Roman Glass Two-Handled Cup - History
The categories outlined below are those used by the Pewter Society database.
Cups and beakers
Two-handled cups are found in several sizes. In Britain there are a few large two-handled bowls known as “Loving Cups”. Some of these may have been “Wassail” cups that is, passed from hand to hand on convivial occasions, but it is more likely that they were gifts upon betrothal or marriage. Loving cups of this style appear about 1650 and go out of fashion around 1730. Later in the eighteenth century smaller cups appear. Some may have been used as chalices in Britain , but most were for ordinary domestic use. Two-handled cups from the mid-eighteenth century onwards are found in a number of styles.
Small single-handled cups were used everywhere. From the seventeenth century come small concave-sided cups used in Britain and Holland, but most examples date from the eighteenth century and have straight, slightly tapering or rounded sides.Some rather exalted names are given to these cups including “possett” and “caudle”, but in reality they were probably used for drinking almost any liquid. A lot of examples date from the nineteenth century.
The term “beaker” is used to describe drinking cups with straight bodies and without handles. Beakers were used in the Middle Ages but few have survived. In the seventeenth century we find a small group of cast decorated beakers found in Britain dating from around 1610. Later in the seventeenth century similar tall beakers were popular in Britain, many decorated with wrigglework.
The tall beaker went out of fashion in Great Britain around 1720, but continued to be made in the United States and Scandinavia into the nineteenth century.
In the eighteenth century beakers were made in several styles. In Britain shorter examples were popular, first appearing about 1720. Beakers are found with plain, decorated and reeded bodies. Most British beakers are half pints . Some smaller size beakers with Scottish marks may have originally fitted into the top of tappit hens.
Goblets are defined here as cups similar to beakers, but with curved sides and a small stem or foot. Examples with decorated sides were popular in France and Switzerland around 1750. British goblets however are usually plain and are predominantly nineteenth century.
Wine cups were used from an early period for drinking wine or “strong” ale. They resemble chalices and are often mistaken for them.
The main differences are that wine cups tend to be shorter and usually have simple, plain stems without knops. They graced the tables of many homes from the seventeenth century onwards, until they went out of fashion around 1730. Examples from Britain and northern Europe predominate.
Flagons and jugs
A flagon is normally any large lidded vessel with a handle from which drink is served .In the 14th century the main design known in pewter is octagonal , this then evolved to a round bellied or pear shaped flagon a few examples are in church treasuries. From 1603 after James 1st stated that all churches must have a vessel to dispense the wine , a standard flagon appeared which had a bullet base tapered sides domed top and knop ,known as James 1st type this evolved to a Charles 1st style with a bun shaped top to a beefeater flagon with a lid that looks like a beefeaters (yeoman warders) hat. All of the last 3 are from the 17th century . Flat lidded flagons were the next to appear at the beginning of the 18th century and by the middle of the century spire flagons appeared . Regional variations in York produced a domed flagon looking like an elongated tankard and the acorn type .
Bulbous pewter jugs with double-C handles were illustrated in the catalogues of Farrow and Jackson of London in 1898, Brown and Englefield of London in 1903 and Gaskell and Chambers of Birmingham in 1921 and Englefields (London) Ltd after the second World War (Englefield 1997 p74). Most surviving jugs are therefore probably late C19 or early C20, and there is no evidence to support the much earlier date attributed by some authors. Whilst these jugs have often been called ale, cider or wine jugs, Farrow and Jackson, Brown and Englefield and Englefields, all called them ‘water jugs’. Gaskell and Chambers just called them ‘jugs’.The high-bellied body shape of the jugs is fairly common but thumbpiece design varied: Gaskell and Chambers using a spray but Farrow and Jackson used an open chairback. They were made in sizes ranging from ½ pint to gallon.
Measures as the names implies are a range of vessels produced to the standard of the time to dispense liquid , grain , medicines and even shellfish .The basic shape did not change from c1500 to the end of the 18th century and are normally dated by the style of handle and thumbpiece . The hammerhead thumbpiece was being used on baluster measures as early as C15, but the majority of surviving examples are from the second half of C17 or the very beginning of C18.There are more fake than genuine hammerheads. The so-called double volute thumbpiece appeared on English baluster measures in the 1720s or 30s and continued until the introduction of the Imperial Standard in the 1820s. Bud balusters were made from the last quarter of C17 through to the first quarter of C19. From 1836 when the new imperial standard was introduced a bellied shape appeared which then was produced into the 20th Century , measures from this time are normally verified by a stamp.
Tappit hens are a uniquely-Scottish form of measure. They were made in Edinburgh and Glasgow from late C17 to the end of C19,though many reproductions were also made in C20. Glasgow tappit hens have taller thumbpieces, often with 3 bars at the top. They tend to have 5-part hinges whereas Edinburgh examples usually have 3-part. The underside of the top of the handle is usually straighter in Glasgow made items, which also have a foot rim that projects down and out. Those with a knopped lid are called ‘crested’. Prior to the introduction of Imperial Standard in 1826 most were made to the old ‘Scots pint’ capacity standard, which was roughly 3 Imperial pints,though Edinburgh used Old English Wine Standard from ca.1800 to 1826. The chopin and mutchkin were half and a quarter of a Scots pint respectively.
A mug is a lidless drinking vessel with a handle, there are various regional styles but all are made in 3 or 4 graduated sizes ,half pint ,pint and quart being standard. The pre imperial types in old english ale or wine standard but there are local standard variations as in the Winchester standard ,Henry VII standard and the 15 oz pint.
The first “pots” that we know of appear in English taverns around 1650 the early examples are tall with heavy banding, but in about 1690 — 1700 mugs with plain bodies appeared.
Eighteenth century tavern mugs are uncommon. The tall early form gave way to squat tankards, usually with a ball terminal to their strap handles. Examples before about 1750 tend to differ from maker to maker. About the middle of the eighteenth century, mugs with a “tulip” shape or with “U” shaped body were introduced.
The nineteenth century saw the rise of a popular shape variously known as the “pear”, “belly” or “bulbous” form. More mugs of this type were made than of any other form and they continued to be popular up to the beginning of this century. The smallest capacity made prior to 1850 was the half gill and most common are the quart, pint, half pint and gill, although gallons and half gallons are known. The smaller fractions only appear after 1850. Many local or regional varieties of mug were made in the nineteenth century and there is a range of tavern mugs made to the Scottish Standard that was only used north of the border.
Glass-bottomed mugs began to appear in the 1790’s, some with clear bases, others with coloured glass, and they continued to be used throughout the nineteenth century.At some point in the mid-nineteenth century makers developed a range of mugs with thickened lips or rims. These were made with brass, pewter or copper lips or rims, the thickening presumably intended to strengthen them for the heavy wear they received. These rims are found on both straight-sided and “belly” forms.These were probably used in the sale of shellfish or grain.
Many tavern mugs have an inscription on their sides or under their bases showing the “pub” where they were used. Quarts are slightly more common in Britain than pints and the larger and smaller sizes are all less frequently found.
Until the 1840’s two forms of handles predominated the plain strap and the “broken” handle . A range of new mugs with rectangular or oval handles and with different body forms were gradually introduced into English pubs and many of these forms were still popular in 1900.Up to 1826 mugs were mostly made to the ale standard but, particularly in the eighteenth century, rarer examples conformed to the wine standard.The majority of mugs found today will be from the 19th century , the lidded tankard declined as the mug increased
A tankard is a lidded drinking vessel. Unlidded drinking vessels with a handle are called ‘mugs’. Although it seems strange now to drink out of a lidded vessel this was the norm until the second half of the 18th century. Perhaps this was because ceilings were not plastered underneath, so without a lid you stood the risk of having dirt, straw and spiders dropping into your ale.
The earliest surviving pewter tankards date from the mid 17th century. They are straight-sided and have a lid that is raised with a flat top. These have become known to collectors as ‘flat lid tankards’, an unfortunate term because the lid as a whole is not flat. The thumbpiece on which the user presses to raise the lid is often of a very attractive design. The flange of the lid overhangs the body and may have decorative projections (‘denticulations’) on the front.
Around 1700 the dome lid started to appear. With these, the flat area of the lid is replaced with a second dome (which is why they are sometimes called ‘double dome lids’). A little later tulip-shaped bodies appeared, though straight-sided bodies continued as well. The production of tankards diminished towards the end of the 18th century as unlidded drinking vessels became more popular, but they enjoyed a revival in the 19th century when they were once more produced for trophies.
Many flat lid tankards are decorated with wrigglework, though beware – some wrigglework was added in the 20th century. Other styles of tankard are normally plain save for inscriptions and the like.
Tea and coffee pots
Tea appeared in Great Britain in the reign of Charles the second, due to the cost at the time it was mainly drunk by the wealthy from china or silver pots. By the 1750s it was britains most popular drink and tea now was more affordable . Early teapots made of pewter made an appearence at that time and were bullet shaped , with the invention of brittania metal the cost became cheaper and a large amount of different styles appeared, the majority of them being made in Sheffield and Birmingham . They were made in 8 different sizes ranging from one cup to 8.
The first coffee house was opened up in Oxford in 1650 and by the end of the century over 3000 coffee houses were open. Coffee pots were produced basically on the same time line as tea pots but their use declined after the invention of the coffee perculator at the end of the 19th Century.
Roman Glass Two-Handled Cup - History
If you’ve wondered how the practice originated: It began in pre-history and evolved over the millennia.
And for many centuries, a piece of toast was floated in the punch bowl. The scoop:
AN ANCIENT PRACTICE
The practice of toasting to someone’s health goes back to ancient times. Evidence reveals that most ancient societies raised a glass.
BUT IT WASN’T YET CALLED A TOAST
Drinking to health continued over the centuries. But the term “toast” did not originate until the 16th century, and it did involve a piece of toast.
One of the first written accounts appears in Shakespeare’s The Merry Wives of Windsor, when the character of Falstaff demands of Bardolf, a rogue member of his posse: “Go fetch me a quart of sack put a toast in’t.”
Adding toast to wine was actually quite a common practice in that period—and long before.
THE WASSAIL BOWL & WASSAILING
The term “wassail” (WASS-ul) was a greeting among Anglo-Saxons, who inhabited England beginning in the 5th century. These Germanic tribes migrated from continental Europe, and their language was what is now known as Old English.
“Wassail” is Middle English contraction of “wæs hæil,” a toast meaning “good health” or “be healthy.”
The wassail tradition began in pre-Christian times, in southern England. The region’s apple groves produced a major food crop, from which [alcoholic] cider was made.
The early tradition of “wassailing” was a festive procession of townspeople into apple groves, with songs or chants, and the sharing of alcohol from jugs.
Participants tied pieces of toast to apple tree branches, meant to ensure a good crop.
By the 14th century, in Merrie Olde England, wassail referred to a holiday punch bowl and the mulled beverage inside of it. Beer, cider, mead, and later, wine were heated with spices (mulled) and topped with a slice of toast.
Every good Christmas gathering included a wassail bowl, and people toasted as they drank their “cup of good cheer.” They held high, and often clinked, their glasses (more about that below).
Bowls of hot mulled cider were served in homes to visitors, and the custom of caroling (a.k.a. wassailing) led groups to go from door to door, singing for a drink. (The custom of singing Christmas carols, charming in recent centuries may well have begun as a way to get free drinks.)
The terms “toast” and “toasting” emerged to describe both drinking to one’s health and drinking to honor a person or occasion, at any time of year.
For another couple of centuries, there was still a piece of toast involved, added to the top of the jug or pitcher.
The piece of toast might be presented to the honoree. Saturated through with wine, it was tasty—and added to the alcohol content consumed.
THE TOASTMASTER APPEARS TO MANAGE THE EVENT
The piece of toast gradually disappeared, and in the 17th century the position of toastmaster emerged. His job was to ensure that the toasting didn’t become too excessive, and that everyone got his opportunity to toast the honoree:
One historian notes: Toasting was a great excuse to drink a large amount of alcohol without being seen as a staggering drunk. So if left to their own devices, participants would toast every individual in the room [source].
 “The Toast,” an 1893 painting by August Herman Knoop (photo courtesy Wikipedia Commons).
 Pouring the glasses for the toast (photo photo © Moet et Chandon)
 For our Champagne toast, we prefer rose Champagne in tulip glasses (photo © Bureau du Champagne USA | Facebook).
 “Hip, Hip, Hurrah!” by Danish painter P.S. Krøyer, 1888 (photo courtesy Wikipedia).
TOASTING GAMES & PRACTICES
In Shakespeare’s time, drinking games became customer. There was a particularly unusual practice where a gentleman would cut himself, mix his blood into his drink and toast to his lady love as another way to prove his devotion.
The custom of toasting to a lady’s beauty by drinking from her shoe also arose at this time. What the lady did with her stained, wet shoe we have not yet uncovered.
A particularly beautiful lady was “the toast of the town.”
But toasting was often rowdy. To orient toasting toward civilized behavior, “Toastmaster” books were published to teach the refined toasting etiquette. Some contained a selection of toasting phrases—since even centuries ago, people had trouble creating one.
CLINKING GLASSES & SAYING “CHEERS”
In terms of why we clink glasses and say “cheers,” there are at least four non-related explanations:
“Cheers” originated from the Old French word chiere, which meant face or head.
By the 18th century, it meant “gladness.” The practice endured: We still wish our fellow partiers gladness, or happiness.
“Here’s to a bright New Year and a fond farewell to the old here’s to the things that are yet to come, and to the memories that we hold.”
Roman Glass Two-Handled Cup - History
A tea cup is just a tea cup. Not to some. Tea cups can and are sometimes the center point of the tea presentation. And depending what culture you are from dictates your like or dislike of a particular cup.
But, a few words about history of the tea cup.
It appears the first tea cups made their way to England from imports from China. These first tea cups were handle-less and were called tea bowls. And it was not until the year of 1700 did saucers appear. In about 1750 a man named Robert Adams inspired tea sets that the tea cups had handles. The English welcomed Mr. Adams designs because they thought that the tea bowls were way too messy, and that the English often would burn their hands on the tea bowls. Robert Adams designed tea cups that were taller than their base and came with a saucer. The English thought this was quite unique and this became quickly the standard of what is known as the English Tea Service Set. Since the English loved to put cream and a bit of sugar in their tea, Robert Adams also inspired the tea pot, sugar holders, milk/creamer containers, and even tea spoons to match. Mr. Adams made these tea cups from porcelain that was strong but delicate in its look. If one holds an English porcelain cup into a light, it will have a translucent look.
Today in England there are a couple of companies that come to mind when a collectable type of tea service is sought. Two of them are The Royal Doulton and Limoges. These companies can provide China that while is useful and functional is also collectable for the appearance and quality of the fine bone china. Some would say that they may purchase these for the investment potential, and many a new bride-to-be in England will register and hope that she would receive this special china. The Royal Doulton Company dates back into the 1700’s when a man named Thomas Minton designed an under glazed blue printed earthen ware and then in 1799 he began to make things in bone china. This company continued on making fine tableware, gifts, and collectables. How they got the royal name because they regularly supplied the Royal Family with their goods and services and were handed what was known as a royal warrant in the year 1901 by King Edward.
Many other European countries today enjoy the porcelain sets that were inspired by Robert Adams, but some countries still will have a cupboard filled with handle-less cups. These are sleek, simple, streamlined and serve the purpose of drinking tea.
Other countries vary in the style and type of tea cup. While tea was said to have originated in China, the Chinese will manufacture and sell many ceramic tea cups usually very colorful and has a ceramic lid. But the Chinese prefer to drink their tea in pottery ware. They are very proud of what is known as their “purple clay”. Most famous purple clay can be found in the regions of Yixing, Jinqdezhen, and Jianqsu. These tea cups are handle-less and require the user to completely wrap hand around tea cup. The pottery-type tea cup is thicker thus, protecting the hand from a burn.
The Japanese do have 7 oz. tea cups with handles, and some with lids and strainers built into the cup (very innovative), but they also prefer the handle-less pottery-type or ceramic in some cases. They are small usually between 3.5”-5” tall. They usually have hand painted designs with flowers, poems, or geisha girls for example.
Middle-East countries overall use tea bowls. In Morocco for example, tea glasses are favored over any other drinking vessel. The glasses are usually very colorful and festive and have lots of artful details.
As with other Middle-East countries, India drinks their teas and Chai and Chai Masala’s from either tea bowls or small glass tea cups. India does prefer a 10 oz. cup and do more often than not use saucers.
So one can see that as we span the world over, and with tea being the number one drink in the world, tea cups and tea cup collecting is a very serious matter. If you want to have some fun, have your next tea in a cup from another country!
Content copyright © 2021 by Mary Caliendo. All rights reserved.
This content was written by Mary Caliendo. If you wish to use this content in any manner, you need written permission. Contact Mary Caliendo for details.
All About Canadian History
Imagine living in a fishing port in the Maritimes during the early 18th century. You’re poor and spend your time working in the harbour. One day you see a large fleet of ships on the horizon. They’re not flying British or French colours, rather their flags are black with a skull and cutlasses on them. What would you do? Run? Warn others? Or wait until they dock and ask the first pirate you see, “Where do I sign up?”
This actually happened in Trepassey, Newfoundland in 1720. Legendary pirate Bartholomew Roberts, better known as Black Bart, attacked the small fishing port over the course of two weeks. When he left, Black Bart had gained a lot more than plunder numerous fishermen joined his crew and together they would sail off to ransack and terrorize other seaside communities. This was not just a one-off incident. Rather, the history of Canada’s maritime provinces are steeped in piracy.
A kylix (a two handled cup with a stemmed base) depicting a merchant vessel being attacked by another ship, (Greece, c. 520BC-500BC). [Source]
Piracy on the high seas has been around since the fourteen century BC the earliest documented instances include raids by Turkish pirates along the coast of Asia Minor and both Greek and Roman pirates attacking ships in the Mediterranean. Likely though that its history stretches further back however, since we first began to travel by sea. The heyday of pirates though did not occur until well over two millennia later the Golden Age of Piracy lasted from the 1650s to the 1730s. It was during this time that piracy underwent a major expansion. Why? Colonization. The exploration and settlement of the “New World” enabled piracy in four major ways:
- If the colonial powers’ navies weren’t busy with exploration efforts, they were usually busy fighting in European wars. This meant that new seaside towns popping up in the Caribbean and North America were largely under-protected, making them attractive targets for pirates.
- Wealth and resources were traveling to and fro between the “New World” and Europe. These ships were also easy targets unless they were protected by warships.
- European powers employed pirates to attack enemy ships during wartime. These pirates were known as privateers.
- Disillusioned members of various European navies would sometimes become pirates themselves their experience and knowledge made them excel as seafaring criminals.
“A New Chart of the Coast of New England, Nova Scotia, New France or Canada” by Thomas Jeffreys, (c. 1745). See all those ports listed along the coastline? Forget gold, pirates were interested in people living there. [Source]
Hence, piracy thrived during this time of overseas expansion and with the reasons listed above, you can see why the Maritimes got caught up in the chaos. Canada’s east coast was one of four areas that was central to the Golden Age. Not for treasure, but for manpower. Historian Dan Conlin notes that the fisheries of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were home to thousands of fishers and sailors. During the summer months pirate crews would replenish their numbers by recruiting in these areas. They also stocked up on food, alcohol, and other supplies before leaving the region once the cold weather began to arrive. Stocking up was crucial unless you wanted this to happen mid-winter.
In addition, ships involved in the transatlantic trade between France and New France were forced to sail from or through the Maritimes, making the area even more of a prime location for pirates. In the earlier half of the Golden Age, New France lacked a proper government and navy which made it difficult to stop pirates from getting away with their crimes. Also, with King William’s War and later Queen Anne’s War going on, you also had Britain and France utilizing privateers along the east coast. Many of these individuals continued their acts of piracy postwar which only increased the overall problem in the area.
It was not until the eighteenth century rolled around and regional governments began to get stronger that things started to change. The first pirates adjusted by breaking all ties to land and sticking to criminal activity and recruitment on the high seas. By the 1730s though, the European powers said enough was enough. Both Britain and France sent over naval ships and set up serious court systems to properly address the issue of piracy. Captured pirates were swiftly executed. As such, it only took a couple years to clean pirates out for good. Sporadic pirate attacks did happen afterwards, but they were few and far between.
So who were some of the scallywags connected the Maritimes?
- Peter Easton – Originally commissioned by Queen Elizabeth I to protect her fishing fleet in Newfoundland. When King James I succeeded her and cancelled his commission, Easton said to hell with the British and carried on pirating. By 1612 had established a land base on Newfoundland. Eventually he commanded hundreds of men and amassed a fortune of two million pounds. He retired in the south of France and died peacefully in his bed.
- Robert Chevalier – At the age of seven, he ran away from home and lived with the Iroquois for a bit before being found by his parents. His desire for adventure persisted as he grew older and he became a pirate. Unlike Easton, he met a early end. A notorious womanizer, he died in a duel over a love interest.
- Pierre Baptiste – A French privateer who captured many English ships during King William’s War. Postwar the French employed him to prevent the English from fishing too close to Acadia. He was captured by the British during Queen Anne’s War, making him a prisoner of war. He was exchanged for another POW and continued to work for the French until 1713. He disappeared from historical records in 1714.
Hamlet Bartholomew Roberts in Assassin’s Creed IV: Black Flag. [Source]
- Maria Lindsey and Eric Cobham – A married pirate couple who terrorized the St. Lawrence after the Golden Age ended. Described as “wreckers” they preyed on shipwrecks—either causing them or murdering the survivors of ones that happened without their assistance. The two were known for torturing their victims before killing them. Due to limited historical records they may or may not be real.
- Black Bart – Considered the most successful pirate of the Golden Age, Black Bart didn’t get started until he was 36. The ship he was working on was captured and when that pirate captain died, Roberts was selected to replace him. He spent the rest of his life terrorizing the Atlantic. He captured close to 500 ships and built an fearsome reputation. He raided various coastal towns in Newfoundland and reportedly he was so feared that when he came to Trepassey, all of the 100+ ships in the harbour had been abandoned. Many mark his death from a gunshot wound to the neck during a battle in 1722 as the end of the Golden Age.
Dan, Conlin, Pirates of the Atlantic: Robbery, Murder and Mayhem Off the Canadian East Coast, Halifax: Formac Publishing Company Limited, (2009).
Porterfield, Jason, Modern-Day Piracy, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, (2010).
The History of Toasting
Every day around the world, cultures celebrate, honor and signify meaningful events with toasts, usually involving a libation, heartfelt words and the clinking of glasses. Whether toasting the Almighty, the head of state, the wedding party or an award recipient, we toast for health, wealth, happiness, safe passage, healing or any of a number of noble and sometimes frivolous aspirations.
Yet few people know the history behind this ritual. It&rsquos a tradition that began centuries ago. &ldquoThe ancient Hebrews, Persians and Egyptians were toasters, as were the Saxons, Huns and other tribes,&rdquo Paul Dickson writes in his book Toasts: Over 1,500 of the Best Toasts, Sentiments, Blessings and Graces.
In his 18th-century history book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbons wrote about toasting, Dickson notes. Gibbons described a feast among the Huns at which their leader, Attila, led no less than three rounds of toasts for each course of an elaborate dinner.
Ancient Greeks drank to each other&rsquos health and welfare. In The Odyssey, Ulysses drank to the health of Achilles. The idea of poison&mdashwhich was a potent weapon in the sixth century B.C.&mdashalso came into play. According to David Fulmer&rsquos book A Gentleman&rsquos Guide to Toasting, toasting was &ldquoa good faith gesture to assure the drink wasn&rsquot spiked with poison.&rdquo The best way to prove a drink was safe for sipping was to take the first sip. Just as a handshake assured others that nothing was hidden up one&rsquos sleeve, drinking a shared libation in front of others signified to all its worthiness for consumption.
The Romans built upon this Greek custom of drinking to others&rsquo health and well-being: They added toasted bread crumbs to their goblets, reducing the acidity of the often bitter wine. Thus came the appellation &ldquoto toast&rdquo&mdash referring to the drink itself&mdashfrom the Latin term &ldquotostus,&rdquo meaning &ldquoto dry up" or "scorch." In Rome, "drinking to another&rsquos health became so important, the Senate decreed that all diners must drink to Augustus [the first Roman emperor] at every meal,&rdquo Dickson writes. &ldquoFabius Maximus [the Roman politician and general] declared that no man should eat or drink before he had prayed for [Maximus] and drank to his health.&rdquo
The Clinking of Glasses
The toasting custom spread throughout Europe and England, where for the first time the clinking of glasses accompanied the ritual. Whether its intent was to mix the content of each other&rsquos glasses so everyone drank the same grog (lessening the likelihood of being poisoned), or to add sound to the experience of taste, touch, smell and sight, no one is sure.
In the 17th century, toasting became very popular, says Dickson. Eventually, the position of &ldquotoastmaster&rdquo emerged. In England, the toastmaster presided over events, delivering and soliciting appropriate toasts. &ldquoIn those days the duties of the toastmaster tended to be referee-like in that his main function was to give all toasters a fair chance to make their contribution,&rdquo writes Dickson in his book.
He adds that one of the earliest books on toasting&mdashif not the earliest&mdashwas The Royal Toastmaster by J. Roach, published in London in 1791. Roach&rsquos view was that the toast is a very powerful ritual. Consider this passage from his book:
A Toast or Sentiment very frequently excites good humor, and revives languid conversation often does it, when properly applied, cool the heat of resentment, and blunt the edge of animosity. A well-applied Toast is acknowledged, universally, to soothe the flame of acrimony, when season and reason oft used their efforts to no purpose.
To this day, one can find the National Association of Toastmasters in the United Kingdom&mdashwhose trained members wear ceremonial red dinner jackets and are skilled at oratory, poetry and toasting. They emcee events of all varieties, from weddings and funerals to christenings and fundraisers.
Dickson describes a Golden Age of toasting in America during the 40-year period from approximately 1880 to 1920. Many prominent authors wrote toasts, toast books and pamphlets were published, and newspapers ran columns on the subject. One periodical, The National Magazine, had its own Toasts editor, whose duties included judging the best toasts in a monthly contest, Dickson says.
Worldwide, numerous nations and cultures have their own toasting customs. Many are similar to each other yet others are unique. For example, in Japan, China and Korea, the customary toasts sound very similar but are pronounced differently. According to the Matador Network (www.matadornetwork.com), a site devoted to travel journalism, toasters in Japan say the word kanpai and pronounce it &ldquokan-pie&rdquo in China they say gan bei and pronounce it &ldquogan bay&rdquo in Korea they say gonbae and pronounce it &ldquogun bae.&rdquo
And Korean toasting customs differ from the Japanese. &ldquoIn Korea, the glass is emptied and the last few drops are shaken out, then it is passed to the guest and the host refills the glass,&rdquo says the website Etiquette International (www.etiquetteinternational.com). &ldquoA glass is never refilled until it is completely empty in Korea, whereas in Japan the glass is constantly refilled so it is never empty.&rdquo
If you&rsquore going to make a toast in another country, notes the site, be sure to find out the toasting customs there &ldquobefore putting your foot in your mouth.&rdquo &ldquoToasts don&rsquot necessarily translate well, especially if they are idiomatic or poetic,&rdquo adds Etiquette International. &ldquoIt&rsquos a good idea to stick to safe topics like friendship, the enjoyment of life and health.&rdquo
The ancient and international tradition of toasting is no doubt one that will endure for many more years. Let&rsquos hope the future of the toast is as engrossing as its past.
Tập tin:Green glass Roman cup unearthed at Eastern Han tomb, Guixian, China.jpg
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Green Clambroth Glass
Clambroth is a more translucent green glass found in both vintage and contemporary designs. Some collectors consider it jadeite, while others say no way. Clearly it looks different from the opaque look of milk glass made by McKee, Jeannette or Anchor Hocking. But if you just love the look of green glass, clambroth makes an interesting addition.
Here is an assortment of jadeite pieces, including the coveted bubble bowl. The middle star-shaped piece is clambroth, which you can tell is more transluscent than the others. Photo by Megan.
Clambroth glass doesn’t have the opaque milkiness genuine jadeite is known for, but as green glass goes, it’s a close cousin and complementary to both old and new pieces.
British Royal Family Coronation memorabilia
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Crown Devon musical Coronation jug, no.73/1,500, commemorating the Coronation of Edward VIII, May 12 1937, height 29 cm
Wedgwood Coronation glass with Jasperware medallion of the Queen to commemorate the silver jubilee 1952-1977, height 12.5 cm
Royal Doulton Kingsware George VI 1937 flask limited edition commemorative whisky flask issued for Coronation of George VI, 1937, including original gilded Dewar's Whisky stopper, some wear, height 18 cm.
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Pair of Queen Elizabeth II Coronation goblets, the bowls engraved with fleur-de-lys, above twist stems, height 16 cm (2)
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A rare Edward VIII commemorative goblet this long stemmed, glass goblet engraved - Edward Crown above the Royal monogram Eviiir above a rose and wreath (May 12th / Coronation / 1937). Inside the segmented stem is set a SilverEVIIIR medal&hellip
A pair of Coronation glasses, with engraved decoration of fleur de lys and 'Er II, June 2nd 1953', with air twist stems. Height 15.5 cm
Coronation spoon enamelled bowl, for the Coronation of George VI, 1937, London, 1910, weight 58gms
Great Britain: 1661 Charles II official silver Coronation Medal (29 mm), Eimer #221, obv. 'Carolvs.II.D.G.Ang.Sco.Fr. Et.Hi Rex.', Kings portrait facing right, 'Ts' on truncation (Thomas Simon), rev. 'Everso.Missvs.Svccvrrere.Seclo.XXIII&hellip
Boxed set of six George VI gilt silver Coronation teaspoons, hallmarked, Birmingham, 1936, representing a copy of the anointing spoon used at Coronation of George VI (6)
A Royal memorabilia cup & saucer & plate of Edward VIII & George VI Coronation & abdication
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Edward VII Coronation commemorative medallion, gilded, dated 1902, with ribbon, in original fitted presentation case
Royal Doulton loving cup Kind Edward VIII Coronation. Limited edition 288/2000. Designed by Charles Noke & Harry Fenton. Height 26 cm
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Royal Doulton ale tankard grand National Coronation year 1937 - Royal Mail. Printed mark 7119 a. Height 14 cm
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Royal Doulton lidded comport commemorating the Coronation of King George V - 1911. Manufactured for Sainsbury, 36 Regent Street, London. In the form of an Imperial Crown with lion. Impressed base stamp Royal Doulton. Artist's assistant Eliza Stock&hellip
Pair of Doulton Lambeth Coronation mugs two stoneware. Panels depicting King Edward VII & Queen Alexandra. Celebrating the Coronation. Blue glaze, silver rim, hallmarked London, 1902. Impressed mark Doulton Lambeth, England & 1286. Height 12.5 cm (each)
A Crown Lynn Coronation commemorative cup, in yellow with queen's portrait and 1953, height 8.5 cm
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A Royal Doulton King Edward VIII Coronation May 12, 1937 commemorative beaker, height 10 cm
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A pair of German King George V & a Queen Mary commemorative Coronation cup & a Silver Jubilee beaker
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Two Queen Elizabeth II Coronation commemorative cups, 1953, including J&G Meakin, Sutherland
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Roman Glass Two-Handled Cup - History
Throughout Scripture, as in the ancient Near East, the cup functions as a metaphor for an individual's fate. In Psalm 16, the psalmist credits the Lord with assigning his "portion and cup" in life. Psalm 23 equates an abundant life with an overflowing cup, a potent image in a semiarid world. The culmination of the positive image of the cup is in Psalm 116. Here the psalmist raises the cup of salvation as a thank offering to God, in effect offering the sum of his life to his lord.
The metaphor of the cup, like life itself, can also be negative. In numerous prophetic works, the cup retains its role as a representative of fate, but on a national level. The cup can function as a cup of wrath, a vessel pouring out God's judgment on the nations. The nations drinking from the "cup of his wrath" are often depicted as lost in drunkenness. Isaiah 51:17 personifies Jerusalem as a woman who drained the cup of wrath to its dregs. God takes pity on his city and intervenes. "See, I have taken out of your hand the cup that made you stagger the goblet of my wrath" (v. 22). This cup is then given to the tormentors, indicating that they will suffer in their turn.
In a vision of destruction recorded by Jeremiah ( 25:15 ), God will force all the nations to drink from his cup and stagger to destruction. None are able to refuse it all humanity will be judged and the wicked put to the sword. Ezekiel returns to the image of the cup of Jerusalem in a brutally explicit passage depicting Samaria and Jerusalem, representing the people of God, as two sisters who are prostitutes (chap. 23). The prophet calls the cup that Jerusalem drinks from the "cup of ruin and desolation, the cup of your sister Samaria" (v. 33). For Ezekiel, the cup stands for the destruction of the two kingdoms.
Zechariah uses the image of the cup of wrath to depict the fate of the enemies of Jerusalem. He adds a twist to the metaphor by making Jerusalem itself the cup ( 12:2 ). The author of revelation returns to the dark image of the cup of wrath, threatening all who follow the beast with the wine of God's judgment ( 14:10 ).
For the church, the cup has come to represent the central events of Christianity, the death and resurrection of Christ. In the Garden of Gethsemane, Christ returns to the fundamental meaning of the cup as a representative of fate. In his prayer, the cup symbolizes the pain, degradation, and death that will be required of him. He prays that the cup might pass undrunk, but it is Jesus' fate to drain it to its dregs. Christ becomes all the nations of the world, taking on their fate, and drains the cup of wrath. By drinking of the cup God placed before him, Christ transforms the cup of wrath into the cup of life. This transformation is foreshadowed at the last supper, where the cup of the new covenant, like the cup of wrath, is for all to partake of.
Bibliography . A. A. Anderson, Psalms W. S. LaSor, D. A. Hubbard, and F. W. Bush, Old Testament Survey C. S. Mann, Mark .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.
For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement. [N] indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible
[E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
[S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary
Elwell, Walter A. "Entry for 'Cup'". "Evangelical Dictionary of Theology". . 1997.
a wine-cup ( Genesis 40:11 Genesis 40:21 ), various forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold ( 1 Kings 10: : 21 ). The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold ( Revelation 17:4 ).
The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt ( Genesis 44:2-17 ), and in the East generally.
The "cup of salvation" ( Psalms 116:13 ) is the cup of thanksgiving for the great salvation. The "cup of consolation" ( Jeremiah 16:7 ) refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to console relatives in mourning ( Proverbs 31:6 ). In 1 Corinthians 10:16 , the "cup of blessing" is contrasted with the "cup of devils" ( 1 Corinthians 10:21 ). The sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing," because of blessing pronounced over it ( Matthew 26:27 Luke 22:17 ). The "portion of the cup" ( Psalms 11:6 16:5 ) denotes one's condition of life, prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement ( Jeremiah 51:7 Proverbs 23:31 Revelation 17:4 ). We read also of the "cup of astonishment," the "cup of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" ( Psalms 75:8 Isaiah 51:17 Jeremiah 25:15 Lamentations 4:21 Ezekiel 23:32 Revelation 16:19 Compare Matthew 26:39 Matthew 26:42 John 18:11 ). The cup is also the symbol of death ( Matthew 16:28 Mark 9:1 Hebrews 2:9 ).
These dictionary topics are from
M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition,
published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely. [N] indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible
[B] indicates this entry was also found in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary
[S] indicates this entry was also found in Smith's Bible Dictionary
Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for Cup". "Easton's Bible Dictionary". .
The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the Phoenicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship. Egyptian cups were of various shapes, either with handles or without them. In Solomons time all his drinking vessels were of gold, none of silver. ( 1 Kings 10:21 ) Babylon is compared to a golden cup. ( Jeremiah 51:7 ) The great laver, or "sea," was made with a rim like the rim of a cup ( cos ), with flowers of lilies," ( 1 Kings 7:26 ) a form which the Persepolitan cups resemble. The cups of the New Testament were often no doubt formed on Greek and Roman models. They were sometimes of gold. ( Revelation 17:4 ) [N] indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible
[B] indicates this entry was also found in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary
[E] indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
Smith, William, Dr. "Entry for 'Cup'". "Smith's Bible Dictionary". . 1901.
(Most frequently, koc four other words in one passage each poterion):
A vessel for drinking from, of a variety of material (gold, silver, earthenware), patterns (Esther 1:7) and elaboration.
By ordinary figure of speech, put sometimes for the contents of the cup, namely, for that which is drunk (Matthew 26:39). In both Old Testament and New Testament applied figuratively to that which is portioned out, and of which one is to partake most frequently used of what is sorrowful, as God's judgments, His wrath, afflictions, etc. (Psalms 11:6 75:8 Isaiah 51:17 Revelation 14:10). In a similar sense, used by Christ concerning the sufferings endured by Him (Matthew 26:39), and the calamities attending the confession of His name (Matthew 20:23). In the Old Testament applied also to the blessedness and joy of the children of God, and the full provision made for their wants (Psalms 16:5 23:5 116:13 compare Jeremiah 16:7 Proverbs 31:6). All these passages refer not only to the experience of an allotted joy and sorrow, but to the fact that all others share in this experience. Within a community of those having the same interests or lot, each received his apportioned measure, just as at a feast, each cup is filled for the individual to drain at the same time that his fellow-guests are occupied in the same way.
The Holy Supper is called "the cup of the Lord" (1 Corinthians 10:21), since it is the Lord who makes the feast, and tenders the cup, just as "the cup of demons" with which it is contrasted, refers to what they offer and communicate. In 1 Corinthians 11:25, the cup is called "the new covenant in my blood," i.e. it is a pledge and seal and means of imparting the blessings of the new covenant (Hebrews 10:16)--a covenant established by the shedding of the blood of Christ. The use of the word "cup" for the sacrament shows how prominent was the part which the cup had in the Lord's Supper in apostolic times. Not only were all commanded to drink of the wine (Matthew 26:27), but the very irregularities in the Corinthian church point to its universal use (1 Corinthians 11:27). Nor does the Roman church attempt to justify its withholding the cup from the laity (the communion in one form) upon conformity with apostolic practice, or upon direct Scriptural authority. This variation from the original institution is an outgrowth of the doctrines of transubstantiation and sacramental concomitance, of the attempt to transform the sacrament of the Eucharist into the sacrifice of the Mass, and of the wide separation between clergy and laity resulting from raising the ministry to the rank of a sacerdotal order. The practice was condemned by Popes Leo I (died 461) and Gelasius (died 496) but gained a firm hold in the 12th century, and was enacted into a church regulation by the Council of Constance in 1415.
As to the use of cups for divination (Genesis 44:5), the reference is to superstitious practice derived from the Gentiles. For various modes of divining what is unknown by the pouring of water into bowls, and making observations accordingly, see Geikie, Hours with the Bible, I, 492, and article DIVINATION.
Tiedosto:Green glass Roman cup unearthed at Eastern Han tomb, Guixian, China.jpg
Tämä teos on public domainissa lähes maailmanlaajuisesti, koska tekijän kuolemasta on kulunut yli 70 vuotta.
Sinun tulee myös lisätä Yhdysvaltain public domain -tägi ilmaistaksesi, miksi tämä teos on public domainissa Yhdysvalloissa. Huomaa, että muutamissa maissa tekijänoikeuden kesto on pidempi kuin 70 vuotta: Meksikossa se on 100 vuotta, Jamaikalla 95 vuotta, Kolumbiassa 80 vuotta ja Guatemalassa ja Samoalla 75 vuotta. Tämä kuva ei välttämättä ole public domainissa näissä maissa, minkä lisäksi ne eivät käytä lyhyimmän keston sääntöä. Norsunluurannikolla tekijänoikeuden yleinen kesto on 99 vuotta ja Hondurasissa 75 vuotta, mutta nämä maat käyttävät lyhyimmän keston sääntöä. Tekijänoikeus saattaa pidentyä Ranskassa teosten kohdalla, joiden tekijä oli ranskalainen ja kuoli Ranskan puolesta toisessa maailmansodassa (lisätietoa), ja venäläisten tekijöiden kohdalla, mikäli tekijä palveli itärintamalla toisessa maailmansodassa tai kuoleman jälkeen neuvostosorron uhriksi joutuneiden, sittemmin rehabilitoitujen tekijöiden kohdalla (lisätietoa)