Milwaukee III CL-5 - History

Milwaukee III CL-5 - History

Milwaukee III CL-5

Milwaukee III
(CL-5 : dp. 7,050, 1. 555'6" b. 55'4" , dr. 13'6" , s. 34 k.
cpl. 458; a. 12 6"; 4 3'; 10 21" tt.; cl. Omaha)

The third Milwaukee (CL~5) was laid down 13 December 1918 by Seattle Construction & Dry Dock Co., Seattle Wash., launched by Todd Dry Dock & Construction Co. Seattle, Wash., 24 March 1921; sponsored by Mrs. Rudolph Pfeil; and commissioned 20 June 1923, Capt. William a Anderson in command.

Shakedown took the new cruiser to Australia via Hawaii, Somoa, Fiji Islands, and New Caledonia, for the Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress which opened in Sydney 23 August 1923. Fitted with the finest sonic depth-finding equipment, Mlilwaukee gathered knowledge of the Pacific en route.

Although she served primarily in the Pacific during the decades between the world wars, the highlights of her peacetime service came in the Caribtan. On 24 October 1926, Milwaukee and Goff arrived at the Isle of Pines from Guantanamo Bay to assist victims of a fierce hurricane which had devasta,ted the island 4 days before. The American ships established a medical center at the city hall in Nueva Crone, furnished the stricken area over 50 tons of food, replaced telephone lines which had been swept away, and maintained wireless communication with the outside world. The efficient and tireless labors of the crews won the respect and gratitude of everyone in the area.

Over a decade later while steaming north of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico 14 February 1939 Milwaukee recorded the greatest depth yet discovered in the Atlantic, 5,041 fathoms, or 30,246 feet. The spot has thenceforth been designated "Milwaukee Depth."

Totalitarianism was then threatening to shatter world peace and to snuff out freedom. Over a year before, Japanese military hotheads had bombed U.S. gunboat Panay in the Yangtze River near Hankow, China, 12 December 1937, testing American determination to remain in the Orient Milwaukee, as part of the U.S. Navy's response to the challenge, got underway from San Diego 3 January 1938 on a cruise to the Far East, which took her to Hawaii Samoa, Australia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Guam. As tension abated she returned home 27 April.

The new breed of dictators needed a more forceful lesson. Late in the summer of 1939, Hitler invaded Poland plunging Europe into war. Somewhat over 2 years later Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, drawing the United States into the conflict.

Milwaukee, Capt. Forest B. Royal, was in New York Navy Yard for overhaul when Japan struck. Departing New York 31 December 1941, Milwaukee escorted a convoy to the Caribbean and arrived Balboa 31 January 1942, transited the Panama Canal, and escorted eight troop transports to the Society Islands. Returning to the Atlantic through the canal 7 March, she stopped at Trinidad en route to Recife, Brazil, where she joined the South Atlantic Patrol Force.

For the next 2 years Milwaukee made repeated patrols from ports of Brazil, steaming from the border of French Guiana, down to Rio de Janeiro, and across the Atlantic Narrows almost to the African coast. On 19 May 1942,
while steaming from Ascension Island toward Brazil she received SOS signals from SS Commandante Lyra and sped to the assistance of the Brazilian merchantman, torpedoed by a German U-boat off the coast of Brazil. On reaching the scene that morning,Milwaukee found Commandante Lyra ,abandoned, burning forward and aft, and listing to port.

Destroyer Moffett (DD-362) picked up 16 survivors and Milwaukee rescued 25 others, including the ship's master. Cruiser Omaha (CL-4) and destroyer McDougal (DD368) were soon on the rescue scene. While Milwaukee refueled at Recife, Onza)'a's salvage party jettisoned deck cargo and ready ammunition for deck guns from the burning Brazilian merchantman. Milwaukee immediately returned to the scene. Her salvage party jettisoned cargo, to lighten the Brazilian. The fires were brought under control as Commandante Lyra was towed towards Fortaleza, Brazil, arriving 24 May.

Milwaukee put out of Recife 8 November 1942 in company with cruiser Cincinnati (CL~6) and destroyer Somers (DD-381) seeking German blockade runners. On 21 November 1942 the task force encountered a strange ship which turned out to be the German blockade runner .Annalicse Essenberger. Milwaukee challenged the unidentifled ship who replied with the call letters L-J-P-Y, the international call of Norwegian freighter Sjhflbred. The Allied secret identification signal brought no reply. The two American cruisers maneuvered to cover destroyer Somers chasing the enemy into a small rain squall. At 0651, when Homers had closed to 4 miles, smoke and flames poured from the enemy who lowered boats. Minutes later the first of three tremendous explosions hurled wreckage hundreds of feet in the air and the freighter settled by the stern. Then the Norwegian flag was hauled down and the German merchant swastika flag was raised at the main. The German motorship heeled over to port and sank by the stern. Milwaukee took aboard 62 prisoners from four life rafts.

On the morning of 2 May 1943 while Milwaukee was under repairs at Recife, her crew showed great initiative and skill fighting a fire on tanker SS Livingston Roc which threatened the harbor.

Milwaukee continued her South Atlantic patrols until 8 February 1944 when she departed Bahia, Brazil, for the New York Navy Yard. She stood out from New York 27 February as a unit of the ocean escort for a convoy which reached Belfast, Northern Ireland, 8 March 1944. On 20 March 1944 Milwaukee put to sea, en route to Murmansk, Russia, with British Convoy JW58. A German submarine was sunk during the night. The following day enemy planes shadowing the convoy were shot down by fighter planes launched from HMS Activity. A Wolfpack of German submarines tried to penetrate the convoy screen during the night of 31 March 1944 but was driven off. The following night seven German submarines shadowed the e convoy but they, too, were driven off with the possible loss of one enemy .submarine. That morning carrier-based planes reported sinking a German submarine 10 miles astern.

On 4 April four escorts of the Russian Navy joined the convoy POW headed for Archangel. A few hours later Milwaukee left the convoy and headed for Kola Inlet. There on 20 April 1944 the ship was transferred on loan to the Soviet Union under lend-lease. She commissioned in the Russian Navy as Murmansk and performed convoy and patrol duty along the Atlantic sealanes throughout the remainder of the war. Transferred back to the United States 16 March 1940, Milwaukee, the first of 15 American warships returned by Russia, entered Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 18 March 1949, and was sold for scrapping 10 December 1949 to the American Shipbreakers, Inc., Wilmington, Del.

[OC] Lost Leagues- Part III: History of the FXFL

For those that wanted minor league football in the fall, the demise of the United Football League was sad. However, the UFL always wanted to compete against the NFL, despite what they said otherwise. They made players that left the UFL to join the NFL pay a buyout fee, they scheduled games at the same time as Thursday Night Football, and they were looking to go directly against the NFL. They had an identity crisis, along with a bunch of other things, and eventually, the league died without people even knowing it existed towards the end.

But what about the opposite approach? What about a league that wants to be a minor league to the NFL, and doesn’t want to compete? This is the story of the Fall Experimental Football League, or the FXFL. What started off as a modest idea quickly became a joke of a league that, unlike the UFL (which at least had some glimmer of hope at one point), never had a fighting chance. The inaugural season was a near-disaster, and the second season (because somehow it was around for a second season) was a complete mess that didn’t even finish.

So how did they get to that point? How did they get from a league that had a TV deal with ESPN3 to a league that had a team playing in a stadium that was deemed too unsafe for football? This is the FXFL.

Part I: Developing the League

Stop me if you heard this one before. An upstart league wants to have a certain number of teams in the league, but is only able to get 4 teams in the league when all is said and done because they didn’t have enough owners. It happened to the UFL, it happened to the short-lived SFL, and, no surprise, it happened to the FXFL. I’ll give the XFL credit- for as colossal of a failure as that was, they at least delivered on all of their promises leading into the first season, and then some.

What made the FXFL a bit different, though, was that it flat out said they were not trying to compete against the NFL. In fact, they never had any intention of competing against the NFL. Their ambitions were so low that it’s almost admirable how low they set the bar. The goal of the FXFL was to be a developmental league for the NFL. The commissioner of the league was Brian Woods, whose only experience running a sporting event or league was running the failed Medal of Honor Bowl. He didn’t exactly have the greatest resume to run this league. However, he stated about the FXFL:

Given the current Division I landscape in football and the CBA the NFL has with the union, there is more than ever a need for another platform out there—a platform like for basketball and baseball players. The NFL has the practice squad, but it does not develop players because they don’t get into games. You don’t develop if you aren’t getting on the field.

The FXFL’s goal was to become a glorified practice squad for the NFL. The league even made it so that the rules were pretty much exactly the same as the NFL, and coaches had to play NFL-style offenses. If a team wanted to play like Navy or Georgia Tech and run the triple option all the time, they could not do that. While I definitely understand the premise behind that, what’s with the name FXFL? How is it an experimental football league if there’s no experimenting going on?

When I think of an experimental football league, I think of rules like always having to go for 2, no punting, an A11 offense… stuff like that. I don’t think of a league that runs exactly how football is played already. The FXFL had an identity crisis with that name. The only difference was that extra points were 35 yards and kickoffs were at the 25-yard line. Other than that? Nothing new.

On May 7 of 2014, the FXFL was formed, and would begin play later that fall. In a matter of about five months, the league would go from just a figment of someone’s imagination to actually staging games. The original plan was to have the sites of the franchises named later that month, but that announcement didn’t come until late June.

The plan was to have 6 teams in the league. The FXFL would have teams based in Brooklyn, Boston, Omaha, Portland, Austin, and somewhere in Florida. How many would the FXFL end up starting with? Three and a half. The Brooklyn Bolts, Boston Breakers, and Omaha Mammoths all went on as planned, but Austin and Portland were gone due to cost measures, and the Florida Blacktips became a traveling team only about a month away from the start of the season.

You can already tell where this is going. A four-team league is too small at the start. Commissioner Woods, who forced half the teams to play a 4-3 defense and the other half to play a 3-4 defense, said that while they wanted to have more teams, they couldn’t because they wanted to minimize costs. Want to know how you minimize costs? Don’t place your teams on the East Coast and then place a team in Omaha. Don’t place teams in markets where you have to fly to get to the games.

The market selection for the FXFL was absolutely terrible. Omaha, while a good football market (as evidenced by the success of the Omaha Nighthawks in the UFL), was in the middle of nowhere compared to the other teams in the league. Brooklyn played in a market that not only had 2 football teams, but had a team in every other sport. The same thing happened with Boston. Miami would’ve been in the same problem, but they became a traveling team. Don’t place minor league teams in cities that already have other sports. Go for the big markets that don’t have a whole lot of competition, like Portland or Sacramento. Going for Boston is just incredibly stupid.

Commissioner Woods might be the most brain-dead commissioner in the history of any professional football league. Aside from placing teams in cities that didn’t need football teams, he basically said the only way the FXFL could survive was if the NFL bought them out. This was before the season even started. In this ESPN article, writer Kevin Seifert stated, “By Woods’ own admission, the league’s future likely is tied to arranging a formal affiliation with the NFL.”

The end game was to get the NFL to notice them. Why did he think this could ever work? The NFL is an organization bringing in eleven figures per year. They’ve got so much money and power that Roger Goodell might be the most powerful commissioner of any annual domestic league in all of sports around the world. If the NFL wanted a minor league, they’d do it themselves. They don’t need the help of the FXFL. The FXFL was trying to create a solution to a problem that the NFL didn’t even have or want to fix. Maybe the NFL will create a minor league soon, but they’ll do it themselves. They won’t do it with a league that’s so bad that they’d have to relocate every team (minus Omaha) so that they’re not playing in the same market as an NFL team, and they won’t do it with a league that played almost every game in a baseball stadium.

The only thing the NFL ever used the FXFL for was as a training ground for officials. In terms of players from the FXFL to make it to the NFL? That pipeline was nonexistent. Tickets for the league went on sale three weeks before the start of the 2014 season, and the FXFL received a grand total of for television rights. Aside from a Mike & Mike interview in September, there was minimal promotion for this league.

This league seemed doomed to fail from the start. So how did the first season get on?

Part II: The Inaugural Season

The 2014 season started on October 8 with four teams- the Brooklyn Bolts, the Omaha Mammoths, the Boston Breakers, and the Florida Blacktips. Good idea for the league to play their first game in Omaha, seeing as the city welcomed the Nighthawks a few years beforehand with open arms. As for what the league was thinking by naming the team as the Mammoths, I have no idea. Their other options were the Channel Cats and the Drive, so the option for the Mammoths was clearly the best one… but what’s with the reasoning? Commissioner Woods stated, “We developed a team brand that accurately depicts the type of team that the Omaha community will want to see on the field: big, strong, and unstoppable.” Yep, Mammoths are unstoppable… except for the time where they were extinct and all that.

Once again, Omaha had the best team in the league in terms of fan support. Unfortunately, that wasn’t saying a whole lot. The attendance at the first game that the Mammoths had was significantly less than the sold out crowd that the Nighthawks got in their first game. About 3,000 fans showed up, which was one of the highest attended games of the season.

Commissioner Woods stated that the turnout was a number that would be very good for a minor league baseball team, even though it wasn’t huge. Let’s analyze that number, shall we, because if Woods and other pundits are comparing this to Triple-A baseball, let’s see what the attendance would be stacked up against Triple-A. In 2014, Omaha’s number would’ve ranked last in the International League by about 1,000 fans. Only one team in the IL drew less than 4,000 fans per game, and that was the Syracuse Chiefs. So, that’s not too good. In the Pacific Coast League, Omaha’s number would’ve ranked last by about 2,000 fans.

If we go down to Double-A, in the Eastern League, Omaha’s number would’ve ranked 10th out of 11, only ahead of the Binghamton Mets. In the Texas League, Omaha’s number would’ve ranked dead last by more than 1,000 fans. And in the Southern League, Omaha’s number would’ve ranked 8th out of 11. So, to answer your comment, Commissioner Woods, that number of 3,000 fans is not even good for a minor league baseball team. He was a diluted commissioner who was in over his head, and comments like that showed exactly why.

But we’re only one week into this disaster. After Omaha won the first game 41-18 over the Boston Breakers, the next games were scheduled for one week later on October 15. For the record, this was some footage of the inaugural game, so you can judge for yourself whether or not this would’ve been a good minor league attendance. Omaha won 20-19 over the Florida Blacktips in a game attended by half the crowd of the original game (about 15,000), while the Brooklyn Bolts won their inaugural game in front of less than 2,000 fans. The following week, Boston played their inaugural home game in front of less than 1,000 fans at Harvard Stadium (which seats 30,000). I think this picture says it all. That same week, Brooklyn played a home game against Omaha, and maybe 2,000 people showed up while they never released an attendance figure, keep in mind that MCU Park seats 7,000.

In the middle of the season, the league got a glimmer of hope when they announced Nivea as a sponsor. But that was about all that went right in 2014 for the FXFL. The Boston Breakers were a joke of a franchise, outside of the fact that there was already another professional soccer team called the Boston Breakers that played at Harvard Stadium. For their second and final home game against the Brooklyn Bolts, they didn’t even announce an attendance. There are no shots of the crowd from any highlight videos of the game, but let’s just say that playing a game on Halloween isn’t a smart idea if you’re a minor football league.

The best attendance of the season came one week later when the Omaha Mammoths drew 4,000 fans in a thrilling 10-8 victory by the Mammoths where they turned the ball over 5 times and had 95 yards of offense in the first 58 minutes of the game. In the highlights, you’re seeing near-empty bleachers at TD Ameritrade Park. Keep in mind that this was the highest FXFL attendance of 2014. Brooklyn drew maybe 2,000 fans per game. Omaha drew roughly 3,000 fans per game. Boston drew less than 1,000, and the Blacktips were a traveling team. Attendance was not on the league’s side.

After Brooklyn defeated the Florida Blacktips of Miami and Route 66 by a final score of 26-13 on November 7, the league cancelled the remainder of their games. The proposed championship game the day before Thanksgiving? Cancelled. They just declared Brooklyn the first ever champion of the league and called it a day. And yet, the league was satisfied with their mini season.

I can’t believe how low the FXFL set the bar. They had a 9-game regular season and couldn’t even finish that, they drew maybe 2,000 fans per game (and that’s a high estimate this article said that Omaha drew 2,000 fans per game, and they were the highest attended team), and they’re satisfied? How can you genuinely say you’re satisfied when you cancelled part of your season?

One month later, the FXFL realized that having teams fly to every game because of how spread apart they are was a bad idea, and was left in a bit of a pickle. Of the four teams, Commissioner Woods expected Brooklyn (a team where the Cyclones controlled all the operations except for the football operations) to return, as well as Omaha, and he wanted to expand the league to places such as Memphis, Austin, Oklahoma City, and Florida (even though they already technically had a Floridian team). Again, doesn’t make a whole lot of sense when they want to lower their costs yet they want teams in Brooklyn and Oklahoma City.

The first season was pretty much a trainwreck. Was the second season any better?

Part III: The 2015 Season

The FXFL wanted to expand from a 4-team league. By the start of the 2015 season, it had 3 teams. Any sympathy you might have for Commissioner Woods is going to be thrown out the window by the start of the 2015 season, because Woods was not just a clueless and horrible commissioner, but also a backstabbing, slimy liar.

The Brooklyn Bolts would be back. The Omaha Mammoths? Yeah, they’d be back too. Except for when the commissioner changed his mind and announced they wouldn’t return. The FXFL model was apparently based on selling 6,000 tickets per game, but no team even reached half of that number, so the league was flat out delusional. I feel genuinely sorry for Omaha- they’ve had the best support of any city in the UFL and the FXFL, and they’ve been hurt by poor management by the league. This city deserves better.

The Boston Brawlers would relocate to Mahoning Valley in Ohio and become the Mahoning Valley Brawlers. This was a huge deal for the city- they hadn’t had a pro football team play for them in over a century, and this was going to be huge for a town with a population of just under 20,000. Commissioner Woods called the addition the opportunity for an exciting new market with an attractive fan base.

Time for tryouts for the Brawlers. Hundreds of players looked for their opportunity to play professional football and maybe get a shot at an NFL tryout. Only problem? There was no tryout. The league cancelled the tryout without ever informing the players. A day later, the league announced that, by the way, we don’t have the money to have the Brawlers play, so we’re gonna have you guys fold. The team was ready to go and play their October 3 home opener, and less than a week before, the FXFL made them pull out.

No notice, no refunds for airfare or hotels, no nothing. Players drove from Alabama and got no notice that the team was folding. Not only that, but the Brawlers were supposed to have tryouts on September 20. A player flew in, and didn’t get a notice until September 19 that the tryout was cancelled. So, he flew back home, then came back to Ohio on September 27 before realizing that the team folded. Also, another genius idea by the FXFL- have tryouts on a Sunday. Because nothing will get the NFL to notice you by holding your tryouts on a Sunday.

How the FXFL avoided a lawsuit, I’m not sure. The only lawsuit the FXFL ever had was a $60,000 lawsuit in legal fees during the offseason, but I think that got settled out of court, since I can’t find anything else on it or even what the reasons behind it were. How the players didn’t come together and sue this league, I have no idea, because this seems like an open and shut case. So now the Mammoths are out, and the Brawlers are out. Who’s left?

You’ve still got the Brooklyn Bolts. You’ve got the Blacktips, who are still a traveling team. And, you’ve got the newly formed Hudson Valley Fort. Why anyone would name their team as the Fort, I’m not sure. The team was located in Fishkill, New York. I’ve actually been to Fishkill before. Not sure how that city ever had a professional team. The population of Fishkill is just over 2,000. The Fort were the last hope the league had left.

There were now three teams in the FXFL for 2015. You had a traveling team, a team in a city where there’s every other sport as competition, and a team in a town with a population of 2,000. Seems like a league destined for success.

The season went about as you’d expect. No game drew more than 2,000 fans. The Fort drew 1,776 fans for their first game, and were a complete disaster of a franchise. The Fort may have been the worst run professional football franchise ever. After one game, nobody was paid. Their coach resigned, the players walked out, the team didn’t have enough equipment for the players, and “there were times at practice when water wasn’t available.” One player wrote:

We will do a team session where all defensive players are fully padded but we have 3 offensive linemen without shoulder pads and no receivers with helmets. Even during the game, we are forced to share helmets. This can be very dangerous, especially with staph infection going around.

Commissioner Woods’ response to this, along with the fact that the Fort didn’t have a trainer? According to the article, “he said he considered the issue a ‘non-starter’ and didn’t think it was a story.” How is that not a story? How is a team not having enough equipment and running out of water not a story? Again, Commissioner Woods went from clueless to downright dirty during the 2015 season.

It got worse for the Fort, though. This was their opening game. The field doesn’t look so good. Looks a bit dangerous. Looks like it wasn’t made for football. There are some baseball stadiums that can pull off the football look, and some that cannot. And then, there’s the Hudson Valley Fort. Look at these beautiful sightlines on the field. Turns out, Dutchess Stadium wasn’t safe for football. It was so unsafe that the league cancelled the remainder of their games, and any high school football games scheduled to be played there were cancelled.

Because of this, you had yet another shortened season. Brooklyn finished 4-1, the Blacktips (who were a traveling team yet again) finished 1-1, and the Fort finished 0-3. But make no mistake… the league was going to come back for the 2016 season bigger and better than ev--- nope. They folded. Brooklyn Baseball Banter of all places broke the news that the FXFL folded, and on August 31 of 2016, this failed experimental football league was no more.

Part IV: Legacy

The FXFL was doomed to fail from the start. Word to the wise- don’t try and do the NFL’s job for them. If the NFL wants a minor football league, they’ll create a minor football league. If the end game is “the only way we survive is if the NFL notices us,” then you’re going to die pretty quickly. This league was ridden with poor management, poor attendance, and a poor gameplan. Their identity was really bad. The quality of football was really bad their marquee players were Josh Freeman and Tajh Boyd. The commissioner was bad. Everything about this league was bad.

Some tips for creating a league: Don’t try and place a team in a market that already has a team. Don’t have a traveling team. Don’t make promises you can’t keep. Don’t set the bar so low (there’s a difference between realistic expectations and then expectations that will just set you up for failure). Don’t play games in stadiums that aren’t safe for football. Don’t place a team in a town that holds 2,000 people. Don’t place teams all across the country when you don’t have the money.

I could see what the UFL was trying to do, even though it failed. But the FXFL? This was a colossal failure. Again, how the league didn’t get sued up their rear end, I’m not sure, because the way the Brawlers and the way the Fort were handled was absolutely terrible. The NFL didn’t want a minor league. The FXFL created a minor league. Not surprisingly, the FXFL failed.

When Native American Activists Occupied Alcatraz Island

Since the mid-1960s, American Indians had been on a mission to break into Alcatraz. After the famed prison shuttered its doors in 1963, Bay Area Native Americans began lobbying to have the island redeveloped as an Indian cultural center and school. Five Sioux even landed on Alcatraz in March 1964 and tried to seize it under an 1868 treaty that allowed Indians to appropriate surplus federal land. These early efforts all failed, but reclaiming “the Rock” became a rallying cry for Indians, many of whom viewed the island as a symbol of government indifference toward the indigenous population.

When an October 1969 fire destroyed San Francisco’s American Indian Center, an activist group known as “Indians of All Tribes” set their sights on the unused land at Alcatraz. A handful of protestors first journeyed to the island on November 9, 1969 under the leadership of Mohawk college student Richard Oakes. They only stayed for a night before the authorities removed them, but Oakes stressed that the landing had been a symbolic act. “If a one day occupation by white men on Indian land years ago established squatter’s rights,” he told the San Francisco Chronicle, “then the one day occupation of Alcatraz should establish Indian rights to the island.”

Indians of All Tribes made a final attempt to seize Alcatraz in the early morning hours of November 20, 1969—this time with an occupation force of 89 men, women and children. After sailing through San Francisco Bay under cover of darkness, the Indians landed at Alcatraz and claimed the island for all the tribes of North America. Ignoring warnings that their occupation was illegal, they moved into the old warden’s house and guards’ quarters and began personalizing the island with graffiti. A message appeared on the water tower reading: “Peace and Freedom. Welcome. Home of the Free Indian Land.” Other buildings were tagged with slogans like “Red Power” and 𠇌uster Had It Coming.”

The Indians’ first official proclamation to the public followed shortly thereafter in a manifesto addressed to “The Great White Father and All His People.” In it, they stated their intentions to use the island for an Indian school, cultural center and museum. They claimed Alcatraz was theirs 𠇋y right of discovery,” but they sarcastically offered to buy it for “$24 in glass beads and red cloth”—the same price that Indians supposedly received for the island of Manhattan. The activists added that they didn’t mind that the island was underdeveloped or lacked fresh water, since most of them had already endured similar conditions on government Indian reservations.

Wary of the fallout that could accompany an attempt to remove the Indians by force, the Nixon administration opted to bide its time and leave the occupiers alone as long as they remained peaceful. Government officials later journeyed to the island on multiple occasions to negotiate, but their diplomatic efforts bore little fruit. The activists were adamant that they would settle for nothing less than the deed to Alcatraz Island, while the Government Services Administration and other agencies maintained that a land transfer was impossible.

As the two sides debated, the Indians continued settling into their new home. “We all had things to offer each other,” resident Luwana Quitquit later remembered. 𠇋rotherhood. Sisterhood.” Native American college students and activists flocked to join the protest, and the population of Alcatraz often swelled to more than 600 people. A governing council was formed, and the island soon had its own clinic, kitchen, public relations department and even a nursery and grade school for its children. A security force dubbed the 𠇋ureau of Caucasian Affairs” (a riff on the much-hated 𠇋ureau of Indian Affairs”) patrolled the shoreline to watch for intruders, and a Sioux named John Trudell hopped behind the mic to broadcast radio updates under the banner of “Radio Free Alcatraz.”

Other activists supported the occupation by shuttling supplies and visitors from a mainland base at San Francisco’s Pier 40. The Indians issued a call for contributions, and by the end of 1969, canned goods, clothes and thousands of dollars in cash had poured in from donors across the country. Celebrities including Anthony Quinn, Jane Fonda and Merv Griffin all visited the island and lent their support, and the rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival even gave the Indians a boat, which was christened the 𠇌learwater.”

For most of late-1969, the occupation proceeded better than activists like Richard Oakes could have ever imagined. By early 1970, however, life on the island had begun to change. Many of the movement’s college students and organizers had to leave Alcatraz to return to school, and they were often replaced by vagrants who cared more about living rent free than fighting for the protest’s original cause. “Our biggest problems are freelance photographers and the hippies,” Oakes said at the time. “They stay and eat up our stores, then leave. Then we have to clean up after them.” Drugs and alcohol𠅋oth originally banned on the island—were soon circulating freely among certain members of the population.

Credit: Ralph Crane/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images

The leadership crisis only worsened after Richard Oakes’ young stepdaughter fell to her death from one of the prison’s stairwells in January 1970. Oakes and his wife left Alcatraz in the wake of the accident, leaving groups of warring activists to fight it out for control of the island. By May, the government had concluded that there was little hope of resolving the situation diplomatically, and the Nixon administration cut all remaining power to Alcatraz in an effort to force the Indians out. Only a few weeks later, a fire tore across the island and destroyed several of Alcatraz’s historic buildings. The Indians claimed the blaze was an accident or perhaps even the work of outside provocateurs, but it still came as a major blow to morale.

Despite increasingly squalid living conditions and flagging outside support, a few holdouts continued to live on the Rock for another year. “I don’t want to say Alcatraz is done with,” former occupier Adam Fortunate Eagle lamented to The San Francisco Chronicle in April 1971, 𠇋ut no organized Indian groups are active there. It has turned from an Indian movement to a personality thing.” Citing a need to restore Alcatraz’s foghorn and lighthouse, government officials finally quashed the occupation on June 11, 1971, when armed federal marshals descended on the island and removed the last of its Indian residents. By then, the occupation force had dwindled to a skeleton crew of only six men, five women and four children.

While the last of protestors were forced to leave the island in defeat, the 19-month occupation had succeeded in galvanizing Indian activists. Indian rights organizations—many of them staffed by Alcatraz veterans—later staged occupations and protests at Plymouth Rock, Mount Rushmore, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and dozens of other sites across the country. Federal officials also started listening to calls for Indian self-determination. Even as the Alcatraz protest was still underway in July 1970, President Richard Nixon had given a speech saying, “The time has come𠉯or a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and Indian decisions.” The U.S. government later returned millions of acres of ancestral Indian land and passed more than 50 legislative proposals supporting tribal self rule.

Alcatraz opened as a national park in 1973, where graffiti by its Native Americans occupiers can still be seen on several of the complex’s buildings. The National Park Service even had some of the slogans preserved or repainted when they restored the island’s water tower in 2012. The Rock has also continued to serve as a focal point of Native American social campaigns. A pair of nationwide protest walks in 1978 and 1994 both began at the island, and since 1975, people have met at Alcatraz every November for an “Un-Thanksgiving Day” celebrating Indian culture and activism.

Jimmy Doolittle: The Doolittle Raid

Returning to the army full-time in 1940, Doolittle continued his test pilot work until January of 1942, when he was summoned by General Henry H. “Hap” Arnold to lead a raid on the Japanese mainland. At the time Japan’s defensive perimeter in the Pacific was wide enough to make it invulnerable to conventional carrier-based attacks.

Sixteen Army B-25 bombers were rigged with doubled fuel capacity and loaded on the aircraft carrier USS Hornet. The original plan called for bombing five major cities, but last-minute detection of the Hornet forced the planes to launch a day early.

With Doolittle in the lead, the planes survived storms and anti-aircraft fire to drop four bombs each on Tokyo, striking industrial facilities and a light cruiser. Several bombs hit civilian areas, killing 50 and injuring 400.

The Doolittle Raiders, as the planes’ pilots became known, flew on toward China. They had planned to land in areas controlled by Chinese Nationalists, but all ran out of fuel and crashed. Most of the crews parachuted to the ground, where with local help they were able to reach the Nationalist lines. One crew landed in Vladivostok and was interned by the Soviets. Three died in the crashes, and eight were captured by the Japanese.

A Legacy of Lies: “Lost Cause” myth distorted Civil War history to infect America’s soul with White Supremacy

The U.S. military recently began rethinking its traditional connection to Confederate Army symbols, including the Army base names, mindful of their divisiveness at a time the nation is wrestling with questions of race after the death of George Floyd in police hands.

Ten major Army installations are named for Confederate Army officers, mostly senior generals, including Robert E. Lee. Among the 10 is Fort Benning, the namesake of Confederate Army Gen. Henry L. Benning, who was a leader of Georgia’s secessionist movement and an advocate of preserving slavery. Others are in Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, Texas and Louisiana. The naming was done mostly after World War I and in the 1940s, in some cases as gestures of conciliation to the South.

The Navy and the Marine Corps are now banning public displays of the Confederate Army battle flag on their installations, casting their decision as necessary to preserve cohesion within the ranks. However, on June 10 President Donald Trump made it clear that his administration would not move the nation further away from institutionalized racism. He expressed instead that the nation should “cling to it and its heritage,” by keeping the names of racist traitors on the gates of American military bases.

“These Monumental and very Powerful Bases have become part of a Great American Heritage, a history of Winning, Victory, and Freedom. The United States of America trained and deployed our HEROES on these Hallowed Grounds, and won two World Wars. Therefore, my Administration will not even consider the renaming of these Magnificent and Fabled Military Installations.” – Trump via Twitter

The irony of training at bases named for those who took up arms against the United States, and for the right to enslave others, is inescapable to anyone paying attention. Fort Bragg, the training base of elite forces for example, was named for Braxton Bragg, a native North Carolinian and Confederate general with a reputation for bravery and mediocre leadership. His forces were defeated at the Battle of Chattanooga in November 1863.

On June 9, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) sent letters to leaders of the Armed Forces urging them to follow the example of the historic decision by the Marine Corps to ban any and all Confederate iconography from their bases and installations around the globe.

“For more than a century, the Confederate flag has stood as a symbol of white supremacy and the enslavement of Black people,” wrote Margaret Huang, SPLC President and Chief Executive Officer. “The flag was used extensively by the Ku Klux Klan as it waged a campaign of terror against African Americans during the civil rights movement and segregationists in positions of power raised it in defense of discriminatory Jim Crow laws. Our public entities should no longer play a role in distorting history by honoring a secessionist government that waged war against the United States to preserve white supremacy and the enslavement of millions of people. We must act now to bury the myth of the Lost Cause once and for all.”

Since the end of the Civil War, the Confederate symbols currently occupying public spaces have served as a continual reminder of the pain and oppression they represent. Similar to the numerous monuments that endorse revisionist history, the naming of military assets in honor of the Confederacy occurred decades after the South surrendered and over 750,000 American lives were lost in the Civil War.

Considering this historical issue, and the lack of education around it that was intended to keep the public in the dark, the Milwaukee Independent made the editorial decision to present a previously published news report. Edward Bonekemper: Debunking the big lie about Civil War history was originally released on September 8, 2017, but it remains timeless in explaining how advocates of the Confederacy were able to re-write history to support their vision of White Supremacy that continues to infect the national soul.

Ancient History Sourcebook: The Code of the Nesilim, c. 1650-1500 BCE

Excerpts. Nesilim is the Hittites' name for themselves.

1. If anyone slay a man or woman in a quarrel, he shall bring this one. He shall also give four persons, either men or women, he shall let them go to his home.

2. If anyone slay a male or female slave in a quarrel, he shall bring this one and give two persons, either men or women, he shall let them go to his home.

3. If anyone smite a free man or woman and this one die, he shall bring this one and give two persons, he shall let them go to his home.

4. If anyone smite a male or female slave, he shall bring this one also and give one person, he shall let him or her go to his home.

5. If anyone slay a merchant of Hatti, he shall give one and a half pounds of silver, he shall let it go to his home.

6. If anyone blind a free man or knock out his teeth, formerly they would give one pound of silver, now he shall give twenty half-shekels of silver.

8. If anyone blind a male or female slave or knock out their teeth, he shall give ten half-shekels of silver, he shall let it go to his home.

10. If anyone injure a man so that he cause him suffering, he shall take care of him. Yet he shall give him a man in his place, who shall work for him in his house until he recovers. But if he recover, he shall give him six half-shekels of silver. And to the physician this one shall also give the fee.

17. If anyone cause a free woman to miscarry, if it be the tenth month, he shall give ten half-shekels of silver, if it be the fifth month, he shall give five half-shekels of silver.

18. If anyone cause a female slave to miscarry, if it be the tenth month, he shall give five half-shekels of silver.

20. If any man of Hatti steal a Nesian slave and lead him here to the land of Hatti, and his master discover him, he shall give him twelve half-shekels of silver, he shall let it go to his home.

21. If anyone steal a slave of a Luwian from the land of Luwia, and lead him here to the land of Hatti, and his master discover him, he shall take his slave only.

24. If a male or female slave run away, he at whose hearth his master finds him or her, shall give fifty half-shekels of silver a year.

31. If a free man and a female slave be fond of each other and come together and he take her for his wife and they set up house and get children, and afterward they either become hostile or come to close quarters, and they divide the house between them, the man shall take the children, only one child shall the woman take.

32. If a slave take a woman as his wife, their case is the same. The majority of the children to the wife and one child to the slave.

33. If a slave take a female slave their case is the same. The majority of children to the female slave and one child to the slave.

34. If a slave convey the bride price to a free son and take him as husband for his daughter, nobody dare surrender him to slavery.

36. If a slave convey the bride price to a free son and take him as husband for his daughter, nobody dare surrender him to slavery.

40. If a soldier disappear, and a vassal arise and the vassal say, A This is my military holding, but this other one is my tenancy, @ and lay hands upon the fields of the soldier, he may both hold the military holding and perform the tenancy duties. If he refuse the military service, then he forfeits the vacant fields of the soldier. The men of the village shall cultivate them. If the king give a captive, they shall give the fields to him, and he becomes a soldier.

98. If a free man set a house ablaze, he shall build the house, again. And whatever is inside the house, be it a man, an ox, or a sheep that perishes, nothing of these he need compensate.

99. If a slave set a house ablaze, his master shall compensate for him. The nose of the slave and his ears they shall cut off, and give him back to his master. But if he do not compensate, then he shall give up this one.

158. If a man go for wages, bind sheaves, load it into carts, spread it on the straw barn and so forth " till they clear the threshing floor, for three months his wages are thirty pecks of barley. If a woman go for wages in the harvest, for two months he shall give twelve pecks of barley.

159. If anyone harness a yoke of oxen, his wages are one-half peck of barley.

160. If a smith make a copper box, his wages are one hundred pecks of barley. He who makes a copper dish of two-pound weight, his wages are one peck of emmer.

164. If anyone come for borrowing, then make a quarrel and throw down either bread or wine jug, then he shall give one sheep, ten loaves, and one jug of beer. Then he cleanses his house by the offering. Not until the year has elapsed may he salute again the other ' s house.

170. If a free man kill a serpent and speak the name of another, he shall give one pound of silver if a slave, this one shall die.

173. If anyone oppose the judgment of the king, his house shall become a ruin. If anyone oppose the judgment of a lord, his head shall be cut off. If a slave rise against his master, he shall go into the pit.

176. If anyone buy an artisan ' s apprentice, buy either a potter, a smith, a carpenter, a leatherworker, a tailor, a weaver, or a lace-maker, he shall give ten half-shekels.

178. A plow-ox costs fifteen half-shekels of silver, a bull costs ten half-shekels of silver, a great cow costs seven half-shekels of silver, a sheep one half-shekel of silver, a draft horse twenty half-shekels of silver, a mule one pound of silver, a horse fourteen half-shekels of silver.

181-182. Four pounds of copper cost one half-shekel of silver one tub of lard, one half-shekel of silver two cheese one half-shekel of silver a gown twelve half-shekels of silver one blue woolen garment costs twenty half-shekels of silver breeches cost ten half-shekels of silver. . .

187. If a man have intercourse with a cow, it is a capital crime, he shall die. They shall lead him to the king ' s hall. But the king may kill him, the king may grant him his life. But he shall not approach the king.

188. If a man have intercourse with his own mother, it is a capital crime, he shall die. If a man have intercourse with a daughter, it is a capital crime, he shall die. If a man have intercourse with a son, it is a capital crime, he shall die.

190. If a man and a woman come willingly, as men and women, and have intercourse, there shall be no punishment. And if a man have intercourse with his stepmother, there shall be no punishment except if his father is living, it is a capital crime, the son shall die.

191. If a free man picks up now this woman, now that one, now in this country, then in that country, there shall be no punishment if they came together sexually willingly.

192. If the husband of a woman die, his wife may take her husband ' s patrimony.

194. If a free man pick up female slaves, now one, now another, there is no punishment for intercourse. If brothers sleep with a free woman, together, or one after the other, there is no punishment. If father and son sleep with a female slave or harlot, together, or one after the other, there is no punishment.

195. If a man sleep with the wife of his brother, while his brother is living, it is a capital crime, he shall die. If a man have taken a free woman, then have intercourse also with her daughter, it is a capital crime, he shall die. If he have taken her daughter, then have intercourse with her mother or her sister, it is a capital crime, he shall die.

197. If a man rape a woman in the mountain, it is the man ' s wrong, he shall die. But if he rape her in the house, it is the woman ' s fault, the woman shall die. If the husband find them and then kill them, there is no punishing the husband.

199. If anyone have intercourse with a pig or a dog, he shall die. If a man have intercourse with a horse or a mule, there is no punishment. But he shall not approach the king, and shall not become a priest. If an ox spring upon a man for intercourse, the ox shall die but the man shall not die. One sheep shall be fetched as a substitute for the man, and they shall kill it. If a pig spring upon a man for intercourse, there is no punishment. If any man have intercourse with a foreign woman and pick up this one, now that one, there is no punishment.

200. If anyone give a son for instruction, be it a carpenter, or a potter, or a weaver, or a tailor, or a smith, he shall give six half-shekels of silver for the instruction.

Correction from earlier version. The source of this document was markes as coming from Oliver J. Thatcher, ed., The Library of Original Sources (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co., 1901), Vol. III: The Roman World, pp. 9-11. Scanned by: J. S. Arkenberg, Dept. of History, Cal. State Fullerton. Prof. Arkenberg has modernized the text. In January 2020 the ISHP was contacted to point out that this was not the case. Apologies are due for an error in initial editing of this item, which seems to have resuly from miscommunication.

The text here is a selection and modernisation for teaching purposes of Chapter 12 Hittite Laws, from Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor by Martha T. Roth, edited by Piotr Michalowski (Atlanta GA: Scholars Press, 1995). That is available online at

This text is part of the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. No representation is made about texts which are linked off-site, although in most cases these are also public domain. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [Curriculum vitae]

Black Veterans – National African American History and Culture Museum

In 1977, efforts began to raise public awareness about the merits of what Black and other Minority Americans have contributed to the defense of our nation. In 1978, the National Minority Military Museum Foundation was chartered in Oakland, California. We have held steady to the course for four decades. Our primary objective was to establish a National Museum of Minority Military History. We pursued the advocacy for a museum up until 2003 when then President George W. Bush signed legislation to establish the National African American History and Culture Museum. Black Military History was captured within the broader scope of the legislated institution. Recognizing the legislation absorbed the primary focus of our project, we relinquished the museum objective. We have focused our energies on advocating for the honorary promotion of the legendary Colonel Charles Young and seeking the Congressional Medal of Honor for Seaman Dorie Miller.

Our military history is the cornerstone of Black Americans claim for civil and equal rights. The history spans over two and a half centuries representing our service in all the branches of the Armed Forces. The newly established National African American History and Culture Museum have clearly demonstrated indifference in recognizing the importance of the subject. We draw our conclusion based on the disparity in the space allotted for the subject. The history is too extensive to fit into a meager three thousand square feet gallery without the presentation being marginalized. Following our visit in February, it is now understandable why the Museum did not want the maquette of Colonel Charles Young that we offered for display. His history has been marginalized in the presentation. The few mentions of the legendary Soldier fall short of the recognition due.

What is equally important is how we choose to address the disparity in the presentation. We could step back and say we have been defeated. The museum is built and there is nothing more to be said. Well, the United States Army is building a National Army Museum. I am sure they are watching how we respond to this situation. They will view it as a primary indication of how serious we are about how our story is told. Some say, it may not be right but it’s something for those that know nothing about the subject. We disagree with that point of view. The truth is important. We should never quit talking about what is right. Our motto is, “We may not get our way, but we will have our say.” We will continue to speak up about our history, Colonel Charles Young and Seaman Dorie Miller. We will bring the subject to the forefront whenever the opportunity is availed.

We were represented on the Preliminary Planning Team for the National Museum. Beyond the ceremonial inclusion, we were not included. Our opinions were not sought and inquiries were ignored. Response was only forthcoming upon us reaching out directly to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute, whom at the time was G. Wayne Clough. We subsequently received correspondence telling us that General Colin Powell was on their committee, and they were hanging an airplane from the ceiling to acknowledge Black Military History (which they did) and thanked us for our interest.

Some could argue the Trainer plane they hung was the wrong aircraft to symbolize the Tuskegee Airmen and their accomplishments. The Fighter Group flew over two hundred escort missions without losing a single bomber to enemy aircraft. They did not accomplish that feat flying the airplane of the type hanging from the ceiling in the facility. It should have been a P-51 Mustang, the aircraft that carried the 332nd Fighter Group into history as the “Red Tails”. I wonder if they tried to find a uniform for General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr, the commanding officer of the Fighter Group. The history of the Tuskegee Airmen can be told around the histories of Chief C. Alfred Anderson, General Benjamin O. Davis Jr, the first Black General in the United States Air Forces and General Daniel “Chappie” James, the first Black 4 Star General in the United States Air Forces. However, the history of the Tuskegee Airmen is not the total sum of Black involvement in defense of this nation.

Traditionally museum gallery sizes reflect the degree of interest institutions place on particular subjects and the availability of artifacts to support the storyline. In an institution of over 350,000 square feet, the 3,000 square feet designated for the Military History demonstrates the lack of importance the institution place on the subject. I am sure some storage areas in the facility equal that footage. For example, some galleries in the new National Museum are twice to three times the size of the Military History Gallery. The fact makes the glossary presentation an insult to the memory of the Black servicemen and servicewomen who have served past and present. It is an added insult to the families of Black G.I’s who lost their lives in the service of the nation from the Revolutionary War to the War in Afghanistan. The disparity marginalizes the merits of their service, contributions and history providing few answers to the question, “Why” they served. In light of past history, one would think our National Museum would provide a presentation that exemplifies the “Why” as well as the “What” factor in our history for the benefit of the world and future generations. Yes, I said our Museum. It was paid for in-part by our tax dollars. However, that is a story for another day.

In light of our criticisms it is important that we offer some suggestions of solution:

(1) The National Museum could provide additional space for Military History. The suggestion is easier said than done. To give more space to one subject means you must take space from another. The existing gallery spaces are bought and paid for by other interest groups and donors. Which we suspect is the reason we have ended up with a facility that is unbalanced in how gallery sizes were determined (2) they can continue ignoring the subject. They could assume most people who visit the Museum probably have little if any knowledge about the subject beyond having a relative or friend who once served. Borrowing an old saying, “A one eyed man is the leader in the village of the blind.” The Museum is the one eyed man and the public is the blind (3) on a positive note, they could consider making the Military History Gallery a home for rotating temporary exhibits. When the exhibits are changed they could be sent out as traveling presentations. It could be a means of educating the public about the history. Plus, it would be good for the museum in attracting repeat visitation with the Gallery rotations And, (4) they could also acknowledge Military History needs a venue dedicated to itself. And join us in calling for a National Minority Military Museum. Ultimately, the traveling exhibits would need a permanent home.

We waited for thirteen years to see how the institution would address the subject. We found the building magnificent however the Military History Gallery was not impressive. Too much was missing in content. Plus, obtaining tickets to access the facility left much to be desired. We are pleased to announce that the Museum took a positive step in remedy of the ticket problem. They recently changed the admission policy as it relates to Veterans. With military ID or DD214 to verify status, Military Personnel and Veterans are allowed admittance with one guess without making per-arrangements for tickets. While we disagree with the vagueness of their presentation we do appreciate that gesture of respect. We encourage Veterans to visit the facility and look for your service history. If enough of us express our lack of satisfaction with the vagueness of the presentation, maybe they will take the initiative to revisit how the subject is being presented. They ask that we are considerate of the high-visitation on the following dates: Admission restriction does apply to room capacity.

Inauguration Day (every four years)

The Friday after Thanksgiving

National Police Week – May14 – May 17, 2017

Memorial Day Weekend/Rolling Thunder

We are planning to revisit the Museum in September 20th thru 24th, the week of the Congressional Black Caucus Annual Legislative Conference in Washington. We would welcome Veterans marking their calendars to join us in DC for the occasion. Working through our Coalition partners in Washington, we plan to invite the United States Army Museum Command to meet in forum with Black Veterans to discuss their plans for the inclusion of our history in the coming United States Army National Museum. We are attempting to coordinate the museum visit and forum whereas it does not conflict with the Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Brain Trust who traditionally hosts events and an Awards Banquet during the four days of festivities. We have requested their schedule of events for Veterans.

In a recent conference call among members of the Coalition, we agreed to explore public interest in support to establish a National Minority Military History Museum. There was a long held belief that national status for museums is reserved for Institutions located in Washington, DC. In 2003, the same year legislation was signed authorizing the National African American Museum in Washington, DC, Congress designated the former D Day Museum in New Orleans as the National World War II Museum. It is reported in 2013, the United States Department of Defense made a twenty million dollar grant to the museum with Congressional approval. The museum is associated with the Smithsonian Institute. We would like to use that precedence in seeking a facility to serve exclusively for our Military History with the option of the facility being located outside the District of Columbia. If there can be an Official National Museum in New Orleans then why not a National Black/Minority Military History Museum to serve as an appendage of the newly established National African American History and Culture Museum somewhere in the United States?

In closing we are reaching out on GO FUND ME pages seeking public support. These are a few things we need to do for ourselves. See the following links:

The driver of a car involved in a crash early Friday on W. Capitol Drive has died. The passenger in the car died as well.

Title: Philip Orth Co., 1882-1991
Call Number: Mss-2329
Bulk: 1 cu. ft.

Historical Note:

Ph. Orth Co. was founded in 1882 in Sullivan, Wisconsin by Philip Orth. The company milled and traded flour, feed and grains. After the company moved to Milwaukee, milling was discontinued. In time the company sold a complete line of bakery supplies. Philip Orth’s son, Philip V. Orth, joined the firm in 1911 and grandson, Philip W. Orth, joined the company after World War II. The bulk of the collection consists of company records with some files on Philip and Martha Orth and some files on Philip V. and Irene Orth.

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