Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI

Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI

Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI

The Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI was the lend-lease version of the Hudson Mk.V. It was powered by the same 1,200hp Twin Wasp S3C4-G engine, but produced under licence by Chevrolet under its military designation of R-1830-67, and carried the same seven guns (two in the nose, two in the dorsal turret, two in beam positions and one in a retractable ventral position). A total of 450 Mk.VIs were produced with the USAAF designation A-28A-LO. Of these 410 went to the RAF (of which one was given to Portugal and three returned to the USAAF), 36 went to the RCAF and four to the RNZAF. The Mk.VI had the same “utility” interior as the A-29A-LO (late production Mk.IIIAs), and could easily swap between carrying bombs and carrying troops. A number of Coastal Command Hudson Mk.VIs were armed with under-wing rockets to attack enemy shipping, while a small number were disarmed to serve as the Hudson C Mk.VI transport.

Engine: Chevrolet built Twin Wasp R-1830-67
Horsepower: 1,200hp at take-off
Wing span: 65ft 6in
Length: 44ft 4in
Empty Weight: 13,195lb
Gross Weight: 18,500lb
Max Speed: 261mph
Cruising Speed: 224mph
Climb rate 2,160ft per minute
Ceiling: 27,000
Range: 2,160 miles
Armament: Seven .303in machine guns, under-wing rocket racks.

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Classic Airframes 1/48 Hudson Mk.I Build Review

Here's a project that I built nearly 14 years ago and I decided to pull it off the shelf and clean it. Before I knew it, I wound up applying a variety of washes and other effects on the model. Since this review was written back when 600 pixel images were still huge, I though a new photo shoot and update would be in order. So here's the original review and I'll mark my update below. As always, click on an image to see a larger view.

Background

The Hudson started life as the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra and was designed to compete in the civil aviation world against the new series of Douglas DC-X aircraft. The Model 14 was designed to operate with a variety of powerplants including the Wright Cyclone, Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp and the Pratt & Whitney Hornet. The prototype Model 14 first flew in July 1937, powered by the Pratt & Whitney Hornet.

As war was approaching in Europe, the RAF sought out aircraft that it could press into service almost immediately. The Model 14 was adopted with some modifications as the Hudson, first flying in December 1938. Thousands of Hudsons were produced between 1939 and 1943, with examples delivered to Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Netherlands, China and the United States.

There were a number of variants of the Hudson. In British and allied service, there were the Marks I - V which were designed as patrol bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. All were equipped with a Boulton Paul dorsal turret and differed primarily in engine and propeller combinations. The Mark VI was designed as a transport version of the Hudson with the dorsal turret deleted.

In US operations, the Mark IIIA version (which was a Mark III with bench seats installed) served as the A-29 by the USAAF and as the PBO-1 by the USN. A transport version was also designated as the C-63. The Mk.VI transport version was also adopted as the A-28.

Two unique versions of the Hudson were also produced for the USAAF: the AT-18, which had a Martin dorsal turret in place of the Boulton Paul, which served as a aerial gunnery trainer and the AT-18A, which had a US-styled bombardiers nose with the Norden bombsight installed for bombardier training.

Among the most notable historical tid-bits in the Hudson's operational history, it has the distinction of being the first US-built aircraft to achieve an aerial victory in WW2. Another incident involved a RAAF Hudson that was discovered by a flight of six A6M2 Zeros, one of which was flown by ace Saburo Sakai. While the Hudson was eventually shot down, the aggressive dogfight put up by the Hudson pilot amazed even veteran Sakai.

The Classic Airframes Hudson Mk.I kit consists of 67 light gray and 28 clear injection-molded plastic parts for everything but the aircraft interior. The interior is comprised of 35 nicely molded resin parts. This kit provides all of the parts for a standard Hudson Mark I as well as the civilian version, the Lockheed Model 14. There are only a few parts not used for either version, as many of these parts trees are common to the upcoming later Mark Hudson kits. The styrene has only a minimal amount of molding flash on the trees and no injector pin marks in visible locations.

The Classic Airframes Hudson Mk.I kit consists of 67 light gray and 28 clear injection-molded plastic parts for everything but the aircraft interior. The interior is comprised of 35 nicely molded resin parts. This kit provides all of the parts for a standard Hudson Mark I as well as the civilian version, the Lockheed Model 14. There are only a few parts not used for either version, as many of these parts trees are common to the upcoming later Mark Hudson kits. The styrene has only a minimal amount of molding flash on the trees and no injector pin marks in visible locations.

For those of you who are about to get one of these great kits, you'll want to know that the kit provides markings for two aircraft - a Lockheed Model 14 in UK civil registry and used by Neville Chamberlain to try and forge peace with Nazi Germany in 1938, and a Hudson Mk.I of 206 Sqn used in 1939-1940.

The days of cool decals from aftermarket companies being released before or immediately after a major kit release are over (for now). It is now months (and sometimes years) before decent decal options are available for a new kit subject. Not for Classic Airframes kits - in a new direction for this company, they are releasing additional decal sets to provide the builder with more options when you buy the kit. Another kudo for CA!

The trick to a trouble-free build of this (or any other) kit is preparation. The first step was to study the instructions and get a feel for where any surprises might lurk. One of the advantages of armor building is gaining the sense of subassemblies where different parts of the kit can be built in parallel without later complications. I decided how to do the same with the Hudson and pushed off.

The first step was to break out the cutting disk and my trusty Flexi-Shaft Dremel tool and get after the resin parts. All of the parts had to be removed from their molding bases and a few of the cockpit bulkheads thinned down a bit. Whenever I grind on resin, I always use protective eyewear and a surgical-type paper breathing mask to keep from inhaling the dust. Of course I am still covered in resin dust at the end of this step so it's off to the showers for a clean up.

Next I wash the styrene parts to remove any remaining oils or other contaminants that would interfere with modeling paints. Then I shoot all of the mating surfaces of the major kit components (fuselage, wings, tail, nacelles) with Tamiya acrylic Flat Aluminum. I also shoot the areas inside the outboard sections of the wing halves and what will be the inside of the wheel wells Flat Aluminum as well. Note: the slots on the outboard sections of the wings are the predecessors of today's leading edge flaps/slats. At slow speeds/high angles of attack, air is drawn into the scoops on the underside of the wing and is blown out over the top of the wing and over the ailerons providing enhanced roll control at or near stall speed. Since the inside of the kit wing is visible through these slots, the Flat Aluminum is better than bare plastic!

When the aluminum has dried, I removed each part and sand each mating surface on a sheet of sandpaper taped to a sheet of glass. As you sand each joint, any remaining silver highlights a flaw or other problem that would otherwise cause a gap during assembly. When the silver is gone from the edges, you'll have a smooth assembly.

Once all of the major parts have been sanded, I painted the interior of the fuselage and all of the resin parts Model Master RAF Interior Green.

First up was the cockpit. I assembled the resin parts per the instructions and painted the details as I went along. The rear cockpit bulkhead (R12) and the lower bulkheads that form the nose access crawlway go together with no problems. The cockpit floor (R1) mounts upon this assembly and overlaps above the floor on R12. Take a good look at the diagrams in step three to see how this works. The forward bulkhead (R11) mounts against the crawlway wall (R3) and cockpit floor. Once you get this structure together, the rest of the details are a snap.

While the interior was drying, I jumped ahead to the wings. I glued the upper/lower wing halves together with Testors Liquid Cement to ensure a solid joint. While one wing matched up perfectly at the wingtip and wing root, the other was slightly off. No problem - I matched up the wingtips, as I'll deal with the wing root later.

One of the critical assembly areas will be the engine nacelles and the nacelle/wing subassemblies. I assembled the nacelles and the engine mount bullet fairings. As these dried, I began to dry-fit the underwing nacelle fairing that also doubles as the main wheel well. Careful sanding and fitting resulted in a good match.

There are three molded-in dents in the underside of the wing where the main landing gear is supposed to attach. There are mounting pins on the main gear struts, but no holes in the wing. No problem - I drilled out the dents and made a few adjustments to get a solid join with the main landing gear struts. Please do this before gluing the underwing nacelle fairing into place, as you won't be able to reach this area easily afterwards.

Now for the wing roots. I initially didn't sand the wing roots on the fuselage halves, as they looked flat and smooth. You know what they say about assuming. I went back to the sandpaper on the glass and gave the fuselage wing roots a quick rubbing down. Sure enough, there were still shiny spots in the areas where the wing would attach. A little more sanding rendered a smooth flat surface. Next, I set up a square sanding block and a good surface where I could prop the wing up to its proper dihedral angle. I sanded the wing roots on both wings until I achieved good flat joints. Please check your work frequently as you could overdo the process! When I was finished I had a solid wing-fuselage joint that would require little or no filler. I installed the underwing nacelle fairings and set the wings aside to dry.

Back to the fuselage - I finished assembly of the cockpit interior, painted any remaining details that needed attention, and dry-fit the assembly inside the fuselage halves. It is hard to tell how the interior is supposed to sit inside the fuselage, but the rear bulkhead actually goes behind the first side window and the pilot's armor plate/seat mount sits about flush with the rear edge of the cockpit opening. This puts the forward (bombardier compartment) bulkhead about half an inch inside the front of the nose. With the interior in place, the fuselage halves should go together as easy as if the interior wasn't installed.

Something was obstructing the fit on my example, so I peeked up the tail toward the cockpit to see where the problem was. In this case, the right side of the aft bulkhead and the instrument panel needed sanding/reshaping and the forward bulkhead was being obstructed by a molded-on ridge in the left fuselage side for the cockpit floor. A little creative sanding and filing rendered a good interior fit.

One major compliment to Classic Airframes - this is the first kit that I have ever built where the fuselage side windows - all of them - fit without fuss into the corresponding holes in the fuselage. I was actually dreading this part of the construction, but I was simply amazed at the ease of this step. Note that the thickness of the windows is thinner than the fuselage, so ensure that the windows are flush with the outside of the fuselage before cementing these into place. I used a needle applicator to apply Tenax 7 into the window edges.

With the windows and interior ready to go, I glued the fuselage halves together. Once again I used Testors Liquid Cement to get the strongest bond. You'll see that once half of the fuselage is slightly longer than the other. I aligned the halves at the cockpit and radio antenna mast. The resulting slight step at the nose was easily sanded into a good surface for the forward nose assembly. The dorsal turret hole will take a little work to compensate but we'll deal with that later.

The bombardier's nose is comprised of three clear parts (top (C4), bottom (C2) and forward blister (C8)) with resin details installed inside. While the simplest approach would be to mask and paint the exterior of C2 & C4 RAF Interior Green and install the details, you'd still likely see the shine from the clear plastic where there should be none. I decided to hand-paint the interior walls RAF Interior Green except for the window frames. This knocks off almost all of the improper "interior reflections" while the window frames will be dealt with from the outside. A work table goes in near the forward top edge of C2 while the bombardier's seat assembly goes in over one of the lower windows.

Two machine gun barrels are supposed to protrude from the top half (C4). You'll need to drill two holes, then use the drill bit to create a trough for the barrels to lie in. I finished the troughs with a small needle file to get the barrels into proper orientation. Remember to cut the barrels down to the lengths described in the instructions. With the top and bottom halves of the nose ready to go, I used Tenax to assemble them together and to mount this assembly to fuselage.

The tail section was really simple. With all of the pieces subjected to the sandpaper on glass, the horizontal and vertical stab halves all went together nicely. Each vertical stab has a cut-out that mates to a corresponding cutout on the horizontal stab. The tail literally snaps together. Take care that the cut-outs on each piece are perfectly aligned when gluing the halves together. Once the parts are dry, you'll need to file the openings in each cut-out to get a good fit (they're molded slightly undersized). Dry-fit the parts frequently as not to create too large of a slot. If all goes well (and it is hard not to), the tail section goes together perfectly squared.

The tail section goes onto the fuselage with no problems either. I had used a clamp on the tail to keep the fuselage mounting surface for the tail section aligned while the fuselage halves dried. This worked out great as the tail section mounts to the fuselage perfectly horizontal. Due to the earlier issue with the differing length fuselage halves, there is a small gap on top of the fuselage/tail section joint. This is filled in with small bits of styrene strip and cyano.

The engine cowlings were assembled next and the resin engines painted and installed. Sandpaper was wrapped around the cowlings and the underside of the resin carburetor intake scoops were then sanded to shape. Once a good fit was achieved, the scoops were cyanoed into place.

The engine nacelle fairings and engine-mount bullet fairings were installed on the wings with Testors Liquid Cement. The resulting joints, like all of the others, is strong and tolerant of being flexed. I did have to apply a little cyano filler in a few spots, but this blended all of the parts into one good-looking assembly. I took both wing subassemblies along with a sanding stick and buffed all of the seamlines smooth/invisible. I dry-fitted the landing gear struts once again just to ensure that there won't be problems in final assembly.

The nose section was another matter. As I mentioned earlier, the nose halves are molded as top and bottom. This allows for some height adjustment to align to the height of the nose. In this kit, the height alignment is great. It is the width that needs a little adjustment - the nose is a little too narrow for the front of the fuselage. I was able to easily compensate with a little filler and sanding to adjust the profile, but on the next kit (and what I suggest to you) I will narrow the width of the front of the fuselage to match the nose. This will prevent the loss of some scribed details and also eliminate the slight width problem with the one-piece cockpit canopy/windscreen. This part is also fractionally too narrow for the fuselage.

When I sand the mating surfaces of the fuselage halves, I will also focus more on the nose to adjust the width at the nose. Taping the nose halves together and doing frequent dry-fits with the fuselage halves should render a perfect fit. As I said, this one step will also improve the fit of the windscreen as well. There will be some minor width adjustments required for the resin interior, but this should provide a better overall model.

It was time to join the wings to the fuselage halves. I used Testors Liquid Cement to get a solid join, but what was this? The dihedral was steeper on the right wing while the left was fine. I quickly removed the right wing, re-assembled the sanding jig and adjusted the wing root accordingly. This time the wing dihedrals were correct on both wings. The best I can figure is that since I had sanded the same angle on both wings using my jig, I either altered the angle of the fuselage wing roots when I sanded them flush or there is a minor difference in angles on the kit. In any case, this is easily adjusted by sanding the wing at the wing-fuselage joint until you obtain the correct dihedral. This challenge took all of five minutes to conquer.

The openning for the Boulton-Paul turret needed attention next. As you saw in an earlier photo, the openning was slightly misaligned, but the openning is also too small. I searched around for a bottle cap that was approximately the size of the turret. I wrapped medium grit sandpaper around the lid and sanded the openning until it fit the lid. This eliminated the stepped openning and rendered a good fit for the turret.

All of the preparations for the landing gear struts paid off handsomely. There is indeed no way to drill out and install the gear after the wing and engine nacelles are assembled. After I installed the oleos onto the main gear struts, I dry-fit them into the wheel wells and attempted to install parts 7 and 8. These two parts represent the early speed brakes that were mounted on the landing gear struts of some aircraft types to help slow the aircraft down and provide enough drag for the pilot to maintain some engine power on approach. These parts do not fit into the openings on the nacelles. I pulled my plastic nippers out and adjusted the openings to where parts 7 and 8 would slip ahead of the main gear struts when the gear was installed. I never did figure out how the triangular gear doors (parts 9 & 10) worked in this configuration so they were discarded.

The rest of the remaining parts/subassemblies went into place without problem. Now it was time to mask & paint the aircraft! I used plain old Scotch transparent tape, cut into shape with a sharp X-Acto knife, to mask the windows on the cockpit, nose and the Boulton-Paul Turret. The side windows were masked with liquid latex. In order to provide a hint of wear and tear, I first painted black lines along all of the upper wing and fuselage panel lines. No point doing this to the underside since it will be all-black anyway. When this had dried, I gave the aircraft the once-over with Testors Model Master RAF Dark Earth. I was torn between two masking techniques that I wanted to try. One is to enlarge the color profiles to 1/48 and cut out masking templates. The other involves the use of liquid latex as a camouflage mask. I decided on the latter.

My local hobby shop had a large bottle of liquid latex in stock, which I had already used on the windows. I applied the latex onto the upper surfaces of the aircraft and applied Testors Model Master RAF Dark Green. So far, so good. I re-applied the latex to provide the demarcation lines between the upper and lower camouflage. One of the words of warning was not to use the liquid latex over acrylic paints, but since I had used enamels on the upper surfaces, no problems. Since I wouldn't be masking over the underside paint, I used Tamiya's acrylic NATO Black, which is a few shades lighter than normal black.

Once all of the paint had adequately dried, I began the process of removing the latex masks. The instructions on the latex bottle suggested using warm water to soften up the masks so I took the model to the kitchen sink and worked a section at a time. The masking came off with no problems though I did wear the paint thin in a few areas. After the model had dried, I touched up the paint, masked the leading edges of the wings and tail with Tamiya masking tape and applied flat black for the de-icing boots. As predicted, the difference in color between the boots and the underside camouflage was negligible. The whole model was treated to a gloss clear coat using Future thinned 60-40 with Isopropyl Alcohol. This provides a solid base for the decals.

I chose to use the markings provided in the kit and they went on flawlessly. At first I didn't use any decal setting solutions as they settled down nicely and without silvering. They just didn't settle into the scribed details. I added a single coat of Solvaset and after all had dried, the decals had settled beautifully into the details.

I applied one more gloss coat over the decals, then applied Tamiya masking tape over the de-icing boots. I then sprayed on a mixture of 33% Future, 33% Tamiya Flat Base and 34% Isopropyl Alcohol. The result is a beautiful dull finish. With the Tamiya masking tape removed, the de-icing boots now stand out against the rest of the aircraft.

The turret was painted an overall RAF Dark Gray, as was the main landing gear struts.

Now it was time to apply the remaining detail parts and to remove the window maskings. I installed the HF antenna using a fine dark-tinted fishing line. The Hudson is finished!

I decided to pull this model off the shelf and give it a good cleaning. I didn't review my build notes in this article so my first mistake was using some of my homemade acrylic thinner

to wipe down the first wing. When it had dried, the wing was still dull finished but the surface was now milky. I wiped the milky surface with Windex sprayed onto a paper towel and the clear flat finish was restored. Seeing now that this was finished with a combination of Future and Tamiya Flat Base, I'm surprised Windex worked but I'm not complaining. This is worth some experiments later.

So now that the model was clean, it reminded me that I hadn't washed the flight control outlines nor any other panel line for that matter. I started with my homemade wash

of lamp black oil and started building up the darkness in the hinges. Then I remembered the inaccurate elevator pattern molded into the horizontal stabilizer. I pulled out a scribing tool and carefully connected the left and right elevators into one single large elevator as on the full-scale Hudson. I painted the new line and then applied the wash.

I tried some commercial washes for panel lines and while the results don't really show up on camera, they do work. I think the results would be more dramatic if the panel lines were deeper but they are rather fine on this kit. Next was a commercial wash for engine oil and grime which I applied with my Iwata airbrush. This was followed by exhaust stains that were also applied by airbrush at the exausts that exit at the outboard rear of each nacelle fairing.

I really did enjoy building this model may years ago and I have another stashed away for the eventual do-over. This clean-up is a nice opportunity to bring the finish of an old model up-to-date as well as trying some new products and skills that weren't available back then. If this hadn't worked out, it would have made that do-over happen sooner.

I'm surprised nobody has produced the Hudson since Classic Airframes did so over a decade ago. I know MPM released the Hudson in 1/72 scale but that was the only one. With so many of Classic Airframes' kits reissued under other brands in the Czech Republic or retooled in China, it would be nice to see this subject again available.


Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI - History


Hudson


The Lockheed Hudson was the militarized version of the Model 14 Super Electra airliner. The military version made its initial flight in December of 1938. It was the first American built aircraft to be used operationally by the RAF. With the success of the Mk. I version, more powerful engines were fitted to a strengthened airframe resulting in the Mk.III and subsequent versions. Additional modifications were made to later versions to increase range, bomb load, and defensive armament. The U.S. Army Air Corp used Hudsons under the designations A-28 and A-29. One of the A-29's was the first U.S. Army aircraft to sink a German U-Boat in WWII. Upon the outbreak of war, the U.S. Navy took over 20 Hudson III's and designated them PBO-1, one of which got credit for sinking the first German U-Boat by the Navy. The Hudson was also used by the air forces of South Africa, New Zealand, China, Portugal and Ireland.

The Classic Airframes Hudson comes in a typical CA top open two part box. The artwork on the top is a bit different using an actual photo of what appears to be a ship under attack with the artwork of a Hudson superimposed. Inside the box there are several bags, the largest of which contains all of the injection molded parts with the exception of the clear parts. These are bagged separately and there are also two bags containing resin parts. The primary kit parts are molded in a very light gray almost white color. The parts all have a moderate amount of flash with some of the smaller parts showing a lot of flash. Typical of short run kits the parts have no alignment pins and the sprue attachment points are heavy and best removed using a JLC saw. The fuselage window openings on my kit had a ridge of flash around the edges that will need to be sanded down. The kit features recessed panel lines that on my kit are bit inconsistent. Some will need to be re scribed to look right when finished. The surface finish is smooth and except for a rough edge that was present of the leading edge on one top and bottom wing half, there were no surface defects found on the major airframe parts. The wings feature open leading edge slots. The tires have smooth tread and are not weighted. The kit includes two sets of engine cowlings for the two different engines supplied with the kit. The control surfaces are all fixed and the fabric detail on these is nicely rendered. Altogether there are 84 parts in light gray, but several will not be used depending on which version you decide to build. See photos below. Note: both wing sprues are identical and only one is shown.

There are two bags of resin parts with the kit, one of these contains the two different engines that come with the kit plus a couple different intakes and the torque scissors for the landing gear. The parts are molded in a tan resin. The detail level is good but there will be a lot of flash to clean up. Some of it is thin and easily removed but some is not and the pour blocks will require some effort to remove without damaging the cylinder heads. The push rod detail on the single row radials is very nicely done and over all I did not find a lot of bubbles or other defects and once cleaned up and painted they should look quite nice. See photo below.

The other bag contains the parts for the interior. These include bulkheads, seats, the instrument panel, control column, guns and other fiddly bits to dress up the cockpit. No interior parts are included for the fuselage area behind the pilot but this area will not be easily seen anyway. These parts had much less flash than the engines are were free of pin holes and surface defects. Altogether there are 46 cast resin parts. See photo below.

The clear parts were all reasonably clear, the frame elements on the two nose pieces were very faint which will make masking and painting less than easy but the other pieces had well defined frame lines. Two vacuformed pieces with vision blisters are provided depending on the version built. Altogether there are 36 clear parts for a kit grand total of 166 parts for the complete kit. See photo below.

Decals are provided for two aircraft, one for a Hudson I (IV) from No. 1 squadron, RAAF, Malaysia, 1941 and a PBO-1 from VP-82, US Navy, 1942. The decals are thin, glossy and in register and one would expect as they are printed by Microscale. See photo below.

The instructions are standard CA fair, two pages folded in half creating 8 pages. The first page containing history and specifications, the second page with an icon guide, paints required and a parts map, and the balance of the pages devoted to assembly steps. A second page about 8 1/2" x 11" and printed on glossy paper on one side has the painting and marking information.

After Market Goodies
Other than some alternative decal sheet that were sold by Classic Airframes, I'm not aware of any other after market items that are available.

Conclusions

This is not one of CA's best kits but was probably equal to other kits that they were releasing at the time. This kit has been out of production for several years now. That said if you treat it like any other limited run kit as far as clean up and test fitting before assembly it can be built into a real beauty and it is still the only option for a Hudson in this scale. Recommended for modelers with some experience in building this type of kit.

Links to kit build or reviews

A build / review can be found here and here.

Aircraft Profile # 253, Lockheed Hudson Mks I to VI by Christopher F. Shores


Lockheed Hudson Mk.VI - History

New Zealand “barn find”

The Omaka Aviation Heritage Centre (Omaka Air Field, New Zealand) have been granted the honour to preserve and display the aircraft that were part of the collection of John Smith, who died in August 2019. He started collecting aircraft in the 1950s when he witnessed the large scale scrapping of warbirds, even close to his home. He managed to save several key aircraft and stored them in a shed on his Mapua property (South Island of New Zealand), where they remained as untouched – and for the most part, unseen – relics of New Zealand aviation history. Collectors travelled from across the planet trying to purchase his aeroplanes, but left empty-handed.

Now, after his death, the family, led by brother George and nephew Rob, has decided to open up the “treasure trove” so the public can enjoy John’s heritage. The Smith aircraft include a complete de Havilland Mosquito, John’s own original Tiger Moth, and two Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawks, NZ3220 and NZ3043. The former is New Zealand’s most famous P-40 “Gloria Lyons” (43-22962).

The Mosquito, an FB Mk.VI, was built for the RAF as TE910 and later exported to New Zealand and flown as NZ2336/YC-B. The Mossie, one of only thirty that have survived worldwide, is complete. Maybe not all the aircraft are destined for display at OAHC, but Kittyhawk NZ3220 surely is! It has already been transported to Omaka, soon to be followed by Mosquito NZ2336. In the past days both Merlins engines have been lifted out and mounted onto the clever back-to-back transport stand kindly loaned to the museum by Warren Denholm of AvSpecs for the purpose.

The Smith collection also houses a North American P-51 Mustang: built as USAAF 45-11513 (construction number 124-48266), it was sold to the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) and flown as NZ2423. The Mustang will be restored to flying status, for which it was already trucked to the Biggin Hill Historic Aircraft Centre, RNZAF Ohakea this past week-end of 22/23 August 2020. The restoration of NZ2423 will need a lot of cash, as the fighters wings were torched off before it was salvaged by Smith. Positive things are the low number of flying hours (around 400) for both airframe and engine. The Merlin seems to be in remarkably good condition.

In his lifetime John Smith only once said goodbye to one of his beloved aircraft. He gifted his Lockheed Hudson NZ2049 to Bill Reid who loaned it to the Omaka museum for display. This Lockheed A-29A-LO was built for the USAAC as 41-36976 (construction number 414-6465). It was meant to become RAF FH175 under lend-lease but went to New Zealand instead.


Mutley's Hangar

Introduction

Flight Sim Publisher FSAddon is renowned for publishing interesting WW2 war-birds like the Fieseler Storch, Westland Lysander and Gloster Gladiator. They have now added the Lockheed Hudson to their hangar.

The Lockheed Hudson may not be as famous as other Allied bombers of WW2, like the Boeing B-17 of the USAAF, the Lancaster of RAF Bomber Command or the Liberator and Sunderland of RAF Coastal Command but it served with distinction in a variety of roles in every theatre of war. With a total of 2,941 airframes built the Hudson saw lots of action during the war.

It was used by every allied air force and saw action in all theatres of war. It was responsible for the first aircraft kill by the RAF (a Do-18 flying boat) and for the first sunk German submarine by the US Navy. It also took part in the 1,000 bomber raid against Bremen. If all this is not enough to earn a place in history it was also an important clandestine asset in both Europe and Burma transporting SOE troops to and from small unlit fields at night.

Now FSAddon has taken on the task of bringing this amazing aircraft to our desktop. All models of the Hudson are depicted in the package by Simon Smeiman.

Download & installation

This package is available by download at the Silvercloud store of FSAddon, the download is a healthy 408MB and their servers delivered the file efficiently and without problems.

Installing is by running the executable and could not be simpler.

The only problem I encountered in the whole process was that the links to the documentation were not correct. The documentation is available in the Microsoft Flight Simulator XFSAddonLockheed HudsonManuals directory.

What you get

According to the website: “ actually this is an entire set of aircraft, both military and civilian, because it not only contains ALL the Hudson models from Mk I to Mk VI, The A28 an A-29 and the American PBO, but also includes the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra and the Lockheed Model 18-56 Lodestar.”

This translates in naval patrol planes, bombers and transports, US Navy Sub hunter, New Zealand SAR plane and civilian Model 14 and Lodestars.
Also included is a user manual and a checklist. The checklist is in both PDF format and as html checklist for use with the kneeboard within FSX.

The package comes with custom sounds, effects and animations. To name some of the things you can expect to find: droppable bombs that explode on impact, rockets, gun fire, fuel dumping and flares.


A28 in flight

Bomb doors open

Flying with rockets

Hudson mk6 inflight

Lockheed 14 in-flight

To the rescue

There is also a military and a civilian cockpit with all models having subtle differences in the cockpit, exhausts, cowlings, etc. After flying the models for a while you will know in which version you are in just by looking around in the cockpit and out of the windows.


Lockheed 14 panel

Mil panel - no yoke

External model

The external models are very good. If you own any other plane by FSAddon and especially the Gladiator or Storch by the same developer you know what to expect and you will not be disappointed. There are lots of details and the engines are beautifully detailed. The usual external viewpoints are available.

This does lead to one point of criticism. All models use the same engine model although in reality several different models were used. In fact the main difference between the A28 and A29 was the type of engine used on the aircraft.

The A28 and A29 also use different turrets compared to all of the other planes. Different antennas, ventral turrets, cowlings, scoops, exhausts and cowl flaps are available according to the model depicted. The bomb bay with bombs, the rockets and the life-boat are also beautifully crafted.


A28 close-up

Close-up mk6 engines

Close up mk6 underside

Hudson with rockets

One of my pet peeves with FSX models are the “creeping” external lights, these are not present in this model. The lights stay where they belong notwithstanding distance or the angle at which you look at them, that means a lot to this reviewer!

Texturing is of a high standard without reaching the heights of HD detailing.

Internal model

The internal model is a thing of beauty. Not only is the cockpit beautifully rendered with all 3D gauges, switches and knobs but the interior of the plane has received the same attention to detail.


The panel

Compass

Bombardier

Cabin

Emergency box

Gunner

Gun turret

Lockheed 14 cabin

Radio operator

Mil pedestal

A lot of views are available throughout the plane and everything that you want to see is available without the use of 2D pop-ups. There is only one caveat because everything is 3D there is no 2D cockpit and no 2D pop-up screens. With all these views available I really did not feel that this was detrimental in any way. But it is only fair to warn the 2D users.

I have mixed emotions about the sounds. Too many items do not have associated sounds and the engine noise in the cockpit is just not loud enough. The engines are running a few feet from your ears but inside the cockpit the noise levels are more akin to modern planes.

Outside, the engine sounds are glorious and gear and flap sounds are good. But missing sounds for switches, fuel pumps and no noticeable effects when turning on generators have a big impact on the immersion factor.

Flight characteristics

The plane flies close to published numbers. For example the operational ceiling can be reached with enough patience. The plane can fly considerably faster than published but quickly develops structural problems and crashes.

The included reference file does not provide the pilot with useful settings for RPM or manifold pressure and mixture settings don't seem to do much – if anything at all – until they reach the cut off range. Normal practice when flying became a matter of reacting to the indicated airspeed by managing the throttle and RPM settings by gut feeling.

The idea that engine management is not complete is further fuelled by the fact that the engine gauges only react to one of two axis if you have a setup where each engine has its own controls.

All told, the flight characteristics seem plausible, but there are too many loose ends.

Flight dynamics

The flight dynamics are good. The plane feels like its size and you can’t do acrobatics with it without severely damaging it resulting in a crash. It wasn’t possible to perform inverted flights, split S or looping.


Dive to target

Lockheed 14 dumping fuel

The plane feels stable, is easy to trim, easy to fly and easy to land. For a light bomber / transport these are all believable traits.

Documentation

Documentation consists of a checklist, a manual and the kneeboard checklist file.

The checklist contains a normal checklist but no power settings. These power settings are something that I really miss. The manual is good in all other respects. The plane is described including the panel and how to get things to work. But I want to read what the power settings are for altitude x.

Value for money

The description above does not paint the whole picture. I encountered several bugs with this plane. Apparently not all users suffer from these but they are worth mentioning.

On my system the plane crashes every time it is reloaded while on the ground. This happens when you change time or place. As such it can be easily prevented by first setting up your flight in a default plane like the Cessna and then changing to the Hudson.

Getting the special effects to work: drop bombs, boats, or fire rockets is a lot of work. It is described OK but it is a hassle because you have to save a flight and then add lines to the .flt file you just saved to make using the special effects possible. Then you have to restart FSX and can load the flight.

With the advance of weapons packs for FSX that seems like too much trouble. Furthermore it makes it very easy to make a mistake and not get the effect that you want. Just a simple GUI mission or flight editor to help with this would make a huge difference.


In the cross-hairs

PB0 bomb-doors open

Bombs-away

Explosion

The described issues do not take away the sheer fun of flying this aircraft however.

When you remember that developing this plane is for the most part a one man operation and small publishers like FSAddon don’t have the deep pockets of their larger counterparts like PMDG or Orbx the result is amazing. I even forgive the occasional crash when switching views.

Considering the number of different models in the package and the quality of the workmanship I have no doubt that this plane is worth the asking price of Euro 24.14 / $ 31.27. Better planes may be available in the same price range but the aircraft is a unique representation of an early war American medium bomber of good quality. [Stop Press: On offer for €21.18 until Jan 10 2013]

Response from the developer
To be honest and complete I include the response from the developer. Both Francois and Simon have responded promptly to my questions and I really want to thank them for their response.

Quote: Simon Smeiman
The mixtures, generators issue and some gauges that respond to the l-engine only are known and will be corrected in a patch soon.

The small window, when opened, cannot be closed from the seat position because the handle which is the animated part is hidden. One will have
to use the view point commands to see the handle. I think that is easy and quick enough to use.

The sound switch question. I hope you direct this issue to Microsoft and their development team as well. I am of the opinion that the switch sounds were omitted in the SDK by them on purpose. For this reason I think it is unfair to include in a review the lack of switch sounds in any product of any developer.

The engines sound great to me and I am not ashamed to say that. You are most welcome to disagree. Its something like in the eye of the beholder. in this case the ear of the beholder :-)

The aircraft behavior on the ground (the hopping, crashing. etc.) is also mentioned before. On my system I can assure you the aircraft behaves absolutely normal. I am using Windows XP.

With the coming addition of the free Special Operations package and a possible patch for some of the more annoying traits this plane will only get better over time!

* Good external and internal modelling
* Great engine sounds in external views
* Good frame rates
* Nice animations and effects like bomb blasts
* Easy to fly and trim
* Realistic flight dynamics

Cons:

* When using multiple axes for throttle and prop the gauges only respond to the right engine axis.
* Sound in cockpit not so good, the engines are near your ears but you don't hear them very clearly
* Missing sounds for switches, fuel pumps, etc.
* Mixture settings don’t seem to have any effect.
* Switching generators on or off don’t seem to have any effect
* No flight operations manual and not enough info in checklist regarding power settings
* Having to edit files to get effects like bombs and rockets to work

The price combined with the features that make this aircraft such fun to fly ensure that you get value for money with this plane. However if you are looking for something with complex systems modeling this add-on may leave you disappointed.


• External Model:
• Internal Model:
• Sounds:
• Flight Characteristics:
• Flight Dynamics:
• Documentation:
• Value for Money:
8.0/10
8.0/10
6.5/10
8.0/10
8.0/10
7.0/10
7.0/10

Final Mutley's Hangar Score 7.5/10


  • Flight Simulator X (Acceleration or FSX SP2 required)
  • Windows XP / Vista / Windows7 with the latest Service Packs
  • 2.0GHz PC or any Dual Core
  • 2 Gb RAM
  • 256Mb graphic card (512 MB recommended)
Product Page :: FSAddon Home :: User Forum


= External link, Mutley's Hangar holds no responsibility for content in these links : Mutley's Hangar © Joe Lawford 2006 - 2012 All Rights Reserved. E&OE


Índice

A finales de 1937, Lockheed envió un corte esquemático del Model 14 a varias publicaciones, mostrando el nuevo avión como un modelo civil convertido en un bombardero ligero. [ 4 ] ​ Esto atrajo el interés de varias fuerzas aéreas, y en 1938 la British Purchasing Comission vio en él un avión de patrulla marítima estadounidense para el Reino Unido que apoyara al Avro Anson. El 10 de diciembre de 1938, Lockheed mostró una versión modificada del avión de línea Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra, que rápidamente entró en producción como Hudson Mk.I. [ 5 ] ​

Fueron suministrados un total de 350 Hudson Mk.I y 20 Mk.II (el Mk.II tenía hélices diferentes). Tenían dos ametralladoras Browning fijas en el morro y 2 más en una torreta dorsal Boulton Paul. El Hudson Mk.III añadía una ametralladora ventral y 2 laterales, y reemplazaba los motores radiales de 9 cilindros Wright Cyclone de 1100 hp por versiones de 1200 hp (428 producidos). [ 6 ] ​

El Hudson Mk.V (309 producidos) y el Mk.VI (450 producidos) estaban propulsados por el motor radial de 14 cilindros en dos filas Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp de 1200 hp. La RAF también obtuvo 380 Mk.IIIA y 30 Mk.IV bajo el programa de Préstamo y Arriendo.

Segunda Guerra Mundial Editar

En febrero de 1939, los Hudson de la RAF comenzaron a ser entregados, equipando inicialmente al Escuadrón No. 224 con base en RAF Leuchars, Escocia, en mayo de 1939. En el comienzo de la guerra en septiembre, 78 Hudson estaban en servicio. [ 7 ] ​ Debido a la neutralidad de los Estados Unidos en esa época, los primeros aviones de serie fueron volados a la frontera canadiense, aterrizados y luego remolcados sobre sus ruedas hasta la frontera con Canadá por equipos de tractores o caballos, antes de ser volados a aeropuertos de la Real Fuerza Aérea Canadiense (RCAF) donde eran desmantelados o “envueltos” para el transporte como carga por barco hasta Liverpool. Los Hudson fueron suministrados sin la torreta dorsal Boulton Paul, que era instalada a su llegada al Reino Unido.

Aunque más tarde superado por bombarderos mayores, el Hudson consiguió algunas hazañas significativas durante la primera mitad de la guerra. El 8 de octubre de 1939, sobre Jutlandia, un Hudson se convirtió en el primer avión aliado, operando desde las islas británicas, en derribar un avión enemigo [ 8 ] ​ porque las anteriores victorias por un Fairey Battle el 20 de septiembre de 1939 sobre Aquisgrán y por un Blackburn Skua de la Fleet Air Arm el 26 de septiembre de 1939, se habían conseguido por aviones basados en Francia o en portaaviones. Los Hudson también proporcionaron cobertura aérea durante la Batalla de Dunkerque.

El 27 de agosto de 1941, un Hudson del Escuadrón No. 269 de la RAF, operando desde Kaldaðarnes, Islandia, atacó y dañó al submarino alemán U-570, provocando que la tripulación del submarino desplegara una bandera blanca y se rindiera, y así el avión consiguió la poco usual distinción de capturar un buque. Los alemanes fueron tomados prisioneros y el submarino fue remolcado cuando los barcos de la Real Marina británica llegaron al lugar. [ 9 ] ​ Un PBO-1 Hudson del escuadrón VP-82 de la Armada de los Estados Unidos se convirtió en el primer avión estadounidense en destruir un submarino alemán, [ 10 ] ​ cuando hundió al U-656 al suroeste de la Isla de Terranova el 1 de marzo de 1942. El U-701 fue destruido el 7 de julio de 1942 mientras navegaba en superficie frente a Cabo Hatteras por un Hudson del 396th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) de las Fuerzas Aéreas del Ejército de los Estados Unidos. Un Hudson del No. 113 Squadron RCAF se convirtió en el primer avión del Mando Aéreo Oriental de la RCAF en hundir un submarino, cuando el Hudson 625 hundió al U-754 el 31 de julio de 1942. [ 11 ] ​

Un Hudson de la Real Fuerza Aérea Australiana estuvo envuelto en el desastre aéreo de Canberra de 1940, en el que murieron tres ministros del Gobierno australiano.

En 1941, las USAAF comenzaron operar con el Hudson la variante propulsada por motores Twin Wasp fue designada A-28, con 82 unidades adquiridas, y la variante propulsada por motores Cyclone fue designada A-29, con 418 unidades adquiridas. La Armada estadounidense operó 20 A-29, redesignados PBO-1. Otros 300 fueron construidos como entrenadores de tripulaciones, designados AT-18.

Tras los ataques japoneses a Malasia, los Hudson del Escuadrón No. 1 de la RAAF se convirtieron en los primeros aviones aliados en realizar un ataque en la Guerra del Pacífico, hundiendo un barco de transporte japonés, el Awazisan Maru, frente a las costas de Kota Bharu a las 01:18h local, una hora antes el ataque a Pearl Harbor.

Sus oponentes encontraron que el Hudson tenía una excepcional maniobrabilidad para ser un avión bimotor era notable en sus giros cerrados conseguidos si cualquier motor se ponía brevemente en bandera.

  • El mayor as japonés de la guerra, Saburō Sakai, alabó las capacidades y habilidades en combate de la tripulación de un Hudson de la RAAF derribado en acción sobre Nueva Guinea, tras ser interceptado por nueve maniobrables Mitsubishi A6M el 22 de julio de 1942. [ 12 ] ​ [ 13 ] ​ La tripulación, comandada por el Oficial Piloto Warren Cowan, en el Hudson Mk IIIA con matrícula A16–201 (bu. no. 41-36979) del Escuadrón No. 32 de la RAAF, fue interceptada sobre Buna por nueve Zero del Tainan Kaigun Kōkūtai liderados por Sakai. La tripulación del Hudson realizó múltiples giros repentinos y agresivos, manteniendo un combate cerrado con los pilotos japoneses durante más de 10 minutos. Solo cuando Sakai consiguió alcanzar la torreta dorsal trasera, el Hudson pudo ser derribado. Su tripulación causó tanta impresión en Sakai, que tras el final de la guerra, intentó identificarlos. En 1997, Sakai escribió formalmente al Gobierno australiano, recomendando que Cowan fuera "condecorado póstumamente con la mayor condecoración militar de su país". [ 12 ] ​
  • El 23 de noviembre de 1942, la tripulación de un Hudson Mk IIIA, con matrícula NZ2049[ 14 ] ​ (41-46465) del Escuadrón No. 3 de RNZAF, tras descubrir un convoy enemigo cerca de Vella Lavella, fue interceptado por tres hidroaviones de caza japoneses. Después de realizar hábiles maniobras evasivas a una altitud de menos de 15 metros, llevadas a cabo por el capitán del Hudson, Oficial de Vuelo George Gudsell, [ 15 ] ​ la tripulación volvió sin bajas a Henderson Field, Guadalcanal,

Los Hudson también fueron operados por Escuadrones de Tareas Especiales de la RAF en operaciones clandestinas el Escuadrón No. 161 de la RAF en Europa y el Escuadrón No. 357 de la RAF en Birmania.

Posguerra Editar

En la posguerra, cantidades de Hudson fueron vendidas por los militares para realizar operaciones civiles como aviones de línea y de búsqueda. En Australia, la East West Airlines de Tanworth, Nueva Gales del Sur (NSW), operó 4 Hudson en servicios regulares desde Tanworth a muchas ciudades en Nueva Gales del Sur y Queensland entre 1950 y 1955. [ 16 ] ​ Adastra Aerial Surveys, basada en el Aeropuerto Mascot de Sídney, operó siete L-414 entre 1950 y 1972 en vuelos de aerotaxi, búsqueda y fotográficos. [ 17 ] ​

Se construyeron un total de 2941 Hudson. [ 18 ] ​

El modelo formó la base para el desarrollo del Lockheed Ventura, resultando ambos retirados del servicio de primera línea a partir de 1944, aunque muchos sobrevivieron a la guerra y fueron usados como transportes civiles, principalmente en Australia, y un único ejemplar fue usado brevemente como entrenador de tripulaciones de aviones de línea en Nueva Zelanda.


WWII, As It Really Looked

There are many iconic photographs from World War II: An aircraft spotter standing atop a London building with St. Paul’s Cathedral rising in the background three dead American soldiers lying half-buried in the sand at Buna Beach on New Guinea, taken by LIFE photographer George Strock Alfred Eisenstaedt’s photo “The Kiss,” shot in Times Square the day Japan surrendered. They’re all powerful—and they’re all in black and white.

While color images of the war exist, they aren’t extremely common. Yet official photographers serving with the British armed forces shot nearly 3,000 color photographs, using Kodachrome film obtained from the United States. About 1,500 images survive they were given to the Imperial War Museums in 1949. Of these, nearly 80 have been collected in a new book: The Second World War in Colour, by Ian Carter (2017, Imperial War Museums, distributed by the University of Chicago Press).  

The images are astonishing: A Hudson Mk VI in a cerulean sky, flies above Egypt’s most famous landmark, the Great Pyramid of Giza. A Lancaster bomber crew pose for a photo at RAF Waddington, along with additional crewmembers: homing pigeons housed in watertight bright yellow boxes (how did they breathe?). A very young and beautiful Princess Elizabeth stands with the Austin 10 “Tilly” and Austin K2 ambulance she helped maintain during her time in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. Dutch civilians dance in the streets after the liberation of Eindhoven by Allied forces.

Members of the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force (WAAF) preparing parachutes for use by British airborne forces in the invasion of Europe, May 31, 1944. On D-Day, red denoted weapons and ammunition yellow was used for medical, and blue for rations. (Imperial War Museums)

Carter acknowledges the gaps in the collection: No color film was given to British official photographers covering the D-Day landings. And the war in the Far East was basically ignored, probably due to logistics and processing challenges. The Home Front is beautifully covered, as are British operations in the Mediterranean theatre. The collection also includes a few German propaganda photographs, and some images taken by U.S. military personnel while on combat missions, “something that was virtually unheard of in the RAF,” notes Carter. Looking at these rare color photographs is eye-opening in another way: Has it really been almost 80 years since these events took place?  

“Bombing up” a Vickers Wellington of 419 Squadron at RAF Mildenhall, May 27, 1942. “The Wellington was the RAF’s best bomber in 1939,” writes Carter, “and remained in front-line service in this role until October 1943. The 4,000-lb high-capacity blast bomb or ‘Cookie’ seen in this photo was designed for maximum explosive effect. A combination of ‘Cookies’ and incendiaries became the standard offensive load on most raids.” (Imperial War Museums)


Lockheed Martin

Walter J. Boyne, Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 1998).

Richard S. Combes, "Aircraft Manufacturing in Georgia: A Case Study of Federal Industrial Investment," in The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s, ed. Philip Scranton (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001).

Joseph Earl Dabney, Herk: Hero of the Skies, 3d ed. (Fairview, N.C.: Bright Mountain Books, 2003).

Jeffrey L. Holland, Under One Roof: The Story of Air Force Plant 6 (Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio: Aeronautical Systems Center, Acquisition Environmental, Safety, & Health Division, 2006).

Thomas Allan Scott, Cobb County, Georgia, and the Origins of the Suburban South: A Twentieth-Century History (Marietta, Ga.: Cobb Landmarks and Historical Society, 2003).