman. Part two of Oman's classic history falls into two broad sections. The first half of the book looks at the period between the British evacuation from Corunna and the arrival of Wellesley in Portugal for the second time, five months when the Spanish fought alone, while the second half looks at Wellesley's campaign in the north of Portugal and his first campaign in Spain. One of the classic works of military history.

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Collections Up Close

The Minnesota Historical Society preserves and makes available a wide range of materials chronicling Minnesota's history and culture. The goals of the Collections Department are to collect and preserve provide access and interpretation and engage in education and outreach. This blog is a tool to share these stories and let people know what is happening in the department.




Number of Episodes

The series had its premiere broadcast in Japan on October 9, 2004 at 6:00p.m. on the JNN TV stations (Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS TV), Mainichi Broadcasting System (MBS TV, producing TV station), etc.) and ended October 1, 2005.

On January 29, 2005, a television special, Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny EDITED Ώ] , was exhibited between episodes 15 and 16. This special was a summary narrated by the voice actor of Sai Argyle, Tetsu Shiratori. The song Fields of Hope was used as an insert song. This special was never sold or included in any physical media distribution.

On December 25, 2005, a television special, Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny Final Plus: The Chosen Future, aired featuring an extended ending of the series.

Just like the previous two Gundam series. An english dub produced by the Ocean Group aired in Canada on YTV From March 29, 2007 to March 28, 2008.

After the airing of the remastered final episode of Mobile Suit Gundam SEED, the HD remaster of Gundam SEED Destiny was quickly announced. ΐ]

On March 2013, the airing of the HD remaster began. Like the HD remaster of Gundam SEED, the remaster of this series not only improves the animation, but also alters lines and scenes from the original, as well as introducing brand new mobile suits. The episode count for the remaster was 50 episodes. The recap episode "Refrain" was completely omitted from the HD remaster, while the final episode divided into two parts: "Final Power" and "The Chosen Future", based on the "The Chosen Future" television special, with additional footage.

Much like with Gundam SEED, the HD version of this series is planned for an English release as well, with a brand-new english voice cast that will be announced in the future once the production of Gundam SEED has been completed. Α]

Sherman's March to the Sea

Anne J. Bailey, The Chessboard of War: Sherman and Hood in the Autumn Campaigns of 1864 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000).

Anne J. Bailey, War and Ruin: William T. Sherman and the Savannah Campaign (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2003).

William Harris Bragg, Griswoldville (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2009).

Barry L. Brown and Gordon R. Elwell, Crossroads of Conflict: A Guide to Civil War Sites in Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010).

James A. Connolly, Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland: The Letters and Diary of Major James A. Connolly, ed. Paul M. Angle (1928 reprint, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996).

Joseph T. Glatthaar, The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaign, new ed. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1995).

Jacqueline Jones, Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War (New York: Knopf, 2008).

Lee B. Kennett, Marching through Georgia: The Story of Soldiers and Civilians during Sherman's Campaign (New York: Harper Perennial, 2001).

Noah Andre Trudeau, Southern Storm: Sherman's March to the Sea (New York: Harper, 2008).

Delian League

The Delian League (or Athenian League) was an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens. The League was formed in 478 BCE to liberate eastern Greek cities from Persian rule and as a defence to possible revenge attacks from Persia following the Greek victories at Marathon, Salamis, and Plataea in the early 5th century BCE.

The alliance of over 300 cities within the League would eventually be so dominated by Athens that, in effect, it evolved into the Athenian empire. Athens became increasingly more aggressive in its control of the alliance and, on occasion, constrained membership by military force and compelled continued tribute which was in the form of money, ships or materials. Following Athens' defeat at the hands of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE the League was dissolved.


Membership & Tribute

The name Delian League is a modern one, the ancient sources refer to it as simply 'the alliance' (symmachia) or 'Athens and its allies'. The name is appropriate because the treasury of the alliance was located on the sacred island of Delos in the Cyclades. The number of members of the League changed over time but around 330 are recorded in tribute lists sources which are known to be incomplete. The majority of states were from Ionia and the islands but most parts of Greece were represented and later there were even some non-Greek members such as the Carian city-states. Prominent members included:

and many other cities across the Aegean, in Ionia, the Hellespont, and Propontis.


Initially members swore to hold the same enemies and allies by taking an oath. It is likely that each city-state had an equal vote in meetings held on Delos. Members were expected to give tribute (phoros) to the treasury which was used to build and maintain the naval fleet led by Athens. Significantly too, the treasury was controlled by Athenian treasurers, the ten Hellenotamiae. The tribute in the early stages was 460 talents (raised in 425 BCE to 1,500), a figure decided by Athenian statesman and general Aristides. An alternative to providing money was to give ships and/or materials (especially timber) and grain.

Successes & Failures

The Delian League enjoyed some notable military victories such as at Eion, the Thracian Chersonese, and most famously, at the Battle of Eurymedon in 466 BCE, all against Persian forces. As a consequence Persian garrisons were removed from Thrace and Chersonesus. In 450 BCE the League seemed to have achieved its aim if the Peace of Kallias is to be considered genuine. Here the Persians were limited in their field of influence and direct hostilities ended between Greece and Persia.

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Other successes of the League were not military but economic and political, making them more difficult to determine in their significance and real effect for all members. Piracy was practically eliminated in the Aegean, inter-city trade increased, a common coinage was introduced (the Athenian silver tetradrachm), taxation became centralised, democracy as a form of government was promoted, the judiciary of Athens was accessible to member's citizens, and such tools as measurement standards became uniform across the Aegean. The primary beneficiary of all of these was certainly Athens and the massive re-building project of the city, begun by Pericles and which included the Parthenon, was partially funded by the League treasury.

The League and its requirement of tribute was not always to the liking of its members and some did try and leave, especially as the threat from Persia gradually receded and the calls for tribute increased. A notable example is Naxos who sought to secede c. 467 BCE. Athens responded in dramatic fashion by attacking the island and making it a semi-dependency, albeit with a lower tribute. Thasos was another member who disagreed with Athens and wanted to keep control of its mines and trade centres. Again, the Athenians responded with force in 465 BCE and lay siege to the city for three years. Eventually, Thasos capitulated.


From Alliance to Empire to Collapse

Already looking like an Athenian empire, two further episodes changed the League forever. In 460 BCE the First Peloponnesian War broke out between Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and their allies. For the first time the League was being used against Greek city-states and Persia was off the agenda. Then c. 454 BCE Athens used the excuse of a failed League expedition in Egypt (to aid the anti-Persian prince Inarus) to move the League treasury to Athens.

The League became, thenceforth, ever more difficult to keep in toe. In 446 BCE Athens lost the Battle of Koroneia and had to repress a major revolt in Euboea. An even more serious episode occurred when fighting between Samos and Miletos (both League members) was escalated by Athens into a war. Again the Athenians' superior resources brought them victory in 439 BCE. Yet another revolt broke out in Poteidaia in 432 BCE which brought Athens and the Delian League in direct opposition to Sparta's own alliance, the Peloponnesian League. This second and much more damaging Peloponnesian War (432-404 BCE) against a Persian-backed Sparta would eventually, after 30 years of gruelling and resource-draining conflicts, bring Athens to her knees and ring the death knell for the Delian League. Such disastrous defeats as the 415 BCE Sicilian Expedition and the brutal execution of all males on rebellious Melos the previous year were indicators of the desperate times. Athens' glory days were gone and with them, so too, the Delian League.


The benefits of the League had been, certainly, mostly for the Athenians, nevertheless, it is significant that the realistic alternative – Spartan rule – would not have been and, from 404 BCE, was not any more popular for the lesser states of Greece. This is perhaps indicated by their willingness to re-join with, albeit a weaker and more militarily passive, Athens in the Second Athenian Confederacy from 377 BCE.

Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea

Tensions between China and both the Philippines and Vietnam have recently cooled, even as China increased its military activity in the South China Sea by conducting a series of naval maneuvers and exercises in March and April 2018. Meanwhile, China continues to construct military and industrial outposts on artificial islands it has built in disputed waters.

The United States has also stepped up its military activity and naval presence in the region in recent years, including freedom of navigation operations (FONOPs) in January and March 2018. In a speech during his November 2017 visit to Southeast Asia, President Donald J. Trump emphasized the importance of such operations, and of ensuring free and open access to the South China Sea. Since May 2017, the United States has conducted six FONOPs in the region.

China’s sweeping claims of sovereignty over the sea—and the sea’s estimated 11 billion barrels of untapped oil and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas—have antagonized competing claimants Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam. As early as the 1970s, countries began to claim islands and various zones in the South China Sea, such as the Spratly Islands, which possess rich natural resources and fishing areas.

China maintains [PDF] that, under international law, foreign militaries are not able to conduct intelligence-gathering activities, such as reconnaissance flights, in its exclusive economic zone (EEZ). According to the United States, claimant countries, under UN Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), should have freedom of navigation through EEZs in the sea and are not required to notify claimants of military activities. In July 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague issued its ruling on a claim brought against China by the Philippines under UNCLOS, ruling in favor of the Philippines on almost every count. While China is a signatory to the treaty, which established the tribunal, it refuses to accept the court’s authority.

In recent years, satellite imagery has shown China’s increased efforts to reclaim land in the South China Sea by physically increasing the size of islands or creating new islands altogether. In addition to piling sand onto existing reefs, China has constructed ports, military installations, and airstrips—particularly in the Paracel and Spratly Islands, where it has twenty and seven outposts, respectively. China has militarized Woody Island by deploying fighter jets, cruise missiles, and a radar system.

To protect its political, security, and economic interests in the region, the United States has challenged China’s assertive territorial claims and land reclamation efforts by conducting FONOPs and bolstering support for Southeast Asian partners. Also in response to China’s assertive presence in the disputed territory, Japan has sold military ships and equipment to the Philippines and Vietnam in order to improve their maritime security capacity and to deter Chinese aggression.

The United States, which maintains important interests in ensuring freedom of navigation and securing sea lines of communication (SLOCs), has expressed support for an agreement on a binding code of conduct and other confidence-building measures. China’s claims threaten SLOCs, which are important maritime passages that facilitate trade and the movement of naval forces.

The United States has a role in preventing military escalation resulting from the territorial dispute. Washington’s defense treaty with Manila could draw the United States into a potential China-Philippines conflict over the substantial natural gas deposits or lucrative fishing grounds in disputed territory. The failure of Chinese and Southeast Asian leaders to resolve the disputes by diplomatic means could also undermine international laws governing maritime disputes and encourage destabilizing arms buildups.

Preparing Data for Analysis is (more than) Half the Battle

Just last week, a colleague mentioned that while he does a lot of study design these days, he no longer does much data analysis.

His main reason was that 80% of the work in data analysis is preparing the data for analysis. Data preparation is s-l-o-w and he found that few colleagues and clients understood this.

Consequently, he was running into expectations that he should analyze a raw data set in an hour or so.

You know, by clicking a few buttons.

I see this as well with clients new to data analysis. While they know it will take longer than an hour, they still have unrealistic expectations about how long it takes.

So I am here to tell you, the time-consuming part is preparing the data. Weeks or months is a realistic time frame. Hours is not.

(Feel free to send this to your colleagues who want instant results).

There are three parts to preparing data: cleaning it, creating necessary variables, and formatting all variables.

Data Cleaning

Data cleaning means finding and eliminating errors in the data. How you approach it depends on how large the data set is, but the kinds of things you’re looking for are:

  • Impossible or otherwise incorrect values for specific variables
  • Cases in the data who met exclusion criteria and shouldn’t be in the study
  • Duplicate cases
  • Missing data and outliers
  • Skip-pattern or logic breakdowns
  • Making sure that the same value of string variables is always written the same way (male ≠ Male in most statistical software).

You can’t avoid data cleaning and it always takes a while, but there are ways to make it more efficient.

For example, one way to find impossible values for a variable is to print out data for cases outside a normal range.

This is where learning how to code in your statistical software of choice really helps. You’ll need to subset your data using IF statements to find those impossible values.

But if your data set is anything but small, you can also save yourself a lot of time, code, and errors by incorporating efficiencies like loops and macros so that you can perform some of these checks on many variables at once.

Creating New Variables

Once the data are free of errors, you need to set up the variables that will directly answer your research questions.

It’s a rare data set in which every variable you need is measured directly.

So you may need to do a lot of recoding and computing of variables.

  • Creating change scores
  • Creating indices from scales
  • Combining too-small-to-use categories of nominal variables
  • Restructuring data from wide format to long (or the reverse)

And of course, part of creating each new variable is double-checking that it worked correctly.

Formatting Variables

Both original and newly created variables need to be formatted correctly for two reasons:

First, so your software works with them correctly. Failing to format a missing value code or a dummy variable correctly will have major consequences for your data analysis.

Second, it’s much faster to run the analyses and interpret results if you don’t have to keep looking up which variable Q156 is.

  • Setting all missing data codes so missing data are treated as such
  • Formatting date variables as dates, numerical variables as numbers, etc. and categorical values so you don’t have to keep looking them up.

All three of these steps require a solid knowledge of how to manage data in your statistical software. Each one approaches them a little differently.

It’s also very important to keep track of and be able to easily redo all your steps. Always assume you’ll have to redo something. So use (or record) syntax, not menus.

13. French Tunisia (1881-1956)

Crisis Phase (May 12, 1881-June 30, 1921): The French militarily occupied Tunisia after Muhammad III as-Sadiq, Bey of Tunis, was forced to sign the Treaty of Bardo on May 12, 1881. Members of the Hammama, Zlass, Methellith, Swassi, and Beni Zid tribes led by Ali Ibn Khalifa rebelled against the French occupation beginning on June 10, 1881. French military forces captured the city of Sfax (Ṣafāqis) on July 15-16, 1881, resulting in the deaths of seven French soldiers. Tunisian insurgents attacked the Oued Zergha railway station on September 30, 1881, resulting in the massacre of the French stationmaster and ten (mostly Maltese and Italian) employees. French troops entered the city of Tunis on October 12, 1881. Some 800 Tunisian insurgents were killed during a battle with French troops commanded by General Sabatier near Sousse (Sūsa) on October 13, 1881. The city of Kairouan (al-Qayrawan) was captured by French military forces commanded by General Etienne on October 26-27, 1881. The city of Gafsa (Qafṣa) was captured by French military forces commanded by General Saussier on November 19-20, 1881. Some 100,000 Tunisians fled the country. Tunisian insurgents attacked a column of French troops on March 9, 1882, resulting in the deaths of some 100 French soldiers. French troops finally suppressed Tunisian insurgency in 1882. Pierre Paul Cambon served as French Resident-Minister in Tunisia from February 28, 1882 to June 23, 1885, and he served as French Resident-General in Tunisia from June 23, 1885 to October 28, 1886. Ali Muddat ibn al-Husayn, Bey of Tunis, signed the La Marsa Convention on June 8, 1883. The convention formally established the French Protectorate over Tunisia.

Several Tunisian nationalists, including Bechir Sfar, Abd al-‘Aziz al-Tha‘alibi, Abdeljelil Zaouche, and Ali Bash Hamba, established the Young Tunisians movement and founded the weekly newspaper Le Tunisien in February 1907. The French government banned the newspaper, Le Tunisien, in 1908. On November 7-8, 1911, violent riots occurred in Tunis after government police tried to prevent individuals from entering a Muslim cemetery in Jellaz. Several dozen individuals, including seven government policemen, were killed during the riots. A Tunisian child was accidentally killed by a French-run tram in Tunis on February 9, 1912. Tunisian nationalists organized a boycott of the tramway following the accident. Several Tunisian nationalists, including Ali Bash Hamba, Abd al-‘Aziz al-Tha‘alibi, and Hassan Guellaty, were arrested by French policemen on March 12, 1912 (four of the leaders were later expelled from Tunisia). In June 1912, some 35 Tunisians were prosecuted for their involvement in the 1911 riots, including seven individuals who were sentenced to death. The French government declared martial law in Tunisia in 1912. Pierre Etienne Flandin was appointed as French Resident-General in Tunisia on October 26, 1918. Tunisian nationalists established the Constitution Party (Destour Party) headed by Sheikh Abdelaziz Tha’libi in March 1920. The same month, Abd al-‘Aziz al-Tha‘alibi, was arrested in France and imprisoned in Tunisia. The Destour Party presented nine demands to Resident-General Pierre Etienne Flandin on June 23, 1920. The French parliament rejected the demands in July 1920. Abd al-‘Aziz al-Tha‘alibi was released from prison, and he was granted amnesty by the Bey of Tunis in June 1921. The French government lifted martial law in 1921.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1921-April 9, 1938): Muhammad V an-Nasir, Bey of Tunisia, died on July 10, 1922, and he was succeeded by his cousin, Muhammad VI al-Habib. Muhammad VI al-Habib, Bey of Tunisia, died on February 11, 1929, and he was succeeded by cousin, Ahmad II ibn Ali. Tunisian nationalists established the New Constitution Party (Neo-Destour Party) headed by Mahmoud Materi and Habib Bourguiba on March 2, 1934. Tunisian nationalists organized a general strike in Tunis on November 20, 1937. Six Tunisians were killed during demonstrations in Bizerte on January 8, 1938.

Crisis Phase (April 9, 1938-March 9, 1952): Ahmad II ibn Ali, Bey of Tunis, declared a state of siege in Tunis on April 9, 1938. French government troops fired on demonstrators in Tunis on April 10, 1938, resulting in the deaths of some 120 individuals. Habib Bourguiba, Secretary-General of the Neo-Destour Party, was arrested by French officials in 1939. Ahmad II ibn Ali, Bey of Tunis, died in La Marsa on June 19, 1942, and he was succeeded by his cousin, Muhammad VII al-Munsif. German troops occupied Tunisia from November 1942 to May 1943. Allied troops captured Tunisia from German troops on May 12, 1943. Muhammad VII al-Munsif, Bey of Tunis, was deposed by the French on May 14, 1943, and he was succeeded by his cousin Muhammad VIII al-Amin. The Free French took control of Tunisia from the Allied troops on May 15, 1943. Abd al-‘Aziz al-Tha‘alibi died on October 1, 1944. Habib Bourguiba issued the Manifesto of the Tunisian People, and went into exile in Cairo, Egypt in March 1945. Government police fired on Tunisian laborers led by Habib Achour in Sfax in August 1947, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals. Habib Bouguiba returned to Tunisia on September 9, 1949. Louis Perillier was appointed as French Resident-General in Tunisia on May 31, 1950. The French government provided Tunisia with autonomy within the French Union on February 8, 1951. Tunisian nationalists referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on January 12, 1952. Tunisian nationalists demonstrated against the French colonial government in Bizerte, Mateur, Sousse, Teboulba, and Tunis on January 16-23, 1952, resulting in the deaths of 30 nationalists. French police arrested Habib Bourguiba and five other Neo-Destour Party leaders on January 18, 1952. France deployed some 28,000 troops and police in Tunisia between January 26 and February 11, 1952. French police and demonstrators clashed in Tunis on February 4, 1952, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. Muhammad VIII al-Amin, Bey of Tunis, requested the release of Tunisian nationalists from custody on February 7, 1952.

Conflict Phase (March 10, 1952-April 21, 1955): Tunisian nationalists bombed a government police station in Tunis on March 10, 1952, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier. Tunisian nationalists bombed a railroad station in Gabes on March 12, 1952, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. The French colonial government declared a state-of-siege in Gabes on March 13, 1952. French government police and Tunisian nationalists clashed in Tunis on March 20, 1952, resulting in the death of one nationalist. Salaheddin Baccouche formed a government as prime minister on April 12, 1952. The UN Security Council voted against placing the Tunisian matter on its agenda on April 14, 1952. Tunisian nationalists bombed a post office in Tunis on May 13, 1952, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. The French government released 450 Tunisian nationalists from custody on May 22, 1952. Five Tunisian nationalists were sentenced to death by a French military tribunal on June 11, 1952, and the three of the nationalists were executed on December 8, 1952. Tunisian nationalists attacked and killed two individuals in Sousse on August 2, 1952. Ferhat Hached, General-Secretary of the General Union of Tunisian Workers (Union Generale des Travailleurs Tunisiens – UGTT), was killed by gunmen near Rades on December 4, 1952. Tunisian nationalists attacked the police station in Hamma on December 7, 1952, resulting in the death of one Tunisian. The UN General Assembly appealed for peaceful negotiations between the parties on December 17, 1952. Pierre Voizard was appointed as French Resident-General in Tunisia on September 2, 1953. The Council of the League of Arab States (LAS) expressed support for Tunisian independence on September 7, 1953. Mohammed Salah M’Zali formed a government as prime minister on March 2, 1954. French government policemen and Tunisian nationalists clashed in Tunis on March 15, 1954, resulting in the death of one individual. Habib Bourguiba was sent into exile in France on May 20, 1954. French troops and Tunisian nationalists clashed near Bizerte on May 23, 1954, resulting in the deaths of five Tunisian nationalists and two French government soldiers. Muhammad VIII al-Amin, Bey Tunis, and Habib Bourguiba appealed for the end of violence on June 1, 1954. Prime Minister M’Zali resigned on June 16, 1954. French government troops and Tunisian nationalists clashed near Jebel Orvata on July 5, 1954, resulting in the deaths of seven Tunisian nationalists and three French government soldiers. Some 74 Tunisians and 21 French government police were killed as a result of political violence between March and July 1954. Tahar ben Ammar formed a government as prime minister on August 8, 1954. French government troops and Tunisian nationalists clashed near Sidi Bou Zid on October 2, 1954, resulting in the deaths or wounding of 65 nationalists. French government troops and Tunisian nationalists clashed near Kasserine on October 20, 1954, resulting in the deaths of 17 individuals. Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France and Habib Bourguiba signed an autonomy agreement in Paris on April 21, 1955. Some 3,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 22, 1955-March 20, 1956): Habib Bourguiba returned to Tunisia from exile in France on June 1, 1955. Tunisia formally achieved its independence from France on March 20, 1956.

[Sources: Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 71 Butterworth, 1976, 137-138 Chicago Tribune, April 10, 1938 Facts-on-File, June 2-8, 1955 Keesing’s Record of World Events, March 24-31, 1951, May 3-10, 1952, August 9-16, 1952, December 13-20, 1952 Langer, 1972, 1291-1292 Ling 1967 Middle East Journal (MEJ), Spring 1952, Summer 1952, Autumn 1952, Winter 1952, Spring 1953, Winter 1953, Summer 1954, Autumn 1954, Winter 1954, Summer 1955, Autumn 1955, Spring 1956, Summer 1956 Rivlin, 1952, 167-193 Weisburd, 1997, 70-71.]

Selected Bibliography

Lewis, Mary Dewhurst. 2008. “Geographies of Power: The Tunisian Civic Order, Jurisdictional Politics, and Imperial Rivalry in the Mediterranean, 1881-1935,” The Journal of Modern History, vol. 80, pp. 791-830.

Lewis, Mary Dewhurst. 2009. “Necropoles and Nationality: Land Rights, Burial Rites, and the Development of Tunisian National Consciousness in the 1930s,” Past and Present, no. 205, pp. 105-141.

First National Conference

The second "Duel Monsters" tournament was held from August 1st to 26th, 1999 at the Tokyo Dome Stadium. It was introduced by an event held on July 1st, in which participants were given three promotional cards: "Duelist Kingdom" 「 王 ( おう ) 国 ( こく ) 」, "Set Sail for The Kingdom" 「 王 ( おう ) 国 ( こく ) への 船 ( ふな ) 出 ( で ) 」, and "Glory of the King's Hand" 「 王 ( おう ) の 右 ( みぎ ) 手 ( て ) の 栄 ( えい ) 光 ( こう ) 」. All 3 were released as Commons. This event became famous in Japan after August 1999 and its name became First National Conference (the previous was DMII tournament). 400 players attended the event.

GB Duel Monsters 2 Tournament (August 1st to 26th 1999 - Tokyo Dome Stadium)

How Sheffield United went from chasing Europe to ceding the relegation battle

The earliest Premier League relegation was rubber-stamped in March (Derby, in 2008). One of the first admissions of resignation to relegation came in February: this February. “This is an incredibly tough situation and one we don’t look as if we are going to get out of,” said Chris Wilder on Sunday. “We will be [playing] Championship football that’s realistic, not defeatist.”

Some can require a surfeit of self-belief to prosper in sport. Wilder has brought a critical eye and an honest approach. Eleven points on the board, 15 from safety, he spoke of a gulf in class. “This division is brutal and it exposes you,” he said.

To go from ninth to 20th, from 54 points to perhaps 15 or 20, would feel alarming regression, but Sheffield United’s will be a forgivable, understandable relegation. Mistakes have been made, but they were rendered costlier because they had little margin for error.

“It has to be the perfect storm for us,” Wilder said. United sustained that storm over the first 35 games of last season before a trio of defeats ended their improbable quest to qualify for Europe.

Wilder described their model as signing the best Championship players, but theirs was an extended experiment in how far graduates from League One (and, in a handful of cases, League Two) can go, aided by a collective commitment and abetted by a unique tactic. Stripped of their best overlapping centre-back and arguably their finest player, the injured Jack O’Connell, they have lost their uniqueness and, as a result, far more matches.

Jurgen Klopp noted how United tend to lose by small margins. Never, perhaps, has a team been beaten so often without really being thrashed. They have not capitulated, but they have been beaten by more talented teams. They have been defeated in both boxes, slumped because of their transfer business, suffered from injuries, which barely affected their defence and midfield last season, and a collective reversion to the mean.

Perhaps only Chris Basham, George Baldock and David McGoldrick have maintained form Sander Berge threatened to add another dimension but has been injured. But Wilder joked recently that John Fleck had been replaced by his brother Jimmy for a while, before the imaginary latter went back to the Highland League. In Fleck, Ollie Norwood and John Lundstram, an overperforming midfield has become an underwhelming one.

Fleck and Lundstram have added pertinence. Between them, they got 10 league goals last season. They have none now. The former was an anomaly, a formula working better than felt possible. Even with them, United were not prolific: they turned 39 goals in 38 games into a top-half finish in a season when Bournemouth got 40 and got relegated.

That gulf in ability and in resources is most apparent in the final third. Even in a season when McGoldrick averages a goal every 299 minutes and Billy Sharp one every 206, the other Blades have been blunt. Their Championship strike partnership have been their only real scorers. And, at this stage, two individuals become unavoidable issues.

United could not afford to fail in the transfer market, either. They did, with the possible exception of bringing in Jayden Bogle. They were outbid for Matty Cash and Antonee Robinson &ndash one with the fee, the other with wages &ndash and brought in back-ups: with two costly exceptions.

At one end of the pitch, Rhian Brewster cost £23 million and has no goals in 20 games at the other, Aaron Ramsdale cost £18.5 million and, while he excelled against Liverpool on Sunday, has one clean sheet and has been a downgrade on Dean Henderson. They needed an immediate impact from a 20-year-old and a 22-year-old and got one from neither.

They are far from the only reasons why United went from scoring as many goals as they conceded to letting in almost three-quarters of the goals in their matches, but a side who went from winning by one (nine times) to losing by one (on 14 occasions). They are not one of the worst teams in Premier League history but they could end up with one of the lowest points tallies.

They will revert to the Championship, scarred by the division it took some of their players a footballing lifetime to reach and to which some will not return. And yet the memories of the season when everything went right ought to last longer than those of the campaign when most things that could have gone wrong have.

Watch the video: Best Animated Football Ads ft Messi u0026 Ronaldo.