The Etruscans: Evidence from Tuscany

The Etruscans: Evidence from Tuscany

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This video describes the origins, geography and livelihood of the Etruscan civilization, including recent archaeological evidence from Tuscany that serves to promote this lost civilization.


The History Behind the Etruscans

Ancient residents of Italy with no clear place of origin, the Etruscans have permanently inhabited the Tuscan heritage history.

They inhabited the Tuscia or Etruria, the modern-day Tuscany. Even though they call themselves ‘Rasenna,’ they were commonly named Etruscans because the Latins referred to them as Tusci or Etrusci.

Altough we don’t know that much about the history behind the Etruscans, there are two claims concerning the Etruscan origin: that they are natives and not.


History and Archaeology of the Etruscans

The Etruscans respected and loved this land: the Necropolis of Baratti, the only one built on the sea shore, in the shade of pine trees and olive groves, this testifies to a complete harmony between people and nature.

The Etruscan and Roman civilizations have left evidence imported collections in the museums of Populonia Rosignano Cecina or unearthed in the archaeological areas of Vada and Campiglia Marittima.

In Venturina a famous thermal spring was already known in Etruscan and exploited by the Romans.

On this coast the Etruscans mined and worked the metal, creating precious artefacts. And, over time, has been passed down their wisdom. The Archaeological Park of Campiglia, excavation, open air, among the most important in the Mediterranean, is a very suggestive itinerary to reconstruct the use of different technologies in history.


Face to Face in the Etruscan Museum (Museo Etrusco Guarnacci)

What might be the best starting point to discover the Etruscan history in Volterra is to visit the Museo Etrusco Guarnacci. Although we still struggle with fully understanding the texts they left behind, the Etruscans were also excellent sculptors. Many of those sculptures that withstood the test of time were sarcophagi: sculptures of the deceased. And the Etruscans had a figurative style that depicted the person quite accurately, we can assume. As you walk by the many sculptures, created to honour loved ones, you can see the faces that laughed, cried and lived in Tuscany so many centuries ago. It’s a fascinating, slightly unreal experience.

The Evening Shadow

Although these sculptures are sometimes eerily realistic, the true ‘showpiece’ in the museum is the infamous “Evening Shadow”. This peculiar piece is an exceptional Etruscan bronze statue from the third century BC. The statue has an extremely stretched body and a kind of unique, surreal style that was almost non-existent at the time.

Only a few other pieces in a similar style have ever been found, and nothing quite like it was created for centuries. The artist will remain unknown, most probably forever. It shows us how little we still understand about the Etruscans and their rich artistic culture.


The Other Guy from Halicarnassus Had a Different Origin Theory

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (around 60-7 BCE) was a Greek Historian. He believed that Etruscans were native to Italy. Reference: (a-9).

Some 400 years later, another Greek historian from Halicarnassus emerged with a different theory. Dionysius of Halicarnassus contradicted the “out of eastern Mediterranean or Anatolia” origin theory. His writings demonstrated rigorous research and reasoning. Since he actually lived in Rome, he probably had the opportunity to observe real Etruscans. By that time, Etruscans would have been assimilated into the Roman Empire. Who knows, maybe he even interviewed a few Romans-who-were-former-Etruscans over a kylix of their famous Tuscan wine…

Dionysius originated the “born from Italian soil” or indigenous theory. (Of course, the Etruscans themselves probably thought or knew this – but we don’t have their written opinion!)

He countered that Etruscans were unique in their spoken language, practiced different laws and institutions, worshipped different gods, and behaved culturally differently from the Anatolians. Therefore, he argued, Etruscans could not have originated from Lydia. They were most likely native to Italy. Besides, he said: Xanthus, the historian of Lydia who wrote about the Lydian kings – and who also lived in the time of Herodotus – never even mentioned in his writings about something as significant as the mass migration of Lydians. (Ref: 4-i).

A word about the Etruscan language to which Dionysius alluded above: Even though Etruscans passed on their alphabet to the Romans, scholars find their language to be quite unique in the world. Unfortunately it became extinct a few hundred years after they became part of Rome. The Etruscan language doesn’t belong to the pervasive “Indo-European” language group (such as Latin and Greek). This is one more Etruscan mystery to be solved – this time, by linguistic detectives.

The Etruscan alphabet was derived from the Euboean version of the Greek alphabet via Cumae. The alphabet evolved from the 7th-1st century BCE – based on actual Etruscan speech. Poster excerpt @Villa Giulia Museum, Rome, Italy


The Etruscans: Evidence from Tuscany - History

There were twelve main cities which, in the 7th and 6th centuries BC, made up the so called "Dodecapoli". Six of these cities were in Tuscany: Volterra (called Velathri at the time), Chiusi (Clevsi), Vetulonia (Vetluna), Cortona (Curtun), Arezzo (Aritim) and Fiesole (Vipsul). It is believed that some of these towns may have fallen into decline due to economic and political crisis and were substituted in the ‘Dodecapoli’ by Pisa, Populonia (Fufluna) and Roselle (Rusellae).

Interesting fact, Etruria was never ruled as one single state. Each Etruscan town had its own government and these individual city-states often went to war against one another. One of the rare occasions when all the Etruscan cities united together was when they held meetings at the federal sanctuary of Fanum Voltumnae.

Nowadays you can admire many splendid artworks of Etruscan origin and the remains of their ancient city-states traveling around Tuscany.

The ancient Populonia, one of the main Etruscan cities (the only one on the Tuscan coast), today is home to the Baratti and Populonia Archaeological Park running along 80 acres from the Piombino headlands to the Gulf of Baratti. The park includes a significant part of the ancient town, a unique Etruscan settlement built directly on the sea, with its necropolises: the San Cerbone monumental necropolis and the Necropolis “delle Grotte” (4th century BC).

In Volterra, it’s possible to take a tour of fascinating funerary urns at the Guarnacci museum. One of the most significant monuments in the collection is the Urn of the Bride and Groom (Urna degli Sposi), depicting two elderly spouses with their strongly characterized faces, lying on the convivial bed, molded in terracotta.

Make sure you visit the Vie Cave in Sorano and Sovana in Southern Maremma, pathways carved into the tuff hills by the Etruscans, a one-of-a-kind heritage whose true purpose remains a mystery even today.

Many towns in the Siena region also have evidence of Etruscan civilisation such as Chianciano Terme and Chiusi. Absolutely worth seeing is the Tomb of the Infernal Quadriga in the Pianacce Necropolis of Sarteano, one of the most fascinating and best preserved Etruscan wall paintings.

Finally, Arezzo, Cortona, Fiesole, Prato and some parts of the Chianti region also contain many sites which help us to know more about this unique and mysterious people.


Ancient Etruscans Were Immigrants From Anatolia, Or What Is Now Turkey

The long-running controversy about the origins of the Etruscan people appears to be very close to being settled once and for all, a geneticist will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today. Professor Alberto Piazza, from the University of Turin, Italy, will say that there is overwhelming evidence that the Etruscans, whose brilliant civilization flourished 3000 years ago in what is now Tuscany, were settlers from old Anatolia (now in southern Turkey).

Etruscan culture was very advanced and quite different from other known Italian cultures that flourished at the same time, and highly influential in the development of Roman civilization. Its origins have been debated by archaeologists, historians and linguists since time immemorial. Three main theories have emerged: that the Etruscans came from Anatolia, Southern Turkey, as propounded by the Greek historian Herotodus that they were indigenous to the region and developed from the Iron Age Villanovan society, as suggested by another Greek historian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus or that they originated from Northern Europe.

Now modern genetic techniques have given scientists the tools to answer this puzzle. Professor Piazza and his colleagues set out to study genetic samples from three present-day Italian populations living in Murlo, Volterra, and Casentino in Tuscany, central Italy. "We already knew that people living in this area were genetically different from those in the surrounding regions", he says. "Murlo and Volterra are among the most archaeologically important Etruscan sites in a region of Tuscany also known for having Etruscan-derived place names and local dialects. The Casentino valley sample was taken from an area bordering the area where Etruscan influence has been preserved."

The scientists compared DNA samples taken from healthy males living in Tuscany, Northern Italy, the Southern Balkans, the island of Lemnos in Greece, and the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia. The Tuscan samples were taken from individuals who had lived in the area for at least three generations, and were selected on the basis of their surnames, which were required to have a geographical distribution not extending beyond the linguistic area of sampling. The samples were compared with data from modern Turkish, South Italian, European and Middle-Eastern populations.

"We found that the DNA samples from individuals from Murlo and Volterra were more closely related those from near Eastern people than those of the other Italian samples", says Professor Piazza. "In Murlo particularly, one genetic variant is shared only by people from Turkey, and, of the samples we obtained, the Tuscan ones also show the closest affinity with those from Lemnos."

Scientists had previously shown this same relationship for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in order to analyse female lineages. And in a further study, analysis of mtDNA of ancient breeds of cattle still living in the former Etruria found that they too were related to breeds currently living in the near East.

The history of the Etruscans extends before the Iron Age to the end of the Roman Republic or from c. 1200 BC to c. 100BC Many archaeological sites of the major Etruscan cities were continuously occupied since the Iron Age, and the people who lived in the Etruria region did not appear suddenly, nor did they suddenly start to speak Etruscan. Rather they learned to write from their Greek neighbours and thus revealed their language. Archaeologists and linguists are in agreement that the Etruscans had been developing their culture and language in situ before the first historical record of their existence.

"But the question that remained to be answered was -- how long was this process between pre-history and history"" says Professor Piazza. In 1885 a stele carrying an inscription in a pre-Greek language was found on the island of Lemnos, and dated to about the 6th century BC. Philologists agree that this has many similarities with the Etruscan language both in its form and structure and its vocabulary. But genetic links between the two regions have been difficult to find until now.

Herodotus' theory, much criticised by subsequent historians, states that the Etruscans emigrated from the ancient region of Lydia, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey, because of a long-running famine. Half the population was sent by the king to look for a better life elsewhere, says his account, and sailed from Smyrna (now Izmir) until they reached Umbria in Italy.

"We think that our research provides convincing proof that Herodotus was right", says Professor Piazza, "and that the Etruscans did indeed arrive from ancient Lydia. However, to be 100% certain we intend to sample other villages in Tuscany, and also to test whether there is a genetic continuity between the ancient Etruscans and modern-day Tuscans. This will have to be done by extracting DNA from fossils this has been tried before but the technique for doing so has proved to be very difficult."

"Interestingly, this study of historical origins will give us some pointers for carrying out case-control studies of disease today," says Professor Piazza. "In order to obtain a reliable result, we had to select the control population much more carefully that would normally be done, and we believe that this kind of careful selection would also help in studies of complex genetic diseases."

Story Source:

Materials provided by European Society of Human Genetics. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Historical Tuscany

The name Tuscany is derived from an Etruscan tribe that settled there about 1000 bce . Tuscia came into official use under the Roman Empire in the 3rd century ce . Politically united under the barbarian Lombards as a duchy with its seat at Lucca in the 6th century, Tuscany was next set up as a county by the Franks in 774. In the 11th century the area passed to the Attoni family, who, already holding Canossa, Modena, Reggio, and Mantua, became an important power of central Italy. The most famous representative of this line, Matilda, supported Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Investiture Controversy. After her death in 1115, the cities of Tuscany gradually affirmed their independence, and the area lost its traditional unity. For the next four centuries these cities fought among themselves supremacy was won first by Pisa and then by Florence, and the area became the greatest centre of Renaissance culture. After the advent of the Medici as rulers of Florence in 1434, with the family’s gradual consolidation of power over the area, Tuscany was transformed into a principality.

During the foreign invasions of Italy in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the Medici were twice expelled (1495–1512 and 1527–30), but they were restored by the Holy Roman emperor Charles V in 1530, and the Medici rulers used the title grand duke from 1569. The culture and economy of the area declined beginning in the 16th century.

In 1737, on the death of the last Medici grand duke, Gian Gastone, Tuscany was assigned to Francis of Lorraine, future husband of the Habsburg heiress Maria Theresa, beginning the rule of the Habsburg-Lorraine family. Under Francis and his son the grand duke Leopold I (later the Holy Roman emperor Leopold II), the great period of Tuscan reform took place. Internal trade barriers were removed, ecclesiastical privileges reduced, and the death penalty abolished. With the French domination of the peninsula, during the late 1790s, Ferdinand III was forced to flee from the duchy. In 1801 Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Tuscan kingdom of Etruria for Louis of Bourbon-Parma, nephew of the Spanish queen, but in 1808 annexed it to the French Empire and finally in 1809 gave it to his sister Élisa to rule. With the defeats of Napoleon in 1814, Ferdinand III was restored to Tuscany, but many of the reforms introduced by the French were retained.

Under Ferdinand and his son Leopold II, during the first half of the 19th century, Tuscany was noted among Italian states for its tolerance toward liberals and its progressive government. With the spread of liberal revolutions through Italy in 1848, Leopold granted a constitution, but increasing revolutionary agitation culminated in the proclamation of a republic (February 8, 1849) and forced the grand duke to flee. Leopold’s return under the protection of the Austrians cost him the support of many Tuscans. When war between Piedmont and Austria (the Second War of Italian Independence) broke out in 1859, Leopold, after refusing both to grant a constitution and to join Piedmont in the fight, was expelled by the Florentines. With a provisional government controlled by the nobleman Bettino Ricasoli working for Italian unification under Piedmont, the Tuscans, in a plebiscite of March 11–12, 1860, voted overwhelmingly for annexation. Tuscany formally became part of the new Italian state with the proclamation of the kingdom on February 18, 1861.


Ancient depiction of childbirth discovered at Etruscan site in Tuscany

An archaeological excavation at Poggio Colla, the site of a 2,700-year-old Etruscan settlement in Italy's Mugello Valley, has turned up a surprising and unique find: two images of a woman giving birth to a child.

Researchers from the Mugello Valley Archaeological Project, which oversees the Poggio Colla excavation site some 20 miles northeast of Florence, discovered the images on a small fragment from a ceramic vessel that is more than 2,600 years old.

The images show the head and shoulders of a baby emerging from a mother represented with her knees raised and her face shown in profile, one arm raised, and a long ponytail running down her back.

The excavation is a project of Southern Methodist University, Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Penn., and the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, in collaboration with The Open University in Milton Keynes, England.

The identification of the scene was made by Phil Perkins, an authority on Etruscan bucchero and professor of archaeology at The Open University.

"We were astounded to see this intimate scene it must be the earliest representation of childbirth in Western art," said Perkins. "Etruscan women are usually represented feasting or participating in rituals, or they are goddesses. Now we have to solve the mystery of who she is and who her child is."

The Etruscans were the first settlers of Italy, long before the Roman Empire. They built the first cities, were a conduit for the introduction of Greek culture to the Romans, and were known for their art, agriculture, fine metalworking and commerce. They occupied Italy for the first millennium B.C., but were conquered by the Romans and eventually became absorbed into their empire.

Image on elite pottery has implications for Poggio Colla sanctuary worship

"The birth scene is extraordinary, but what is also fascinating is what this image might mean on elite pottery at a sanctuary," said Greg Warden, professor and associate dean for academic affairs at the Meadows School of the Arts at SMU and a director of the Mugello Valley Archaeological Project.

"Might it have some connection to the cult," Warden said, "to the kind of worship that went on at the hilltop sanctuary of Poggio Colla?"

The fragment was excavated by William Nutt, who is a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Texas at Arlington and who is legally blind. Nutt was participating in the Poggio Colla Field School, which has operated for six weeks every summer since 1995.

Under the supervision of faculty from U.S. institutions and graduate students in classical archaeology and anthropology, the field school has trained approximately 20 students each year, from more than 70 American and European universities, in the theory and practice of archaeological research. Through excavation and scholarship, these students have played an integral role in understanding the Etruscan occupation of the Mugello Valley.

"I was very grateful to be accepted to the summer program at Poggio Colla -- it was my first archaeological dig," said Nutt, who is attending UTA under a National Science Foundation fellowship.

"I found the artifact at the beginning of my second week there. It was quite dirty, and we weren't sure what it was until it was cleaned at the onsite lab and identified by Perkins," Nutt said. "It was thrilling to find out that it was so significant. To make a discovery like that, which provides important new information about a culture we know so little about, is exactly what makes archaeology and anthropology so appealing."

First image of its type from Etruscan sites

The ceramic fragment is less than 1-3/4 x 1-1/4 inches (4 x 3 cm), from a vessel made of bucchero. Bucchero is a fine, black ceramic material, embellished with stamped and incised decorations, used to make eating and drinking vessels for Etruscan elites.

Typically, stamped designs range from abstract geometric motifs to exotic and mythical animals. There are no known Greek or Roman representations of the moment of birth shown as clearly as the Poggio Colla example until more than 500 years later. The fragment dates to about 600 B.C.E. (Before the Common Era).

Because the site at Poggio Colla has produced numerous votive deposits, scholars are certain that for some part of its history it was a sacred spot to a divinity or divinities.

The abundance of weaving tools and a stunning deposit of gold jewelry discovered earlier have already suggested to some scholars that the patron divinity may have been female the discovery of the childbirth scene, because of its uniqueness, adds another piece of evidence to the theory.

"This is a most exciting discovery," said Larissa Bonfante, professor emerita of classics at New York University and an expert on the ancient Etruscans. "It shows an image of a type so far unknown in Etruscan context and gives us plenty to think about as we try to understand its religious significance."

A paper about the find will be presented at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in Philadelphia in January. The paper, titled "Defining Northern Etruria: Evidence from Poggio Colla (Vicchio di Mugello)," will be presented by Ann Steiner, provost, dean of the faculty and Shirley Watkins Steinman Professor of Classics at Franklin and Marshall College.

Poggio Colla: Highly significant as it spans Etruscan history

Poggio Colla is a highly significant and rare site. One reason is that it spans most of Etruscan history. Archaeological evidence suggests that the site was occupied from around 700 B.C.E. until 187 B.C.E., when it was destroyed by the Romans. Another reason is that it was not buried under later construction. The Etruscans picked beautiful, easily defended hilltops for their settlements. As a result, generation after generation built new cities on top of their sites. That means many have 2000 years of other civilizations on top of Etruscan settlements and cemeteries. Poggio Colla, however, remained in its original condition. Third, Poggio Colla represents an entire settlement, including tombs, a temple, a pottery factory and an artisan community. Excavations of workshops and living quarters are yielding new details about Etruscan life to scholars.

The site centers on the acropolis, a roughly rectangular plateau of one and a half acres at the summit of Poggio Colla. Excavations have found strong evidence that the acropolis was home to a sanctuary and have identified a temple building and an altar at the center of a large courtyard. Numerous offerings have been found buried around the altar, gifts left behind as part of a sacred ritual to a still unidentified deity. These votive donations range from a massive deposit of nearly 500 varied bronze objects, to a spectacular gift of women's gold jewelry and semi-precious stones. Another votive deposit contains a collection of ritual objects that were laid to rest in a room at the northwest corner of the sanctuary courtyard, possibly by a priest.

Unique religious context allowed first reconstruction of actual rituals

Excavators discovered a large circular pit, at the center of which was placed a sandstone cylinder, possibly the top of a votive column. Carefully situated near the cylinder were two sandstone statue bases, the larger of which includes the inscribed name of the aristocratic donor. Buried alongside these objects were a strand of gold wire, a purposely broken bronze implement, and two bronze bowls that had been used to pour ritual libations, as well as the bones of a piglet, presumably sacrificed as part of a purification ritual. This unique religious context has allowed researchers to reconstruct, for the first time, the actual rituals and actions of the priest/magistrate who presided over the ceremonies.

Although the Etruscan site now called Poggio Colla has been known since the 19th century, it was first excavated from 1968 to 1972 by Francesco Nicosia, the former Superintendent of Archaeology in Tuscany. With Nicosia's permission and encouragement, SMU professor Greg Warden, a Mugello Valley native, reopened the site in 1995, established the Mugello Valley Archaeological Project and launched the summer Poggio Colla Field School. Today the project continues to proceed with the permission and supervision of the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici per la Toscana and Luca Fedeli, Inspector.

Directors of the project include Warden Steiner Michael L. Thomas, senior research associate at the University of Texas at Austin and Gretchen Meyers, assistant professor of classics at Franklin & Marshall College. They oversee a team of archaeologists, scientists, architects and conservators who are conducting a systematic and multi-disciplined study of Poggio Colla, including stratigraphic excavation, scientific analysis, geophysical mapping and land surveys.


The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany

NOTE: This tour is in the planning stages for an October 2022 departure. To be added to the list and notified when reservations are open for this departure, please contact us at 800-748-6262 or email [email protected]

Discover the world of the ancient Etruscans, a pre-Roman civilization that flourished in the area between Rome and Florence from at least the 7th century B.C. until they were conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C. The extent of the impact that the Etruscans’ legacy had on the Greeks and Romans, through to our contemporary world, is still coming to light. Join Dr. Pieraccini and a small group of like-minded fellow travelers to explore and further understand the realm of the Etruscans.

Highlights include:

  • The marvelous cities of Rome and Florence, plus journeys through spectacular countryside to lesser-visited medieval and Renaissance towns.
  • Outstanding Etruscan necropolises with brightly-painted scenes of feasting and dancing covering the walls of rock-cut chamber tombs, monumental tumuli, and house tombs. These include the UNESCO World Heritage sites of Cerveteri and Tarquinia, as well as Sovana with its Tomba Ildebranda.
  • Important Etruscan towns, including Veii with its impressive, 6th-century B.C. “Portonaccio Temple” Fiesole, with its ancient walls and necropolis Volterra, which also boasts a charming historical center Orvieto, with its striking Etruscan acropolis and Vulci, whose tombs contain original Etruscan inscriptions.
  • Many splendid museums with unparalleled collections of Etruscan artifacts, such as Etruscan bronze sculptures plus Phoenician gold and Greek vases obtained through extensive trade networks. These include the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia and Vatican City’s Etruscan Gregorian Museum.
  • Lectures, discussions, and the company of our expert AIA lecturer/host, Lisa Pieraccini.
  • Generous comfort at well-located, 4-star hotels, plus fine cuisine and wine. A couple of special events are a home-hosted dinner in Florence, and lunch at a winery in Orvieto.

Prices Per Person

$TBA (13-16 participants) double occupancy
$TBA (9-12 participants) double occupancy
Single Supplement $TBA

Single room supplement will be charged when requested or required (limited availability). With fewer than 9 participants, a small surcharge may be added.

The Urn of the Spouces - The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Vulci -The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Cerveteri,- The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Cortona - The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Tarquinia Tomb of the Leopards - The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany , AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Cerveteri, Entrance of necropolis - The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Perugia National Archaeological Museum - The Legacy of the Etruscans: Latium, Umbria & Tuscany, AIA Tours, Archaeological Institute of America Tours

Itinerary

Wednesday, October 12, 2022: Fly to Rome, Italy
Thursday, October 13: Arrive in Rome | Private transfer to hotel | Welcome dinner
Friday, October 14: Rome: AM at leisure, PM National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia
Saturday, October 15: Vatican City: Etruscan Gregorian Museum | Veii | High-speed train to Florence
Sunday, October 16: Florence walking tour | Fiesole | Florence: Home-hosted dinner
Monday, October 17: Volterra walking tour, Guarnacci Etruscan Museum, Etruscan acropolis, Roman amphitheater | Cortona
Tuesday, October 18: Cortona: Walking tour, Museum of the Etruscan Academy & the Town of Cortona | Sodo | Cortona
Wednesday, October 19: Perugia: Walking tour, National Archaeological Museum | Chiusi | Cortona
Thursday, October 20: Orvieto | Winery lunch | Vulci | Tarquinia
Friday, October 21: Necropolises of Tarquinia & Monterozzi | Pitignano | Sovana | Tarquinia
Saturday, October 22: Cerveteri | Tarquinia | Farewell dinner
Sunday, October 23: Private transfer to Rome Airport | Fly home

View Detailed Itinerary

NOTE: This tour is in the planning stages for an October 2022 departure. To be added to the list and notified when reservations are open for this departure, please contact us at 800-748-6262 or email [email protected]

For reservations or questions, please email us at [email protected] (and include your full name) or call us toll-free at (800) 748-6262 (toll: 603-756-2884). To reserve your space using the online form, click here.


Watch the video: Das antike Italien - Teil 2: Die Etrusker