Lake Titicaca Timeline

Lake Titicaca Timeline

  • 400 BCE - 100 CE

    The Pukará civilization flourishes north of Lake Titicaca.

  • 200 CE - 1000 CE

    Tiwanaku Empire flourishes based around Lake Titicaca.

  • 1000 CE - 1100 CE

    Tiwanaku is abandoned, probably due to a series of severe droughts.

  • c. 1425 CE - 1532 CE

    The Inca Empire flourishes in South America.

  • 1471 CE - 1493 CE

    Reign of Inca Tupac Yupanqui who doubles the size of the Inca Empire.


Lake Titicaca

The Tentative Lists of States Parties are published by the World Heritage Centre at its website and/or in working documents in order to ensure transparency, access to information and to facilitate harmonization of Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels.

The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.

Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

Lake Titicaca is the largest freshwater lake in South America and the highest of the world's large lakes. Titicaca is one of less than twenty ancient lakes on earth, and is thought to be there million years old. Lake Titicaca sits 3 810 m above sea level and is situated between Peru to the west and Bolivia to the east. Peruvian part is located in Puno department, in Puno and Huancane provinces.

It covers 3 200 square miles (8 300 square km) and extends in a northwest-to-southeast direction for a distance of 120 miles (190 km). It is 50 miles (80 km) across at its widest point. A narrow strait, Tiquina, separates the lake into two bodies of water. The smaller, in the southeast, is called Lake Huinaymarca in Bolivia and lake Pequeño in Peru.

Lake Titicaca lies between Andean ranges in a vast basin (about 22 400 square miles - 58 000 square km in area) that comprises most of the Altiplano (High Plateau) of the northern Andes. In the snow-covered Cordillera Real on the north-eastern (Bolivian) shore of the lake, some of the highest peaks in the Andes rise to heights of more than 21 000 feet (6 400m).

Titicaca's level fluctuates seasonally and over a cycle of years. During the rainy season (summer, from December to March) the level of the lake rises, normally to recede during the dry winter months. The average level is 3.810msnm +- 2.5m.

Titicaca's waters are limpid and only slightly brackish, with salinity ranging from 5.2 to 5.5 parts per 1 000. Surface temperatures average 56°F (14°C) from a thermo cline at 66 feet (20 m) temperatures drop to 52°F(11°C) at the bottom. Analyses show measurable quantities of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate, and magnesium sulphate in the water.

The lake averages between 460 and 600 feet (140 and 180 m) in depth, but the bottom tilts sharply toward the Bolivian shore, reaching its greatest recorded depth of 920 feet (280 m) off Isla Soto in the lake's northeast corner.

More that 25 rivers empty their waters into Titicaca the largest, the Ramis, draining about two-fifths of the entire Titicaca Basin, enters the north-western corner of the lake. One small river, the Desaguadero, drains the lake at its southern end. This single outlet empties only 5 percent of the lake's excess water the rest is lost by evaporation under the fierce sun and strong winds of the dry Altiplano.

There is evidence off the continuous presence of human population in the lake's area: the monumental remains and both tangible an intangible elements talk about different settings, the land-use and its management through specific and outstanding cultural manifestations. This evidence shows the constant relation between man and nature since ancient days and during a long period of time that goes from the birth and development of Andean pre-Hispanic societies until our days.

This long process that began approximately around 10 000 b.c. to 8 000 b.c. and lasted until the first third of the sixteen century with the arrival of the Incas was characterized by different and successive Andean societies and ethnic groups. The other period comprises from Colonial times in the sixteenth century up to our days. All this process has defined a cultural area where tradition has been preserved showing the permanence of ways of life, of customs and ancestral values.

Archeological architectonic building of great singularity in some sites as Pukara, Sillustani, Cutimbo (Peruvian side) and Tiwanaku and the Isla del Sol (Bolivian side) are clear evidence of the existence of societies such as Pukara, Tiwanaku, Colla Lupaka and Inca.

The agricultural techniques of pre-Hispanic origin such as the so called waru-waruor or ridges of furrows, the amazing terraces that are to be found in different islands of the lake and the totora reed "floating islands" in the middle of the lake are expressions of remarkable value and evidence of land-use and environmental management.

Languages, customs, beliefs and artistic works that remain until our days are evidence of ways of life and of cultural values of exceptional value that characterized the Uru inhabitants of the lake and the Taquilenos from Taquile Island, who are organized in a very strong community and whose textile art is one of the fundamental expressions that has been influenced by the textile art of the ancient Paracas, Nazca, Wari and above all, the Collas, a group of people from the pre-Hispanic Peruvian Andean highland.

Languages, traditions, beliefs and customs are intermingled in different forms of social organization, cycles of social life, feasts and rituals, music and dances and in the preservation of sacred places, being the lake the most sacred one, since from its waters emerged the founders of the Inca civilization and the Empire.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

There are important researches and studies as sources of information for accessing the authenticity of the values attributed to Lake Titicaca.

Also under Peruvian legislation, part of Lake Titicaca is included in the National System of Protected Areas (SINANPE) as a national reserve (IUCN VI category). In addition, in 1997, all Lake Titicaca was a wetland of international importance. This category gives to Lake Titicaca a special protection and conservation responsibilities under Ramsar Convention.

Comparison with other similar properties

There are few examples of wetlands of international importance declared as World Heritage sites. There are only four lakes that are World Heritage sites:

Inscribed 1981, boundaries revised 1995 Criteria C (iii) N (i)

The fossil remains of a series of lakes and sand formations that date from the Pleistocene can be found in this region, together with archaeological evidence of human occupation dating from 45-60 000 years ago. It is a unique landmark in the study of human evolution on the Australian continent. Several well-preserved fossils of giant marsupials have also been found here.

Inscribed 1979, 2000 Criteria N (ii)(iii)

The waters which have flowed across the limestone and chalk have, over thousands of years, deposited travertine barriers, creating natural dams which in turn have created a series of beautiful lakes, caves and waterfalls. These geological processes continue today. The forests of the park are a refuge for bears, wolves, and many rare bird species.

Inscribed 1996 Criteria N (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)

Situated in south-east Siberia in the Russian Federation, the 3.15 million ha. Lake Baikal in the oldest (25 million years) and deepest (1 637 m) of the world's lakes. It contains 20% of the world's surface unfrozen freshwater reserve. Known as the "Galapagos of Russia", its age and isolation have produced one of the world's richest and most unusual freshwater faunas which is of exceptional value to evolutionary science. With its outstanding variety of endemic animals and plants Lake Baikal is one of the most biologically diverse lakes on earth.

Inscribed 1987 Criteria (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)

Founded in the 5 th century and spread over 118 small island, Venice became a major maritime power on the 10 th century, The whole city is an extraordinary architectural masterpiece in which even the smallest building contains works by someone on the world's greatest artists such as Giorgione, Titan, Tintoretto, Veronese and others.

But there are not other examples as Lake Titicaca, its cultural and natural properties are different than the other four World Heritage sites. None of them is an associative cultural landscape considered a holly place by an ancient culture that also protects a wetland of great diversity.


The lake straddles both Peru and Bolivia, 56% is on the Peruvian side and 44% is on the Bolivian side.

Demo of the boats That were Used

Lake Titicaca has 41 islands, including the famous floating reeds. The floating islands, called Uros, are actually man-made islands! The floating islands were built by the Uru people and made them so they could move them if they were threatened by hostile invaders.

When we visited Uros, it was rather quick. We received a rushed demo of how the islands, boats and homes were created with the reed materials, followed by a peek inside the homes, and then we were off less than 1 hour from the time we arrived.


What to Do

Most of what to see in Puno is actually outside of the city. The city of Puno itself can be explored in less than half a day. Even still, the sights of Puno are not quite as remarkable as Cusco, Arequipa, Lima, or other touristy cities in Peru. Puno does have a large Cathedral in the Plaza de Armas, however, the exterior of which is more impressive than the interior. There is a small museum nearby, Museo Municipal Carlos Dreyer, which we skipped. To get a great view of the expansive city and Lake Titicaca, climb up the many steps to the Mirador de Kuntur Wasi (Condor Hill). At the top of the steps is a large metal condor and observation platform. If you are after some handmade alpaca products or other woven goods, the Mercado de artesanía (artisans’ market) typically caters to tourists.

However, the real reason to go to Puno and what should be the focus of your trip is Lake Titicaca.


Historic Timeline

1936 – America’s largest reservoir was created with the completion of the Hoover Dam. The lake and surrounding area was named Boulder Dam Recreation Area. The dam was built from 1931-1936 and was officially dedicated Sept. 30, 1935.

1938 – The last citizen of the town of St. Thomas rowed away from his home after the waters of Lake Mead overcame the community.

1947 – Boulder Dam Recreation Area is renamed Lake Mead National Recreation Area after former commissioner of the Bureau of Reclamation Dr. Elwood Mead. The area that would become Lake Mohave, following the construction of the Davis Dam, was added to the recreation area.

1948 – A B-29 Superfortress engaged in high altitude atmospheric research crashed into the Overton Arm of Lake Mead. The crew of five survived the crash, but the plane was lost in the depths of the lake. Local divers found the plane in 2001.

1952 – The Davis Dam, which created Lake Mohave was constructed from 1942-1950. It was officially dedicated Dec. 10, 1952.

1964 – Public Law 88-639 established Lake Mead National Recreation Area under the sole jurisdiction of the National Park Service.


Lake Titicaca

Lake Titicaca is the world’s highest lake navigable to large vessels, lying at 12,500 feet (3,810 m) above sea level in the Andes Mountains of South America, astride the border between Peru to the west and Bolivia to the east. Titicaca Lake is the second largest lake of South America (after Maracaibo).

It covers some 3,200 square miles (8,300 square km) and extends in a northwest-to-southeast direction for a distance of 120 miles (190 km). It is 50 miles (80 km) across at its widest point. A narrow strait, Tiquina, separates the lake into two bodies of water.

The smaller than Lake Titicaca, in the southeast, is called Lake Huinaymarca in Bolivia and Lake Pequeno in Peru the larger, in the northwest, is called Lake Chucuito in Bolivia and Lake Grande in Peru.

The meaning of the name Titicaca is uncertain, but it has been variously translated as Rock of the Puma or Crag of Lead. Lake Titicaca lies between Andean ranges in a vast basin (about 22,400 square miles [58,000 square km] in area) that comprises most of the Altiplano (High Plateau) of the northern Andes. In the snow-covered Cordillera Real on the northeastern (Bolivian) shore of the lake, some of the highest peaks in the Andes rise to heights of more than 21,000 feet (6,400 m).

The lake averages between 460 and 600 feet (140 and 180 m) in depth, but the bottom tilts sharply toward the Bolivian shore, reaching its greatest recorded depth of 920 feet (280 m) off Isla Soto in the lake’s northeast corner.

More than 25 rivers empty their waters into Lake Titicaca the largest, the Ramis, draining about two-fifths of the entire Titicaca Basin, enters the northwestern corner of the lake. One small river, the Desaguadero, drains the lake at its southern end. This single outlet empties only 5 percent of the lake’s excess water the rest is lost by evaporation under the fierce sun and strong winds of the dry Altiplano.

Titicaca’s level fluctuates seasonally and over a cycle of years. During the rainy season (summer, from December to March) the level of the lake rises, normally to recede during the dry winter months. It was formerly believed that Titicaca was slowly drying up, but modern studies have seemed to refute this, indicating a more or less regular cycle of rise and fall.

Titicaca’s waters are limpid and only slightly brackish, with salinity ranging from 5.2 to 5.5 parts per 1,000. Surface temperatures average 56║ F (14║ C) from a thermocline at 66 feet (20 m) temperatures drop to 52║ F (11║ C) at the bottom. Analyses show measurable quantities of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate in the water.

Titicaca (Stone Puma) has lived a long life of millions of years. It contains the sum of all the ages that have moulded and defined the works that humans have undertaken in the southern Americas. Over this span of time, that reaches back some two million years, its body of water has been much larger, and encompassed areas today covered in salt flats and wasteland.

Lake Titicaca’s fish life consists principally of two species of killifish (Orestias)–a small fish, usually striped or barred with black–and a catfish (Trichomycterus). In 1939, and subsequently, trout were introduced into Titicaca. A large frog (Telmatobius), which may reach a length of nearly a foot, inhabits the shallower regions of the lake.

Forty-one islands, some of them densely populated, rise from Titicaca’s waters. The largest, Titicaca Island (Spanish: Isla de Titicaca, also called Isla del Sol), lies just off the tip of the Copacabana Peninsula in Bolivia.

Ruins on the shore and on the islands attest to the previous existence of one of the oldest civilizations known in the Americas, antedating the Christian era. The chief site is at Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, at the southern end of the lake. On Titicaca Island ruins of a temple mark the spot where, according to the tradition of the Incas (a Quechuan people of Peru who established an empire about 1100), the legendary founders of the Inca dynasty, Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo, were sent down to Earth by the Sun.

In Inca mythology, Manco Capac and Mama 0cllo, children of the Sun, emerged from the depths of Lake Titicaca to found their empire. Like famous naturalist Jacques Cousteau, today’s visitors to Titicaca will surely feel the same emotion that captivated the symbolic universe of the ancient Peruvians. With lofty snow-capped peaks along its far shores, the vast blue lake at 3,800m is one of the Andes’ most enchanting scenes.

This is an indigenous community of some 350 families which continues to live within the traditions of the 14th century, according to the principles of Inca life. Here, without noting the passing of time, the three golden rules of the Empire of the Sun have been kept: Ama suwa, Ama quella, Ama llulla (do not steal, don’t be idle, and do not lie). The contact with other civilizations has not been able to destroy the profound identity of the Inca way.

The Aymara people living in the Titicaca Basin still practice their ancient methods of agriculture on stepped terraces that predate Inca times. They grow barley, quinoa (a type of pigweed that produces a small grain), and the potato, which originated on the Altiplano. The highest cultivated plot in the world was found near Titicaca–a field of barley growing at a height of 15,420 feet (4,700 m) above sea level. At this height the grain never ripens, but the stalks furnish forage for llamas and alpacas, the American relatives of the camel that serve the Indians as beasts of burden and as a source of meat.

The remnants of an ancient people, the Uru, still live on floating mats of dried totora (a reedlike papyrus that grows in dense brakes in the marshy shallows). From the totora, the Uru and other lake dwellers make their famed balsas–boats fashioned of bundles of dried reeds lashed together that resemble the crescent-shaped papyrus craft pictured on ancient Egyptian monuments.

In 1862 the first steamer to ply the lake was prefabricated in England and carried in pieces on muleback up to the lake. Today vessels make regular crossings from Puno, on the Peruvian shore, to the small Bolivian port of Guaqui. A narrow-gauge railway connects Guaqui with La Paz, capital of Bolivia. The world’s second-highest railway runs from Puno down to Arequipa and the Pacific, completing for land-bound Bolivia, an important link with the sea.

Lake Titicaca and the House of the Golden Sun Disc

By Joshua and Vera Shapiro

Peru is a land steeped in ancient prophecies and wisdom that is vital for our planet during these transitional times.


The Floating Islands of Lake Titicaca

Lake Titicaca is a lake located on the border of Peru and Bolivia, about 3,811 meter above sea level, making it the highest commercially navigable lake in the world. By volume of water, it is also the largest lake in South America.

Titicaca is notable for a population of pre-Incan people called Uros who live on artificial islands made of floating reeds called totora. These islands have become a major tourist attraction for Peru, drawing excursions from the lakeside city of Puno. The purpose of the island settlements was originally defensive, and if a threat arose they could be moved. The largest island even retains a watchtower almost entirely constructed of reeds.

The totora is a cattail type rush growing native in the lake. Its dense roots support the top layer, which rots and must be replaced regularly by stacking more reeds on top of the layer beneath. The islands change in size, and more are created as the need arises. The surface of the islands are uneven, thin, and walking on it feels like walking on a waterbed. The unwary might not notice a thin spot and sink a leg or more into the frigid waters of the lake.

Much of the Uros' diet and medicine also revolve around these totora reeds. When a reed is pulled, the white bottom is often eaten for iodine. When in pain, the reed is wrapped around the place in pain to absorb it. Also if it is hot outside, they roll the white part of the reed in their hands and split it open, placing the reed on their forehead. In this stage, it is very cool to the touch. The white part of the reed is also used to help ease alcohol-related hangovers. They also make a reed flower tea. Food is cooked with fires placed on piles of stones.

The floating islands are protected within the Bay of Puno and are home to 2000 or so Uros. They live by fishing, weaving and now, tourism. They catch fish for themselves and to sell on the mainland. Uros also hunt birds such as seagulls, ducks and flamingos, and graze their cattle on the islets. They also run crafts stalls aimed at the numerous tourists who land on ten of the islands each year.

It is a lot of work to maintain the islands. Because the people living there are so infiltrated with tourists now, they have less time to maintain everything, so they have to work even harder in order to keep up with the tourists and with the maintenance of their island. Tourism provides financial opportunities for the natives, while simultaneously challenging their traditional lifestyle.


1990-1999

To view plats, historic landscape, and roadway developments through the years, Members can utilize timeline features within Frederick County’s Geographic Information System (GIS). Google Earth Pro is another visual resource for historic visuals.

In addition, Members can learn more about the history of the community and founder, Bill Brosius, through reading Discovering Eaglehead: The Man, The Vision, & The History of Lake Linganore, by Charissa Roberson. Each book is $10, and proceeds from the book benefit the Lake Linganore Scholarship Fund. Email [email protected]re.org or phone 301-831-6400 x 115.

Historic Master Plan of Lake Linganore

Bill Brosius with original Lake Linganore Plans

Bill Brosius preliminary logo sketches on napkins (photo from the Brosius Family)

Lake Linganore prior to filling

The blue tree designated the depth of the future Lake Linganore.

1968 Linganore Creek (photo from the Brosius Family)

The photo is the view upstream of dam under construction (possible City water intake in foreground)

Lake filling

Stocking the Lake with fish

Sailing on Lake Linganore

Lake Anita Louise circa 1972 (photo from the Brosius Family)

Construction of Lake Anita Louise was to be the first of two lakes in Pinehurst. Farm pond is in foreground. Farm buildings and barns on both sides were to be renovated for Pinehurst Village Center.

Aerial view of Lake Linganore in 1968 before the dam (picture from the Brosius Family)

Lake Linganore entrance circa 1972 (picture from Brosius Family)

Audubon Terrace in October 1986

1980s picture of a Coldstream home

View from Coldstream Drive in October 1985

View from Coldstream Drive in October 1985

Aerial view of Coldstream Beach taken in the late 1980's

Aerial view of Coldstream Beach taken in the late 1980's

Aerial view of Nightingale and Coldstream Villages prior to most home building

Coldstream Beach view

Esplanade sewer drawing

Esplanade building

Esplanade building

Esplanade building

Esplanade building

Aerial view of the Esplanade and Nightingale and Coldstream Villages in 1972 (picture from the Brosius Family)

Historic image of Brosius Dam

Bill and Lou Brosius at the Brosius Dam dedication

Indian Caves Park Project circa 1985

Historic MD 144 entrance

Cherry trees lined the original community entrance (located where the current traffic circle is on Route 144).

Aspen home being built in October 1986

Aspen

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Aspen 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Aspen 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Aspen 1993

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Aspen 2000

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Aspen 2005

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Aspen 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Aspen 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Aspen 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2005

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Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2007

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Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Pinehurst and Lake Anita Louise 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Balmoral

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Balmoral 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Balmoral 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Balmoral 1993

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Balmoral 2000

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Balmoral 2005

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Balmoral 2007

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Balmoral 2011

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Balmoral 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Balmoral 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Coldstream, North Shore, and Nightingale 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Meadows 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Meadows 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Summerfield

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Summerfield 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Summerfield 1988

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Summerfield 1993

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Summerfield 2000

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Summerfield 2005

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Summerfield 2007

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Summerfield 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Summerfield 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Summerfield 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

West Winds and Woodlands Preserve 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Audubon North, Audubon North Terrace, and Audubon Condos 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Woodridge and Aspen North 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Woodridge and Aspen North 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos

The following screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report from 1973 to 2017.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 1973

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 1988

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 1993

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2000

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2005

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2007

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2011

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2014

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.

Oakdale and Linganore Garden Condos 2017

Screenshots are from Frederick County's Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Aerial Report.


Lake Titicaca is the largest land-locked lake in the world and the highest in terms of the navigability for large vessels. It lies at 12,500 feet above sea level and sits across the border of Peru and Bolivia and at such an immense size and sheer beauty it is a sight of awe and wonder. Her waters are a mirror of razor sharp clarity, reflecting its deep blued depths, snow-capped mountains and a vast azure sky that demands your respect.

Lake Titicaca is at the centre of one of the most ancient world civilisations, that of the Incas. Incan mythology tells of the birth of the first Incan man and woman on the Isla del Sol, and blesses the lake as the focal point for all worship to Pachamama, or Mother Nature.

At dusk the intense, calm beauty of the lake tells the story of years of the Inca worship which still pervades the area today. The mysticism and spirituality of the area can be seen in the countless ruins and traditional communities that occupy the shores and islands, taking you back to the 14th century. Particularly, there are the remains of the City of Tiahuanaca which lies 15 miles north east of the lake. It has been called the cradle of civilisation, as the city was thought to be built more than 15,000 years before any civilisation was supposed to exist!

To date, worship of the lake is still active: supposedly, it can ensure good weather, safety on her waters, and successful fishing. Disciplines other than the Incan also embrace the lake as a focus for speculation on such ancient theories as the unknown location of the mythical city of Atlantis.


Itinerary

  1. Introduction
  1. Day 1: ‘The City of Kings’
  2. Day 2: Chucuito and the mystical Amaru Muro
  3. Day 3: Uros Floating Islands and Kayaking at Llachón
  4. Day 4: From lakeside to seaside
  5. Day 5: Birds and brandy
  6. Day 6: Fresh Sea Air
  7. Day 7: City of Everlasting Spring
  8. Day 8: Chile’s Premier Beach Resort
  9. Day 9: Relax on board
  10. Day 10: ‘The City of Churches’
  11. Day 11: UNESCO’s `Jewel of the Pacific´
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Watch the video: Lake Titicaca and the Mysterious Origins of the Inca