(APL-27: dp. 2,960,1. 328', b. 50', dr. 14'1" s. 11.6 k.
cpl. 253; a. 8 40mm.; cl. Achelous
Tantalus (APL-27) was laid down on 10 October 1944 at Seneca, III., by the Chicago Bridge and Iron Co., launched on 2 January 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Angeline Colomone, and commissioned on 13 January 1945, Lt. Frank L. Guberlet in command.
Following her conversion into a landing craft repair ship at Jacksonville, Fla., by the Gibbs Engine Works, she conducted her shakedown cruise in the Hampton Roads area. Tantalus departed Davisville, R.I., and headed for the Panama Canal Zone. She arrived at Coco Solo on 29 July, was assigned to Service Forces Pacific Fleet; and then was ordered to proceed via San Diego to Hawaii.
Tantalus stood out of San Diego on 14 August as whistles and sirens of the city proclaimed the Japanese surrender. She called at Pearl Harbor, Eniwetok, and Guam before reaching San Pedro Bay, Leyte, on 11 October. She served there as tender and repair ship for landing craft until 28 March 1946 when she headed for China. Tantalus operated at Shanghai and Hankow until late July when she got underway for Okinawa. She remained in the Ryukyus from 5 August to 31 October when she began a return voyage to China. After calling at Tsingtao, the ship arrived at Shanghai on 22 December 1946.
Tantalus was decommissioned in China on 18 January 1947 and released to the Foreign Liquidation Commission for further transfer to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration for disposal Tantalus was struck from the Navy list on 7 February 1947.
September 11 attacks
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September 11 attacks, also called 9/11 attacks, series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in 2001 by 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda against targets in the United States, the deadliest terrorist attacks on American soil in U.S. history. The attacks against New York City and Washington, D.C., caused extensive death and destruction and triggered an enormous U.S. effort to combat terrorism. Some 2,750 people were killed in New York, 184 at the Pentagon, and 40 in Pennsylvania (where one of the hijacked planes crashed after the passengers attempted to retake the plane) all 19 terrorists died (see Researcher’s Note: September 11 attacks). Police and fire departments in New York were especially hard-hit: hundreds had rushed to the scene of the attacks, and more than 400 police officers and firefighters were killed.
What were the September 11 attacks?
The September 11 attacks were a series of airline hijackings and suicide attacks committed in 2001 by 19 terrorists associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda. It was the deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil nearly 3,000 people were killed. The attacks involved the hijacking of four planes, three of which were used to strike significant U.S. sites. American Airlines flight 11 and United Airlines flight 175 were flown into the World Trade Center’s north and south towers, respectively, and American Airlines flight 77 hit the Pentagon. United Airlines flight 93 crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after passengers attempted to overpower the hijackers. The plane was believed to be headed to the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C.
How many people were killed in the September 11 attacks?
The exact number of victims—particularly the number of those killed at the World Trade Center—is not definitively known. However, the official death toll, after numerous revisions and not including the 19 terrorists, was set at 2,977 people. At the World Trade Center in New York City, 2,753 people died, of whom 343 were firefighters. The death toll at the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., was 184, and 40 individuals died outside Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Who planned the September 11 attacks?
Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden is considered the mastermind of the attacks, though Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the operational planner. Mohammed came up with the tactical innovation of using hijacked planes to attack the United States, and al-Qaeda provided the personnel, money, and logistical support to execute the operation. Mohammed Atta was selected to head the operation. He and 18 other terrorists, most of whom were from Saudi Arabia, established themselves in the United States, where some received commercial flight training. All 19 hijackers died in the attacks, bin Laden was killed by U.S. forces in 2011, and Mohammed was captured in 2003.
How did the September 11 attacks change America?
The attacks had a profound and lasting impact on the country, especially regarding its foreign and domestic policies. U.S. Pres. George W. Bush declared a global “war on terrorism,” and lengthy wars in Afghanistan and Iraq followed. Meanwhile, security measures within the United States were tightened considerably, especially at airports. To help facilitate the domestic response, Congress quickly passed the controversial USA PATRIOT Act, which significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies. Additionally, a cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security was created.
Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments
Finding Aids: Harry Schwartz and Lee Saegesser, comps., "Preliminary Inventory of the Textual Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments," NM 72 (1966) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.
Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.
Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library, RG 45.
General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947, RG 80.
Records of Naval Operating Forces, RG 313.
General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1947- , RG 428.
181.2 Records of Naval Districts
181.2.1 Records of the 1st Naval District (Boston, MA)
Textual Records (in Boston): Letters sent, 1903-4. General correspondence, 1925-58. Correspondence concerning ships, 1939- 40. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff (Operations), including General correspondence, 1942-55 geographic files, 1940-45, war diaries, 1942-45, and logs, 1942- 46, of the Operations Officer and General correspondence of the Aviation Officer, 1944-45. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff (Administration), including General correspondence, 1946-61 Records of the Historical Officer, including a daily historical log, 1941-45 General correspondence of the District Director of the Naval Reserve, 1946-50 and Records of the Public Information Officer, 1944-50. Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff (Personnel), including General correspondence of the District Personnel Officer, 1927- 36 investigative files of the Director of Naval Officer Procurement, 1941-43 and General correspondence of the Director of Training, 1942-49. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1951-65. Program correspondence of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion, and Repair, 1966-67. General correspondence, 1941-46, and real estate files, 1941-52, of the Public Works Office. Records of the Port Director, Boston, MA, including correspondence, 1942-46 vessel acquisition, inspection, and disposition files, 1940-47 routing instructions, 1941-46 convoy sailing orders and related records, 1941-46 and pier office station logs, 1943-45. Contract administration records ("Ships' Case Files"), 1958-68, of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Conversion, and Repair,Groton, CT.
Photographs (in Boston): Public Works Office photographic file of naval shore facilities in New England, 1939- 47 (775 images). See Also 181.19.
181.2.2 Records of the 3d Naval District (New York, NY)
Textual Records (in New York): General correspondence, 1917-42, with record cards. Legal correspondence, 1917-21. Records of the Office of the Commandant, consisting of General correspondence, 1956-59, with index cards and personal-official files, 1953-57. Records of the Inspector General, 1955-60. Naval histories, 1903- 60. Correspondence of the Shore Station Development Board, 1947- 54. Correspondence relating to the organization of the District Naval Reserve Force, 1920-26. Naval reserve annual inspection and competition records, 1957-59. Naval reserve telecommunications and censorship seminar programs, 1951-65. Construction and civil engineering planning files, 1947-53. General correspondence, U.S. Naval Activities, 1955. Miscellaneous real estate Records of the Area Public Works Office, 1943-57. Notices and instructions, 1951-59. Records of the Port Director, New York, NY, including merchant vessel logs, 1941-46 routing instructions, 1941-46 convoy sailing orders, 1941-46. Miscellaneous administrative and program Records of the Port Director, Iceland, 1942-45.
181.2.3 Records of the 4th Naval District (Philadelphia, PA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General correspondence files of organizations in the Fourth Naval District, 1910-26. Security-classified and unclassified General correspondence of the Commandant, 1923-60. General correspondence of the Naval Liaison Office, Sun Ship Building and Drydock Company, 1945-46. Security-classified navy shipbuilding scheduling activity, 1951-52. General files of the District Legal Office, 1955, 1957-58. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1955-57. History, Supply Corps, U.S. Naval Frontier Base, Tompkinsville, Staten Island, NY, 1945. Records of the Port Director, Philadelphia, PA, including routing instructions, 1941-46 ship locator cards for tankers, 1941-45 and logs, correspondence, and reports, 1941-45.
181.2.4 Records of the 5th Naval District (Norfolk, VA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Records of the Commandant, consisting of central subject files, 1926-60 General correspondence, 1939-57 miscellaneous correspondence, 1926- 40 armed guard ship files, 1945 and a history of the Fifth Naval District and naval base activities, 1939-46. General correspondence of the Port Director, Baltimore, MD, 1935-55.
181.2.5 Records of the 6th Naval District (Charleston, SC)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): General correspondence, 1917-25, 1952-54. Central subject files, 1925-59. Administrative files, 1958-61. Central subject files, Headquarters, 6th, 7th, and 8th Naval Districts (Consolidated), 1925-39. Correspondence relating to ships, 1917-25. Operations correspondence, 1941-53. Training correspondence, 1948. Reserve Intelligence Program Office correspondence, 1951-55. Records of the Industrial Manager, including central subject files, 1950-61, and research and development files, 1958-61. Records of investigations by the Inspector General, 1951-61. Inspection reports, 1959-63. War diaries, 1942-46. Miscellaneous records, 1903-14.
181.2.6 Records of the 7th Naval District (Jacksonville/Miami,
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1925-48. Organization and planning files, 1921-40. Issuances, 1942-46. Central subject files of the Industrial Manager, 1946-55. War diaries, 1942-46.
181.2.7 Records of the 8th Naval District (New Orleans, LA)
Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Records of the Commandant, consisting of General correspondence, 1917-33 and General subject files, 1925-59. Records of the Assistant Commandant for Logistics, 1942-58. Records of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Naval Reserve and Training, 1945-57. Records of the District Legal Officer, 1942-54. Records of the District War Plans Office, 1940-50. Records of the District Intelligence Officer, 1942-45. Records of the District Civil Engineer, 1948-57. Subject files of the Industrial Manager, 1940-58. Issuances, 1951-55. War diaries, 1941-46.
181.2.8 Records of the 9th Naval District (Great Lakes, IL)
Textual Records (in Chicago): Central subject files, 1929-53. Miscellaneous correspondence, 1913-29. Central subject files of the Industrial Manager (Chicago, IL), 1943-47.
181.2.9 Records of the 10th Naval District (San Juan, PR)
Textual Records (in New York): Central subject files, 1940-56.
181.2.10 Records of the 11th Naval District (San Diego, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Records of the Commandant's Office, consisting of subject files, 1918-55 General correspondence, 1918-58 correspondence (navy filing scheme), 1921-47 and COMELEVEN notices and instructions, 1951-56. Subject files of the Assistant Chief of Staff (Operations), 1934-50 Assistant Chief of Staff (Personnel), 1938-54 and Assistant Chief of Staff (Logistics), 1952-54. Records of the Assistant Chief of Staff (Naval Reserves and Training), consisting of correspondence, 1924-46 and Naval Reserve files, 1925-43. Subject files of the District Director of Naval Reserves, 1943-54 and District Director of Material, 1931-46. Subject files of the District Communications Office, 1916-47 District Legal Office, 1921-52 and District Planning Office, 1925-52. Subject files of the Convoy and Routing Office, 1941-46. Subject files of the Industrial Manager (San Diego, CA), 1938-45.
181.2.11 Records of the 12th Naval District (San Francisco, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Office of the Commandant, including General correspondence, 1919-55, with incoming and outgoing logs, 1920-45, and indexes, 1940-54 directives, 1951-58 publications, 1944-56 shore development and planning records and correspondence, 1919-51 and Records of the civilian personnel program, 1936-45. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1954-58. Records of the Legal Office, consisting of subject files, 1935-51 and Records of courts- martial, 1948-52. Records of the Port Director's Office, including General correspondence, 1940-45 and formerly security- classified merchant vessel logs, 1942-45. Records of the Public Works Office, including contracts and specifications, 1951-60 and real property records, 1949-62. Subject files of the Records Officer, 1942-47.
181.2.12 Records of the 13th Naval District (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Commandant, including General correspondence, 1938-54 and administrative files, 1944-53. General correspondence of the Inspector General, 1946-56. Records of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Personnel, 1945-58 the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations, 1946-56 the Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics, 1942-60 and the Assistant Chief of Staff for Naval Reserve and Training, 1918-58 (bulk 1946-57). Records of the Communications Office (Northwestern Sea Frontier), 1937-45. Records of the Operations Office, including General correspondence, 1942-46 operational files, 1944-50, and administrative files, 1951-52. Records of the Planning Office, 1919-54, 1960-63. Records of the Seattle Port Director's Office, consisting of General correspondence, 1941-45 General files, 1943-46 and General files of the Convoy Routing Office, 1942-46. General files of the West Coast Representative, Training Command (Portland, OR), 1943-45.
181.2.13 Records of the 14th Naval District (Pearl Harbor, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Office of the Commandant, consisting of General correspondence, 1912-57 correspondence relating to naval transports, 1928-34 housing correspondence, 1940-43 personnel correspondence, 1941-56 staff special interest correspondence, 1940-44 and issuances, 1927-41. Records of District Staff Headquarters, including General correspondence, 1935-46 and postwar status planning records, 1945. Records of the Legal Office, including General correspondence, 1943-46 Records of boards of investigation and courts of inquiry, 1926-43 investigative case files, 1940-45 and newspaper clippings relating to the "Ala Moana Case," 1931- 32. General correspondence of the Commandant, Naval Air Bases, 1942-43 Harbor Defense Unit, 1950-54 Hawaiian Sea Frontier, 1950, 1952-57 Industrial Manager, 1952-56 Logistical Office, 1942-46 and Local Defense Force, 1940-42, 1944-45. Intelligence Office ethnographic and hydrographic reports of Japanese mandated islands, 1942. Prewar planning Records of the War Plans Office, 1931-41. Records of the Shore Patrol, 1933-37 and Supply Office, 1942-45.
Maps and Charts (in San Francisco): Installations around Pearl Harbor, collected by District Staff Headquarters, 1959 (100 items). See Also 181.17.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in San Francisco): Public Works Office drawings of overseas and Hawaii projects, 1950-59 (150 items). See Also 181.17.
Photographs (in San Francisco): Outlying islands, collected by the Office of the Commandant, 1935-42 (2,300 images). District Staff Headquarters camouflage studies and reports, 1942-46 (186 images). Construction in the Hawaiian Islands, collected by the Intelligence Office, 1941-42 (290 images). See Also 181.19.
181.2.14 Records of the 15th Naval District (Cristobal, Canal
Textual Records (in New York): Central subject files, 1921-52.
181.2.15 Records of the 17th Naval District (Kodiak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Records of the Commandant, 1946- 61, including General correspondence, 1946-58 and administrative files, 1950-51. Records of the Commander, Alaskan Sea Frontier, 1945, 1947. Records of the Commander, Navy Air Bases, 1944-47. Records of the Information Office, 1942-46. General files of the Public Works Office, 1943-46.
181.2.16 Records of the Naval District of Washington (Washington,
Textual Records : Central subject files, 1942-55 (in Philadelphia). Miscellaneous correspondence with other naval districts, 1940-52. Records relating to Naval Weapons Plant contracts, 1955-61. Records of the Potomac River Naval Command, 1952-53, 1955-56.
181.3 Records of Navy Yards
181.3.1 Records of the Boston Navy Yard (Boston, MA)
Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the Office of the Commandant, including letters sent, 1825-1908 letters received, 1823-1908 General correspondence, 1909-67 correspondence concerning ships, 1938-46 issuances, 1836-1913 station logs, 1888-1958 daily journals of yard activity, 1815- 46 records relating to personnel, 1846-1911 and construction contracts and other fiscal records, 1823-1913. Letters sent and received by the Office of the Naval Storekeeper, 1842-67. Records of the Ordnance Office, 1871-91. Historical files, 1940-73, and daily journal of events, 1815-32, 1842-46, of the Office of Public Relations. Records of the Chief Engineer, Department of Steam Engineering, including letters sent and received, 1865- 1910, General correspondence, 1898-1912, monthly reports, 1869- 1909, property records, 1863-1900, and muster and time books, 1864-83. Records of the Department of Yards and Docks, including Records of the Captain of the Yard, 1852-1922, and Civil Engineer, 1861-1911.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Boston): Department of Steam Engineering files of plans and tracings prepared or used by the "drawing room" or machine shop, for vessels constructed, repaired, or overhauled at the Boston Navy Yard buildings and shops at the yard and equipment used at the yard or installed aboard vessels, 1856-92 (1,348 items). See Also 181.17.
181.3.2 Records of the Charleston Navy Yard (Charleston, SC)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): General correspondence, 1902-25 with indexes, 1902-9, and record cards, 1909-25. Central subject files, 1925-60. Office files of the aide to the Commandant, 1902- 33. Station logbooks, 1903-52. Miscellaneous records, 1917-25. Housing Division historical data files, 1949-59. Development and maintenance records, 1961.
181.3.3 Records of the Mare Island Navy Yard (San Francisco, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Office of the Commandant/Commander, including letters sent, 1856-1907 letters received, 1854-1910, with registers, 1901-7 General correspondence ("Old Files"), 1917-25, with record cards, 1916- 21, and indexes, 1917-18, 1923-25 General correspondence, 1926- 58 issuances, 1858-1910, 1929-48 and ship battle damage reports, 1941-46. Records of the Captain of the Yard, including letters received, 1900-5, 1911-13 and endorsements sent, 1900- 13. Records of the Department of Construction and Repair, including miscellaneous correspondence, 1891-97 employee, labor, and payroll records, 1862-1901 and Records of the Stone Dry Dock Section, 1880-82. Records of the Department of Equipment and Recruiting, including letters sent and received, 1865-1900. Records of the Department of Steam Engineering, including letters sent and received, 1858-1910 labor and payroll records and time books, 1867-1905 issuances, 1863-82 and Records of the Machinery Division, 1910-18. Records of the Department of Yards and Docks, 1870-1908. Letters sent and received by the Judge Advocate General, 1908-19 Department of Medicine and Surgery, 1892-1912 Navigation Office, 1881-95 and Ordnance Department, 1863-1907. General correspondence of the Submarine Center, 1941- 46 and Supply Department, 1941-46.
Engineering Plans (in San Francisco): Ship mechanical drawings and blueprints, 1940 (60 items). See Also 181.17.
Aerial Photographs (in San Francisco): Mare Island, 1923 (5 items). See Also 181.17.
181.3.4 Records of the Memphis Navy Yard (Memphis, TN)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Letters sent, 1846-55. Letters received, 1845-55. Reports relating to facility construction, 1847-51. Fiscal records, 1846-55. Records relating to the construction of the ropewalk foundation and vertical wall, 1846- 48.
181.3.5 Records of the New York (Brooklyn) Navy Yard (New York,
Textual Records (in New York): Letters sent, principally to the Secretary of the Navy and Navy Department bureaus, 1840-96. Letters received, principally from the Board of Navy Commissioners, the Secretary of the Navy, and Navy Department bureaus, 1826-96. General correspondence, 1896-1942, with indexes, registers, and record cards. General correspondence, 1930-65. Correspondence relating to ships, 1917, 1922, 1929-31. Commander's correspondence, 1957-59. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1914-19, 1947-59 with indexes, 1914-17. Material Laboratory project files, 1925-62. Yard orders, 1900-11. Personnel records, 1879-1922. Station logs, 1856-1930, 1952-64. Patent disclosure files, 1953-59. Technical reports, 1940-60. Ship files, 1957-59. Medical correspondence, 1944-58. Command histories, 1922-46.
Records of the Department of Steam Engineering, including letters sent, 1900-11 letters received, 1899-1911, 1918 payrolls, 1840- 41, 1843, 1848 weekly ship reports, 1904-7 and Commandant's orders, 1896-1909. Records of the Department of Yards and Docks, including letters sent, 1841-42, 1857-89 letters received, 1849- 94 and daily reports of master masons, 1861-62. Records of the Captain of the Yard, including letters sent, 1910 letters received, 1895-1901 logs, 1902-7 and police blotters, 1892, 1896-97. Records of the Equipment Department, including letters sent, 1879-90 letters received, 1900-2 General correspondence, 1908-10 and orders, 1904-9. Records of the Department of Construction and Repair, including letters sent, 1853-61, 1866- 67, 1887-89, 1905-6 and semimonthly vessel reports, 1857-58. Records of the Department of Ordnance, including pay rolls, 1850- 56 and personnel orders, 1833-66. Letters sent, 1899-1900, and received, 1864-67, by the Board on Wages. Miscellaneous records of the Medical Officer, 1917-21 Paymaster, 1851-57 and Aide to the Commandant, 1911.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in New York): Material Laboratory project drawings, 1945-55 (18,400 items). See Also 181.17.
Photographic Prints: Buildings, equipment, construction and launching of ships, views of ships and small craft, and personnel at the New York Navy Yard, 1898-1922 (NYS, 1,250 images). Ship construction and drydock repairs at the New York Navy Yard, 1916-40 (NYSL, 3,034 images). Construction and completion views, U.S.S. North Carolina (BB-55), New York Navy Yard, 1937-41 (NCB, NCC 572 images). See Also 181.19.
Photographic Prints and Negatives (in New York): Material Laboratory projects, 1930-45 (9,500 images). See Also 181.19.
181.3.6 Records of the Norfolk Navy Yard (Portsmouth, VA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Letters sent to the Secretary of the Navy and Navy Department bureaus, 1866-1911. General correspondence, 1901-43. Central subject files, 1926-59. Correspondence relating to the interned German ships Prinz Friedrich and Kron Prinz Wilhelm, 1915-16. Telegrams sent, 1893- 1911. Radiograms sent and received, 1906-11. Yard orders, 1866- 1911. Navy Department and bureau orders, 1864-74. Station logs, 1893-1932.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Philadelphia): Wiring blueprints, U.S.S. Hannibal, 1929-34 (29 items). See Also 181.17.
181.3.7 Records of the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard (Pearl Harbor, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Office of the Commandant, including letters sent, 1899-1908 letters received, 1899-1908, with registers, 1905-15 General correspondence ("Old Files"), 1908-26 General correspondence, 1927-57 miscellaneous correspondence, 1930-34 reports relating to the laying up and recommissioning of vessels, 1922-35 and indexes to correspondence of the Machinery, Radio, and Hull Divisions, 1917- 21. Letters sent and received by the Captain of the Yard, 1904-5. Letters sent by the Departments of Construction and Repair, 1904- 5 Equipment and Recruiting, 1904-7 and Steam Engineering, 1906- 7. Records of the Ordnance Department, 1902-19. General subject files, diving and salvage logs, and other Records of the Fleet Salvage Unit, 1941-46.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in San Francisco): Blueprints of wireless telegraph apparatus used aboard ships, 1903-7 (20 items). Fleet Salvage Unit drawings of righting and raising operations on sunken battleships, 1942-44 (420 items). See Also 181.17.
Photographs (in San Francisco): Salvage photographs maintained by the Fleet Salvage Unit, 1941-45 (400 images). See Also 181.19.
181.3.8 Records of the Pensacola Navy Yard (Pensacola, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Logbook, 1902-3.
181.3.9 Records of the Philadelphia Navy Yard (Philadelphia, PA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Letters sent and received, 1827-1900 (with gaps). Correspondence with the Secretary of the Navy and Navy Department bureaus, 1898-1910. General correspondence, 1910-39, with card indexes, 1910-26. Issuances, 1894-1912. Account ledgers, 1784-1801, 1823-24. Station logs, 1841-76, 1950-55. General correspondence of the Shipyard Commander, 1955- 58.
Photographic Prints and Negatives: Activities, facilities, ship views, and personnel of the Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1907-26, 1953-63 (PS, N 3,555 images). U.S. Coast Guard vessel, Point Arguello, Philadelphia Navy Yard, n.d. (PSC, 105 images). U.S.S. Relief, Philadelphia Navy Yard, 1921 (PSR, 208 images). See Also 181.19.
181.3.10 Records of the Portsmouth Navy Yard (Portsmouth, NH)
Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the Office of the Commandant, including letters sent, 1823-1911 letters received, 1815-1902 General correspondence, 1900-55 issuances, 1863-1911 and personnel records, 1819-1917. General correspondence, 1925- 50, and correspondence concerning ships, 1934-50, of the Industrial Department. Correspondence of the Inspection Officer, 1910-11. Letters and telegrams received by the Inspector of Ordnance, 1864-67 and by the Recruiting Officer, 1900-8. Records of the Department of Yards and Docks, consisting of letters sent and received by the Captain of the Yard, 1860-91 and monthly reports of the Civil Engineer concerning improvements and repairs, 1856-59.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Boston): Film aperture cards (35mm microfilm), maintained by the Office of the Commandant, of sail and steam vessels constructed, repaired, or overhauled, 1840-1923, at the Portsmouth Navy Yard, n.d.(194 items). See Also 181.17.
181.3.11 Records of the Puget Sound Navy Yard (Bremerton, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Historical records, 1910-85. Records of the Commander, including central files, 1924-61 General correspondence, 1925-53 directives case files, 1954-58 and incoming and outgoing dispatches, 1941-42. Primary progress reports, 1963-64.
181.3.12 Records of the San Francisco (Hunters Point) Navy Yard
(San Francisco, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records of the Office of the Commander, including General correspondence, 1940-58 administrative histories, 1944-52 navy yard publication, The Drydocker, 1944-65 and station logs and journals, 1953-54. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1951-53. Records of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Inspector of Ordnance, consisting of General correspondence, 1951-56, and correspondence relating to ship drawings, 1959-60.
181.3.13 Records of the San Juan Navy Yard (San Juan, PR)
Textual Records (in New York): Letters sent by the Department of Construction and Repair, 1909-11 and by the Department of Yards and Docks, 1899-1911.
181.3.14 Records of the Washington Navy Yard (Washington, DC)
Textual Records : Letters sent, 1839-96. Letters received, 1840- 99. General correspondence, 1896-1919. Issuances, 1837-1920. Records relating to personnel, 1817-19, 1848, 1864-1924. Fiscal records, 1832-1909. Records relating to naval property, 1811-95. Station logs, 1830-48, 1852, 1862, 1865-1905. Records of Naval Lodge 641, Knights of Honor, 1879-85. Minutes of meetings of the Naval Temperance Union, 1892-94.
181.4 Records of Naval Bases
181.4.1 Records of the Charleston Naval Base and Minecraft Base
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1945-54. Medical evaluation records, 1950-57.
181.4.2 Records of the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(Guantanamo Bay, Cuba)
Textual Records : Correspondence, 1908-46. Subject files, 1948-56.
181.4.3 Records of the Key West Naval Base (Key West, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Force Headquarters central subject files, 1955, 1958. General correspondence of the Commander, 1954-57.
181.4.4 Records of the Long Beach Naval Base (Long Beach, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1948- 53. Central subject files, 1961-69. Subject files of the Supply Officer, U.S. Naval Supply Depot, 1949-62.
181.4.5 Records of the New London Naval Base (New London, CT)
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence of the Fitting Out Section, 1917-19.
181.4.6 Records of the Newport Naval Base (Newport, RI)
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence ("Base Files"), 1956.
181.4.7 Records of the Norfolk Naval Base (Norfolk, VA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central subject files, 1941- 54.
181.4.8 Records of the Pearl Harbor Naval Base (Pearl Harbor, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence of the Office of the Commander, 1941-46.
181.4.9 Records of the Portsmouth Naval Base (Portsmouth, NH)
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence, 1947-52. General correspondence ("Base Files"), 1925-58. Correspondence concerning ships, 1937-54. Issuances, 1951-61.
181.4.10 Records of the Puget Sound Naval Base (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Records of the Commander, consisting of "Old Files," 1901-25 and officer personnel files, 1943. Real property files of the Real Estate Office, 1936-60.
181.4.11 Records of the Rosneath Naval Base (Rosneath, Scotland)
Textual Records : Records of Naval Base No. 2, 1943-45.
181.4.12 Records of the San Francisco Naval Base (San Francisco,
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence of the Office of the Commander, 1946-54. Records of the Commander's Office, Mare Island-Vallejo Area, including General correspondence, 1947-57 and special files, 1951-57.
181.5 Records of Advanced Amphibious Training Bases (AATB)
181.5.1 Records of the Beni-Sef AATB (Beni-Sef, Algeria)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1943. Station log, 1943.
181.5.2 Records of the Cherchel AATB (Cherchel, Algeria)
Textual Records : General correspondence and other records, 1943.
181.5.3 Records of the Mostaganem AATB (Mostaganem, Algeria)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1943.
181.5.4 Records of the Nemours AATB (Nemours, Algeria)
Textual Records : General correspondence and other records, 1943.
181.5.5 Records of the Port Lyautey AATB (Port Lyautey, Morocco)
Textual Records : General and miscellaneous correspondence, 1943. Station log, 1943.
181.5.6 Records of the Salerno AATB (Salerno, Italy)
Textual Records : Encoded teletype dispatches, 1944. Visual signal messages, 1944. Miscellaneous records, 1944.
181.5.7 Records of the Tenes AATB (Tenes, Algeria)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1943-44. Dispatches and issuances, 1943-44. Station and other logs, 1942-44.
181.6 Records of Naval Operating Bases (NOB)
181.6.1 Records of the Auckland NOB (Auckland, New Zealand)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1943-44. Miscellaneous records, 1943-44.
181.6.2 Records of the Dutch Harbor NOB (Dutch Harbor, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General and General confidential files, 1946-47. Communications files, 1945-47. Public works files, 1946.
181.6.3 Records of the Key West NOB (Key West, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1940-53, 1956-57.
181.6.4 Records of the Kodiak NOB (Kodiak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General files, 1940-47. Central files, 1941-44. Administrative files, 1948-50. Miscellaneous files, 1945. War diary, 1942-46.
181.6.5 Records of the Londonderry NOB (Londonderry, Northern
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1942-44. Correspondence relating to personnel, 1943-44. Radio dispatches, 1942-44. Correspondence of the Commandant, 1942-44 Executive Officer, 1942 Personnel Officer, 1943-44 Transportation Officer, 1942- 44 and Welfare and Recreation Officer, 1942-44. Muster and allowance cards, 1942-44.
181.6.6 Records of the Oran NOB (Oran, Algeria)
Textual Records : General records, 1943-45. Administrative records, 1943-45.
181.6.7 Records of the Palermo NOB (Palermo, Italy)
Textual Records : Correspondence and reports, 1942-45.
181.6.8 Records of the San Pedro NOB (San Pedro, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1940- 47. Court of inquiry files of the Base Legal Office, 1941-47. General correspondence of the Assistant Industrial Manager, 1940- 47. Subject files of the Mine Disposal Unit, 1941-46. General correspondence, Roosevelt Base, Terminal Island, 1944-46. Operations manual, U.S. Naval Drydocks, Terminal Island, 1944.
181.7 Records of Other Bases
181.7.1 Records of the Bishops Point Section Base (Bishops Point,
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Station logs, 1942-45.
181.7.2 Records of the Key West Submarine Base (Key West, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): General correspondence, 1946-53. Logbook, 1946.
181.7.3 Records of the Kodiak Submarine Base (Kodiak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General files of the Commander, 1942-45. General files of the Industrial Manager, 1951-53.
181.7.4 Records of the New London Naval Submarine Base (New
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence, 1940-61.
181.8 Records of Naval Stations
181.8.1 Records of the China Lake Naval Station (China Lake, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Central subject files, 1960-71.
181.8.2 Records of the Culebra Naval Station (Culebra, PR)
Textual Records (in New York): Letters sent, 1904-11. Letters received, 1904-11. Orders, 1902-4. Records relating to the island of Culebra, 1904-11. Correspondence concerning U.S.S. Alliance, 1904-11.
181.8.3 Records of the Green Cove Springs Naval Station (Green
Cove Springs, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1948-57.
181.8.4 Records of the Key West Naval Station (Key West, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1927-55. Station logbooks, 1933-46.
181.8.5 Records of the Kodiak Naval Station (Kodiak and Adak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General files, 1944-50. Correspondence files, 1949-50. Administrative files, 1951-52. Development plans, 1952.
181.8.6 Records of the Long Beach Naval Station (Long Beach, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1953- 58. Central subject files, 1960-71.
181.8.7 Records of the Mound City Naval Station (Mound City, IL)
Textual Records (in Chicago): Letters sent, 1873.
181.8.8 Records of the New Orleans Naval Station (New Orleans,
Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Letters sent and received by the Officer of the Station and the Officer in Charge, U.S. Ironclads in Reserve, 1867-75.
181.8.9 Records of the Pearl Harbor Naval Station (Pearl Harbor,
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, "Old Naval Station," 1903-24. General correspondence of the Office of the Commander, 1955-56. Station logs, 1902-24.
181.8.10 Records of the Port Royal Naval Station (Port Royal, SC)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Station logbooks, 1907-8.
181.8.11 Records of the Puget Sound Naval Station (Bremerton, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): General correspondence of the Commander, 1951-58.
181.8.12 Records of the St. Thomas Naval Station (St. Thomas, VI)
Textual Records (in New York): General correspondence, 1917-31. Radio messages sent and received, 1930-31. Personnel assignment correspondence, 1929-31. Station logs, 1921-31. Regulations and orders, 1917-31.
181.8.13 Records of the San Diego Naval Station (San Diego, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1952- 55.
181.8.14 Records of San Juan Naval Station (San Juan, PR)
Textual Records (in New York): Letters sent, 1898-1911. Letters received, 1898-1912. Orders, 1898-1911. Station logs, 1910-12. Records of the Board of Labor Employment, consisting of minutes of meetings, 1905-10, and letters sent, 1905-10.
181.8.15 Records of the Seattle Naval Station (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Administrative files of the Commander, 1948-52. Public Works Office master planning files, 1946-56. General correspondence of the Minecraft Delivery Point Team, 1956-59.
181.8.16 Records of the Tongue Point Naval Station (Astoria, OR)
Textual Records (in Seattle): General correspondence, 1945-55, and General files, 1952-57, of the Commander. General correspondence of the Industrial Manager, 1943-45. Administrative files of Ship Repair Unit No. 1, 1952-54.
181.8.17 Records of the Treasure Island Naval Station (San
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1954- 59. Canceled station instructions, 1951-54.
181.9 Records of Naval Training Stations (NTS)
181.9.1 Records of the Great Lakes NTS (Great Lakes, IL)
Textual Records (in Chicago): Central subject files, 1914-39, with record cards, 1926-38. Issuances, 1940. Station logs, 1935- 43. Miscellaneous logs, 1936-43.
181.9.2 Records of the Newport NTS (Newport, RI)
Textual Records (in Boston): Letters received, 1894-1910. General correspondence ("Station Files"), 1912-52. Correspondence of the commanding officer, 1921-39. Precommissioning training files, 1944-46. Microfilm copy of selected historical files, 1913-48 (1 roll).
Microfilm Publications: T1017.
181.10 Records of Naval Communications Stations (NCS)
181.10.1 Records of the Honolulu NCS (Honolulu, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Security-classified General correspondence, 1948-55.
181.10.2 Records of the Kodiak NCS (Kodiak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General files, 1942-49.
181.10.3 Records of the Pearl Harbor NCS (Pearl Harbor, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1947- 57. Serial correspondence, 1953-55.
181.10.4 Records of the Seattle NCS (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): General files of the Commander, 1946-53.
181.11 Records of Naval Air Stations (NAS)
181.11.1 Records of the Alameda NAS (Alameda, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Security-classified General correspondence and directives of the Office of the Commander, 1957-58. Survey cards and field books of the Public Works Department, ca. 1940-50.
181.11.2 Records of the Attu NAS (Attu, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General records, 1945-47. Dispensary records, 1943-46.
181.11.3 Records of the Barber's Point NAS (Barber's Point, Oahu,
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence of the Commanding Officer, 1947-55. Station logs, 1946-47, 1950-53. General correspondence of the Public Works Office, 1951.
181.11.4 Records of the Brunswick NAS (Brunswick, ME)
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence, 1951-53. Correspondence relating to facilities ("Section/Base Files"), 1943-46. Regulations, 1943-52. Public Works Office real estate files, 1942-46.
181.11.5 Records of the Cecil Field NAS (Jacksonville, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Logbooks, 1953-56. Central subject files, 1954. Central subject files, Carrier Air Group 13 and Fighter Squadron 132, 1961-64. Records of Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 9, consisting of operational records, 1945 hydrographic records, 1944 top secret log, 1950-60 and education, training, and public information files, 1950-60.
181.11.6 Records of the Ford Island NAS (Ford Island, Oahu, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1947- 52, and security-classified correspondence, 1957-60, of the Commanding Officer.
181.11.7 Records of the Glenview NAS (Glenview, IL)
Textual Records (in Chicago): Central subject files, 1942-57.
181.11.8 Records of the Glynco NAS (Glynco, GA)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Station logs, 1952-54, 1957-59.
181.11.9 Records of the Jacksonville NAS (Jacksonville, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1945. Central subject files, Commanding Officer, 6th Naval District, Naval Air Bases, 1954, 1956-57.
181.11.10 Records of the Kahului NAS (Kahului, Maui, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1943- 47.
181.11.11 Records of the Kaneoehe Bay NAS (Kaneoehe Bay, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1943- 50. Historical reports, 1939-45.
181.11.12 Records of the Key West NAS (Key West, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Logbooks, 1950-57.
181.11.13 Records of the Kodiak NAS (Kodiak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Administrative files, 1947-49. General files, 1945-50. Base orders, 1943-44. War diary, 1942-43.
181.11.14 Records of the Lakehurst NAS (Lakehurst, NJ)
Textual Records (in New York): General correspondence, 1919-45. Subject files, 1940-43.
181.11.15 Records of the Miami NAS (Miami, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Flight log, 1st Division, 7th Squadron, 1918.
181.11.16 Records of the Minneapolis NAS (Minneapolis, MN)
Textual Records (in Kansas City): Station journals, 1956-70. Notices and instructions, 1960-70.
181.11.17 Records of the Norfolk NAS (Norfolk, VA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central subject files, 1925- 60. Station logs, 1949-55.
181.11.18 Records of the Olathe NAS (Olathe, KS)
Textual Records (in Kansas City): Station journals, 1952-70. Notices and instructions, 1954-61. Decimal subject files, 1958-70. Aircraft accident and crash reports, 1959. Correspondence and reports, 1960-61. Station deactivation files, 1969-70.
181.11.19 Records of the Sanford NAS (Sanford, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Station logs, 1951-57.
181.11.20 Records of the Seattle NAS (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): General files, 1938-53.
181.11.21 Records of the Sitka NAS (Sitka, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Records relating to Port Althorp, 1942-44.
181.11.22 Records of the Spokane NAS (Spokane, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Station logs, 1950's.
181.11.23 Records of the Wahiawa NAS (Wahiawa, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1950- 56.
181.11.24 Records of the Whidbey Island NAS (Whidbey Island, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Station Journals, 1961-64.
181.12 Records of Naval Air Facilities (NAF)
181.12.1 Records of the Adak NAF (Adak, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General files, 1942-49. General correspondence, 1943-47.
181.12.2 Records of the Amchitka NAF (Amchitka, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): General correspondence, 1943-45.
181.12.3 Records of the Andreanof Island NAF (Andreanof Island,
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Administrative files, 1944-47.
181.12.4 Records of the Annapolis NAF (Annapolis, MD)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Station logs, 1944-47.
181.12.5 Records of the Cold Bay NAF (Cold Bay, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Radio logs, 1943-45.
181.12.6 Records of the Grand Cayman Island NAF (Grand Cayman
Island, British West Indies)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1942-44. Station report, 1944.
181.12.7 Records of the Hilo NAF (Hilo, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1943- 47. Issuances, 1944-45. Station newspaper, Station Air, 1944-45.
181.12.8 Records of the Honolulu NAF (Honolulu, HI)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1944- 45.
181.12.9 Records of the Imperial Beach NAF (Imperial Beach, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1955- 56.
181.12.10 Records of the Kiska NAF (Kiska, AK)
Textual Records (in Anchorage): Confidential files, 1943-44.
181.12.11 Records of the La Fe NAF (La Fe, Cuba)
Textual Records : General correspondence, 1942-44. Station log, 1943. Intelligence bulletins, circular letters, and other records, 1942-44.
181.12.12 Records of the Washington (Anacostia) NAF (Washington,
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central subject files, 1949- 51. Station logs, 1951.
181.13 Records of the Naval Air Training Command
181.13.1 Records of the Air Operational Training Command
(Jacksonville, FL) and its successor, the Naval Air Advanced
Training Command (Jacksonville, FL, and Corpus Christi, TX)
Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Subject files of the Commandant, 1942-58.
181.13.2 Records of the Air Intermediate Training Command (Corpus
Christi, TX, and Pensacola, FL) and its successor, the Naval Air
Basic Training Command (Corpus Christi, TX)
Textual Records : Subject files, 1942-45 (in Fort Worth), and 1946-51 (in Atlanta).
181.13.3 Records of the Naval Air Advanced Training Command
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1942-45.
181.13.4 Records of the Naval Air Technical Training Command
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1942-59.
181.13.5 Records of the Naval Air Training Command (Pensacola,
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1957. Index to General correpondence, 1947-57. General correspondence, 1948-51, 1956-58. Outgoing correspondence, 1960-69. Directives, 1957-61. Inspection reports, 1957-60. General files, 1960-69. Operations readiness plans, 1963-65.
181.14 Records of Other Naval Air Installations
181.14.1 Records of the Naval Air Technical Training Center,
Jacksonville NAS (Jacksonville, FL)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Courses of study, curriculum outlines, lesson guides, and master schedules, 1946-59. Central subject files, 1960-61.
181.14.2 Records of the Navy Pre-Flight School (St. Mary's,
College, Moraga, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Personnel correspondence, 1946. Station logs, 1942-46. Subject files, 1942-46. Unit history, 1946.
Photographs (in San Francisco): Program activities, 1943-46 (6,000 images). Officers and enlisted men, 1942-45 (100 images). See Also 181.19.
181.14.3 Records of the Quonset Point Naval Air Rework Facility
(Quonset Point, RI)
Textual Records (in Boston): Command history files, 1949-73. Organization charts, 1944-72.
Motion Pictures (in Boston): Activities at the rework facility, 1968 (1 reel).
Photographs (in Boston): Buildings, shops, equipment, repair activities, personnel, and aerial views of the facility, 1941-70 (550 images). See Also 181.19.
Color Slides (in Boston): Activities at the rework facility, 1964-70 (101 images). See Also 181.19.
181.14.4 Records of the Seattle Naval Air Base (Seattle, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Administrative files of the Commander, 1950-51.
181.14.5 Records of the Squantum Naval Reserve Aviation Base
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence, 1930-43. Station logs, 1934-43. Muster rolls, 1933-43. Registers of issuances, 1941-43.
181.15 Records of Other Naval Shore Establishments
181.15.1 Records of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Mail, telephone, and publication logs, 1955-61. Central subject files of the Charleston Group (Charleston, SC), 1954-61. Central subject files, 1957, and legal assistance files, 1960-61, of the Florida Group (Green Cove Springs, FL). Deck logs for USS APL-54, 1958-60.
181.15.2 Records of the Bangor Ammunition Depot (Bremerton, WA)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Station journal, 1919-64.
181.15.3 Records of the Civil Engineering Laboratory (Port
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Project files, 1943-72.
181.15.4 Records of the Electricians Training School (Takoma
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Correspondence, 1951-53.
181.15.5 Records of the Military Sea Transportation Service--
North Pacific Sub-Area
Textual Records (in Seattle): General correspondence, 1950-59, and administrative files, 1952-53, of the Commander. General files of the Port Director, 1946-51.
181.15.6 Records of the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadrons Training
Center (Melville, RI)
Textual Records (in Boston): War diaries, 1943-45. Records relating to torpedo boat development and combat, 1942-45.
181.15.7 Records of Naval Activities (Port Lyautey, Morocco)
Textual Records : Correspondence and reports, 1951-53.
181.15.8 Records of the Naval Ammunition Depot (Charleston, SC)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Depot security records, 1959-62.
181.15.9 Records of the Naval Ammunition Depot (Hawthorne, NV)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1948- 50. War diaries, 1942-46.
181.15.10 Records of the Naval Electronics Laboratory (San Diego,
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Central subject files, 1942-56. Field surveys, 1927-62. Engineering notebooks, 1941-71. Research and development technical reports, 1942-53. Security- classified General correspondence, 1949.
Architectural and Engineering Plans (in Los Angeles): Drawings and specifications, 1946-55 (2,000 items). See Also 181.17.
181.15.11 Records of the Naval Engineering Experiment Station
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Station logs, 1951-53. Flight certificates, 1951-53.
181.15.12 Records of the Naval Gun Factory (Washington, DC)
Textual Records : Letters sent by the Inspector of Ordnance, 1854- 93, and the Superintendent of the Naval Gun Factory, 1893-1912. Letters received by the Inspector of Ordnance, 1851-54, 1857-58, 1866-87. Construction correspondence, 1851-53. Letters sent relating to employees, 1890-95. Memorandums, 1879-1917. Issuances, 1871-73, 1891-1911, 1919, 1922. Fiscal records, 1905- 12. Property records, 1862-72, 1888-90, 1905-8. Records relating to employment and wages, 1859-1914, including minutes and reports of the Board of Wages, 1884-85.
181.15.13 Records of the Naval Ocean Systems Center (San Diego,
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Research and development project case files, 1955-70. Security-classified research and development project case files, 1953-66.
181.15.14 Records of the Naval Ordnance Station (Indian Head, MD)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central subject files, 1907- 25.
181.15.15 Records of the Naval Ordnance Test Station (Pasadena,
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Security-classified project test reports, 1949-69.
181.15.16 Records of the Navy Radiological Defense Laboratory
(San Francisco, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1946- 59. Technical experiment notebooks, 1948-58. Technical reports artwork, 1956-60. Testing project field records, 1955-56.
181.15.17 Records of Naval Reserve Divisions (Rock Island, IL)
Textual Records (in Chicago): Correspondence and other records, 1924-43.
181.15.18 Records of the Naval Reserve Training Command (Omaha,
Textual Records (in Kansas City): Manpower authorization reports, 1954-68. General correspondence and reports, 1959-62. Notices and instructions, 1956-70. Monthly reports of personnel, 1962-68. Decimal subject files, 1959-70.
181.15.19 Records of the Naval Ship Research and Development
Center (Bethesda, MD)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Central subject files, 1918- 48.
181.15.20 Records of the Naval Supply Center (Long Beach, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Subject files of the Supply Officer, U.S. Naval Supply Depot, 1949-62.
181.15.21 Records of the Naval Supply Center (Oakland, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): Material logistical support analysis reports (Pacific Ocean Area), 1946-60.
181.15.22 Records of Naval Unit 1-A (Loop Receiving Station,
Bailey Isle, ME)
Textual Records (in Boston): Station logs, 1942-45. Operation (loop signature) logs, 1942-45.
181.15.23 Records of Naval Unit 1-B (Loop Receiving Station,
South Portland, ME)
Textual Records (in Boston): Station logs, 1944-45. Weekly war diaries, 1942-45.
181.15.24 Records of Naval Unit 1-F (Loop Receiving Station, Fort
Textual Records (in Boston): General correspondence, 1941-44. War diaries, 1942-43. Station logs, 1942-44. Operation logs, 1942-43.
181.15.25 Records of Naval Unit 1-I (Loop Receiving Station,
Westport Point, MA)
Textual Records (in Boston): Station logs, 1944.
181.15.26 Records of the Naval Weapons Annex (Corona, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Security-classified General correspondence, 1954-61. Security-classified projects and studies files, 1954-63.
181.15.27 Records of the Naval Weapons Center (China Lake, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1944- 58. Project files (Sidewinder, Snort, Parachute), 1942-81. Formerly security-classified central subject files, 1949-50. Management analysis files, 1950-58. Security-classified General correspondence, 1956-58. Security-classified project files, 1952- 79. Security-classified missile distance measurement reports, 1953-61.
181.15.28 Records of the Naval Weapons Station (Concord, CA)
Textual Records (in San Francisco): General correspondence, 1958- 59.
181.15.29 Records of the Naval Weapons Station (Seal Beach, CA)
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1947- 69.
181.15.30 Records of the Pacific Missile Test Center (Point Mugu,
Textual Records (in Los Angeles): General correspondence, 1946- 59. Test reports, 1955. Security-classified range project and administration files, 1951-59. Sparrow II project files, 1952-58. Laboratory project records, 1952-58. Public Affairs Office historical files, 1945-77.
181.15.31 Records of the Pacific Reserve Fleet
Textual Records : General correspondence of the Mare Island Group (San Francisco, CA), 1956-58 (in San Francisco). Central subject files of the Commander, Tacoma Group (Tacoma, WA), 1953-58, and the Columbia River Group, 1951-57 (in Seattle).
181.15.32 Records of Portsmouth Naval Prison (Portsmouth, NH)
Textual Records (in Boston): Annual reports, 1908-28. Station logs, 1920-40.
181.15.33 Records of the Severn River Naval Command (Annapolis,
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): General correspondence, 1944- 53.
181.15.34 Records of the Supervisor of Shipbuilding, Ingalls
Shipbuilding Corporation (Pascagoula, MS)
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Central subject files, 1957-63.
181.15.35 Records of the U.S. Naval Berthing Facility, Swan
Island (Portland, OR)
Textual Records (in Seattle): Miscellaneous files, 1944-47.
181.15.36 Records of the U.S. Naval Home (Philadelphia, PA)
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Correspondence, 1838-1910. Admission permits, 1834-1910. Monthly reports of admissions, deaths, and changes, 1866-88. Beneficiaries files, 1887-1943. Requisitions and vouchers, 1890-1908. Station logs, 1943-49. Personnel files of residents of the home, 1931-59.
181.15.37 Records of the U.S. Navy Shore Patrol Headquarters
Textual Records (in Boston): Station logs, 1944-46. Station logs of the shore patrol unit at Quincy, MA, 1943-46.
181.15.38 Records of the U.S. Navy Shore Patrol Headquarters
Textual Records (in Boston): Station logs, 1944-46.
181.15.39 Records of the David Taylor Model Basin
Textual Records (in Philadelphia): Reports and blueprints, 1957-61.
181.15.40 Records of the U.S. Naval Aerospace Medical Institute,
U.S. Naval Aviation Medical Center
Textual Records (in Atlanta): Scientific publications, 1942-69. Research publications, 1963-65.
181.16 Textual Records (General)
Records (in Atlanta) of the Military Sealift Command, Gulf Subarea, New Orleans, LA, consisting of daily log of the staff duty officer which includes the account of operations during Hurricane Betsy in September 1965, 1965-66 and subject files, 1967.
Records (in Atlanta) of the Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division, Charleston, South Carolina, including real estate property records, 1969-71 and Design Division files (8,610 microfilm cards), 1962-72.
Records (in Seattle) of the Facilities Engineering Command, Northwest Division, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Seattle Washington, consisting of real property records, 1962-70.
Records (in Los Angeles) of the Naval Training Center, San Diego, California, consisting of local station newspapers, 1925-96 command histories, 1959-95 and historical matters, 1964-96.
Records (in Boston) of Anti-Submarine Squadron Thirty-Four, consisting of squadron logs, 1960-68 and command histories, 1966-68.
Records (in Boston) of Carrier Division Fourteen, Anti-Submarine Warfare Task Group BRAVO, consisting of General correspondence, 1962.
Records (in Boston) of Service Squadron Two, consisting of correspondence, 1966-68.
181.17 Cartographic Records (General)
See Maps and Charts Under 181.2.13.
See Architectural and Engineering Plans Under 181.2.13, 181.3.1, 181.3.5, 181.3.6, 181.3.7, 181.3.10, and 181.15.10.
See Engineering Plans Under 181.3.3.
See Aerial Photographs Under 181.3.3.
181.18 Motion Pictures (General)
181.19 Still Pictures (General)
Photographic Prints: Flying boat NC-4 and airship C-2, 1919 (NC, 2 images). Views of U.S. warships, 1891-1916 (BSO, 12 images). Construction of U.S.S. Saratoga (CVA-60), modifications to U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CVA-14), and the launching of U.S.S. Farragut (DD- 348), 1934-56 (CLM, 200 images). Lt. Eugene Ely landing an airplane on the armored cruiser U.S.S. Pennsylvania, 1911 and gunnery practice, U.S.S. Maryland (ACR-8) and U.S.S. South Dakota (ACR-9), n.d. (PSX, 14 images). Buildings and businesses in the Wallabout and Kent Avenue sections of New York City, by Somach Photo Service, 1920-41 (WM, WA 2,655 images). Photographs (in Los Angeles) from the Naval Training Center, San Diego, California, 1917-96.
See Photographs Under 181.2.1, 181.2.13, 181.3.7, 181.14.2, and 181.14.3.
See Photographic Prints Under 181.3.5.
See Photographic Prints and Negatives Under 181.3.5 and 181.3.9.
See Color Slides Under 181.14.3.
Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.
This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.
Tantalaus (Τάνταλος, Tántalos) was the great king of Sibylus, Lydia who pleased all twelve Olympians. He was the son of Zeus and the nymph Plouto. He would often invite the gods to dinner at his great palace. Thus, Tantalaus thought he had nothing good enough to offer them as, being gods, they would already have access to the most delectable of foods. But Tantalaus had a son who he loved deeply named Pelops. So one evening, he killed his son and served his body to the gods.
All the gods saw through this ruse except Demeter, who ate Pelop's shoulder. However, Zeus did not like human sacrifices. To punish Tantalaus for his sin, the gods sent him to Tartarus where water went up to his neck and fruit hung above his head from low branches. And whenever he tried to drink the water or grasp at the fruit, it would move away from him. Also, to intimidate him, a rock hung over his head, ready to crush him. His son was then revived and given a replacement shoulder by Hephaestus.
Honolulu History – 28 Neighborhoods
Honolulu owes its existence to one crucial piece of geography – its harbor. It’s true that Native Hawaiians lived across Oahu for as much as a thousand years before the town began to take its shape. However, they lived in widespread communities whose centers changed according to where the Alii were at any one time.
That would change forever in 1793 when sea captain William Brown, a fur and gun trader, realized the harbor was deep enough for large ships to dock. Soon the land nearby was filled with shops and businesses catering to the whaling ships and trading vessels who increasingly stopped here. Neighborhoods sprang up quickly as well to house those attracted by the booming industry. A city had been born.
Honolulu’s harbor’s focus would change from whaling to the local sugar and pineapple products in the late 1800’s. The need for plantation workers brought men, and later women, from Asia and Europe, arriving through this same waterfront. Many of them would fulfill their obligations on the farms, then move to urban Honolulu to take advantage of the job opportunities there or start their own businesses.
The plantation economy was joined in the early 1920’s by the tourism industry, the cruise ships finding their berths in the piers near where ships loaded with goods were going in and out of Hawaii. The contents of the ships was changing, but the effects were the same. Though the plantations would become almost extinct before the end of the 20th Century, Honolulu was set in place.
Honolulu’s History by Neighborhood
Debate rages over how Aina Haina got its name. Some believe it is rooted in ‘Haina’ as the Hawaiian word meaning ‘sacrifice’. The presence of the ancient Kawauoha Heiau deep in the valley, believed to have been the site of human sacrifice, strengthens the case.
Another, more popular story, is that ‘Haina’ is also the Hawaiian translation for ‘Hind’, which was the name of the dairy farm, and its owner, that took up much of this district Aina Hina = Hind’s Land.
Robert Hind established the Hind-Clarke Dairy on this real estate in 1924, the business continuing here until 1946. Robert died in 1938, but his family carried on, ultimately selling the dairy operation in the late 1940’s.
Kawaiku’i isn’t just the name of the park on the eastern side of Aina Haina Beach. It was also the name used by the ancient Hawaiians for an area that included both. Kawaiku’i, translated, means ‘the united water’. Some believe the name arises from the fact that so many came, both locals and passers-by, to get fresh water from the springs here. Another story says the name was given because the fresh and salt water met, or united, here.
Outside of fishermen, this was not a heavily populated area for hundreds of years. This condition extended into the 20th Century when Robert Hind bought a large acreage that took in all of Aina Haina, up to the ocean, for his Hind-Clarke Dairy operation. The dairy farm was well known in Honolulu and supplied much of the milk and dairy products for the town.
Declining fortunes and the devastation from the 1946 tsunami compelled the Hind family to sell the dairy business and switch to developing their real estate holdings. They chose the right time, with the post-World War II era setting off a demand for housing that was unprecedented.
Aina Haina Beach homes first went up at this time on the exquisite oceanfront lots that had been mostly bare all these years. Residents and visitors can still see freshwater springing up from the sands at times.
Yacht Harbor Towers in Ala Moana
Before those Ala Moana condos towered over the equally imposing shopping mall, this was once a very different place. Not only did it have another name, ‘Kalia’, it was also mostly swampland with some scattered taro patches. A place that, for centuries, mainly fishermen lived.
In 1912 Hawaiian Dredging, owned by Walter Dillingham, bought land here for the dumping of coral, sand and dirt from their projects around Oahu. This filled in much of the wetlands and ponds, creating solid ground, much of which became Ala Moana Park. The area set aside for the park was officially dedicated in 1934, in part by President Roosevelt.
The next couple of decades saw small homes becoming more numerous nearby, but nothing that could be called a real neighborhood. It was purely a low-rise, low density district. That would drastically change with the coming of Ala Moana Center.
Envisioned as early as 1948 by Lowell Dillingham, Walter’s son, it wouldn’t be until 1957 that Hawaiian Dredging actually began building on what had been bare land. Ala Moana Center was finished and opened with great fanfare in 1959, coinciding with the advent of Statehood. The center’s impact on the surroundings was immediate.
Black Point real estate, like all of Hawaii, began life as a result of volcanic eruptions. Though it sits just beneath the famed Diamond Head, it came from a different eruption as that landmark, but around the same time.
The formed land ended in black lava rock that sloped down to the ocean, giving it the name we know it by today. The ancient Hawaiians, however, called this area Kupikipikio, which means ‘Rough Sea’ for the waves that constantly crash against these slopes.
In 1910 the US Army placed a small battery here as part of their plans for Oahu’s defenses against invasion. The guns were intended to protect searchlights, in case of a night attack, as well as to provide other cover. They didn’t remain long due to changes in defenses and strategies.
From the early 1920’s, when homes on Black Point were first built, they were very exclusive residences. The ocean views and seclusion from the rest of the Island attracted the wealthy, as well as the famous, immediately. Most significantly, Doris Duke built her Shangri La estate here, an achievement of architecture and design that still dazzles present day visitors now that it is a museum.
Duke Kahanamoku, Tom Selleck and numerous other famous names have been residents over the years. When news columns cover a visiting celebrity, it’s often noted that they’re staying here, due to the privacy and luxury Black Point homes afford. It was noted recently that Johnny Depp was vacationing in the neighborhood, for example.
Kaikoo Pl in Diamond Head
Diamond Head has always been considered sacred, in one sense or another, from the beginning. The old Hawaiians believed that Hiaka, sister of Pele, originally named the crater Pu’u Le’ahi because it resembled the head of a yellowfin tuna.
The Hawaiian priests later established a temple on its northwestern slope, called Papa’ena’ena Heiau. Fires lit here during rites could be seen from miles away. It was in this heiau that Kamehameha sacrificed Kiana, Oahu’s Chief, after defeating him in the decisive Battle of Nuuanu. Kiana’s skull was put on display here to underline that there was a new king in charge.
The heiau would be torn down in 1856 at the end of the kapu system and the ascension of Christianity in Hawaii. Yet the site’s significance wasn’t over. Beginning in the early 1900’s wealthy kamaaina began building their homes in the Diamond Head district. One of the most wealthy and powerful, Walter Dillingham, erected his famous La Pietra estate on the very lands that Papa’ena’ena had inhabited. Change had certainly come.
The era of exclusive Diamond Head real estate arrived and has never looked back. Through 2 world wars, even as the crater’s interior was carved into a military installation to ward off expected attack, the prosperous continued to erect real estate in Diamond Head that, though hidden from street view, were, and are, widely known for their luxury and beauty. It seems the threat of invasion isn’t enough to keep out buyers of properties in Diamond Head.
The first residents of Honolulu were Polynesians who found a home here as early as the 11th Century. For generations they led a quiet agricultural life, interrupted periodically by conflicts between local chiefs. This existence was completely upended by the 1794 arrival of the 1st European ship in Honolulu Harbor, changing this place into a bustling international port.
In the early 1800’s, though, Honolulu lacked any real city structure or planning. Some felt the old land system wasn’t a solid basis for the growing economic activity. The Hawaiian concept of land use at the pleasure of the Ali’i was increasingly under attack as merchants & businessmen sought private ownership.
Under pressure, a Board of Commissioners was set up in 1844 to hear testimony and begin making land grants. It was through this process that Downtown Honolulu took solid shape with formal streets designated and lots laid out.
The district near the harbor grew quickly, taking on even more significance when this was made Hawaii’s capital in 1845. The Downtown area, especially around Fort St, was Oahu’s primary shopping district until the 1960’s, only losing that status with the opening of Ala Moana Center.
The accelerating population growth brought on by the end of World War II and Statehood produced a boom in building larger and larger commercial and residential buildings. The mounting demand for business space and new zoning are why you find today’s downtown Honolulu condominiums primarily on Nimitz Hwy or the mauka side of Beretania St.
Condos in downtown Honolulu are still in demand for the same reasons residents flocked here in the 19th Century. They sit in the business and government center for not only Oahu, but all Hawaii, while gazing out over a waterfront that never fails to fascinate.
Napali Haweo in Hawaii Kai
Inevitably, and understandably, most histories of Hawaii Kai real estate begin and end with Henry Kaiser. He’s not the whole story, though.
The earliest settlers to come here are believed to be from the first great Polynesian migration around 947AD from the Marquesas, fleeing tribal conflict at home. For centuries following this time, life was very quiet on this part of Oahu. Fishing was the primary way of life until well into the 1800’s.
The family of Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop were given ownership of all the land of Hawaii Kai under the Great Mahele division in 1848. Through that, the possession passed on to the Bishop Trust after the Princess’ death in 1884.
In 1900 cattle ranching was established here, becoming a primary industry, on land at least. For decades this was a prime mover of the local economy, but it met a sudden end that it never recovered from. The 1946 tsunami hit this area hard, wiping out houses, barns, fields and everything else in its path.
Hawaii Kai homes that did survive were abandoned and the land turned to swamp. The district became known mainly for a strong smell that motorists from downtown drove quickly through on their way to a popular spot called Lucky’s Tavern. That’s how it stood for 15 years.
Henry Kaiser signed the land lease with the Bishop Estate in 1961, breaking ground on the community that you see today on your way down Kalanianaole Highway. The marina was dug out, new real estate in Hawaii Kai went up and shopping malls opened, forming a charming waterfront neighborhood that erased the remains of desolation.
One thing hasn’t changed, though. The fishing in Hawaii Kai is still great!
For a place where homes sell so easily, it’s been very difficult to get where they are now. The story of Hawaii Loa Ridge homes starts with Kamehameha I and his gift to Alexander Adams of large tracts of land that included these heights. Adams’ service as head of the Hawaiian Navy had won him this great honor.
Until the early 1900’s little was built up here due to the difficulty of traveling up and down these hills. One of the very few houses, put up in the 1930’s by Adams’ descendants, not only still stands today, it remains under family ownership.
The growth of the population led to a booming development era starting in the 1950s. Hawaii Loa Ridge, however, wasn’t eyed by builders until the 1970’s. An access road up the ridge was started with great optimism. Unfortunately, only partway up it became clear it was too expensive just to build this road. So plans came to a screeching halt.
The 80’s decade saw a new developer, HMF, step in to try their luck. They also stumbled as interest rates rose to double digits and the market went soft. The buyers who did remain saw their Hawaii Loa Ridge homes sit lonely, with empty lots all around them. It looked like another plan was unraveling.
Somehow HMF stuck it out. The Hawaii market did finally rebound and now this is an exclusive neighborhood known for incredible views and quiet contentment. Sometimes enjoying the fine life takes a lot of hard work.
When Kamehameha the Great made his assault on Oahu, many of his canoes made their landing at Kahala, beginning what would be his most famous campaign in uniting the Islands. That same year, 1795, Native Hawaiians began settling here, starting the first known communities.
Some agriculture activity did go on, but most concerns were pig and cattle farms throughout the 1800’s. Following the 1848 Great Mahele land division, all of Kahala came under the ownership of Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Her death transferred those lands to the Bishop Estate Trust, where much of still remains.
The modern Kahala real estate is a product of the upper classes ‘discovering’ it after World War I. Ponds were filled in, farms were shuttered and mansions started to grow along the beachfront. One attraction may have been that Kahala is completely flat, a rarity on Oahu.
Homes in Kahala have since been the residences of many of the best connected kamaaina, but even they haven’t been able to control everything in their neighborhood. The building of the Kahala Hilton in the early 1960’s had much opposition from residents, including numerous high-profile families. The rezoning required was still approved by the City Council despite both a planning committee recommendation and a mayoral veto.
One short-term victory they did win was the ability to buy the land their houses stood on from the Bishop Estate. The last lots, all beachfront, were converted from leasehold to fee simple in November of 1986. The Kahala homes that have title to their land do so because of that window of opportunity.
Ultimately, this place is a true Cinderella story. The land once dominated by pig farmers, in a few short decades, turned into the playground of the world’s rich and famous. Quite a rise.
Tutu Hale House in Kai Nani
Most students of Hawaii real estate history, and its conflicts, forget that Kai Nani was actually part of one of the biggest fights of all. The struggle began when a hotel was proposed to go up in the quiet, and very upscale, neighborhood of Kahala. This was seen as nothing short of an enemy invasion to the well-heeled residents and they were ready to fight it.
Though victory seemed to be in their grasp, with a special committee recommending a rejection and a mayor prepared to veto any such measure, it was not to be. The City Council passed the rezoning needed and then overruled the mayoral veto.
The Bishop Estate, who owned all the land in Kahala at that time, then added salt to the wound by taking back land from the Waialae Golf Course, including oceanfront property that would now contain a resort. That wasn’t the end of it, either.
Waialae Golf Course would be completely reconfigured to fit the new layout. They would also relinquish a piece of land on the southeastern side in the bargain. Enough to fit 30 houses.
Kai Nani homes sit there now, complete with fairway and ocean views, a few on the oceanfront itself. Somewhere under those paved roads and the beautiful Kai Nani homes lie the remains of the 6th and 7th holes of the old Waialae Golf Course.
Stories abound from the old Hawaiians about Menehunes, a race of small beings who could build huge structures overnight. It was this part of Oahu that was believed to be where these magical people made their ti ovens, which in Hawaiian are translated as Kaimuki. So these lands were named.
Very little was done on or with this hilly property until 1887 when a man name Daniel Isenberg used a large area for a cattle ranch. He also raised racehorses here that ran at the Kapiolani Park track, a place very popular with King Kalakaua.
The turning point that made Kaimuki a true residential neighborhood, though, was the 1900 Chinatown fire. Many of the Chinese who were left homeless by that fire moved here to make a new start, creating what was Honolulu’s first major subdivision. There were more to come, however.
Kaimuki homes experienced even greater growth when the streetcar routes were extended out to this area of Honolulu in the 1920’s. The many who work downtown could now live further out and still commute every day to their jobs. A second, larger population wave now made its way here, buying up lots and settling down.
Residents established a small-town feel on these streets, lining the main drag of Waialae Avenue with many local business and restaurants. Take a walk around here and you’ll still find those awaiting you, along with charming homes that now hold the latest generations from those early 1900’s migrations. It’s that kind of community.
The Kakaako district is in the midst of a modernization that will leave it unrecognizable to its original inhabitants of old. Where towering Kakaako condos are going up was once a vast Native Hawaiian agricultural community that practiced terrace cultivation. Many of the ali’i had homes here, including Kamehameha I.
It was also the port site for foreign ships that came to Honolulu for trade and supplies. In 1850 those sailors brought with them smallpox, which decimated the nearby population. By this time the Kakaako community had grown due to the activity around the port, making the crowded district the perfect place for disease to spread. The bones of the tragic victims are often found whenever construction is done here.
Though the neighborhood experienced a resurgence that lasted into the 1950’s, things changed once the zoning was altered to allow more commercial activity, attracting more and more businesses that took the place of homes. Body shops and industrial work particularly stand out on these streets.
Times have changed once again as Kakaako condos have gone up, soon to be joined by many more. Though they are the future of this neighborhood, in many ways they bring back its past, when this was a truly thriving home to so many.
Translated, Kapahulu means ‘worn out soil’. Luckily that doesn’t truly describe this vibrant part of Honolulu. The land it sits on was part of the holdings given to King Lunalilo during the Great Mahele, which turned over land to private ownership for the very first time.
Though private residences are recorded as early as 1889, this area remained mostly undeveloped and untouched until the 1920’s when the streetcar system made it accessible for those who worked in town. The Japanese especially congregated here to affordably escape the crowded conditions downtown.
Due to the unplanned quality of this neighborhood, houses here were of a wide variety of styles, reflecting the tastes of individual owners. The UH History department has tried to document what are now historical structures here, finding everything from Art Deco & Moderne to even Tudor and Mission style buildings, alongside plantation homes, of course. So you often have a choice of genres when shopping for homes in Kapahulu.
Despite being next door to Waikiki, this neighborhood has held onto its local identity & history. Rainbow Drive Inn, Ono Hawaiian Foods and Leonard’s Bakery are just 3 of the institutions that have served generations of residents. Kapahulu homes and buildings remain defiantly low-rise, outside of a few condos on the Ewa (west) side of Kapahulu Ave.
Here the old Hawaii still lives, a place you can grab some real shave ice, get your surfboard repaired and talk a little story.
The Makiki neighborhood’s history is an intriguing mix of the Honolulu elite and the lower classes, specifically former plantation workers who had moved on to seek another livelihood. The community did not truly emerge until the early 1900’s as Japanese, Chinese & others finished their obligation to the plantations and began moving to this 2 mile area between Manoa & Downtown to start their own businesses or at least get better paying jobs. This wasn’t a place where just the aspiring classes owned real estate, though.
This same neighborhood was also the site of Punahou School, an institution that had taught the children of Hawaii’s political & economic elite since 1841. Many of the students’ families lived right nearby. Side by side, the residents of Makiki homes were a broad mingling of the classes that existed in few other places in Honolulu.
Today you still see these roots of this integration alive in Makiki’s plantation style homes that are still there or in the small, family run shops & businesses along School St. It is fitting that President Obama came from this neighborhood, attending the, still today, upper class Punahou School, though he came from a family that was not. His story is truly Makiki’s.
In Ancient Hawaii, Manoa lands were strictly divided between the Ali’i and the commoners. 2 hills, one at the head of the valley and the other above Punahou, were recognized as the borders between them. Interestingly, the waste from the ali’i lands were periodically taken to the commoner side and buried in secret.
The almost daily rainfall in this valley made it a prime agriculture area early on. Many crops were grown here by the Hawaiians and, in the 1800’s, it was the site of the Islands’ first sugarcane and coffee plantations.
The consistently cool weather also made it a prized retreat for royalty. Queen Kaahumanu, wife to King Kamehameha I, had a beloved home in Manoa. When she realized the end of her life was nearing, she insisted that she be taken there to spend her last days.
The modern neighborhood didn’t arise until the Honolulu streetcar system began running here in the 1920’s. Mid-Pacific School specifically chose the site they still occupy today because of the public transportation factor. Manoa real estate and residents followed suit, filling in what were mostly farming lands and empty lots up to that time.
Manoa homes are well-known for their refreshing breezes and greenery that grow freely from the rains. Coffee and sugar have vanished from the land, but the allure that drew the ali’i to the valley is as strong as ever.
Niu Beach real estate, like much of the surrounding land, was part of the grant by King Kamehameha to Scotsman Alexander Adams. This was a recognition of his service Hawaii as head of its Navy. It was clear that Kamehameha was showing special favor to Adams because the king himself had a summer home here next to the ocean.
This grant gave Adams control not only over the lands, but also the fishing rights in the waters immediately off of them. This was extremely important for areas like the Niu district, because of the fishponds built by the Native Hawaiians to provide a steady food source.
One of the largest on this side of Oahu, Kupapa fishpond, sat in this place, extending out into the ocean. It was walled in on 3 sides with the 4th marked by the shore. For hundreds of years it was tended and cultivated, well into the 1st half of the 20th Century. With modernization and new sources of food available, and affordable, the fishpond’s importance declined.
In the 1950’s Adams’ descendants decided to fill in the pond, using Hawaiian Dredging to do the job. Some small scale agriculture was briefly done on the newly created soil, but the intention was always to develop it for residential purposes.
Niu Beach homes were not long in coming. It’s not difficult to understand why Kamehameha the Great came here himself to unwind and relax. Simply said, own a Niu Beach home and you’ll live in a place fit for a king. Literally.
Most of today’s Niu Valley real estate originated from just one man – Alexander Adams. A Scottish sailor, he arrived in Hawaii around 1810, soon becoming friends with King Kamehameha I. The king recognized his nautical talents and soon made him the head of the kingdom’s navy.
Along with this charge he was given 2,000 acres in Niu Valley to both live on and farm. So he did. For the next 140 years Niu Valley was covered by vast cultivated fields as well as, for the first half of the 1900’s, a large dairy farm.
It was Adam’s granddaughter who decided to subdivide and sell the land finally in the 1950’s as the postwar Honolulu population began to boom. The ponds were filled in and the farms closed down in recognition of the changing times. Housing was needed and farming wasn’t as profitable any more.
Homes in Niu Valley quickly sprang up, both in the valley proper and on stunning oceanfront lots built over the site of an ancient Hawaiian fishpond. Adams’ estate today is a warm, close-knit neighborhood still watched over by the beautiful, green Koolau mountains just as they were when he first set foot on the Islands.
Pacific Heights real estate was originally the creation of a flamboyant man named Charles Desky in 1899. Newspapers noted that he had bought 450 acres of untouched land from Charles Booth and would be building houses immediately on it.
To promote the lots he established Hawaii’s first electric railway which took the curious from downtown Honolulu up 900 feet on Pacific Heights where a dance pavilion had been built. The idea was to entertainingly introduce potential buyers to the view from what could be their future home.
Unfortunately, Desky wasn’t a good businessman. Few houses were built when the original owner, Charles Booth, foreclosed in 1903. It seemed that mortgage payments hadn’t been made for 2 years. Some lot buyers actually lost their property in the process because Desky hadn’t recorded their deeds. Wisely, Desky soon left town for Shanghai, China.
Not until 1921, when the Honolulu government took over the hillside’s water system and automobiles were common, did Pacific Heights homes begin to take off. 20 years late, Desky’s vision of the upper class community finally became a reality. Vast mansions and estates sprang up on the land as the moneyed class saw the advantages of these properties.
The influential and successful continue to live on this rise, the home prices usually climbing along with the altitude as you drive upward. Somewhere out there, Charles Desky is saying ‘I told you so’.
Manuel de Pico did not start life with distinction. Born into a poor Portuguese family on the Azores Island of Pico, not much is known of his early history until he jumped ship in Hawaii from a whaler he was serving on sometime in the 1840’s.
The love for his newfound home compelled him to make a significant change. Somewhere along the line he altered his last name to make it more Hawaiian in tone, turning it into Paiko.
Through hard work and determination he made a success of himself in cattle raising on Oahu. One of the fruits of these profits were 400 acres of land he purchased past Diamond Head where he made his home.
The Paiko family continued to live here after Manuel died in 1890, their prominence & ownership recognized in naming the lagoon and the road nearby. The last Paiko, Joseph, Jr. died childless in 1947, bringing an end to the family’s vast landholdings.
Joseph’s passing opened up Paiko Lagoon real estate just as home construction boomed in Honolulu. The privacy, natural beauty and ocean views attracted wealthy buyers looking for a piece of true paradise. While other neighborhoods brag about having homes designed by Vladimir Ossipoff, only Paiko Lagoon can claim it is where the celebrated architect chose to build his own house.
Homes in Paiko Lagoon continue to carry top price tags, on the rare occasions they are for sale but the wait, and the money, just might be worth it.
This part of Oahu was once the site of ancient Hawaiian fishing spots, which they kept secret and passed on through generations. Now it is an upscale neighborhood named for Nathaniel Portlock, a member of Captain Cook’s crew for his 3rd, and last, voyage. Portlock returned to Hawaii as the captain of his own ship, becoming the first European to sail into Maunalua Bay.
He only did some brief trading with the islanders, but did record that this part of Oahu was not well populated, probably due to a lack of freshwater sources.
Portlock has been prime real estate for some time due to the vista of both the bay & Diamond Head residents enjoy. Still, most of the original Portlock houses weren’t built until the 1940’s & 50’s. What put it truly on the map, though, was Henry Kaiser’s arrival in Hawaii during the later phase of that development.
Not only did he build the Hawaiian Village – now the Hilton Hawaiian Village – he also literally created what we know today as Hawaii Kai. His Portlock home attracted just as much attention, however.
Built to please Mrs. Kaiser, it featured a pink mansion plus 2 oval houses to hold her many pink poodles. In the greenhouse? Pink roses. The Kaisers entertained a constant stream of celebrities here, filling the society pages on a weekly basis. The Kaisers may no longer be with us, but the allure of Portlock’s real estate hasn’t diminished one bit. After them, this neighborhood had a new, high profile that it still enjoys.
It’s obvious that this district got its name from St. Louis School, which sits on the lower end of the elevation. Created in 1846 to serve the Catholic community of Hawaiian kingdom, it counts Governor John Burns and the recently sainted Father Damien of Molokai as graduates.
The school moved to its present site from downtown Honolulu in 1928. 204 hillside acres were purchased from Bishop Estate, giving them not only enough for their school, but also to sell of as residential lots. 80 acres were sold on which the first St. Louis Heights homes were built. Streets were named for early members of the order who started the school – Bertram, Eugene, Felix and others.
The Pearl Harbor attack directly affected this community as the school was taken over as a hospital and offices for the military. The government quickly threw up even more buildings on the hillside, making it one of the busiest places on Oahu during World War II. President Roosevelt even visited the hospital at one point.
The end of the war brought a close to the military’s presence, but started an acceleration of home building on these streets. Homes on St. Louis Heights were well loved for their stunning views and easy access to both downtown and Waikiki.
Few today would ever guess that this quiet community was once a beehive of activity aimed at winning the war in the Pacific.
This mountain, actually an extinct cinder cone left by the Ko’olau Volcano, was originally called Pu’uohi’a by the Hawaiians. The name change was a result of an 1840’s Punahou school field trip. The schoolboys, looking for ferns, decided to call it Tantalus after the Greek mythology figure. Somehow the name stuck.
The intimidating climb, and lack of roads, left the upper reaches unsettled until the 1880’s when the first home was finally built on the slopes. Others began to follow, though most of these early Tantalus homes were summer housing for the elite families who wanted to escape the heat of lower Oahu.
The initial roads were made up of gravel laid down by Oahu prisoners, who also had the job of maintaining them. For the first few decades of settlement the Tantalus home owners had envious views, but lacked some modern conveniences.
Electricity didn’t arrive on Tantalus until the 1920’s, 30 years after some parts of Honolulu. Rainwater was collected in tanks for daily use. Few homes had telephones so the ones that did let neighbors without them use theirs. The community became close-knit, partly because they needed to be.
That closeness is still there, but you don’t need to ‘rough it’ any more. Today, buying a home on Tantalus means sacrificing nothing except hotter temperatures.
Waialae Golf Course’s existence, along with the Royal Hawaiian Hotel’s, owes itself to a tourism promotion campaign intended to tempt high-end visitors to Hawaii in the 1920’s. The flat land wasn’t the most desirable for a golf course, so they hired a legendary designer named Seth Raynor to work his magic. Raynor’s courses are eagerly sought out by today’s golfers, ready to pay exorbitant sums to challenge his fairways. Amazingly, the man never played a round of golf until after he had completed 4 of his famous courses.
The land was leased from the Bishop Estate and opened to welcome the first duffers on February 1, 1927. Territorial Hotel Co., who owned Waialae, got into financial troubles during the Great Depression and turned their holdings over to the Matson Company.
Though World War II saw the country club taken over by the military to establish coastal defenses, it was the 1960’s that saw the greatest incursion, at least from golf fans’ point of view. The building of the Kahala Hilton prompted the Bishop Trust to take back the oceanfront fairways and other land from the country club.
All of Raynor’s design was taken out as the golf course was moved inland and completely reconfigured. Online golf forums are still filled with fans weeping from this loss, over 50 years later. Waialae Golf Course homes are still a pleasure despite that, many of which enjoy a place right on the fairway. With the beach just steps away, a house here is guaranteed to erase all unpleasant memories.
Wiliwilinui was once the name for this entire ridge, given because of the wiliwili trees that bloomed here so beautifully. The famous trail at the top still bears that name, while the rest was later renamed Waialae Iki after the Waialae Springs.
The water from these springs was reserved for the chiefs only, watched over by trusted keepers who passed on the duty through generations. By the 1800’s they had been forgotten until Kamehameha III chanced to walk through the area and asked an elderly couple for some water.
He was astonished to learn that they were the current guardians of the springs, keeping alive the line that stretched far into their family history. They were still there specifically to serve the king water if and when the need arose.
The ridge did hold a small collection of residents, but didn’t see much activity until World War II. The fear of invasion prompted the US military to build Battery Willy at the ridge’s high point, using gun turrets from 2 aircraft carriers. They remained here until 1944, when there were no more threats to the Islands. The bunkers are a popular attraction for hikers today.
It took another 20 years for Waialae Iki homes to begin appearing, beginning at the bottom of the hillside. Streets and homes slowly emerged higher and higher on the ridge over the years, the topmost neighborhood, a gated, luxury enclave, finally coming to life in the 1980’s. Homeowners now enjoy not only tremendous views every day, but also free access to the water, royalty or not.
Like most homes in Honolulu built on the high ground, there were few residences on Waialae Nui Ridge until the 1900’s. The pre-automobile inaccessibility kept these heights almost completely uninhabited.
The land at the foot of the hills was used mostly for agriculture during this time. Taro, sweet potatoes, sugar cane and even tobacco were all grown there at one time or another.
The explosion of development in nearby districts during the 1950s filled in much of the lands between the hills and the ocean. The next step was to start building upward. Although some construction began in the mid-1950’s, it was the following decade that saw a huge acceleration in Waialae Nui Ridge real estate lining the rise. Most of this neighborhood was built during this time, predominantly by prolific developer Herbert K. Horita.
Horita took the wise step of having acclaimed architect Vladimir Ossipoff design some of the models. Horita then used these floor plans for many of other houses. This lineage created demand for these Waialae Nui Ridge homes that has only increased as time has passed. Many of the houses are held up as masterpieces of mid-century design.
Since then a few more streets and homes have been added further up the ridge on the eastern side. These larger, later houses may lack pedigree, but make up for it in modern luxury and even greater views from their seat at the very top. The only way to get a better view would be to take a long, hot hike even higher up the mountain. Why do that when you can enjoy it from the comfort of a beautiful home?
Waikiki Seen From Magic Island
Had it been left untouched, Waikiki would today be swampland, just as it was hundreds of years ago. It was clear to Native Hawaiians, however, that this land had great agricultural potential due to its abundant freshwater springs. It’s believed that Oahu’s Chief Kalamakua created an irrigation system in the 15th Century to take advantage of these assets. Soon, taro farming was in place along with newly built fishponds to feed his people.
These farmlands would be overrun 3 centuries later when King Kamehameha’s armies landed here in 1794 on their way to conquering Oahu. His victory resulted in Waikiki becoming one of the new Kingdom’s primary Royal Retreats, not only for Kamehameha, but also his successors on the throne. The beautiful beaches and waters of this district became the preferred hideaway for every ruler up to the last Queen, Liliuokalani.
The increasing importance of tourism in the early 1900’s required firm land for building. For this reason the Ala Wai Canal was dug out in 1928 by Hawaiian Dredging. This drained the remaining swampland, creating the new, solid real estate that was needed.
The years following the Canal’s building saw new buildings spring up to serve the visitor industry. This was slowed down only by the attack on Pearl Harbor. That event altered the neighborhood from a resort to something resembling a military base. Until the end of World War II the famous beaches were strung with barbed wire and the Royal Hawaiian Hotel was converted to soldiers’ barracks.
Up into the early 1950s, there were still private homes on Kalakaua Ave and other beachfront streets. They’d all eventually give way to tourism properties. One exception was the 1st high-rise Waikiki condo, Ilikai Apartment Building, which went up on in 1965.
By the late 1960’s the streets between Kuhio Ave and the Ala Wai had become widely known as ‘The Jungle’. Due to deteriorating structures, crowded conditions and many colorful residents, this area had a reputation as a good place to avoid.
A solution was needed, especially in light of rising land values. This resulted in the demolishing of most of the old wooden homes, replaced by the condos that you see today in Waikiki.
Over 200 years after Kamehameha’s landing, this land is now under siege by those looking to conquer their own slice of this part of Honolulu. We call them Waikiki condo buyers.
Wailupe Beach neighborhood sits on the ocean side of Kalanianaole Hwy. Like a lot of places around Oahu, it was once the site of an ancient Hawaiian fishpond. Yet Wailupe fishpond was unique for 2 reasons. First, it was extremely large, taking up 41 acres in all. The entire present day neighborhood stands on what was once water.
Second is the fact that it survived longer than many other ancient fishponds on this side of Oahu. In fact, it’s conceivable that it might be there even now if not for the 1946 tsunami. The impact of this event left the pond walls severely damaged and the surrounding area devastated. The large dairy farm based nearby was put out of business and the owner, whose holdings included the pond, sold his land to Walter Dillingham in 1947.
Dillingham owned Hawaiian Dredging and saw the possibilities for the area. His company dug out the channel that sits by the peninsula now, moving over the earth dug up to fill in the fishpond. At the time, Wailupe was one of only 3 ancient Hawaiian fishponds remaining on Oahu’s eastern shores.
Wailupe Beach homes were soon added on top of the new grounds, creating a neighborhood right on the ocean. Some vestiges still exist that mark the old pond which once sat across from the current fire station. Everywhere else you’ll find the modern homes of Wailupe Circle, sitting on prime real estate that didn’t even exist less than a hundred years ago.
Charming Home on Wilhelmina Rise
Wilhelmina Rise is the prime example of a neighborhood that couldn’t exist until the 20th Century. Up until the early decades of the 1900’s transportation was dependent on the horse. There was no way anyone could get their daily business done living up there. The commute just wasn’t possible on that incline.
That changed when automobile use became widespread, allowing people to live on these heights. Surprisingly it was the Matson Company who seized the opportunity to develop this area in the 1920’s, carving out the notorious mile long road that goes up the hillside. The new Wilhelmina Rise homes were placed on a steep slope, but they enjoyed an outlook over the city that was difficult to beat.
Though they didn’t stay long in the building business, Matson did leave a legacy behind. Many of the streets are named for their famous ships, such as Lurline, Mariposa and Monterey. Most importantly, that main road, and the neighborhood, got its name from yet another Matson ship, the Wilhelmina.
Wilhelmina Rise has only gained notoriety since it was first paved, attracting people who drive up the steep road, just for the experience. Extreme athletes are even known to challenge themselves, and each other, to walk or even run up the entire mile. Little did Matson know, they were building not only a neighborhood, but a fitness course.
Take a Trip Up Tantalus
Famous Diamond Head as seen from Tantalus. Photo courtesy of erictessmer.
To residents it’s simply “the hill.” To visitors, it’s an excursion into a tropical jungle. Puʻuohiʻa, better known as Tantalus mountain, is both and more: hikers’ heaven, botanical paradise, cyclists’ and runners’ proving ground, a bird-watcher’s delight. This stately guardian to the Koʻolau range offers the best views, the best trails and, during summer months especially, metropolitan Honolulu’s backyard rain forest is an easy escape by car from the heated sidewalks and high-rises of the city
Few places on Oahu retain the mystique of this close-knit mountain community, with its gracious old kamaʻaina houses and estates hidden by a topography that favors privacy.
Turn onto Round Top Drive (which connects with Tantalus Drive) and there are driveways at seeming impossible inclines, rooftops that emerge level with your car wheels, sheer drops into canyons many feet below, and unbeatable views across the city.
A canopy of kukui and banyan trees shades the mountain’s single road — a two-lane, 10-mile loop with a series of hairpin turns and blind corners that challenge even the smallest of cars.
Mongooses race fearlessly across the road, the melodic calls of shama thrush echo from trees swathed in giant philodendron leaves. It’s cool, peaceful and woodsy — and frequently wet. Though not strictly classified a rain forest, the rainfall at the summit of Tantalus, measures more than 160 inches annually, a tad wetter than the 20 inches recorded at nearby Waikiki.
At the “Hog’s Back” lookout, a razorback summit ridge where the road narrows to a single lane, views take in two major valleys: on the Waiʻanae side is Pauoa Flats, part of Nuʻuanu valley and toward Diamond Head is Manoa, the two valleys bridged by a panorama from Kalaeloa to Diamond Head Crater.
Giving the mountain its lushness are rare Hawaiian plants, an astonishing assortment of trees, fast-encroaching bamboo forests and beautiful flowers. Also, wild coffee plants, guavas, thimbleberries and mountain apples. Maidenhead ferns spring from Tantalus ash banks. Bordering Round Top Drive is exotic and fragrant night-blooming cereus.
Puʻuohiʻa was called Tantalus after the Greek god by Punahou schoolboys on a fern-collecting expedition in the 1840s. The mountain is home to a small community with its own telephone directory whose octogenarians walk daily to help clear roadside trash.
But there’s a dark side, too, famously referred to as Tantalus’ “hankery pankery.” Bodies and bones turn up from time to time in the undergrowth. The mountain is secluded, dark and quiet at night, harboring secrets to crimes as yet unsolved.
Though little in the way of a formal history is written about Tantalus, memories and stories from longtime residents paint a picture of the mountain in the last century as an Eden-like place. A time when Tantalus was “country,” and well-to-do Honolulu families owned a place in the country, as well as the city.
The first house is believed to have been built in the 1880s, a small cabin on the slope of the Punchbowl side. In the early days of homesteading at the beginning of the 20th century, summer houses and cabins were built as mountain retreats to escape the season’s heat. Roads were built and maintained by prisoners from Oahu prison, little more than trails of volcanic gravel excavated from nearby Makiki quarries.
House-building materials were hauled by horse and wagon or human effort up the mountain’s only road from Punchbowl side. According to early accounts, even when cars began making the journey around 1914, they frequently overheated and broke down, resenting the single, long winding path.
Homes were lit by kerosene lamps. Water then as now was collected in massive redwood rain tanks. Electricity arrived on the mountain in the mid-1920s. Few homes had telephones, and those that did shared with those who did not.
Today fewer than 200 homes exist off Round Top/Tantalus Drive. Most began as small summer houses with corrugated roofs, built for well-known families, among them the Dillinghams, Castles, Bishops, Isenbergs and Wilders. The homes were later expanded and improved or rebuilt into today’s upscale structures.
Several were designed by architects Charles Dickey and Hart Wood. Some families designed and built their own properties, with younger generations adding to them over the years.
Second attack on Pearl Harbor commemorated, residents of Tantalus recall the destruction close to home
The second attack on Pearl Harbor in March 4, 1942 was not like the first attack on December 7, 1941. Bombs rained on Tantalus, a short distance from where civilian institutions such as the Roosevelt High School was located.
The first attack on a morning at end of the year 1941 on Pearl Harbor was massive. Thousands bore witness to the horror of the event. The second attack however was stealthy.
“It was the most ingenious and bold long range bombing program of World War II,” said Daniel Martinez, a U.S. National Park Service historian.
The Japanese used flying boats in a mission called “Operation K”. Two of such boats flew across the Pacific. The boats then stopped in the northwestern part of the Hawaiian islands to refuel by submarine. The crafts arrived over Oahu in the middle of the night.
“About 2 in the morning I was rudely awoken by four bomb blasts,” said former Tantalus resident Alan Lloyd.
The intended target, the Pearl Harbor, was damaged but still operational. One of the pilots flew over the Koolau mountains and dropped the bombs over Tantalus in a very serious blunder.
The impact of the second attack was minor but the changes that US made on their strategy was major. Photo dated March 4, 1942. Photo: Pacific Islander
The explosion of the 550 pound bombs were so strong that the windows of nearby homes were shattered. The trees were also leveled leaving behind 20-30 foot craters in the forest.
Lloyd was then twelve when the attack happened. He climbed the hillside above his home the next day and saw the craters. When he saw the impact of one of the blasts about 100 yards from Tantalus Road, he was horrified to realize that they were nearly obliterated by the bombs.
“If the pilot had delayed his bomb release by ten seconds, it could have hit our house — it was that close,” said Lloyd.
The four bombs that were dropped on Oahu did minor damage to a few homes and caused alarm over a few of the residents. However, historians conclude that the impact of the attack could be seen in the change of U.S. strategy during the war.
“The Navy and Army had to figure out: how did these guys pull it off. The only place they could refuel was French Frigate Shoals and so immediately, U.S. Navy ships sat on the area,” said Martinez.
After the blockade was set-up after the second attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese forces were impaired from refueling long-range patrol planes. This crippled their intelligence work through the skies for the Battle of Midway which took place months later. The battle was to be a very decisive victory for the U.S.
Bushes and plants have concealed the craters on Tantalus over the years. In history books, the second attack is less talked about. In fact, it is known only to few.
“Very few people were aware of this, unless they heard it. It wasn’t in the papers cause it was a military secret,” stated Lloyd.
Keywords Studios acquires 85% interest in Tantalus Media for up to $46.8 millionFounded in 1994 and based in Melbourne, Australia, Tantalus is a leading and prolific developer of high quality, multi-platform titles.
LONDON: Keywords Studios has acquired an 85% interest in Tantalus Media for a total consideration of up to US$46.8 million.
The investment will further the Group’s strategy to become the ‘go to’ technical and creative services platform for the global video games industry and marks Keywords Studios’ entry into the Australian video games market.
Founded in 1994 and based in Melbourne, Australia, Tantalus is a leading and prolific developer of high quality, multi-platform titles. Led by Tom Crago, the studio has worked on close to 100 games, on every major platform since the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.
Notable game franchises among the studio’s credits include Age of Empires, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, Cities Skylines, Sonic Mania and Mass Effect. Tom Crago will work with Keywords Studios to drive its expansion in the region, both organically and through a healthy pipeline of acquisition opportunities.
Tantalus has grown strongly in recent years and generated adjusted EBITDA of c.US$6m in 2020. Under the terms of the 85% investment, Keywords Studios will pay a maximum amount of US$46.8m, comprising initial consideration of US$30.6m (US$18.4m in cash from existing resources and the equivalent of US$12.2m in new ordinary shares) and deferred consideration of up to US$16.2m, in a mix of cash and new ordinary shares, based on performance targets for Tantalus over two years.
The new ordinary shares to be issued as part of the initial consideration and the deferred consideration will be subject to a one-year lock-in period and orderly market provisions for a further one year period.
Keywords has acquired 85% of the issued share capital of Tantalus’ parent company, Keywords Australia Pty Ltd (Keywords Australia), a new company set up for this transaction.
Put and call options are in place that would allow the Group to buy the 15% shareholding in Keywords Australia in 3 years from Tom Crago’s wholly owned investment company.
Jon Hauck, Joint Interim CEO of Keywords Studios commented: “Tantalus brings 27 years of experience of video game development in Australia for some of the largest global publishers and leading titles. The talented team, led by Tom Crago and supported by an experienced management team, has an impressive track record of development work on major franchises including Age of Empires, Sonic Mania, The Legend of Zelda, Mass Effect, Cars and Cities: Skylines.
“We are delighted to welcome Tantalus to the Keywords Studios family. As our first investment in Australia, we are very excited to work with Tom and his talented team who will bring invaluable expertise and market knowledge as we expand our presence in this attractive and growing region.”
Tom Crago, further commented: “This is a great day for our team, and we are delighted to be joining the Keywords Studios family. We share the same outlook on the opportunities within the video game industry, and we’re grateful to Keywords Studios for investing in our growth, not just in Tantalus, but in the wider Australian market.
“This provides us with a great platform for further expansion, and with the talent and expertise available in this part of the world, we are very excited about the future. For all of us, that means being able to work on more games than ever, with our existing publisher partners and beyond.”
The Black Eyed Peas
As she worked on getting her life back together, Fergie joined the Black Eyed Peas, an emerging hip-hop group with a popular following. Her first album with the group was 2003&aposs Elephunk, which became a huge smash driven by several successful singles, including "Where Is The Love?" (which also featured vocals by Justin Timberlake) and "Hey Mama." The group won a Grammy Award for best rap performance by a duo or group for the song "Let&aposs Get It Started"𠅊nother hit from Elephunk.
The band, which also includes apl.de.ap, will.i.am and Taboo, released a 2005 follow-up album, Monkey Business, which reached the top of the rap, R&B and hip-hop charts and made it to No. 2 on the Billboard 200. Showing the diverse nature of their music, the group won the Grammy Award for best rap performance for "Don&apost Phunk With My Heart" in 2005, and the Grammy for best pop performance for "My Humps" in 2006.
The Black Eyed Peas enjoyed another wave of chart success in 2009 with the release of The E.N.D. The recording reached the top of the Billboard album charts helped by such songs as "I Gotta Feeling" and "Boom Boom Pow." The group followed in 2010 with their sixth studio album, The Beginning.
HURT can trace its roots back to the early 80s. This was the time of the running boom, and there were 10Ks and half marathons every month, and the Honolulu Marathon was the ultimate goal for most Hawai’i runners. There were very few trail runners, and even fewer ultra runners. However, these few were the core that formed the original HURT, the Hawaiian Ultra Running Team.
Originally, this was just a bunch of friends that ran together, and they rarely saw many others out on the trails. Trail races and ultras were unknown in Hawai’i, so they would travel to the mainland to enter events. There was a camaraderie among these runners that led to the desire to have an identity that would be recognized anywhere they went. Thus, HURT was born, and shouts of “HURT, HURT, HURT,” were soon being heard at races far from Hawai’i.
The original runners loved the Hawai’i trails and promoted Hawai’i trail running to whoever they could. They welcomed anyone who wanted to run trails. And if you became a regular, a friend of the group, or even a visitor to the Islands that made an impression, you might mysteriously find yourself in possession of a HURT shirt. This was your badge of membership, as there was no application form, no dues, and no official roster of members. If you loved Hawai’i trails, you were included.
Though there were many HURT “members” near and far, there was always a core group that formed HURT into what it is today. John Salmonson has always been the group’s “guru” and de facto leader. Some others from the 80s and early 90s included PJ Salmonson, Jim Budde, Bill and Punkin Burgess, Vernon Char, Ed Fishman, Carl Gammon, Randy and Cilla Havre, Alan and Vivian Nozaki, Richard and Berna Senelly, and Millie and Eric Schatz. This was an Ohana that trained together, traveled to races, had dinners and parties, and were best friends.
Since HURT was always about sharing the love of ultra running, these folks began to think about putting on races of their own. This led to the creation of the Hawaiian Ultra Running Team as a formal entity in the State of Hawai’i. The first trail race to be held was the Tantalus Triple Trek, a 50K trail race on our beloved trails. Originally championed by Race Directors Randy and Cilla Havre, this race still exists today. Another of the early races was Honolulu City Lights, an eight-tenths of a mile road loop in downtown Honolulu, run at night. Runners had a choice of distances: 50K, 50M, or 100K. And for an extra $5, could run for a full 12 hours.
As 100-mile trail races began to grow in popularity, there was a desire to hold one in Hawai’i that would both give local runners an opportunity to run a 100-mile trail run, and give visitors a chance to enjoy our home trails. Four local runners, Jeff Huff, Greg Cuadra, akabill Molmen, and Greg Pirkl went to John Salmonson with the idea, and in 2001 the HURT 100 Mile Endurance Run was born. The first HURT 100 had eight finishers. Since that meager start, the HURT 100 has become known worldwide as one of the hardest 100-mile races. Though limited to 135 runners, many hundreds apply each year.
The HURT Ohana continued to grow, and with it, the idea of introducing our trails to more people. Another generation of HURT members stepped up to direct races in the HURT Trail Series. These were runs of both ultra and shorter distances, and quickly became extremely popular with local runners. The hard work, dedication, and generosity of many HURT Ohana RD volunteers has made each of the unique events successful. The current Trail Series races include:
- Aiea Loop Express
- Ka’ena Point Firecracker
- Kealia Quad Crusher
- Mango Madness
- Maunawili Out and Back
- Peacock Challenge
- Tantalus Triple Trek
- Vi’s Top of Tantalus
During 2020 and 2021, much of the HURT running and trail activities were curtailed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Through this, the HURT team continued to work behind the scenes. The goal of the Hawaiian Ultra Running Team has always been the promotion of a healthy lifestyle through running, particularly trail running, as well as giving back to our āina through trail maintenance. Planning for future activities never stopped.
In 2020, to better position itself to fulfill these goals, HURT, Inc. was formed. The new organizational structure allowed HURT to secure status as a charitable 501(c)3 organization under the auspices of the Road Runners Clubs of America. The new organizational composition will allow HURT, Inc. to continue well into the future, as younger Ohana step up to carry on the legacy and vision of the of those original runners that loved the Hawai’i trails. This benefits not only HURT, but also the many local companies and individuals that donate goods and services to our races. Current officers include:
- Marian Yasuda, President
- John Salmonson, Chairman and Director
- Carl Gammon, Vice President
- Freddy Halmes, Vice President
- Jeff Huff, Treasurer
- PJ Salmonson, Secretary
There may be a new legal name, but nothing else has changed. The Ohana continues, and the Hawaiian Ultra Running Team continues to grow the love of trail running. There is still no application and no membership fee, but the HURT Ohana includes hundreds of runners, volunteers, race directors, and those who just love and support the trails of Hawai’i.