How Jack O’Lanterns Originated in Irish Myth

How Jack O’Lanterns Originated in Irish Myth

Pumpkins with ghoulish faces and illuminated by candles are a sure sign of the Halloween season. The practice of decorating jack-o'-lanterns originated in Ireland, where large turnips and potatoes served as early canvasses. In fact, the name, jack-o'-lantern, comes from an Irish folktale about a man named Stingy Jack. Irish immigrants brought the tradition to America, home of the pumpkin, and it became an integral part of Halloween festivities.

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The Legend of "Stingy Jack"

People have been making jack-o’-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man nicknamed “Stingy Jack.” According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn’t want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could use to buy their drinks. Once the Devil did so, Jack decided to keep the money and put it into his pocket next to a silver cross, which prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form.

Jack eventually freed the Devil, under the condition that he would not bother Jack for one year and that, should Jack die, he would not claim his soul. The next year, Jack again tricked the Devil into climbing into a tree to pick a piece of fruit. While he was up in the tree, Jack carved a sign of the cross into the tree’s bark so that the Devil could not come down until the Devil promised Jack not to bother him for ten more years.

Soon after, Jack died. As the legend goes, God would not allow such an unsavory figure into heaven. The Devil, upset by the trick Jack had played on him and keeping his word not to claim his soul, would not allow Jack into hell. He sent Jack off into the dark night with only a burning coal to light his way. Jack put the coal into a carved-out turnip and has been roaming the Earth with ever since. The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as “Jack of the Lantern,” and then, simply “Jack O’Lantern.”

In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack’s lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wandering evil spirits. In England, large beets are used. Immigrants from these countries brought the jack-o’-lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States. They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack-o’-lanterns.

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The term jack-o'-lantern has been used in American English to describe a lantern made from a hollowed-out pumpkin since the 19th century, but the term originated in 17th-century Britain, where it was used to refer to a man with a lantern or to a night watchman. At that time, the British often called men whose names they didn't know by a common name like Jack. Thus, an unknown man carrying a lantern was sometimes called "Jack with the lantern" or "Jack of the lantern."

ignis fatuus—a Medieval Latin term that means literally "foolish fire"—or will-o'-the-wisp. It's easy to grasp how people might have associated the natural phenomenon to flickering distant lanterns (held by Jack) however, the connection of jack-o'-lantern to a carved, lit pumpkin is not as clear.

One of the tri-state's most exciting Fall events, The Great Jack O'Lantern Blaze, has now been extended through November 30th. This renowned Halloween experience features over 7,000 hand carved jack o'lanterns. These illuminated jack o'lanterns are placed to form impressive displays from the Statue of Liberty to the infamous legend of Sleepy Hollow bridge.
— Kayla Selvaggio, Patch.com, 24 Oct. 2019


What is a Jack-o-lantern?

Jack-o-lanterns are root vegetable lanterns made by scooping out the insides of a pumpkin or rutabaga, carving the outer side with a face or Halloween design, and lighting it up with a candle or electric light.

The custom of making jack-o-lanterns at Halloween time originated in Ireland.

The Irish did not have pumpkins in 19th century Ireland. Growing pumpkins on the Emerald Isle is only a recent phenomenon.

Hundreds of years ago it was the rutabaga, also called a swede or turnip or mangel in Ireland, that was chosen to create these special lights.


Original Irish Jack-o-Lanterns made of turnips were truly terrifying

A far cry from the grinning pumpkins of Halloween today, the original folklore version of Jack-o-Lanterns, named for Jack O’Lantern of the Irish myth, were actually quite terrifying. They were carved from turnips or beets rather than festive orange pumpkins and were intended to ward off unwanted visitors.

Pumpkins eh? here's proper scary, a traditional Irish Jack-O-Lantern made from a turnip. It dates from 1903 and was carved at Baile na Finne, Co. Donegal (it now resides at the Irish Museum of Country Life) pic.twitter.com/bSnnqSBJBm

— Irish Archaeology (@irarchaeology) October 30, 2020

Gourds were one of the earliest plant species, domesticated by humans around 10,000 years ago, mostly cultivated for their carving potential – for kitchen tools, dishes, musical instruments, toys, furniture and more. Maoris began carving them for lanterns 700 years ago – the Maori word for “gourd” and “lampshade” are actually the same.

According to Irish folklore, a man called Jack O’Lantern was sentenced to roam the earth for eternity. A ghostly figure of the night, O’Lantern walks with a burning coal inside of a carved-out turnip to light his way.

The Jack-o-Lantern story in Irish folklore

As the tale goes, a man called Stingy Jack invited the devil for a drink and convinced him to shape-shift into a coin to pay with. When the devil obliged, Jack decided he wanted the coin for other purposes and kept it in his pocket alongside a small, silver cross to prevent it from turning back into the devil.

Jack eventually freed the devil under the condition that he wouldn’t bother Jack for one year, and wouldn’t claim Jack’s soul once he died. The next year, Jack tricked the devil once more by convincing him to climb up a tree to fetch a piece of fruit. When he was up in the tree, Jack carved a cross into the trunk so the devil couldn’t come down until he swore he wouldn’t bother Stingy Jack for another ten years.

When Jack died, God wouldn’t allow him into heaven and the devil wouldn’t allow him into hell. He was instead sent into the eternal night, with a burning coal inside a carved-out turnip to light his way. He’s been roaming the earth ever since. The Irish began to refer to this spooky figure as “Jack of the Lantern,” which then became “Jack O’Lantern.”

What was the original purpose for the use of the Jack-o-Lantern at Halloween?

This legend is why people in Ireland and Scotland began to make their own versions of Jack’s lantern by carving grotesque faces into turnips, mangelwurzels, potatoes, and beets, placing them beside their homes to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wandering evil spirits and travelers.

Once this became a Halloween tradition, Jack-o-Lanterns were used as guides for people dressed in costume on Samhain (Oct 31 – Nov 1), a traditional Gaelic version of Halloween, seen as a night when the divide between the worlds of the living and the dead is especially thin. The Samhain festival marks the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter, the “darker half” of the year.

When the Irish and Scots immigrated to America, bringing the tradition with them, they found that pumpkins, native to America, made perfect fruits for carving. Pumpkin Jack-o-Lanterns have been an integral part of Halloween festivities ever since.

Some believe that the Jack-o-Lanterns originated with All Saints’ Day, and represent Christian souls in purgatory. Roaming Stingy Jack is in, after all, what would be considered purgatory.

Was the Jack-o-Lantern really an Irish tradition?

Although the idea that the myth of the Jack-o-Lanterns is Irish is widely held, there is no scholarly research into Irish customs and mythology that proves it so. There is also evidence of turnips being used for what was called a “Hoberdy’s Lantern” in Worcestershire, England at the end of the 18th Century. Hoberdy's Lanterns had carved-out faces in turnips and the stump of a candle within.

You can learn more about scary Irish jack-o-lanterns here:

* Originally published in 2014, updated in October 2020.

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Do you usually make Jack-o-Lanterns on Halloween? Have you heard any other origin stories? Let us know in the comment section, below.


The story behind Jack O’ Lanterns

Fall is here when the evenings get darker a little earlier, and grocery stores start filling up with Halloween candies and an array of pumpkins. They first appear in the vegetable and produce aisles, then they appear outside of stores with displays of yellow, purple, and burgundy mums for decoration. Some may wonder if it’s worth it to spend more than an hour scooping out pumpkin guts, and completely scoring a pumpkin to slightly resemble the desired design.

The popular activity of making “Jack O’Lanterns” originated in an Irish myth, “Stingy Jack.”

According to history.com, Stingy Jack had two encounters with the Devil, both ending with him catching him, and Jack asking him not to bother him, and to not claim his soul when he died. Jack was enough of an unpleasant, distasteful person that God wouldn’t allow him into Heaven after he died. Because of the agreements made between Jack and the Devil, he wouldn’t have perished in hell. As an alternate solution, the Devil sent him into the “dark night with only a burning coal to light his way.” Jack placed the coal into a hollowed-out turnip, beginning the Halloween custom of pumpkin carving. The story of “Stingy Jack” evolved over the years, and the Irish and Scottish began creating their own Jack O’Lanterns with potatoes or turnips, to ward away the evil spirit of Jack along with other mythical creatures of the night.

This carving of root vegetables was brought to America by European immigrants, and quickly became popularized with the use of pumpkins, which grow on a vine like cucumbers, zucchini, and melons. This old Celtic tradition became a reliable Halloween staple in the United States, and continues to be a treasured practice to end the month of October.


What’s the Origin of Jack-O’-Lanterns?

The term "jack-o'-lantern" was first applied to people, not pumpkins. As far back as 1663, the term meant a man with a lantern, or a night watchman. Just a decade or so later, it began to be used to refer to the mysterious lights sometimes seen at night over bogs, swamps, and marshes.

These ghost lights—variously called jack-o’-lanterns, hinkypunks, hobby lanterns, corpse candles, fairy lights, will-o'-the-wisps, and fool's fire—are created when gases from decomposing plant matter ignite as they come into contact with electricity or heat or as they oxidize. For centuries before this scientific explanation was known, people told stories to explain the mysterious lights. In Ireland, dating as far back as the 1500s, those stories often revolved around a guy named Jack.

LEGEND HAS IT

As the story goes, Stingy Jack—often described as a blacksmith—invited the devil to join him for a drink. Stingy Jack didn't want to pay for the drinks from his own pocket, and convinced the devil to turn himself into a coin that could be used to settle the tab. The devil did so, but Jack skipped out on the bill and kept the devil-coin in his pocket with a silver cross so that the devil couldn’t shift back to his original form. Jack eventually let the devil loose, but made him promise that he wouldn’t seek revenge on Jack, and wouldn’t claim his soul when he died.

Later, Jack irked the devil again by convincing him to climb up a tree to pick some fruit, then carved a cross in the trunk so that the devil couldn’t climb back down (apparently, the devil is a sucker). Jack freed him again, on the condition that the devil once again not take revenge and not claim Jack’s soul.

When Stingy Jack eventually died, God would not allow him into heaven, and the devil, keeping his word, rejected Jack’s soul at the gates of hell. Instead, the devil gave him a single burning coal to light his way and sent him off into the night to “find his own hell.” Jack put the coal into a carved-out turnip and has supposedly been roaming the earth with it ever since. In Ireland, the ghost lights seen in the swamps were said to be Jack’s improvised lantern moving about as his restless soul wandered the countryside. He and the lights were dubbed "Jack of the Lantern," or "Jack O'Lantern."

OLD TALE, NEW TRADITIONS

The legend immigrated to the new world with the Irish, and it collided with another old world tradition and a new world crop. Making vegetable lanterns was a tradition of the British Isles, and carved-out turnips, beets, and potatoes were stuffed with coal, wood embers, or candles as impromptu lanterns to celebrate the fall harvest. As a prank, kids would sometimes wander off the road with a glowing veggie to trick their friends and travelers into thinking they were Stingy Jack or another lost soul. In America, pumpkins were easy enough to come by and good for carving, and got absorbed both into the carved lantern tradition and the associated prank. Over time, kids refined the prank and began carving crude faces into the pumpkins to kick up the fright factor and make the lanterns look like disembodied heads. By the mid-1800s, Stingy Jack’s nickname was applied to the prank pumpkin lanterns that echoed his own lamp, and the pumpkin jack-o’-lantern got its name.

Toward the end of the 19th century, jack-o’-lanterns went from just a trick to a standard seasonal decoration, including at a high-profile 1892 Halloween party hosted by the mayor of Atlanta. In one of the earliest instances of the jack-o’-lantern as Halloween decor, the mayor’s wife had several pumpkins—lit from within and carved with faces—placed around the party, ending Jack O’Lantern’s days of wandering, and beginning his yearly reign over America’s windowsills and front porches.


Oct 31 Jack O'Lanterns and Werewolves, A History

Happy Halloween everybody! I hope everyone has a fun and spooky day. Enjoy this special article on the history of two of Halloween's most iconic symbols.

Jack O’Lanterns

It is difficult to pinpoint where jack o’lanterns originated as they come from a blend of different cultures. For example, in England it was common to call men that one did not know the name of “Jack”. Therefore men who carried a lantern, such as night watchmen, would commonly be called “Jack with the lantern” or “Jack of the lantern”. In America, before Halloween became popular, teenagers would carve grotesque faces into pumpkins and put a candle inside to scare people. The practice became so popular that magazines began publishing how-to articles for the prank, the earliest mention of it being found in a magazine from 1842. However the general consensus is that the carved glowing vegetables come from Ireland.

Carved turnip lantern. Courtesy of Pinterest.

For centuries the Irish traditionally carved scary faces into root vegetables, stemming from the Irish legend of “Stingy Jack” which dates as far back as 1551. According to the myth, Stingy Jack invited the devil to have a drink with him. Being true to his name, Jack did not want to pay for his drink and convinced the devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could pay for their drinks with. Once the Devil transformed himself Jack kept the coin and put it in his pocket next to a silver cross, preventing the Devil from turning back to his true form. Jack would later free the devil, but only under the conditions that the devil would leave him alone for one year and that if Jack died then he would not take his soul. A year later the devil returned and Jack tricked him again, this time convincing him to climb a tree to pick some fruit. After the devil climbed up Jack carved a cross into the bark of the tree which prevented the devil from coming down. After a while the two came to an agreement, if Jack removed the cross and let him down then the Devil would not bother him for ten more years. Not long after this deal was made Jack died. As the story goes, God would not allow an unsavory figure like Jack into heaven and the devil, who was too ashamed for having been tricked and keeping true to his promise, would not let him into hell. The devil sent Jack away into the night, giving him a burning coal to light his way. At one point, Jack decided to carve a turnip and put the coal in it to act as a lantern and has been wandering the Earth ever since. The Irish began referring to Jacks ghostly figure as “Jack of the Lantern” and eventually just “Jack O’Lantern.” Both the Irish and Scottish began making their own versions of Jack’s lantern by carving creepy faces into turnips and potatoes. They placed these lanterns in windows and near doors in order to frighten away Stingy Jack's spirit, along with any other evil spirits that may be lurking about. Phosphorescent lights that are given off by decaying vegetation in the marshes and swamps around Ireland reinforced the idea that Jack was still out there and many mistook these lights for real spirits.

Artist rendition of Stingy Jack. Courtesy of Lords of the drinks.

The Celtic pagan carving practice was eventually adopted by Christians and was used as decoration for the feast of All Hallows Eve which is held on October 31st, what is now commonly known as Halloween. This was the feast that preceded All Saints Day on November 1st and was adopted to try and help convert pagans to Christianity.

Irish immigrants soon brought the tradition to America where they discovered that the native pumpkin made a perfect canvas for jack o’lanterns. The Irish tradition coincided with the teenage pumpkin prank and with Americans growing interest in Halloween and spirits. This made Halloween one of the most popular holidays in the United States as it was a time that both immigrants and native born citizens could come together and celebrate. Now Jack O’Lanterns are a Halloween staple as hundreds of thousands of people carve the round orange fruits every year.

Modern jack o’lantern. Courtesy of TIME.

Werewolves

Much like jack o’lanterns, there are werewolf legends all across the globe. Most stories explain that werewolves are people that morph into wolves or are some sort of wolf/human hybrid. They are almost universally known as vicious monsters that prey on humans and have a severe bloodlust. Some academics believe the earliest reference to them is in The Epic of Gilgamesh when Gilgamesh rejects a potential lover because they turned their previous mate into a wolf. Meaning that werewolf legends could be almost as old as man himself with stories stretching all the way back to the cradle of civilization.

Werewolves were also seen in Greek mythology with the Legend of Lycaon. Lycaon was a cruel king who attempted to trick the Greek god Zeus into eating a meal made from the remains of a sacrificed boy. Zeus could not be tricked however and became enraged by the king's actions, punishing Lycaon by turning him and his sons into wolves. This myth was told to explain why they performed the Lycea ceremony. This was a rather extreme tradition where they honored Zeus with a human sacrifice and by performing lycanthropy (assuming the form of and acting like a wolf). Some consider this to be the first story of werewolves in their modern form.

Artist rendition of Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf. Courtesy of Greece High Definition.

Werewolves even made an appearance in Nordic culture. The Saga of the Volsungs tells the story of a father and son who discover wolf pelts with the power to turn people into wolf like monsters. The effect lasted for 10 days and when the father and son put the skins on they discovered they could not take them off before that time period was up. They grew fur and sharp teeth and became savage. Soon they began to howl like wolves and rushed off into the forest where they killed many people. At one point the two fought each other, ending with the father biting the son in the neck and almost killing him. The son was only saved when a raven, supposedly sent by Odin, brought a leaf to apply to the son’s wound, once applied he was restored to full health. After the 10 days the two men took off the wolf pelts and burned them.

Artist rendition of Werewolf of Dole attack.

The legends explain where the idea of werewolves originated but the fear of such beasts became more widely present between the 15th and 17th centuries when they became synonymous with serial killers. France was home to many of these murderers. In 1521, Pierre Burgot and Michel Verdun supposedly swore allegiance to the devil and had an ointment applied to them that would transform them into wolves. They later confessed to murdering several children while in this wolf-like state and were subsequently burned at the stake for their crimes. Burning was believed to be one of the few ways to kill a werewolf. Another Frenchman by the name of Giles Garnier, known as the “Werewolf of Dole” also claimed to have been turned into a werewolf by using a special ointment. According to legends of the time, when he was in his werewolf form he would kill children and eat them. He was also burned at the stake.

France was not the only country to experience mass murdering “werewolves”, one of the most famous cases happened in Bedburg, Germany. Peter Stubbe was a wealthy farmer in the 1500s and folklore tells of him turning into a werewolf at night and devouring the citizens of Bedburg. Peter was caught by hunters who claimed to have seen him shape-shift from wolf to human, and they blamed him for the gruesome murders. After being tortured he confessed to killing and eating animals, livestock, men, women, and children along with many other heinous crimes that do not need to be represented here (If you do look up everything he confessed to just be warned that it’s very grotesque). He also confessed to having a magical belt that turned him into his wolf-like form when he put it on. After this confession he was executed in a most gruesome fashion that was more like a prolonged torture session, with his head being cut off at the end to ensure that he could not come back to life. His farm was searched for the magical belt but to no one's surprise it was never found. Whether Peter Stubbe was actually guilty of his crimes or not is up for debate but it certainly helped to spread the fear of werewolves during this period. The werewolf hysteria became so bad that even common criminals would dress in wolfskins because they knew people would believe it was a werewolf performing such treachery.

Artist rendition of a wolf man attacking kids. Courtesy of stillunfold.com

In our modern day most scholars and researchers agree that these men were never werewolves but were either mentally ill or under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs. However people of the time believed there was no other explanation for such serious crimes other than monstrous beasts like werewolves.

There are many “theories” as to how people transform into the creature. Some maintain that it is caused by a curse put on by a witch, wizard, or god. Others believe it is done by enchanted articles of clothing, such as the magical belt in the previous story. A common belief is that in order to become a werewolf then one must be scratched or bitten by one. Another extremely common idea is that people only turn into werewolves during a full moon and this is the only one that actually has a little bit of weight to it. Many studies have confirmed that nearly every crime, except for murder, increases when there is a full moon, even hospitals have reported more erratic behavior by patients when the moon is at its peak. This may be how the legend started as people act more wildly during a full moon and in ancient times they had no other way to explain this than by making up a story for it.

Artist rendition of a werewolf hunter, this shows the hysteria of these beasts at the time. Courtesy of emaze.

So, are werewolves real? No, there is no definitive evidence showing that a person has transformed into a wolf or wolf-like creature. There are however medical conditions that could lead people, especially those in earlier eras, to believe that a person is a werewolf. Lycanthropy is a rare psychological disease that makes the sufferer believe they have turned into a wolf or other animal. Hypertrichosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes excess hair growth and could cause someone to be mistaken for an animal. Rabies can cause anyone to be violent like an animal and people of earlier times would not have understood why someone would be acting in such a way. Even food poisoning can cause people to act out of turn and in extreme cases become violent, depending on the bacteria or virus. Most cases of werewolves throughout history can be explained as cases of mass hysteria or as a genetic or mental disorder. Those few cases that cannot be explained away so easily likely either did not happen or elements of it were heavily embellished.

Werewolves may not be real but they are a part of our pop culture and movies, TV shows, and video games centered around them continue to captivate audiences.

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Personal Thoughts

I like learning about the history of Halloween, I think it’s pretty neat how all the customs and traditions came about. When I was younger I remember getting excited for the History Channel’s Halloween specials, they had some good ones back in the day. I decided on jack o’lanterns because they’re just fun and people easily recognize them Cryptids interest me a lot so werewolves were a good option. I know for the werewolf one I could have mentioned more cases but some I want to save to do whole articles on at some point. There are some very in depth ones, especially the ones involving people actually trying to hunt the beast. I think those will make good and interesting articles.


The Legend of “Stingy Jack”

People have been making jack-o’-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man nicknamed “Stingy Jack.” According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn’t want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could use to buy their drinks. Once the Devil did so, Jack decided to keep the money and put it into his pocket next to a silver cross, which prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form. Jack eventually freed the Devil, under the condition that he would not bother Jack for one year and that, should Jack die, he would not claim his soul. The next year, Jack again tricked the Devil into climbing into a tree to pick a piece of fruit. While he was up in the tree, Jack carved a sign of the cross into the tree’s bark so that the Devil could not come down until the Devil promised Jack not to bother him for ten more years.

Soon after, Jack died. As the legend goes, God would not allow such an unsavory figure into heaven. The Devil, upset by the trick Jack had played on him and keeping his word not to claim his soul, would not allow Jack into hell. He sent Jack off into the dark night with only a burning coal to light his way. Jack put the coal into a carved-out turnip and has been roaming the Earth with ever since. The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as “Jack of the Lantern,” and then, simply “Jack O’Lantern.”

In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack’s lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wandering evil spirits. In England, large beets are used. Immigrants from these countries brought the jack o’lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States. They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack-o’-lanterns.

Check out my personal Pumpkin Carving Gallery for some inspiration!


What were jack o lanterns originally made from?

The term jack-o'-lantern has been used in American English to describe a lantern made from a hollowed-out pumpkin since the 19th century, but the term originated in 17th-century Britain, where it was used to refer to a man with a lantern or to a night watchman.

Beside above, are Jack O'Lanterns Pagan? HISTORY OF THE JACK-O-LANTERN. Before it was Halloween, October 31st was the Pagan holiday of Samhain (pronounced sow-in), the official end of summer and the harvest season. In Ireland children carved out potatoes or turnips as &ldquoJack-O-Lanterns&rdquo and lighted them from the inside with candles.

Likewise, people ask, what is the meaning behind Jack O Lanterns?

The term "jack-o'-lantern" was first applied to people, not pumpkins. As far back as 1663, the term meant a man with a lantern, or a night watchman. Just a decade or so later, it began to be used to refer to the mysterious lights sometimes seen at night over bogs, swamps, and marshes.

What was carved instead of pumpkins?

A far cry from the grinning pumpkins of Halloween today, the original folklore version of Jack-o-Lanterns, named for Jack O'Lantern of the Irish myth, were actually quite terrifying. They were carved from turnips or beets rather than festive orange pumpkins and were intended to ward off unwanted visitors.


How Carved Turnips Became Carved Pumpkins

Throughout Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack’s lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips and potatoes and placing them by their windows and doorsteps to repel Stingy Jack and other evil wandering spirits. Immigrants from these countries brought the tradition of jack-o’-lanterns with them when they came to the United States. It was then that they stumbled upon pumpkins, which is native to America and are bigger and easier to carve, making them the perfect jack-o’-lantern.


Watch the video: Legend of Stingy Jack: Origin of the Jack OLantern