Ephesos Timeline

Ephesos Timeline

History of Ephesus

According to Greek mythology, the ancient city of Ephesus was established by Greeks in 11 Century B.C. by Androclos, the son of legendary King of Athens. He asked the oracles in Delphi where and how he could find a new settlement for Greeks. The answer of oracles was very interesting and simple.

According to oracles a wild boar and a fish would lead them to the site of the new settlement. One day, Androklos and his friends were cooking fish on an open fire, when a fish flew from the pan into the nearby bushes. Sparks from the fire also ignited the bushes and as they flared up, a wild boar ran out of the bushes to escape from the flames. Androklos pursued and killed the boar. Then he recalled the words of the oracles and built his city on this site.

The Settlements of Ephesus

Ephesus has been located at different places in different times. The first settlement of the city was located on Ayasuluk Hill and inhabited by ancient Anatolians ( Amazons, Hittites ), Carians and Lelegians. The second settlement of Ephesus was on the North of Mount Panayır ( Mount Pion ). As with other cities of the Aegean cost of Anatolia, Ephesus came to be ruled by Croesus of Lydia and Persians. The third settlement was located in the valley between Mount Panayır and Mount Bülbül ( Mount Coressus ), found by Lysimachus, one of the generals of Alexander The Great. This settlement of Ephesus is the biggest and can be visited today. Finally, due to the persistent silting up of the harbour and repeated raids by Arabs, the city changed its location back to Ayasuluk Hill forming Fourth Ephesus.

According to excevations,the history of Ephesus dates back to 6000 BC, to Chalcolithic Period. Excavations at the Ayasuluk Hill brought to light a settlement, thus ancient Ephesus was first on the located on Ayasuluk Hill. It was first settled by Anatolian Tribes, for Ephesus is mentioned in Hittite cuneiform tablets under the name of Apassas that means “Honey Bee”.

According to the ancient geographers Strabo and Pausanias, and the historian Herodotus claim that Ephesus was found by Amazons and the native tribes of the area were the Carians and the Lelegians around 3000 BC. Amazons gave the city’s name as Ephesos, can be named one of Queens or generals of Amazons. According to them Hittites came here around 1400 BC and changed the name of the city from Ephesos to Apassas. Ionian colonists came here around 1100 BC.

About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians, who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. About 560 BC Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus. He treated the inhabitants with respect, despite ruling harshly, and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis. His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city. Later in the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great, siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire. They were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BCE. The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbors as well as the movement of the Kayster River meant that the location never remained the same.

When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Ephesus in 290 BC came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals, Lysimachus. As the river Cayster silted up the harbor, the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two kilometers which is the biggest and we see today. When Lysimachus died, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BC). When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.

When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, he made Ephesus instead of Pergamum the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered western Asia Minor. Ephesus entered an era of prosperity. It became the seat of the governor, growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce.

The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis who had her chief shrine there, the Library of Celsus , and its theatre, which was capable of holding 25,000 spectators. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007. The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes , built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts.

The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263. This marked the decline of the city's splendor.

Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries. The emperor Constantine I, rebuilt much of the city.Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further. When the Seljuk Turks conquered Ephesus in 1090, it was a small village. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town to Hagios Theologos. They kept control of the region until 1308. Crusaders passing through were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by the local population.

The town was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey, an army commander of the Menteşoğulları Principality. Shortly afterwards, it was ceded to the Aydınoğulları Principality that stationed a powerful navy in the harbour of Ayasuluğ (the present-day Selçuk , next to Ephesus). Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from whence the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions. The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. They added important architectural works such as the İsa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam). They were incorporated as vassals into the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402, and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. The region was restored to the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks. After a period of unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1425.

Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost her former glory. Nearby Ayasuluğ was renamed Selçuk in 1914.

Born at Amida (modern Diyarbakır in southeastern Turkey) about 507, he was there ordained as a deacon in 529 by John of Tella at Zuqnin Monastery, [1] but in 534 we find him in Palestine, and in 535 he passed to Constantinople. He returned to the east in later years of the 530s, where he witnessed the devastations of the great plague first hand. He travelled the region, going so far as Egypt, in order to collect stories for his collection of saints' lives, which he compiled in a book (containing 58 such lives) around the year 565. He was back in Amida at the start of the furious persecution directed against the Monophysites by Ephrem, Melkite Patriarch of Antioch, and Abraham, bishop of Amida c. 520-541. Around 540 he returned to Constantinople and made it his residence.

In Constantinople he seems to have early won the notice of Justinian I, one of the main objects of whose policy was the consolidation of Eastern Christianity as a bulwark against the Zoroastrian power of Persia, through persecution of all the remaining pagans of the empire. John is said by Barhebraeus (Chron. eccl. i. 195) to have succeeded Anthimus as Monophysite bishop of Constantinople, but this is probably a mistake. In any case, he enjoyed the emperor's favor until the death of the latter in 565 and (as he himself tells us) was entrusted with the administration of the entire revenues of the Monophysite Church.

He was sent by Justinian on a mission for the conversion of such pagans as remained in Asia Minor in 542, and informs us that the number of those whom he baptized amounted to 70,000. He also built a large monastery at Tralles on the hills skirting the valley of the Meander, and more than one hundred other monasteries and churches, mostly on top of demolished pagan temples. Of the mission to the Nubians which he may have promoted, though he did not himself visit their country, an interesting account is given in the 4th book of the 3rd part of his History. He was ordained bishop of Ephesus (Asia) for the anti-Chalcedonians in 558 by Jacob Baradaeus, although his title was largely nominal and he remained in Constantinople.

In 546, he collaborated with the emperor during a persecution targeting pagans in Constantinople and its neighborhood. He carried out this task faithfully, torturing all suspected of the "wicked heathenish error", as John himself calls it, and finding much worship of the ancestral gods amongst the Empire's aristocracy. But his fortunes changed soon after the accession of Justin II. About 571 John III the Scholasticus, the orthodox or Chalcedonian patriarch, began (with the sanction of the emperor) a rigorous persecution of the Monophysite Church leaders, and John was among those who suffered most. He gives us a detailed account of his sufferings in prison, confiscation of his property, etc., in the third part of his History. The latest events recorded are of the date 588, and the author cannot have lived much longer but of the circumstances of his death nothing is known.

John's main work was his Ecclesiastical History, which covered more than six centuries, from the time of Julius Caesar to 588, although John himself employs the Seleucid era. [2] It was composed in three parts, each containing six books. The first part seems to have wholly perished. The second, which extended from Theodosius II to the 6th or 7th year of Justin II, was, according to F. Nau, reproduced in full or almost in full in John's own words in the third part of the Zuqnin Chronicle, which was until recently mistakenly attributed to the patriarch Dionysius Telmaharensis. Modern research has shown that it is more likely that large parts are missing. Of this second division of John's History, in which he may have incorporated the so-called Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, considerable portions are found in the British Museum manuscripts Add. 14647 and 14650, and these have been published in the second volume of J. P. N. Land's Anecdota Syriaca. But the whole is more completely presented in the Vatican manuscript (Codex Zuquenensis, shelfmark Vatican Syriac 162), which incorporates much of John's chronicle in a kolophon dated to the eighth century. (English translation, with notes, by Amir Harrak, The Chronicle of Zuqnin, Parts III and IV (Toronto, 1999) and by Witold Witakowski, Pseudo-Dionysius of Tel-Mahre: Chronicle, Part III (Liverpool, 1997)).

The third part of John's history, which is a detailed account of the ecclesiastical events which happened in 571-588, as well as of some earlier occurrences, survives in a fairly complete state in Add. 14640, a British Museum manuscript of the seventh century. It forms a contemporary record of great value to the historian. Its somewhat disordered state, the want of chronological arrangement, and the occasional repetition of accounts of the same events are due, as the author himself informs us (ii. 50), to the work being almost entirely composed during the times of his imprisonment in Constantinople. The same cause may account for the somewhat slovenly Syriac style. The writer claims to have treated his subject impartially, and though written from the narrow point of view of one to whom Miaphysite Orthodoxy was all-important, it is largely a faithful reproduction of events as they occurred. This third part was edited by William Cureton (Oxford, 1853) and E.W. Brooks (CSCO 105, Louvain, 1935), and was translated - sometimes paraphrase - into English by Robert Payne Smith (Oxford, 1860), into German by J. M. Schonfelder (Munich, 1862) and into Latin by Brooks (CSCO 106, Louvain, 1936).

John's other known work was a series of Biographies of Eastern Saints, compiled about 565-7. These have been edited by Land in Anecdota Syriaca, ii. 1-288, and translated into Latin by Douwen and Land (Amsterdam, 1889), and into English by Brooks (Patrologia Orientalis vols 17-19, 1923–26). An estimate of John as an ecclesiastic and author was given by the Louis Duchesne in a memoir read before the five French Academies on October 25, 1892.

Writings by John of Ephesus describe the sun's light as going dim during the years 535 and 536 AD, which was subsequently followed by a cooling that lasted for just over a decade:

There was a sign from the sun the like of which had never been seen or reported before. The sun became dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months. Each day it shown for about four hours and still, this light was but a feeble shadow. Everyone declared that the sun would never recover its full light again.

Previously, these were explained as religiously symbolic or a local occurrence. These were shown to be, in 2010, an actual report of two distant volcanic eruptions which resulted in a dimming of the sun for close to two years and created an artificial winter in the Northern Hemisphere that lasted for just over a decade. A search for writings mentioning these dark years was undertaken when dendrochronologists around the world began to realize that the rings of ancient trees indicated that there was a miniature Ice Age lasting about two years that began at around this time. The hypothesis at that time was that it was possibly the result of a supervolcano that erupted in South America. A subsequent search puts forward that it may have been two different volcanoes that were some distance away from each other. [3] [4]

Ephesos Timeline - History

The Book of Ephesians is held in great reverence by both Biblical scholars and lay people. American B aptist theologian, W. O. Carver described the Book of Ephesians as “the greatest piece of writing in all history” and English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called it “the divinest composition of man”. In order to explore the full richness of the Book of Ephesians, it is necessary to not only examine the literary text of the book, but to examine the historical-cultural context of the book as well. By exploring who the audience and the author of the book were, as well as delving into the characteristics of the book, the full depth of the Book of Ephesians is revealed.

The Book of Ephesians was written to “God’s holy people in Ephesus” (Ephesians 1:1, NIV). The city of Ephesus was a large commercial port city in Asia Minor (present day Turkey) located at the mouth of the Cayster River near the Aegean Sea. As a large population center on a major trade route and the capital of the Roman province of Asia, Ephesus was considered the “Gateway to Asia”. Additionally, the city of Ephesus was known as a center of pagan worship as the Temple of the Greek goddess Artemis (Roman goddess Diana), considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside of the city limits. As such, people from across the region traveled to Ephesus to visit the Temple and an industry of blacksmiths served them by creating trinkets and statues of the goddess. Additionally, Ephesus was home to a large community of Jews who had a synagogue in the city.

The author of the Book of Ephesus was the Apostle Paul. Prior to writing his Epistle to the Ephesians in 60–61 AD, Paul had an established ministry in Ephesus. Paul first comes in contact with Ephesus when leaving Corinth to travel to Jerusalem in 53 AD. As noted in Acts 18:18–22, Paul stopped off in Ephesus, visited the synagogue in the city, and left his acolytes Priscilla and Aquila there before traveling on towards Jerusalem. On his return from Jerusalem, Paul travels to Ephesus and establishes there his longest ministry in any one location. As Acts 19 describes, one of Paul’s first works was to re-baptise twelve disciples in the name of Jesus who had been baptised by the Jewish-Christian Apollos in the name of John. Acts 19:8–10 goes on to state that Paul spent three months in the synagogue “arguing persuasively about the kingdom of God”, but after being maligned by the Jews of the synagogue then spent two years having “discussions daily in the lecture hall of Tyrannus” with both Jews and Gentiles. During this time “God did extraordinary miracles through Paul, so that even handkerchiefs and aprons that had touched him were taken to the sick, and their illnesses were cured and the evil spirits left them.” (Acts 19:11–12). Such was the success and demand for Paul’s ministry that the blacksmiths who made idols for the goddess Artemis saw their business decline and their economic way of life threatened. Led by a silversmith named Demetrius, an angry crowd rioted and filled the theater in Ephesus that held 24,500 people shouting “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” (Acts 19:28). Soon after the riot, Paul left Ephesus in approximately 56 AD to go to Macedonia. Paul was never to return to Ephesus.

So what makes the Book of Ephesus so special in relation to the other books of the New Testament that Paul penned? New Testament scholar N.T. Wright states that “it offers a breathtaking view of the entire landscape” and Pastor Robert Deffinbaugh calls it the “high road of New Testament revelation”. By examining the characteristics of the epistle or letter, we gain insight into why it is held in lofty regard. First, the Book of Ephesians is not a personal letter such as those written to Timothy, Titus, or Philemon nor does it speak of Paul’s personal plans. N.T. Wright suggests that it may have been written as a circular letter to the church in Ephesus to be distributed to several young churches in the Ephesus region. The letter does not seek to correct errors as does his letters to Corinth or Galatia nor is it a teaching epistle. As Robert Deffinbaugh notes, the church in Ephesus was one of “the most well taught churches that ever existed” with Paul ministering there for nearly three years and Timothy, Paul’s close aide, ministering there after Paul left. Additionally, Paul wrote the Book of Ephesians while imprisoned in Rome and unsure of what fate awaited him. Clearly, Paul wanted to drive home the point of his imprisonment as he starts Ephesians 3 with “For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus” and Ephesians 4 with “As a prisoner for the Lord”. Paul may have been physically imprisoned, but his mind and spirit, as portrayed in the letter, were clearly free. And lastly, the style of the writing is as Baptist missionary Wil Pounds describes as “the language of a lyrical prayer” and there is “nothing like this in Paul’s other letters”.

By taking into account the audience, the author, and the characteristics, the context of the Book of Ephesians rounds into view. We have a teacher in Paul facing his earthly demise passing on potentially final thoughts to his most prized student in the church of Ephesus. There are no more lessons to be taught and now is the time for the student to reflect on the overarching purpose of the teaching becoming a church created in Jesus Christ and in the glory of God. The teacher and the student taking a final walk through the figurative church to divine in Ephesians 1 through 3, God’s plan for His church, prayers for His believers, and salvation for Jews and Gentiles alike. In Ephesians 4 through 6, the members of the church doing good work on behalf of the unity of the church, for themselves, and in their relationship with others. And as that walk comes to an end, Paul signals that it is time to put on the Armor of God:

Finally, be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. Put on the full armor of God, so that you can take your stand against the devil’s schemes. For our struggle is not against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms. Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground, and after you have done everything, to stand. Stand firm then, with the belt of truth buckled around your waist, with the breastplate of righteousness in place, and with your feet fitted with the readiness that comes from the gospel of peace. In addition to all this, take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. (Ephesians 6:10–17)

The student, the church of Ephesus, has finally matriculated and Paul, the teacher, has sent them forth in the glory of God.

Authors Note

(Originally submitted on 9/3/14 for the BIB203A Interpreting the Bible class taught by Robert Marquardt at Colorado Christian University, CAGS)

30. The Evangelization of Ephesus (Acts 19:8-41)

The story of the evangelization of Ephesus does not begin in chapter 19, or even in chapter 18 of the Book of Acts. It started with the ministry of John the Baptist, whose teaching had produced a number of “converts,” men and women who looked for the Messiah, promised by the Old Testament prophets, who was His forerunner. Apollos (Acts 18:24-28) and the 󈫼 disciples” (Acts 19:1-7) were among those who believed in the Savior to come, and who must have spoken to others of their (Old Testament) faith.

Paul came to Asia on his second missionary journey (so called), but the Holy Spirit forbade them from proclaiming the gospel (Acts 16:6). Paul finally came to Ephesus, but he was intent on reaching Syria (Acts 18:18-21), and so he spent only a short time there. He did, however, leave Priscilla and Aquila behind (18:19), and they must have played a significant part in “plowing the soil” in preparation for Paul’s lengthy stay as recorded in our text. It is here in our text that we will read,

… all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks” (Acts 19:10).

It was God’s time for the evangelization of Asia, and it all seems to have started from the city of Ephesus.

If the Ephesian church was the launching place for the evangelization of Asia, it is important for several other reasons as well. Let me mention several reasons for the importance of this church.

(1) It was here, in Ephesus, that Paul fought the “wild beasts” (1 Cor. 15:32) . Since the context of Paul’s words dealt with death and the resurrection from the dead, it would seem that there was very real danger there. He will later tell the Ephesian elders of his difficulties in that city:

“You yourselves know, form the first day that I set foot in Asia, how I was with you the whole time, serving the Lord with all humility and with tears and with trials which came upon me through the plots of the Jews” (Acts 20:18b-19).

(2) Paul wrote 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (cf. 1 Cor. 16:8). (3) The epistle to the Ephesians was written to the Ephesian church (cf. Ephesians 1:1). (4) The church at Ephesus was one of the “seven churches of Asia” (Revelation 1:4), to which specific words of admonition from the Lord were given (Revelation 1:11 2:1-7). (5) Timothy (1 Timothy 1:3) was sent there by Paul, and thus 1 Timothy concerns the life and conduct of the church there in Ephesus.

Chapter 19 is not the definitive chapter of Acts when it comes to a description of the ministry of Paul at Ephesus. This chapter focuses on three major events: (1) the meeting of the 󈫼 disciples” and their coming to faith in Jesus as the Messiah, receiving baptism as an evidence of their faith, and being baptized by the Spirit as an evidence of God’s reception of them into His church (verses 1-7). (2) The ministry of Paul in the synagogue and then the school of Tyrannus (verses 8-20). (3) The uprising in Ephesus, as a result of the opposition of Demetrius (verses 23-41). A great deal of information concerning the ministry of Paul at Ephesus will be supplied in chapter 20, when Paul calls for the Ephesian elders and gives them his parting words of instruction and admonition, based upon the fact that he will not see them again.

The Structure of Acts 19

  • The “Twelve Disciples”󈟣:1-7
  • The Jewish Evangelist and the Jewish Exorcists󈟣:8-20
  • Paul’s plans󈟣:21-22
  • The Uprising at Ephesus󈟣:23-41

The devious deeds of Demetrius—(vv 23-29)

The attempted addresses of Paul and Alexander—(vv. 30-34)

The rebuke and benediction of the town clerk—(vv 35-41)

From the Synagogue to the School (19:8-10)

8 And he entered the synagogue and continued speaking out boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading them about the kingdom of God. 9 But when some were becoming hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he withdrew from them and took away the disciples, reasoning 433 daily in the school of Tyrannus. 434 10 And this took place for two years, 435 so that all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. 436

After his encounter with the 12 disciples upon his arrival at Ephesus (19:1-7), Paul began to minister in the synagogue at Ephesus. His topic was “the kingdom of God” (verse 8). I would think that Paul began with the Old Testament prophecies pertaining to the kingdom, showing over a period of time how Jesus of Nazareth fulfilled these, and then going on to disclose those aspects of the kingdom which were revealed by Jesus, or to the apostles by the Holy Spirit.

The thing which impresses me about Paul’s teaching in the synagogue is how long he taught there before it became necessary to move to another location. It strongly implies that Paul established his case, over a period of time, as opposed to his stating the same case repeatedly. This is consistent with Paul’s approach elsewhere. For example, in Berea, Paul taught in the synagogue on the Sabbath, and the people had all week to search the Scriptures and to think about it. This is the exact opposite approach to that of brainwashing. Brainwashing attempts to weaken the critical facilities of the audience, wearing them down, physically and mentally, until they just don’t care to think critically any more.

There are a number of cults that employ this methodology. A couple of years ago there was a certain “teacher” who was able to persuade some Christians to believe that which they had firmly rejected previously. He was able to “convince” some by means of a seminar, which bombarded the audience with endless ideas and assumptions, which were not proven, but which, they were told, they would understand later. Some were convinced, not because they were shown the truth from Scripture, and in the calm of their own study and meditation accepted it, but because of a kind of “circuit overload,” which caused them to cease thinking about it. Paul’s teaching was the opposite. He taught in smaller doses, and there was time in-between to think it over. So that when men or women believed his teaching it was because it conformed to the teaching of the Scriptures and the Spirit of God bore witness to its truthfulness.

Over the three month period of time Paul preached at the synagogue in Ephesus some were convinced of the truth of the gospel, while others became more and more opposed to it. There was a sequence to their growing opposition, which Luke indicates in verse 9. They became gradually hardened to Paul’s teaching, and then they became disobedient to it, and finally they began to verbally oppose it in public. It would seem that they began to disrupt Paul’s public ministry, much as “hecklers” disrupt the speeches of political candidates. It became impossible to carry on his teaching in a way that would facilitate good teaching. And so Paul changed his base of operations. He moved from the synagogue to the school house, the school of Tyrannus.

Very little is said of the teaching ministry of Paul in this “school.” The most complete picture of his ministry while at Ephesus is found in chapter 20. For example, we know that he worked with his own hands during his stay in Ephesus, so that he would not be a burden and that he could minister to the material needs of others (Acts 20:33-35). We are told that Paul’s ministry while in Ephesus echoed throughout the land, so that Luke can tell us “all who lived in Asia heard the word of the Lord” (verse 10). Since Paul stayed in Ephesus and did not seem to travel about (20:18), it would seem that much of the preaching which took place outside the city was done by others, some of whom may be named in Acts 20:4. Although the Spirit had once forbidden the preaching of the word in Asia (Acts 16:6), now the word had been proclaimed throughout Asia. In God’s time, the word of God was proclaimed.

Luke does not mean for us to conclude that every single person living in Asia had heard the gospel, but he does mean that the entire area was canvassed with the word. And so it was that Paul could say,

“Therefore I testify to you this day, that I am innocent of the blood of all men. For I did not shrink from declaring to you the whole purpose of God” (Acts 20:26-27).

Miracles and the Ministry of Paul (19:11-12)

11 And God was performing extraordinary miracles by the hands of Paul, 12 so that handkerchiefs or aprons 437 were even carried from his body to the sick, and the diseases left them and the evil spirits went out.

The gospel had been proclaimed in Asia, and not only this but God bore witness to His word through many signs and wonders and miracles, as he worked through the apostle Paul. No one else is said to have worked such miracles, but Paul did, even unintentionally. We are not told of all the miracles accomplished at the hand of Paul, but we are told that some miracles happened in some secondary fashion. Handkerchiefs or aprons which Paul had touched were taken to those who were sick or demon possessed and they were made whole (verse 12). The “aprons” which were taken seem to have been Paul’s work aprons. Can you imagine him coming to work at his tentmaking in the morning, looking about for his apron, and saying to himself, “Now where did I put that apron …?” They were hauling off anything which Paul touched, and when the infirmed came in contact with these items, they were delivered. As usual, these signs and wonders were accomplished to validate and underscore the words which Paul was speaking—the words of the Gospel. 438

I must admit that the kind of miracles which Luke mentions here sound like a carnival atmosphere. But remember that we are not told this was Paul’s emphasis or purpose. He did not throw his handkerchiefs into the crowds, as some would do today. In a somewhat superstitious way, they people grabbed for any article which he had touched. The fact that people were healed is explained, I think, purely in terms of the grace of God. These people, with their pagan background, knew of only this way of being healed, and they acted in a very simple faith, and God in His grace gave them what they sought by faith—deliverance. And so the word was given the divine stamp of authenticity and authority, and many came to faith.

The Exorcists “Exposed” (19:13-20)

13 But also some of the Jewish exorcists, 439 who went from place to place, attempted to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, “I adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches.” 14 And seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, were doing this. 15 And the evil spirit answered and said to them, “I recognize 440 Jesus, and I know about Paul, but who are you?” 16 And the man, in whom was the evil spirit, leaped on them and subdued both 441 of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. 17 And this became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived in Ephesus and fear fell upon them all and the name of the Lord Jesus was being magnified. 18 Many also of those who had believed kept coming, confessing and disclosing their practices. 442 19 And many of those who practiced magic 443 brought their books together and began burning them in the sight of all and they counted up the price of them and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver. 20 So the word of the Lord was growing mightily and prevailing.

The hand of God was at work through Paul, and there were some who wished to cash in on it. If Paul could accomplish what he did through the name of Jesus, so could they—they thought. There were in Ephesus, as in Israel (see Luke 11:19), Jewish exorcists, who sought to cast out demons through the use of the name of one who had great power. This was a kind of spiritual “name dropping,” whereby the power of the one named was believed to be able to exorcise demons. Such “ministry” was hardly to be performed without a fee, and so it appears to be a business, not altogether unlike that business of Acts 16, the business of fortune-telling. This kind of exorcism must have proven effective at least part of the time, but it would not work this time.

There were a number of exorcists practicing in Ephesus, but Luke draws our attention to one family in particular—a Jewish chief priestly family (verse 14). This man, Sceva, had seven sons who were exorcists. At least two of them were involved in attempting to exorcise a particular man in Ephesus. Luke computer “hackers” who had just learned the password of a giant mainframe computer system, these men had discovered the power of the name of Jesus. This is the Jesus who, as Jews, they refused to accept as Messiah, but they were not reluctant to use His name in order to cast out demons. They did not use the name of Jesus as Paul did, for they did not know Him personally or belong to Him, as Paul did. Thus, they sought to exorcise the man “by the name of the Jesus Paul preached” (verse 13).

This particular demon was not impressed. He indeed recognized and reluctantly surrendered to the power of Jesus, and he also acknowledged the power of Jesus at work in Paul, but he did not know these men. Did these men wish to name drop? Fine. But what was their name? The demon was unwilling to be given orders through anyone who wished to try to use the name of Jesus, as Paul did. For the demon, this attempt was like trying to use a stolen credit card, and he was not about to be ordered about by such hucksters. And so the demon, through the demonized man, attacked these Jewish exorcists and beat the badly, sending them fleeing from the house naked and wounded.

If these Jewish exorcists were attempting to copy the ministry of Paul, they ended up being a very clear contrast to it. And in his rebellion against authority, this demon served the cause of Christ by testifying to the power of the Gospel in contrast to the counterfeit ministry of the sons of Sceva, and others like them. We have already been told that the gospel had gone forth from Ephesus to all of Asia, and now it would seem that this incident was one means which God used to spread the word. News of this incident spread abroad, serving to contrast the power of God at work through Paul with the counterfeit power of the exorcists. All of Ephesus heard of the exposure of the exorcists, and they feared God, so that His name was magnified. He would not be used by men, as though he were subject to the rules of magic.

What a contrast one could see between Paul and the sons of Sceva and all like them. Paul worked with his own hands, and ministered freely to men. These exorcists undoubtedly charged a substantial fee for their services, living off of the misery of those to whom they “ministered.” In the case of Paul, the power of God was at work through him, even when he did not seem to be aware of it. Even things which came into contact with Paul were instruments of deliverance and healing. On the other hand, as hard as these exorcists worked at “using” the names of Jesus and Paul, they were not successful.

The impact of these incidents—the miracles performed at the hand of Paul, and the failure of the sons of Sceva—was even greater on those who had come to faith in Jesus. The response of the saints to these things is described in verses 18 and 19. Some of these believers may have come to faith as a result of these two incidents, but many seem to have already been saved. Although they had come to trust in Jesus as their Savior, they did not see the evil of their magical practices, and they had not yet renounced this as both worthless and evil. As a result of the shaming of the sons of Sceva a great conviction of sin fell upon the saints in Ephesus, causing them to renounce their magical practices and to destroy the magical books which they possessed.

Before we look at this response, however, let us make sure that we understand the connection between the power of God through Paul, the powerless defeat of the sons of Sceva, and the wide-spread turning from magical practices by the Ephesian saints. Nowhere in our text are the sons of Sceva called magicians, nor is their practice described as magical. Previously, we were told that Elymas (also called Bar-Jesus) was Jew, a false prophet, and a magician (Acts 13:6). Simon, of Acts chapter 8, was also a magician (8:9, 11), although he is not identified as a Jew. He was, most likely, a Samaritan, and thus a half-Jew.

The Christians of Ephesus understood, and rightly so, that the practice of the sons of Sceva were, in essence, magical. Magic is the manipulation of “gods” or “powers,” so that the magician gets what he wants. It was no great mental leap to see that the “magic” of the sons of Sceva was like the other forms of “magic” which were so prevalent in Ephesus, and which were so much a part of the lives of Christians. When the power of God prevailed through Paul and the power of magic failed through the sons of Sceva, the Ephesian saints saw their magical practices as anti-Christian, evil, and worthless. They publicly collected their magical books and burned them in the sight of all, as a public testimony of their repentance and obedience. They would not sell these books or give them away because they were evil. Such garbage would only infect others, and so they burned their books, in spite of the fact that they could have brought much money if they were sold.

The city of Ephesus really began to take not of the gospel now. The gospel was being proclaimed by Paul and others. The power of God and the gospel was being demonstrated through the signs and wonders performed by or through Paul. And the power of the gospel was now evident in the lives of the Christians, who renounced their evil deeds and permanently put off their magical practices. The saints were beginning to become “salty,” and the difference was noted. And so it was that “the word of the Lord grew mightily and was prevailing” (19:20).

Paul’s Plans (19:21-22)

21 Now after these things were finished, Paul purposed in the spirit 444 to go to Jerusalem after he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, saying, “After I have been there, I must also see Rome 445 .” 22 And having sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while.

Paul’s ministry in Ephesus was a most successful, but these verses indicate to us that Paul was already planning his next movements and ministries. His plans are those which were “purposed in spirit,” raising the question as to whether they were only Paul’s plans, purposed in his spirit, or whether they were God’s plans, directed by His Spirit. The answer is likely “both,” as Paul’s words to the Ephesian elders in Acts 20 clearly indicate:

“And now, behold, bound in spirit, I am on my way to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there, except that the Holy Spirit solemnly testifies to me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me” (Acts 20:22-23).

A look at the map would indicate that Macedonia and Achaia were hardly on Paul’s way to Jerusalem. For that matter, Jerusalem was hardly on Paul’s way to Rome. Paul was in Ephesus, and so traveling to Jerusalem via Macedonia and Achaia would require him to go north and then to double back, past Ephesus to Jerusalem. Rome would then require him to go Northwest. There were reasons for this itinerary. Paul was planning to go to Jerusalem via Macedonia and Achaia so that he could take a collection from these churches to the poor saints in Jerusalem. The apostles in Jerusalem had urged Paul to remember the poor, and this was something which he was more than happy to do:

And recognizing the grace that had been given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we might go to the Gentiles, and they to the circumcised. They only asked us to remember the poor—the very thing I also was eager to do (Galatians 2:9-10).

And so Paul had purposed to minister to the poor in Jerusalem by taking a collection from Macedonia and Achaia to the needy. When Paul gave his defense before Felix, he said,

“Now after several years I came to bring alms to my nation and to present offerings” (Acts 24:17).

And as he wrote to the Romans,

25 But now, I am going to Jerusalem serving the saints. 26 For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor among the saints in Jerusalem. 27 Yes, they were pleased and they are indebted to them. For if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they are indebted to minister to them also in material things. 28 Therefore, when I have finished this, and have put my seal on this fruit of theirs, I will go on by way of you to Spain (Romans 15:25-28).

Paul sent Timothy and Erastus on ahead, to begin making preparations for the collection. Paul then wrote to the saints in Corinth, encouraging them to make a generous contribution to the needy in Jerusalem:

1 Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I directed the churches of Galatia, so do you also. 2 On the first day of every week let each one of you put aside and save, as he may prosper, that no collections be made when I come. 3 And when I arrive, whomever you may approve, I shall send them with letters to carry your gift to Jerusalem 4 and if it is fitting for me to go also, they will go with me. 5 But I shall come to you after I go through Macedonia, for I am going through Macedonia 6 and perhaps I shall stay with you, or even spend the winter, that you may send me on my way wherever I may go. 7 For I do not wish to see you now in passing for I hope to remain with you for some time, if the Lord permits. 8 But I shall remain in Ephesus until Pentecost 9 for a wide door for effective has opened to me, and there are many adversaries. 10 Now if Timothy comes, see that he is with you without cause to be afraid for he is doing the Lord’s work, as I also am. 11 Let no one therefore despise him. But send him on his way in peace, so that he may come to me for I expect him with the brethren. 12 But concerning Apollos our brother, I encouraged him greatly to come to you with the brethren and it was not at all desire to come now, but he will come when he has opportunity (1 Corinthians 16:1-12 see also 2 Corinthians 8:1-15).

These verses are an excellent illustration of the guidance of God. Paul has a plan in mind, which is fully in accordance with biblical principle and the encouragement of the Jerusalem apostles. But God is going to modify the plan, as later developments in Acts will reveal. And with respect to Paul’s visit to Rome, he will surely go there, but in a way very different from that which he might have expected. He will get there by means of a near riot in Jerusalem, legal charges made against him, and an appeal to Caesar. How God’s ways are beyond our thoughts and expectations. Paul will arrive in Rome, under military guard, and that city will never be the same for it. Luke now proceeds to inform us of the events which precipitated Paul’s departure from Ephesus and ultimately his arrival at Rome. Just as Jesus “set His face toward Jerusalem” (Luke 9:51, 53), so Paul has set his face toward Jerusalem, and ultimately Rome.

Demetrius and the Ephesian Uprising (19:23-32)

23 And about that time there arose no small disturbance concerning the Way. 24 For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, was bringing no little business to the craftsmen 25 these he gathered together with the workmen of similar trades, 446 and said, “Men, you know that our prosperity depends upon this business. 26 “And you see and hear that not only in Ephesus, but in almost all of Asia, this Paul has persuaded and turned away a considerable number of people, saying that gods made with hands are no gods at all. 27 “And not only is there danger that this trade of ours fall into disrepute, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis 447 be regarded as worthless and that she whom all of Asia and the world worship should even be dethroned from her magnificence.” 28 And when they heard this and were filled with rage, they began crying out, saying, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” 29 And the city was filled with the confusion, and they rushed with one accord into the theater, 448 dragging along Gaius and Aristarchus, Paul’s traveling companions from Macedonia.

If there was a connection between the miracles performed in conjunction with the ministry of Paul, the exposure of the sons of Sceva, and the renouncing of magic by the saints in Ephesus, I believe there is also a connection with the riot instigated by Demetrius. The name-dropping of the sons of Sceva is a form of magic, but so is idolatry. Idols are fashioned by men, in the form which men want them. Idols represent what men value and want most. In essence, idols represent what men choose to worship. Idols are worshipped in such a way that they will produce for men what they want. Thus there are idols for everything men desire … material prosperity, power, victory in war, safety at sea, rain, good crops, and so on. Idolatry is the “worship” of a certain “god” which is intended to result in that which the “god” is designed to control and to provide. Idolatry is but one of many forms of magic. And so, if the people of Ephesus have come to see the futility of magic, they have also come to see the futility of idolatry. It was not just Paul’s preaching, then, that threatened the business of the idol-making industry, it was the practice of the Christians and its impact on the whole city which was threatening their business.

Demetrius was the instigator of the disturbance. He was a silversmith, who not only made silver shrines of Artemis, but who brought much business to the craftsmen. When Demetrius spoke, these craftsmen listened, for their livelihood and prosperity were dependent, to some degree, on this man and on his favor. Demetrius called the craftsmen together, in a kind of union meeting (not that all unions or union meetings are evil), seeking their support in ridding their city (and, indeed, all of Asia) of Paul and his preaching. Notice the argument of Demetrius, as outlined by Luke:

(1) Our prosperity depends upon the business of making idols of Artemis (verse 25).

(2) Paul’s preaching is contrary to the practice of idolatry and is greatly damaging our business (verse 26). Paul preached that there was but one God, and that He alone was the Creator of all things. Idols are but a creation of men, and are not gods at all. This preaching was being widely accepted, and as a result, the idol sales were down, and so were their profits.

(3) Our trade may not only suffer, but it may fall into disrepute. Not unlike the abortionists, who make money off of the sin and sorrow of their clients, and off of the death of the innocent, these idol-makers do not wish to be looked down upon, and their trade to become a matter of ill-repute. Once a part of the upper echelons of Ephesian society, these craftsmen are now looking little different than the Jewish exorcists. If magic falls from favor, and the books which teach the art of magic are burned, then what will people think of the idol-makers?

(4) If Artemis continues to lose favor, then her temple will become worthless, and the role of Ephesus as the guardian of her temple will be worthless.

“The way”—does this not suggest a lifestyle, and is this lifestyle not that which threatened the business of the angry men? It is not money which motivates the murder mongers in the abortion clinics, who cater to the self-indulgence of those who want their services? And they are so incensed when their “rights” are threatened. It was a matter of pride. The pride of these craftsmen would soon be lost, for their trade would be looked down upon. The pride of Ephesus would likewise be lost, for the goddess Artemis and her temple would lose their glory and glamour.

This was all these craftsmen needed to hear. Paul was threatening their livelihood, their trade, and their pride. It was really self-interest that moved these men into action, just as it has so often been the case, whether for the employee or for the employer, whether for the union or for management. But the chant which they took up had to sound more religious, more paganly pious. And so they shouted, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” (verse 28). This was a cry rooted in rage and anger, not in love or devotion. But it was a cry which caught the attention and motivated others to join in. It was like saluting the flag (at least in days gone by) or eating apple pie. It was the civic thing to do in Ephesus.

While there was great confusion among the masses who joined in, not knowing what “cause” they were for or against (verses 29, 32), there was some careful orchestration taking place behind the scenes. It was Paul whom they really wanted to arrest and to run out of town (or worse), but they were only able to seize Gaius and Aristarchus on their way to the theater (verse 29). These men were companions of Paul, and thus they would have to do, at least for the time being.

Attempted Addresses by Paul and Alexander (19:30-34)

30 And when Paul wanted to go into the assembly, the disciples would not let him. 31 And also some of the Asiarchs 449 who were friends of his sent to him and repeatedly urged him not to venture into the theater. 32 So then, some were shouting one thing and some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and the majority did not know for what cause they had come together. 33 And some of the crowd concluded it was Alexander, since the Jews had put him forward and having motioned with his hand, Alexander was intending to make a defense to the assembly. 34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, a single outcry arose from them all as they shouted for about two hours, “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!”

Paul was a typical preacher in that whenever he could find a crowd he was eager to preach to them. When Paul got word that his companions had been seized, and that the disturbance was really over him and his preaching, Paul wanted to address the mob. The disciples knew better. This was a hostile mob, that was capable of anything at this moment in time. There was no order and thus there was no assurance that he would be heard, or that he would have lived long enough to have delivered his sermon. The disciples would not allow Paul to go there, and neither would some of the “Asiarchs,” who were friends of Paul (verse 32). They repeatedly sent him messages to stay away, and not to enter the theater. For a man who preached the gospel, Paul was well regarded by at least some of those in positions of influence and power.

Luke then includes a somewhat puzzling story of another man who wished to address the crowd, whose name was Alexander. We know from our text that this man was a Jew. Since the Jews wanted to put him forward, it is unlikely that this man was a believer, or that he wished to defend Paul. It is my opinion that this Jew was anti-idols. This was a point of pride with the Jews. No doubt this was a point of irritation with the Ephesians, for they needed only to see that Alexander was a Jew to know they didn’t want to hear him, and to flaunt their idol worship before him. It was like a Southern Baptist preacher standing before a large crowd at a brewers convention. I believe that the Jews hoped Alexander could convince the Ephesian mob that they were not on Paul’s side, but that they were opposed to idols. But in spite of the fact that Alexander was given the platform, he was not given the chance to speak. He was shouted down, for they could tell he was a Jew, and as a Jew he could not have anything good to say about Artemis.

I think that Luke’s accounts of these two men who attempted to address the mob are related. Both men were Jews. Both men rejected idols and idolatry, at least in principle. Paul was not allowed to enter the theater, but Alexander was present. Paul never reached the platform, but Alexander did. But we know that the disciples and the Asiarchs were right in keeping Paul from going to the theater because the one man who tried to speak (beside the city clerk) was not able, based solely on his race. And so I believe Luke is telling us that had Paul stood before that mob, they would never have heard a single word. Going to that theater would not have gained a hearing for the gospel, and it could have cost Paul’s life.

The City Clerk’s Rebuke and Benediction (19:35-41)

35 And after quieting the multitude, the town clerk 450 said, “Men of Ephesus, what man is there after all who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is guardian of the temple of the great Artemis, and of the image which fell down from heaven? 36 “Since then these are undeniable facts, you ought to keep calm and to do nothing rash. 37 “For you have brought these men here who are neither robbers of temples 451 nor blasphemers of our goddess. 38 “So then, if Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint against any man, the courts are in session and proconsuls are available let them bring charges against one another. 39 “But if you want anything beyond this, it shall be settled in the lawful assembly. 40 “For indeed we are in danger of being accused of a riot in connection with today’s affair, since there is no real cause for it and in this connection we shall be unable to account for this disorderly gathering.” 41 And after saying this he dismissed the assembly.

While neither Alexander nor Paul could get a hearing from the crowd, the city clerk did. Notice that even he did not get an immediate hearing, however. This man seems to have been very wise. I think that in his wisdom he chose to wait for some time to try to address the crowd. He let them shout for two full hours after Alexander was put forward, until the crowd must have worn down. As they were gasping for breath, he move forward and spoke to the mob. His words would prove to be effective, for when he was finished he would have shown them the error of their ways and, having dismissed them, would succeed in sending the crowd home, without further violence. Let us consider the argument of the clerk, especially in comparison to the argument of Alexander, as outlined above. Notice how his argument is almost the exact opposite, in order, to that of Alexander. While the argument of Alexander begins with profits and self-interest, ending with the worship of Artemis, the clerk’s argument begins with the worship of Artemis and ends with economic concerns.

(1) Who can possibly undermine the worship of Artemis in Ephesus, for everyone knows and believes that she fell from heaven, and everyone knows that Ephesus is the guardian of her temple. The clerk gives every appearance of being a worshipper of Artemis. That she is a true god seems to be the premise of his whole argument. Everyone knows and believes that Artemis is the god of Ephesus, and that Ephesus is the guardian of her temple. So what are these people so upset about? Do they really think that some foreigners can come and upset the “faith” of the Ephesians by any teaching they might put forth? In essence, the clerk is telling the craftsmen and the crowds to relax, and to “keep the faith” (of Artemis).

(2) The men who have been brought forward are men of good reputation, who are not guilty of any violations of Ephesian law concerning the worship of Artemis. While they were charged with offenses against the religion of Ephesus, the city clerk knew better. He was aware of the presence and ministry of Paul and others, and they had not broken any laws. While these men did not believe in Artemis or worship her, they did not desecrate her temple or speak blasphemously of her. What a testimony to the circumspect lifestyle of these men and of Paul, who taught against idolatry, but who did not engage in the blasphemy of Artemis (as the Jews blasphemed Jesus, see 18:6).

(3) If anyone had done damage to the business of the silver craftsmen, there were courts to settle these matters. This was, at best, a “kangaroo court.” It really looked more like a lynch mob. There were legal remedies for any grievances. If Demetrius or any of his colleagues had a grievance with anyone, let them take the matter up in the right place and manner. That’s what the courts are for. No mob rule in this city.

(4) If there are any laws being broken, it is Demetrius and this mob who are guilty, and so the sooner everyone goes home, the better for all concerned. Rome would not look favorably on this mob. Things were out of control. This was an illegal assembly. Unless this crowd is eager to have a Roman regiment disperse them, they had better move on, and quickly.

With this argument, the crowd was persuaded and went home. And with this disturbance, Paul was persuaded to move on. After calling the saints together and encouraging them, Paul set out to fulfill his plans. And so the great Ephesian campaign ends, at least so far as Paul’s presence is concerned.


One can hardly view the city clerk’s dismissal of the mob assembled at the theater in Ephesus apart from the story of Gallio’s decision in Acts 18. While our Lord’s promise to Paul was for his safety there in Corinth, it seems that from Corinth on Rome becomes the protector of Paul and of the preaching of the gospel, rather than his persecutor. Here we find a pure pagan, a man who seems to have worshipped Artemis himself, taking a position which defended not only Paul, but also those with him, even though they preached a gospel message that denied the existence of his “god.” Here, as in Corinth, Paul’s safety and protection was not the result of his own defense, for neither in Corinth nor in Ephesus did he have the opportunity to speak in his own defense. In Corinth, he was interrupted by Gallio, before he could offer of word of defense here, in Corinth, Paul was not even allowed to enter the theater, to speak in his defense. But God provided protection for Paul and for the preaching of the gospel through pagan men who were in positions of political power. The sovereignty of God is once again evident.

I think that it is worthy of note that this pagan politician seems to be aware of what Paul and the other Christians preached, but also that he was confident that they had not broken any laws. The faith of the Christians in the power of God enabled them to live within the laws of the land. If they differed with the worship of the Ephesians, they made their differences clear in a way that was within the law. In Acts the laws of the land are only disobeyed when they directly contradict God’s law (see Acts 5:29).

There is a rather strong movement in our own days to disobey the laws of the land, in the name of Christian “protest.” In the Book of Acts, I do not see “protest,” but I do see “proclamation.” It was through the preaching of the Word of God and through the divine demonstration of the power of God that the business of Demetrius and others was threatened, not by angry Christians, protesting against the temple of Artemis and the worship of idols. I am not saying that protest is always wrong, but when protest involves the violation of the laws of the land, we find ourselves acting in a way that finds no precedent in the Book of Acts, and I am not so sure that we will find it elsewhere, either. To follow the pattern of Acts, I would think that the preaching of the Word of God would so change lives and values that abortion clinics, for example, would find that fewer and fewer women wished to use their services. There is room for some careful thought given to this matter. Is the “mere” proclamation of the gospel not enough? The way that John the Baptist, Jesus, and His apostles preached it, it was enough. In each case, the gospel was proclaimed in a cultural context, exposing the sins and evils of that culture, and presenting the shed blood of Christ as sufficient atonement for all sin.

I want to end this message by focusing your attention on the matter of magic in the Bible. Magic is always that which is contrary to faith in God and which is a part of heathen or apostate religion. The contest between God and “false religion” is often presented in terms of the power of God versus the power of magic. At the exodus, the first great contest between God and magicians can be seen. While the Egyptian magicians could not interpret the dreams of the Pharaoh, Joseph could, by the power of God (Genesis 41:8, 24). When the contest between God and the “gods of Egypt” began through Moses (Exodus 7:11, 22 8:7, 18-19 9:11), God’s power was demonstrated to be superior to man-made magic. This was even evident to the magicians (see Exodus 9:19). Later on, Daniel could do through the power of God what the magicians of Babylon could not do (Daniel 1:20 2:2, 10, 27 4:7, 9 5:11).

The sad fact is that magic did not only characterize the heathen. This we could easily understand. Magic began to worm its way into the beliefs and practices of the Israelites:

1 Then the word of the Lord came to me saying, 2 “Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel who prophesy, and say to those who prophesy from their own inspiration, ‘Listen to the word of the Lord! 3 ‘Thus says the Lord God, “Woe to the foolish prophets who are following their own spirit and have seen nothing. 4 “O Israel, your prophets have been like foxes among ruins. 5 “You have not gone up into the breaches, nor did you build the wall around the house of Israel to stand in the battle on the day of the Lord. 6 “They see falsehood and lying divination who are saying, ‘The Lord declares,’ when the Lord has not sent them yet they hope for the fulfillment of word. 7 “Did you not see a false vision and speak a lying divination when you said, ‘The Lord declares,’ but it is not I who have spoken?” ‘“ 8 Therefore, thus says the Lord God, “Because you have spoken falsehood and seen a lie, therefore behold, I am against you,” declares the Lord God. 9 “So My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations. They will have no place in the council of My people, nor will they be written down in the register of the house of Israel, nor will they enter the land of Israel, that you may know that I am the Lord God. 10 “It is definitely because they have misled My people by saying, ‘Peace!’ when there is no peace. And when anyone builds a wall, behold, they plaster it over with whitewash 11 tell those who plaster it over with whitewash, that it will fall. A flooding rain will come, and you, O hailstones, will fall and a violent wind will break out. 12 “Behold, when the wall has fallen, will you not be asked, ‘Where is the plaster with which you plastered ?’” 13 Therefore, thus says the Lord God, “I will make a violent wind break out in My wrath. There will also be in My anger a flooding rain and hailstones to consume in wrath. 14 “So I shall tear down the wall which you plastered over with whitewash and bring it down to the ground, so that its foundation is laid bare and when it falls, you will be consumed in its midst. And you will know that I am the Lord. 15 “Thus I shall spend My wrath on the wall and on those who have plastered it over with whitewash and I shall say to you, ‘The wall is gone and its plasterers are gone, 16 the prophets of Israel who prophesy to Jerusalem, and who see visions of peace for her when there is no peace, ‘declares the Lord God. 17 “Now you, son of man, set your face against the daughters of your people who are prophesying from their own inspiration. Prophesy against them, 18 and say, ‘Thus says the Lord God, “Woe to the women who sew bands on all wrists, and make veils for the heads of of every stature to hunt down lives! Will you hunt down the lives of My people, but preserve the lives for yourselves? 19 “And for handfuls of barley and fragments of bread, you have profaned Me to My people to put to death some who should not die and to keep others alive who should not live, by your lying to My people who listen to lies.” ‘“ 20 Therefore, thus says the Lord God, “Behold, I am against your bands by which you hunt lives there as birds, and I will tear them off your arms and I will let them go, even those lives whom you hunt as birds. 21 “I will also tear off your veils and deliver My people from your hands, and they will no longer be in your hands to be hunted and you will know that I am the Lord. 22 “Because you disheartened the righteous with falsehood when I did not cause him grief, but have encouraged the wicked not to turn from his wicked way preserve his life, 23 therefore, you women will no longer see false visions or practice divination, and I will deliver My people out of your hand. Thus you will know that I am the Lord” (Ezekiel 13:1-23).

There is a world of difference between faith and magic. Faith rests in the character of God, as well as in His promises. Faith also recognizes the sovereignty of God, and His infinite wisdom, which is beyond human expectation or comprehension. Thus, faith does not dictate to God, but trusts in Him, and waits for Him to act, in His own time and way. “Wait upon the Lord” is a guiding principle for those of faith. With magic man manufactures “gods” according to the wants and needs of man. And those who make such “gods” then establish the rules by which this “god” is supposed to act. Getting what one wants becomes of matter of formulas and the skill of the men who call upon the “god.”

Two key ingredients of true religion and magic are (1) worship , and (2) words. Allow me to explain what I mean. Worship establishes or acknowledges the values which underlie one’s religion. As you have probably often heard, worship is really “worthship.” That is, we worship that which we hold to have the greatest worth. The Israelites’ primary obligation was to worship God, to love and serve Him with their whole heart, soul, mind and strength. The first commandment made this worship exclusive—God alone. Idolatry and magic makes something else the object of greatest worth and thus of worship. If men value success, or prosperity, or fertility, or military might, they create a “god” or “goddess” who controls such things. Men then worship that “god” to get what they value so highly.

Second, true religion and magic are dependent upon words . Notice that in magic, you have to have the right words to produce a certain spell or result. And so the sons of Sceva used the words “the Jesus whom Paul preaches.” This was their formula. But God is not controlled by men or by formulas. He is sovereign. The sovereign God has given us words, however, which we are to keep, and by which we are to live. The “words” are the Word of God. Our faith is to be rooted in God’s Word (see Hebrews 11), not in our “words.” When men trust in God, they trust in His Word, but when their trust in God is absent, they begin to trust in other words. How often, in Israel’s history, these were the words of the false prophets, who assured the people of God that they could disobey God and prosper, while God promised prosperity only for those who obeyed His Word (see Deuteronomy chapters 6-8 28).

Put in the context of the history of Israel, we can say that magic found its way into the life of God’s people when their faith waned. Magic is a man-made replacement for faith, when faith has ceased to exist. Magic is trust in false “gods” and trusting in false “gods” is magic.

In the Book of Acts, magic is most often associated with Judaism. Simon, of Acts 8, was at least a Samaritan, a half-Jew. Bar-Jesus (Acts 13) was a Jewish false prophet. The sons of Sceva, likewise, were Jews, of the high priestly family. Judaism had so turned from faith in God that they had resorted to magic instead. Here was the source of power for many Jews. It was not the Word of God and the worship of God which were primary any longer, but “words” (magic spells and formulas) and the worship of material things. For the Jews, who had forsaken literal idols, their “god” was often money, they money that could be made, for example, by casting out demons. No wonder our Lord taught that men cannot serve God and money (Matthew 6:24).

In Acts, we find Judaism at it best and at its worst. In the Bereans (Acts 17:10-15) and Apollos (18:24-28), and the 󈫼 disciples of Ephesus” (Acts 19:1-7), we find Judaism at its best. Its faith is in Messiah to come, and in the promises of the Word of God found in the Old Testament. People like these folks needed only to have “the blank filled in,” needed only to be shown that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, in fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. But in the sons of Sceva and many other Jews we find Judaism at its worst. They have turned from trust in God and in His word to magic, to man-made religion, which promised to “meet their wants and needs.” What a sad departure from that which God had desired and demanded of His people.

In the New Testament epistles the teaching and practice which Paul or others condemns as false is often “Jewish” in nature and in origin. Ephesus will be greatly impacted and troubled by Jewish false teaching. This is very evident in the epistles of Paul to Timothy. The error which Paul refutes is that which is taught by those who wish to be “teachers of the Law” (1 Timothy 1:3-11). These would-be teachers engaged in speculation (1:4), although they spoke with great confidence (1:7). Their theology was really rooted in myths (1:4), not in the revealed Word of God. When these Jews turned from the truth of God they turned to speculation, myth, and conjecture. When they turned from the power of God, they often turned to some form of magic.

The people of Ephesus, and especially the saints, recognized that the practice of the sons of Sceva was really magic, that it was worthless, and that it was evil. And so they learned from the beating of the sons of Sceva and they renounced that form of magic which they had formerly practiced. As a result, the people of Ephesus took note and the gospel was advanced in Ephesus and all of Asia.

I find a principle to be underlying our text in Acts 19, which could be stated something like this: To the extent that the church has power, the unbelieving world will seek to imitate it to the extent that the church lacks power, it will seek to imitate the world and its power.

The sons of Sceva were Jews, Jews of the high priestly line, but they had forsaken the faith of their fathers, and so they lacked power. The power of God was at work in Ephesus through Paul, and the sons of Sceva sought to imitate this power. Those who lack power seek it elsewhere.

My question for us today is this: “Is the world attempting to imitate the power of God which is evident in the church, or is the church today trying to imitate the power which is in the world?” I fear that the answer is all too evident. If the world is not trying to imitate the power of God in the church, then the church must have lost its power. And if the church is trying to imitate the power which is in the world, it has surely lost its power. The church is imitating the world much more than the world is imitating the church. The church, I fear, has turned from the worship of God and the Word of God to magic.

“What forms of magic are being practiced by Christians today?” There are, of course, those illicit forms of magic which Christians may practice in private, which they know to be wrong. For example, Christians may become involved in Tarot cards, in astrology, or in other occult practices. But these things are clearly forbidden. We recognize these as magic, or at least as evil.

What I am referring to is that form of “magic” which may be passing for Christianity. I am speaking of those practices which have the adjective “Christian” before them, but which are really magic. I will not be very popular for saying so, but these forms of magic have their “books,” too, books which ought to be burned, and which were probably purchased in Christian book stores. Some of them are books on “success” in one form or another, success which can be attained by following the right formulas. This “success” may be in the form of “answered prayer,” prayer which says the right things, which has the right words.

Magic finds its way into Christian thinking and practice to the degree that we turn from God alone as the object of our worship, and when we turn from His Word as the basis for our faith and practice. I have been greatly impressed concerning the relationship of God’s Word to God’s power in the Bible. Satan promised power to Adam and Eve, but to get it they had to disregard and disobey God’s word. Satan offered Jesus power, if He would but act independently of God and His word (Matthew 4 Luke 4). Notice that when Jesus responded to Satan, He always used the Word of God. That is because our Lord knew that the power of God cannot be divorced from the Word of God. To put it differently, we have power when we obey the Word, not when we reject it. Jesus rebuked His Jewish opponents by telling them that they knew neither the Scriptures nor the power of God (Matthew 22:29). Notice these texts which directly link the power of God to the Word of God:

For the word of the cross is to those who are perishing foolishness, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God (1 Corinthians 1:18).

For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For in it righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith as it is written, “But the righteous shall live by faith” (Romans 1:16-17).

And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power. When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high (Hebrews 1:3).

For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do (Hebrews 4:12-13).

Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord seeing that His divine power has granted to us everything pertaining to life and godliness, through the true knowledge of Him who called us by His own glory and excellence. For by these He has granted to us His precious and magnificent promises, in order that by them you might become partakers of divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world by lust (2 Peter 1:2-4).

Christian magic often takes the thoughts, methods, and means of secular, ungodly people, and seeks to sanctify it with Christian labels. How often Freudian psychology or some revised version of it (for example, Transactional Analysis) and pawns it off as Christian psychology. How often the church borrows its fund-raising methodology from the world and then seeks to give God the credit. How seldom the hand of God is evident in such a way that even the unbelievers recognize that it is God who is at work.

How much of our Christianity has magic as the motive and the method? We want God to meet our needs, to give us what we want, and thus we turn to formulas which assure us of His blessings? How much of our doctrine is speculative, rather than authoritative? How much of our knowledge is based upon secular thought, rather than on the Word of God? How many of our terms cannot be found in the Bible or defined by Scripture? How much emphasis is there on the “right method” or formula? How much room is left for God to overrule our desires or plans? How often is “integration” spoken of, in the sense of integrating Bible truth with other “truth,” under the banner, “All truth is God’s truth”?

I say to you that there is a great deal of magic being practiced today, but unlike the Ephesian saints of Paul’s day, we have not come to recognize it yet. Paul’s deliverance was not by magic, but by the sovereign working of God, not so much because of Paul’s efforts (which God disallowed), but in spite of them, through the instrumentality of a pagan politician, whose name is never mentioned—the city clerk of Ephesus. May God’s power be at work in and through us, so that the magic of unbelief is seen to be a fraud, and so that we renounce and reject it, to the glory of God and to the advancement of the gospel.

433 “Reasoning” in Acts usually implies a kind of apologetic ministry, addressed to unbelievers. See Acts 17:2, 17 18:4, 19 19:8-9 24:25

434 “According to the Western text, Paul had the use of the building from 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. Whatever the textual basis of this reading may be, it probably represents what actually happened. Tyrannus (if he was the lecturer) no doubt delivered his lectures in the early morning. At 11 a.m. public activity came to a stop in the cities of Ionia (as in many other parts of the Mediterranean world), and Lake and Cadbury are no doubt right in saying that more people would be asleep at 1 p.m. than at 1 a.m. But Paul, after spending the early hours at his tentmaking (cf. 20:34, devoted the burden and heat of the day to his more important and more exhausting business, and must have conveyed something of his own energy and zeal to his hearers, who had followed him from the synagogue to this lecture hall, for they were prepared to forgo their own siesta in order to listen to Paul.” F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts , Revised Edition (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988), p. 366, fn 22, citing Lake and Cadbury, Beginnings , I.4, p. 239

435 The total time Paul spent in Ephesus, according to Paul’s words in Acts 20:31, was three years.

436 “Forty years after this Pliny in his famous letter to Trajan from Bithynia will say of Christianity: ‘For the contagion of this superstition has not only spread through cities, but also through villages and country places.’” A. T. Robertson, III, p. 315.

“For two full years this work went on. While Paul stayed in Ephesus, a number of his colleagues carried out missionary activity in neighboring cities. During those years his colleague Epaphras appears to have evangelized the cities of the Lycus valley, Colossae, Laodicea, and Hierapolis--cities which Paul evidently did not visit in person (Col. 1:7-8 2:1 4:12-13). Perhaps all seven of the churches of Asia addressed in the Revelation of John were also founded about this time. The province was intensively evangelized, and remained one of the leading centers of Christianity for many centuries.” F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts , Revised Edition (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988), p. 366.

437 “Linen aprons used by servants or artisans (Martial XIV. 153). Paul did manual work at Ephesus (20:34) and so wore these aprons.” A. T. Robertson, III, p. 317.

438 The phenomenon of miracles, signs, and wonders were almost always manifested through apostles (though see Philip in Acts 8:6, 13) to accredit the messenger and his message--the gospel. See Acts 7:36 8:6, 13 14:3 15:12, 19 1 Corinthians 1:22 14:22 2 Corinthians 12:12 2 Thessalonians 2:9 Hebrews 2:4.

439 See Luke 11:14-26, especially verse 19.

“The closest parallel to the Ephesian exorcists’ misuse of the name of Jesus appears in a magical papyrus belonging to the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, which contains the adjuration: ‘I adjure you by Jesus, the God of the Hebrews.’ F. F. Bruce, The Book of Acts , Revised Edition (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988), p. 368, fn 32, citing K. Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae , I (Leipzig, 1928), Pap. Bibl. Nat. Suppl. gr. 574, lines 3018-19.

440 “The first know is ginosko , the second, epistamai . Page comments: ‘It is easy, but unsafe, to say that ginosko = ‘acknowledge,’ i.e., as recognizing His power, whereas epistamai = ‘know’ merely expresses acquaintance with a fact.” The variation seems strange, and the reason for it is not clear. Gloag translates it: “Jesus I know, and with Paul I am acquainted.’ In the closing question ye ( hymeis ) is put first for contemptuous emphasis: ‘But you , who are you?’” Carter and Earle, page 289, citing Page, p. 206, fn 49.

441 There is a slight problem here, because Luke has told us that there were 7 sons, and yet he says here that “both” (which seems to imply 2 sons) were attacked by the demonized man. There seem to be two solutions. (1) Only two of the seven sons were involved with this man. (2) The term “both” includes all seven. This second view is held by A. T. Robertson, who writes, “Papyri examples exist where amphoteroi means ‘all’ or more than ‘two’. . . . So here amphoteroi includes all seven. ‘Both’ in old English was used for more than two.” A. T. Robertson, III, p. 318.

442 “Of praxeis , deeds , Lake and Cadbury say: ‘The noun also has the technical meaning of ‘magic spell,’ so that the probable meaning here is that the former exorcists now disclosed the secret formulae they had used.’” Carter and Earle, page 290, citing Lake and Cadbury, Beginnings IV, p. 242, fn. 52.

443 “ Perierga , magical arts , is used elsewhere in the New Testament only in 1 Timothy 5:13 (‘busybodies’). But it is also ‘a technical term for magic.’ Books is biblous , the Greek word ‘for papyrus. These would be parchment or papyrus scrolls with magical charms written on them. Deissmann gives numerous examples of these. Moulton and Milligan assert that biblos always has ‘the connotation of sacredness and veneration.’ Gloag notes that the term ‘Ephesian Letters’ was commonly used for magical charms or amulets worn by the Ephesians and widely prescribed by the magicians of that day. So this scene is especially appropriate to Ephesus.” Carter and Earle, p. 290, fn. 55, citing Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East , pp. 250-260, 304-309 Moulton and Milligan fn 56 VGT p. 111 Gloag fn 57 Op . Cit ., II, p. 206.

444 Paul says in Acts 20:22: “And now, behold, bound in spirit, I am on my way to Jerusalem, not knowing what will happen to me there, except that the Holy Spirit solemnly testifies to me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me.” This is surely a commentary on Luke’s statement in Acts 19:21.

445 See also Acts 23:11 28:14, 16.

“This was the way that he actually went, but originally he had planned to go to Achaia (Corinth) and then to Macedonia, as he says in II Cor. 1:15f., but he had now changed that purpose, perhaps because of the bad news from Corinth. Already when he wrote I Corinthians he proposed to go first to Macedonia (I Cor. 16:5-7). He even hoped to spend the winter in Corinth ‘if the Lord permit’ and to remain in Ephesus till Pentecost, neither of which things he did.” A. T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1930), III, pp. 320-321.

446 “The guilds, and the problem they presented to the non-conforming Christian, haunt the background of the New Testament. They were societies not trade unions, primarily social, and multitudinous in ancient society. Records exist of guilds of bankers, doctors, architects, producers of woollen and linen goods, dyers, workers in metal, stone or clay, builders, carpenters, pastry cooks, barbers, embalmers and transport workers. ‘No other age’, writes S. Dill, ‘felt a deeper craving for some form of social life, greater than the family, but narrower than the state.’ Formed under this gregarious urge, the trade guilds satisfied the need of the people at large for social intercourse and self-expression. On the other hand, the tumult at Ephesus shows that the social club, under adroit leadership such as it found in Demetrius, could be used as a sharp political weapon. Hence the sensitiveness of the Roman administration on the whole subject, and the severe laws about illegal association.” Blaiklock, pp. 158-159.

447 “The cult of Ephesian Artemis was of earlier date than the Greek settlement at Ephesus the name Artemis is non-Greek. Artemis was traditionally venerated as the protector of wild creatures. This association with wild creatures survives, in an altered form, in her worship on the Greek mainland as the “queen and huntress, chaste and fair” of Ben Jonson’s poem Ephesian Artemis, on the other hand, seems to have acquired some of the features of the great mother-goddess venerated from time immemorial in Asia Minor. Her temple, replacing an earlier one which was destroyed by fire in 356 B.C., was reckoned one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It covered an area four times as large as that of the Parthenon in Athens it was supported by 127 pillars, each of them sixty feet high, and was adorned by Praxiteles and other great sculptors of antiquity. It stood about a mile and a half northeast of the city which Paul knew. All knowledge of its whereabouts had been forgotten for centuries, when its foundations were discovered on the last day of 1869. The great altar, west of the main building, was discovered in 1965.” Bruce, pp. 373-374.

448 “When the excitement spread to the crowd, the theater was the natural place for them to stage a demonstration. The theater of Ephesus, cut out of the western slope of Mount Pion (modern Panayirdag), could accommodate nearly 25,000 people. It was the regular meeting place of the civic assembly, which was held three times a month on this occasion the demonstrating populace appears to have constituted itself as a meeting of the assembly, but a highly irregular one.” Bruce, p. 376.

449 “Lily Ross Taylor writes: ‘The Asiarchs were the foremost men of the province of Asia, chosen from the wealthiest and the most aristocratic inhabitants of the province.’ They held office for one year, and several were appointed each year.” Carter and Earle, p. 296.

450 “This officer is not a mere secretary of another officer or like the copyists and students of the law among the Jews, but the most influential person in Ephesus who drafted decrees with the aid of the strategoi , had charge of the city’s money, was the power in control of the assembly, and communicated directly with the proconsul. Inscriptions at Ephesus give frequently this very title for their chief officer and the papyri have it also. The precise function varied in different cities. His name appeared on the coin at Ephesus issued in his year of office.” A. T. Robertson, III, p. 330.

“This was the town clerk, the executive officer of the civic assembly, who took part in drafting the decrees to be laid before it, and had them engraved when they were passed. He acted also as liaison officer between the civic government and the Roman provincial administration, which had its headquarters in Ephesus. The Roman authorities would hold him responsible for the riotous assembly, and might impose severe penalties on the city. He therefore did his best to calm the assembly, and when at last he succeeded, he addressed them.” Bruce, p. 378.

451 “But Lake and Cadbury say that the term ‘came to mean “‘sacrilege’” as being the real crime involved in robbing a temple.’ So they translate the adjective ‘sacrilegious’ (cf. RSV). Josephus quotes the Egyptian historian Manetho as declaring that the Jews ‘had been guilty of sacrilege < hierosylia >and destroyed the images of the gods.’ He also quotes Moses as telling the Israelites before they crossed the Jordan: ‘Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such nor may one steal what belongs to strange temples, nor take away the gifts that are dedicated to any god.’ It is obvious that these two accusations, of blasphemy and temple-robbing, were leveled against the Jews.” Carter and Earle, p. 299.

Ephesos Timeline - History

The Book of Ephesians

Ephesians 2:2-3 - Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Ephesians 2:8-10 - For by grace are ye saved through faith and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

Ephesians 6:11-17 - Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

Ephesians in The New Testament - A Brief Overview

Painting of Paul the Apostle by Rembrandt - 1657

Introduction to The Book of Ephesians

Brief Summary. Paul instructs the church that Christianity is for all men, Jews, gentiles, male female, bond, free, all are united in Christ. All men can enter, but it is only by grace, through faith in Christ, and this is God's free gift. The Christian can never revert back to the law of Moses, and to overcome the powers of darkness the believers must unite in Christ.

Summary of The Book of Ephesians

Purpose. While Paul was in prison he had been thinking about his work as an apostle. He realized that Christ came to unite Himself with man, and unity was the core purpose of the book of Ephesians. The Church of Jesus Christ is now the spiritual body of believers who represent Christ on earth. The great truth of Christianity is that God is the uniting the world to Himself through the believers. The idea of unity can be seen clearly in the first chapter of Ephesians ( Ephesians 1:3-10), and this principle of unity is seen throughout the rest of the entire book. God's one eternal purpose is to unite one body of believers through Christ, "the church, which is his body, the fulness of him who filleth all in all" (Ephesians 1:22-23). The Christian is saved by grace, through faith, and the very faith is a gift of God, therefore no one can boast. Christianity is is about God uniting Himself with man, through Jesus Christ, and men being united in Jesus Christ, and this great opportunity is God's gift.

Audience. The book is address by Paul to the church at Ephesus. Most early writers spoke of the epistle as having been addressed to the Ephesians.

Authorship. Paul names himself as the author of the epistle to the Ephesians (Ephesians 1:1 and 3:1). Several of the early church writers site the book of Ephesians, for example Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria both state that Paul was its author. The style of writing is clearly Paul's, he begins with his customary personal greetings and words of thanks, and addresses issues of doctrine, as with the rest of his letters.

Date. Most scholars agree that Paul wrote his letter to the Ephesians towards the end of his first imprisonment in Rome (Ephesians 3:1 4:1), which would have been around 61 AD. The letter was hand delivered by Tychicus (Ephesians 6:21) just as the letter to the Colossians had been (Colossians 4:7-9).

Audience. The book is address by Paul to the church at Ephesus. Most early writers spoke of the epistle as having been addressed to the Ephesians.

Outline of the Book of Ephesians

The Believers Position United to God - Chapters 1-3
The Believers Privileges United to One Another - Chapters 4-5
The Believers Protection United Against the Evil One- Chapter 6

The Name Jesus In Ancient Hebrew Text
"Yeshua" in First Century Hebrew Text. This is how the name "Jesus" would have been written in ancient Hebrew documents. The four letters or consonants from right to left are Yod, Shin, Vav, Ayin (Y, SH, OO, A). Jesus is the Greek name for the Hebrew name Joshua or Y'shua which means "The LORD or Yahweh is Salvation".

Ephesians Maps and Resources

Map of the Roman Empire (14 A.D.) - This map reveals the Roman Empire during the time shortly after the birth of Jesus, in 14 AD at the time of the death of Augustus. The order which prevailed in this extensive empire, the good military roads, and the use of Koine Greek as the general language of culture throughout the area were among the factors which multiplied the rapid spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's First Missionary Journey (48 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia Minor where Paul visited in his first missionary journey. Around 48 AD, in the springtime, Paul and his companions Barnabas and Mark were sent on a mission from the church in Antioch. This would be the first of Paul's Missionary Journey's. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's Second Missionary Journey (51 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his second missionary journey. Paul re-visits a couple cities in Asia, one of which was Lystra where he was stoned and left for dead a few years earlier. He later has a vision that leads him over to Greece and Paul and his companions travel and minister in various cities in Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens and Corinth. Later Paul returns to Ephesus and finally to Caesarea and Antioch. (Color Map)

Map of Paul's Third Missionary Journey (54 A.D.) - This map reveals the areas in Asia and Greece where Paul visited in his third missionary journey. On Paul's third missionary journey he returned to the cities he had first visited on his first missionary journey. During this time he decided to remain in Ephesus for about 3 years, and this city was the main focus of his activities and an important Christian community (Acts 19). (Color Map)

Map of the New Testament World - This map reveals the "Nations" within the ancient world during the first century A.D., the time of the New Testament. The map includes the areas of Israel, Asia, Greece, and Italy. (Color Map)

Map of New Testament Asia - This map shows the cities within Asia Minor during the first century A.D., the time of the New Testament. The map includes the principal cities of Asia including Tarsus, Ephesus, and Colossae, and provinces like Galatia and Pamphilia. (Color Map)

Copyright Information
© Bible History Online

Many Thanks to The British Museum, The Louvre, The Oriental Institute, Dr. Amihai Mazar, Dr. Dan Bahat, Dr. Craig Johnson, Yaacov Kuc, Chuck Smith, Jim Darden, Ron Haaland, The Translators of the KJV, and many others including Jesus, the Word of God.

A Case Study of Ephesus: 40 Years, 3 Authors, 7 Documents, 7 Leaders

Ephesus was a significant city in the first decades of the Church. The Ephesians appear several times in the New Testament, over a roughly 40-year period. Pete Hammond has written a cycle of four Bible Studies on the message to the people of Ephesus.

Mr. Hammond is a long-time leader in the American church, starting with his involvement in the racial integration of a few southern Universities during his early years on InterVarsity Staff, and continuing through his long-term passion of challenging Christians to live as witnesses in their "marketplace" - in their everyday jobs.

Introduction: The Ephesian “Reality Challenge”— Potential forConflict, Opportunity for Love

The raw material for the church in Asia Minor was full of deeply rooted differences! Each new convert brought personal, cultural, religious and economic experiences, habits, wounds and patterns that would be deeply challenged as they declared their loyalty to Jesus Christ. Each one of them would be faced with the necessity of deconstructing their old world view and life patterns in order to enter into the transformation of becoming a true and faithful citizen of the kingdom of God— together. In light of what God in Christ had done for them (Eph 1-3), this collection of forgiven sinners would begin a life-long experience of learning how to “. lead a life worthy of the calling to which you have been called, with all humility and gentle-ness, with patience, bearing with one another in love, making every effort to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.” (Eph 4:1-3). Look at the stuff they brought into this new community.

  • The Long-standing Ethnic Issues: The Jew-Gentile history of conflict. The founding couple (Priscilla and Aquila) and the first pastor (Timothy) were in mixed-race families.
  • Differing Religious & Spiritual Baggage: Synagogue Jews, secular Jews, hostile university Greeks, John the Baptist disciples, magic arts occultists, and fertility cult worshipers.
  • Varying Economic Levels: Wealthy Romans, refugees from persecution, university students & leaders, and fraudulent religious opportunists.
  • Diverse Personality Types: Tough minded intellectuals, sick invalids and their families, manipulative schemers, enthusiasts/ecstatics, and a youthful and insecure pastor (Timothy).
  • Unique Conversion Experiences: Spoke in tongues, extended argument/debate, miraculous healing, liberation from demons, escaped religious sexual bondage, and a second generation believer (Timothy).

How then shall they live together?

Chapter One: ca. 52 AD
Author: Luke

Leadership: Paul, Priscilla, Aquila, Apollos

Outcomes: Engagement: Early Seeds of Witness Sown

Chapter Two: ca. 53-55 AD
Author: Luke

Outcomes: Harvest: Diverse Conversions Amid Major Conflict

Chapter Three: 3 Months later
Author: Luke

Outcomes: Leadership Transfer and Development Retreat

Chapter Four: ca. 61 AD
Author: Paul

Outcomes: Lessons: On Living the Gospel Together

- Some dispute that this letter was for the Ephesian church. John Stott analyzes the arguments and concludes that "the mystery remains unsolved." Here I assume it is, along with the possibility that it was also intended for the daughter churches inland from port city Ephesus. (Stott, God's New Society, IVPress, 1980.)
- F.F. Bruce affirms that Ephesus is probably the mother church to "the seven churches of Asia of the Lycus valley including Colossae, Hieraplois, and Laodicea." (Bruce, NICNT Book of Acts, Eerdmans, 1968, pg. 389.)

Chapter Five: A Few Years Later
Author: Paul

Outcomes: Guidance for Pastoral Leadership and Development of Disciples

147 thoughts on &ldquo John Exiled to Patmos &rdquo

What I do know is we’re in the last days of GODS kingdom yet to come life is in full circle of the life that GOD had intended for mankind and I look forward to GODS new world for mankind.

The Kingdom of Gad started in 33 A.D. Jerusalem. Read Daniel 2:44.

Best evidence I have seen so far places the Birth of Jesus in the fall of 6 BC. The key is when John the Baptist was born. He wasn’t conceived until after the 8th course of the Abijah Division was completed. I think that date is well established. His mother was in her 6th month when newly pregnant Mary arrives. The death of Jesus was closer to 1 AD since there was no 0 AD or 0 BC.
Frank Steinle

It looks like you meant to write, “the death of Herod the Great was 1 BC or 0 AD.” Also, can you explain more about the date for birth of John the Baptist, as in Spring of 6 BC? Unfamiliar with the reference there.

There is no 0 AD. anno Domino — the year of our Lord — starts with 1.

I believed if the persecution was not going to start, the gospel would have remained in Jerusalem.

The death and resurrection of Jesus was closer to 30 AD or 33 AD. If it was 1 AD he would have only been a few years old at most.

So Jesus died at the age of 6?? I think you may have made a typo.

Herod died in 4 BC..If slaughter of innocents is true ? Jesus born 7 B.C. 1st day of pass over on Saturday only 26, 30, 33 A.D. Jesus was 33 1/2 when crucified.. had to be born around Sept 7 B.C.

The 3 wise men that came to Jesus’s birth were out watching their sheep, they would watch them 24/7 in the spring that’s when the lambs were born, they are only born once a year, in spring. I believe that’s also when the lamb of God was born. Amen

I do believe a careful study of The Bible will tell you that John the Baptist was born in March and Jesus was born 6 months later in September around the time of the Jewish New year, about the 20th. According to the Book of Daniel, Jesus entered Jerusalem in 33 AD on the day we call Palm Sunday and was crucified dead that same pass over week.

It wasn’t the 3 wise men watching the sheep, it was shepherds. The 3 wise men didn’t come until Jesus was around 3 years old. Remember, after they left and didn’t come back, Herod sent soldiers to kill any male child 2 years or younger.

The three wise men were not present at his birth. They came later from the east. Only the Shepard’s were mentioned being in the fields during his birth.

There were not only three wise men … probably closer to 100.

The 3 wise men is a misnomer. In three Far East they say 12 wise men. The bible pointedly says they traveled from afar, many throngs agree that they were descendants of Babylonian high ranking servants who served at the time of Daniel and that Daniel taught their ancestors to look for the sign of the birth of MESSIAH. The “Shepards” however, watched their sheep in shifts with variables like shearing or selling.

If Jesus was born 6bc and died close to 1 ad then he was 7 years old??

How was his death in 1 AD and around this time john the apostle was born. I think Jesus death wasnt around this time

Does this mean Jesus died at the age of 6 1/2?

What are you guys talking about? Who said anything about Jesus dying in 1 AD

What a typo! Didn’t you mean the Kingdom of GOD?

Hi my sister it isn’t what god told me.almost a year ago I was gifted with prophecy I had never heard of it. I spent 20 years of my life as a bisexual woman who had a preference only for women. Married a woman, divorced, had one other situation then decided I’m no good at being in control of my life and decided that I wanted god to take over for me and committed to following his laws, if it says don’t be, do this, don’t do that I strive to not. I’m not boasting I’m simply telling my story. I’d hear things a lot it wouldn’t be much it sound like a voice Of a man. I’d go to study about what I heard and it would be written. I started living a life of sin in my teenager years i didn’t like the laws so I strayed far away from Christianity not knowing much except for the culture. It was written in Daniel those days wouldn’t happen until around the last days.as i was studying Daniel 2-7 that’s when I heard a voice out of no where say to me “money is the root of all evil” I was guided to Abraham Lincoln who is on the copper coin eventually the Statue of Liberty which is also made of copper. Another time I heard This voice say to me as I was studying Ezekiel 23 “KJV” it said to me on the part where it said “they discovered her nakedness” it was talking about women executing judgement on the Statue of Liberty. Clear as day “that’s a he Statue of Liberty” I had not known.there are many different stories in Ezekiel about both history and future. This particular one is about Jerusalem as it’s written in psalms Jerusalem is considered to be citizenship of basically every nation if I remember correctly with the exception of Judah I just learned this yesterday. Back to my point the copper kingdom ruled all of the earth in Daniel 2 he is speaking of the United States then there’s a iron kingdom who eventually rules the spirit led me with the question along the lines of “who is number one in iron producing” it is China. I tell you these things because the more you study even down to the persecution. The more you understand what I know comes from god and that what is written is all true and these are the last days.china will become first in world power. I believe that man they spoke about who comes in the last days is that president. From the things I’ve been studying Thessalonians 2 speaks of a man who will be basically be cursing god,calling himself a god, and speaking against anything worthy of worship. There are Muslim camps in China and Christians being persecuted on a spectrum of outstanding numbers. If it is written to not do it, or to do it, we should be following the word as it’s written when Jesus returns he starts with the churches if I remember correctly James said. Do I believe in once saved always saved, yes but as my dad put it, it is for the true believers. And I don’t think most of us will truly know who that is. Revelation said “ not a speck on our robes. Even I Could’ve fell away from god unknowingly. My hope for my brothers and sisters is that we stop compromising the law in a gentle and loving way. All of us are struggling with something. That we try to help our brothers and sisters in love. Jesus is real and he will return.

thank you for sharing this.

What are the references that John of Patmos was John the Apostle? Who says he was born in 6 AD or when he died, or was exiled and by whom?
These are all assumptions and none are from scripture.

Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian all affirmed the Apostle John as the author or Revelation.

Exactly. From the perspective of the writer of Revelation, it makes more sense to consider that it was John the Baptist who had this inspired vision under guidance of the Holy Spirit during the time he was imprisoned(Patmos) by Herod, before being beheaded.

No. Obviously you didn’t read the book of Revelations. 1:1-9.

I received this from someone I know. Would you be so kind as to share your input, thanks! “I am beginning a series of sermons on the Letters to the Seven Churches this Sunday, and my preparation has stirred up my frustration with writers and commentators who repeat what they have been taught without any documentary or evidentiary support. For instance, almost every commentary I have checked states definitively that John was in exile on Patmos. There is absolutely no evidence that this is so. John himself tells us he was on Patmos “for the word of God and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.” No writer mentions John’s exile until Tertullian, who wrote nearly 150 years later. Patmos was a small island home of several fishing villages and was never recorded as a place of exile for anybody. What is very interesting is that in the decade preceding the 2nd century, which would have been while John was in residence, we have a record of several churches springing up all over the island. It seems to me much more likely that John, in his 90s at this point, retired from Ephesus to this quiet island and began evangelizing the villages he found there. He may not have been able to keep up with the metropolitan congregation at Ephesus any more, but God had a place of service for him yet.” What say you?

John the Baptist was beheaded before Jesus was crucified, so no, John the Baptist was not on the Island of Patmos. Rome tried to kill John by poisoning, it didn’t kill him so they exiled him to Patmos. He had visions there, that is Revelations. God’s Kingdom began with Jesus, it is still culminating until his return.

True i personally do agree with you that John was exied after they failed to kill him with boiled oil when he could not die they labled him a witch and exiled him to the Island refference go and read books of myrty

John , the disciple ..(john 2118) was imprisoned for the testimony of Jesus in 94 A.D… As was the custom, when Domitian died, who ever he exiled were released. The last record of John being seen was in 110 AD. John ate the little book and preached again to many people and kings

Correct, verse 5 clearly shows that it could not be John the Baptist since he was not a witness to the resurrection: “the first begotten of the dead,”
Re:1:5: And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood

Reaaalllly wrong wrong wrong…

Am wondering if we’re Christians giving comments on this site because John the Baptist was not a disciple of Jesus. He had his disciples who later followed Jesus when he was beheaded so there is no way John the Baptist could be the revelator. John the revelator is a disciple of Jesus.

john the baptist was beheaded before Jesus was crucified, see matthew 14:1-12. the John sent to isle of patmos to receive the revelations of things that was to shortly come to pass was the apostle john.

God Bless You! When people come up against my knowledge of scripture as everyone claims to be right. The Lord taught me this scripture to put a stop to it.
Do not waste time on unlearned questions for it does create much strife.

Was he the same John as John the Baptist

Wrong. It is John the Baptist that was beheaded by Herod not St. John the Divine, author of the Book of Revelations.

John the Baptist was not the same person as John the Beloved. The
Baptist lost his head while Jesus
was still ministering. John the Beloved ministered after Jesus ascended to Heaven and he is the one who was exiled to Patmos.

John the Baptizer and the disciple John are two different people. John who was exiled on the Isle of Patmos was the disciple.

Shalom! I believe Patmos was an island where Rome sent its criminal. It appeared that Yohanan was writing to Churches in the Roman provinces, not control by Herod. Also, Yahasha was living while Yohanan was in prison. This appearance of the one like the Son of Man, would probably not be Yohanan , of the Levite priesthood, Yahasha’s cousin, Elizabeth and Zechariah’s son, and the one who baptized Him.

Everything you need to know is in the Bible it tells you who Exiled John and why He is the apostle John if you read the Bible it will answer all your questions and try to read with a open mind don’t be doubtful allow the Holy Spirit to guide you through the book and you’ll find everything that you are looking for the bless people in Jesus name amen

I wondered that! I’ve never been taught the 2 John’s were the same(?)

john the revelator and john of patmos are the same he exiled to the isle of patmos by herod

Yes Kim, we are in the last days and JESUS took me by the spirit into the Universe one night or early morning and there it was revealed to me that the end will be in 2028 but we don’t know the day nor the hour, not even the angels nor Jesus only the Father.
Another chap had a vision of 2028 and devastation and destruction in 2024. Kissinger said that there will be no Israel in 2022 maybe it will change it’s name or it will be bombed out. Google THE END 2028 on youtube. Many books have also been written about this year 2028.

2008 huh? It is not known when the world as we know it will end, the faithful do not need evidence. The Lord will not show this to anyone. Repent for your blasphemies.

Yeshua does not take anyone by the spirit. Those days have long been over and anyone who claims Prophecies or Visions are liers. We are not in the last days bc it’s been over since the destruction of the Second Temple.

In Joel 2:28 the Bible says And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: This prophecy is repeated in Acts 2 by Peter after Pentecost. The Holy Spirit is alive and well and speaking today through true believers to those who will listen.

Aomen yes He the Holy Spirit is ALIVE.

Totally correct according to Daniel 9:24-27 which is fulfilled upon the destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70 AD.

You must be joking – John The Revelator’s prophecies were written long after 70AD and Titus’ sacking / burning of the 2nd Temple and Jerusalem. Also, the prophesies were only partially fulfilled “in-type” at that Time – still yet to have their true complete fulfillment at a later date … checking into this phenomena in several modern scholarly works which describe in infinite detail how this was NOT the literal complete fulfillment and how that is yet to come, along with both Jesus as Divine Husband coming FOR His Bride (The Church) and only then, coming back WITH His Bride (The Church and other believers) to set up His Kingdom on earth and reign with us literally 1000 years. After this Satan is loosed again for a short season to foment rebellion and a final conflict then final judgement and punishment in The Lake of Fire. Yes, a literal Lake of Fire.
Maybe try letting scripture interpret scripture and forget about mere men’s obviously ecclesiastically biased interpretations (RC Church, and incomplete reformed churches with a-millennial / preternatural views – I’m looking at you)

Good job so few have it right.

If you say it will end in 2028… it will indeed NOT end then! If God didn’t even allow his Son… which is perfect, upright, righteous, blameless and blemish free, sin free…. know when he would be coming back, then with all due respect… he certainly wouldn’t tell a human being that is unrighteous, sinful, lives by flesh, corrupt, and has to depend on a Saviour in order to get to heaven. We need to quit thinking that we are equals with God and that he would reveal things to us that he hasn’t even revealed to his own Son and the Holy Spirit. DO NOT BELIEVE IN SAID PROPHECIES OF HUMANS.

I agree. No one knows but God. The bible says that the right will be believed to be wrong and the wrong will will be believed to be right. Also, “Their stomach will be their god.” These things are happening, true but the Holy Spirit comes only to believers. The world end when all those in Jesus book of life accept Him. (144,000. )

The writer on this thread said, “Christ referred to him (John) as the Disciple whom Jesus loved.” I don’t think the writer of that scripture was saying that Christ referred to John as the one whom He loved. That was the writer’s interpretation. Yahasha loved all His disciples. John may have been Yahasha’s younger brother, or such a young devoted disciple.
Therefore, Yahasha may have had a deep affection for him. Just my thought on my last point.

Indeed brother you are right, the End shall not be disclosed to mankind or anything in heave and on earth. It is only GOD the almighty who knows the hour,day,month and year. This is written in the bible and a human opinion.

The writer on this thread said, “Christ referred to him (John) as the Disciple whom Jesus loved.” I don’t think the writer of that scripture was saying that Christ referred to John as the one whom He loved. That was the writer’s interpretation. Yahasha loved all His disciples. John may have been Yahasha’s younger brother, or such a young devoted disciple.
Therefore, Yahasha may have had a deep affection for him. Just a lot on my last point.

First please don’t put your trust in YouTube Video’s. I have seen so many people led down some crazy rabbit holes by listening to false teachers on You Tube. Secondly, Jesus and the Father are one. Read John 1. The Word (jesus) was in the beginning with God and was God. They aren’t two separate people. For further proof answer this simple question. Who created the world. In Genesis it clearly states that it was God, but in John 1 it states that the word created everything. That word then became flesh (john 1:14). Before being caught away with crazy ideas, first focus on who Jesus really is.

No one knows the hour,how special are you that Jedus Christ could just reveal to you that the end is 2028,the scripture says that anyone lying in my name shall be forgiven but whoever lies in the name of spirit shall not be forgiven. Preach repentance and the hour which is here with us

Matthew 23 and 24 is all one story… Jesus (in ch. 23 was telling the scribes and pharisee that THEY were going to kill his disciples ..and while he was leaving them in the temple .. one disciple said something about the temple and then Jesus went up on the Mt. of olivet… Peter James John and Andrew followed Jesus and ask Jesus When is all of that stuff you told them Going To Happen. and when is the end coming ? Jesus said no one knows the day or hour BUT This Generation shall not pass till all if this is going to happen and everything I tell you now… I paraphrased but this IS WHAT Jesus said. The seven seal Judgments was cast upon those Hebrews untill there was not a single Hebrew to be found left alive through out the Promised Land ..FOR THEIR END of Days had come
… The 70 weeks that were given to the children of Daniels people HAD come and WAS past.

Even though Jesus had a certain evial level of love for Peter, James and John, “The One whom he loved”, who is mentioned only in the book of John was not one of the 12, but was Lazarus (John 11:1-3).

Jesus appeared [third appearance after his resurrection] to 7 disciples while they were fishing in the sea of Tiberias. John is one of the 5 disciples who are distinctly identified by name, but the one whom he loved is one of the other two who are not identified, to obscure this disciple’s identity (John 21:1-4)–and for good reason: this was his romantic partner. As it turns out, while the other disciples failed to recognise Jesus, it was this one who recognised him and alerted the others (John 21:7).

When Jesus assigned Peter duties related to leading the disciples and the church just before Jesus ascended back to heaven, Peter was perplexed and annoyed about the one whom Jesus loved, knowing that the loved one was not part of the group that he was assigned to lead, but was more intimate to Jesus Peter asked what the role of that disciple was, but Jesus reprimanded him to mind his own business (John 21:20-22).

Apparently, Peter was unaware that Jesus had introduced the one whom he loved to his mother saying, “Woman, behold, your son [in law]” and saying to the one whom he loved, “Behold, your mother [in law]” (John 19:25-27).

Why would Jesus have introduced the disciple and his mother to each other in this fashion if it was John, who had his own mother, the wife of Zebedee, the father of John and James?

It was this one whom Jesus loved who remained by Jesus’s side through Jesus’s arrest, prosecution and crucifixion while all the disciples under the charge of Peter fled. John, being inspired by Christ, actually fled to the Mount of Olives, where Christ revealed mysteries to him while Jesus of Nazareth was actually being crucified at Golgotha/ Calvary (google, The Acts Of John, Verse 97). And yes, Jesus Christ, the son of Yrue God, and Jesus of Nazareth, the son of the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, were identical but two separate individuals, just as True God and the Lord God are separate. Christ promoted Peter to be the oregect of the disciples and the foundation for realising this distinction (Matthew 16:13-20). By perceiving this distinction, Peter demonstrated that he had spiritually developed sufficiently for the Hoky Spirit to communicate directly with him, revealing mysteries to him thus Christ promoted him.

Jesus entrusted the care of his mother to the one whom he loved, Lazarus, because Lazarus was a very wealthy man, which John was not.

The siblings Mary, Martha and Lazaras were the offsprings of Syro, the Duke of Syria and Echaria, aka Eucharis, who both reigned over several territories. These 3 siblings were very wealthy, which was how they were able to cater for the sustenance of Jesus and his entourage, and they had their own territories: Mary reigned over Magdala in Galilee, and she owned the tower or castle of Magdala, hence her epithet “Mary Magdalene”. Martha reigned over Bethany, where Jesus first met the rich, young, ruler, Lazarus (Mark 10:17-22). Lazarus owned the territory in which Jerusalem was built. This was why he was let into the courtyard with Jesus on Jesus’s way to be prosecuted while Peter was fotced to remain outside (Mark 14:51-54 John 18:15-16) Lazarus owned the place, and so he could go anywhere he desired in it.

Because Jesus was intimate with Lazarus and Lazarus was so powerful and wealthy, Jesus felt comfortable jokingly casting him in a the parable where Lazarus was destitute, leprous and powerless eating crumbs from a rich man’s [Dives’s] table (Luke 16:19-32).

In his real life, Lazarus deliberately gave up his wealth to charity and lived the life if a simple, destitute man as Jesus had advised him when they made acquaintance at Martha’s home in Bethany (Mark 10:17-22). Lazarus was so devoted to Jesus that while every disciple fled when Jesus was arrested, he was the only one that remaibed with him, only running away when the captors tried to capture him as well (Mark 14:50-52). Google “Secret Mark” for Jesus’s escapades with the one whom he loved.

There is much, much more I could share on the mysteries, but I just wanted to clarify that the ONE whom Jesus loved, in a romantic way, was Lazarus, not John.

You are are a liar and of the synagoge of satan. Satan the Lord rebuke you and the deciectful lies you are telling. May God have mercy on your soul.

You must be out of your mind or an urgent of the devil.. Do not deceive people.
The devil is out there to twist and deceive people. god forbid.

Im in love with Jesus. He is in love with me
..Do not read the bible in flesh

You got the demonic lies from Da Vinci code.

So very sad for you Derruc. You must live in a homosexual life. Someone has twisted the truth for selfish reasons. If someone has taught you this lie that you wrote, then RUN for your life. You give your life to Jesus and the HOLY SPIRIT will show you the truth. I am so very sorry for you Much needed prayers here fellow Christians. Father, i pray you will open Derruc’s understanding to your WORD. In Jesus name i pray.

Pure garbage! Jesus never married nor had any romantic experiences. To say that he had a male lover is especially heinous blasphemy because he would be violating The Law, and He Himself said that he did not come to abolish the Law but came to fulfill it! That is that as the only sinless man He did not break even one of them and thus fulfilled their hithero unattainable requirements. Patrick is correct, you are of the synagogue of Satan you are an antichrist and a stumbling block. Get behind me, Satan!

Turn from the wickedness of calling Jesus a homosexual and turn from this sin yourself before it’s too late. God is not mocked. The Lord rebuke the devil and I rebuke you in the name of the Lord Jesus.

Your comments have no and I mean NO basis in scripture. The apostle John wrote of the spirtuality of Jesus. He got it, he understood what Jesus the Christ was teaching. In saying that Jesus’ love for John was physical is blasphemy because homosexuality is an abomination to God the father.

The disciple Jesus loved and married was Mary.. It WAS the custom that a priest must be married. Their Priesthood began on their 30th birthday…. Jesus was called their Rabbi so he would have been married. He died in June of 26 AD, born end of Sept. 07 B.C. and Herod the Great tried to kill him a year or two o before he died in 04 B.C. Do the math.

I believe Ye to be mistaken brother as the Lord offended No Man ( there are No real men here ) yet behold he offended ALL flesh for he did NOT fornicate ( thee original sin ) & the blood line ( if ye wish to argue ) was AND IS from David’s bloodline. Our savior, in the flesh ( by this material realms rules ) a son & seed of David ( as the Lord promised, so it IS & was done ) & in the spirit god’s only begotten son … we ALL knew this name for it is written I Am the roots & seed of David, I Am the bright & morning star.
Behold that day of calamity commeth brother where the great serpent shall be ‘ cast ‘ into the pit & as written as the prophets spake, even if ye all hold hands….
For men shall know pains of a woman who travels for one hour ( remember they can take 4 Xs the pain as they bring forth children )
If ye do not believe this just behold our kingdom. The sperm, aquatic, amphibious, reptilian, then mammals <

look & behold what is became of the 1st 4 especially in polluted areas.
The tables in this “ marketplace “ HAVE been turned. Unlike our filthy, lying hearts

here’s Johnny ( rips vail ) let us bring in the new year & maybe perhaps they shall repent or just keep watching in wonder, believing they’ll be saved & that those gold rings of bondage shall hide anything from the fathers riders….

complete rubbish, you are claiming a sinful Jesus, Get thee hence Satan!
You will be held responsible for those you mislead.

I believe John indeed was a faithful disciple of Christ and indeed the one that Peter refered to as the closest to him. And yes, exiled to the an island due to persecution and indeed visions written in the book of revelation. These visions deem Truth… The vision of the kingdom of God is a bit far fetched in some aspects. But indeed with Faith and works obedience to gods word there is a paradise awaiting for all who believe in Christ Jesus and god The father and that indeed a son was crucified and risen three days later that we each have a rebirth after death. This disciple John did indeed die or met his death while exiled…if Left he we would have been decapitated or hung as it is said “”cursed is a man that hangs from a tree””…and what is not written or known…cursed is is anyone beheaded before the spirit leaves the body in those times until about The 15 to 1600s

What was the culture on the prison island? What did they eat? How did they eat?

I have had a hard time finding out the food John ate the ship he left patmos in. I know about the little book. The exact time john was on patmos. I read between 5 and 15 years. I am lost. Where can I get futher information that will help in my study.

Is there any proof that when John fell somehow and God was putting the stars in place that He looked over His shoulder saw him fell and God made the star to fall out of His hand to catch John. I heard thisnstory from two total different preachers can someone help please

That Doctrine is not in the Bible. Read Revelations 20:15

Please read Genesis and find out the truth on how God spoke and the sun was placed in the sky. No where in scripture does it talk about John falling and God catching him. Hope that helps

Where in the Bible is John set in the Coulton of boiling oil?

That is not in the Bible but is in other accounts about John. Here is a link that refers to those later writings. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08492a.htm

At no place where it is written but if you are willing go and and fox book of myrtys these things takes place during the dark ages when Roman Catholic have take over the church persuting the saints for preaching the word of God under inspiration of the Holy spirit which was against what they believe acording to Roman catholic doctrine in those days

WHEN the Roman Empire established the Universal Church (Catholicism).. Constantine divided the empire into seven districts, appointing each district one POPE. He then divided these seven into three Regions. The largest church in each region was given another pope having authority over church business in THAT district.. It was a BEAST with seven heads and ten crowns. The Emperor was the AUTHORITY over the church. Constantine then gave his palace to the Pope in Rome. The devil gave the beast his authority and his seat. And anyone that would not take the mark (call themselves Catholic) could not buy or sell. This happened in Feb. 380 A.D. when THIS church was officially named as the ONLY religion through out the Roman Empire. READ the history of the church… Martin Luther and all the other Protestant reformers understood this and proclaimed The Pope and Catholicism to be the beast described in Rev. 13…. They were using the day for a year method. (WRONG) In 539 BC Gabriel said, The Messiah will be killed after 62 weeks… 565 years Jesus was killed… A week in prophesy is 9.1129 years. A day is 1.30184… years. 42 months after Feb.380 would be (give or take a few months because a miscalculation of .0001 makes a big difference ) July of 2020. All of prophesy has been fulfilled except for the 7th trumpet and 7th vial judgment.

john was poisoned and would not die and it was obvious his God was sparing his life so he was exiled to the isle of patmos to permanently dispose of him because of his teaching Gods word



i believe in him as son of God ad
whoever believes in him will not meet destruction by any means as far as you are among the choosen ones for his inheritance

The Disciples believed Jesus was the Son of God too but they did meet with destruction by why of martyrdom. The demons also know that Jesus is the Son of God and we know that they will meet their destruction. Satan also knows and yet is said to be headed for the lake of fire.

Christians are not the only ones knowing and declaring that Jesus is the son of God, because even the demons declare it.

Yes, the demons know it, believe it and they shudder

Is every person one of gods chosen or is it only oersons that ask god in our hearts

No, not every person is chosen. God sent His only begotten Son Jesus that all who believe in Him would be saved and have eternal life. If a person does not turn his or her life over to Christ, they will have to face judgment.

Asking God or Jesus to come into your heart is fantacy. To give your life to Christ, is to ask him to provide for you every day in every area of your life and your living. Faith is the name of the process by which God provides for us. It is this Faith that saves us. In allowing God to provide, he changes us and eventually resurrects the Christ within each man. To do otherwise is to deny Christ and not to believe is of the anti-Christ- all scriptural. .

What you say is true except the fantacy (sic) part. When you declare Him Lord of your life and believe God is real you receive a new recreated spirit, which resides in the center of your being (your spiritual heart). And yes, faith is the foundation of our hope in the promises and counsel of God.

Does anyone know how long did John The Divine spend on Patmos?

Yes. He was on the Isle of Patmos, only about a year, and then wrote down, all that he had seen in visions, in Ephesus. Imprisoned in,,AD95, and released in AD96.

How could John have been born 6 a.d. And been with Jesus as the one most loved? This is confusing me.

That would make John a few years younger than Jesus. This is John the Apostle, not John the Baptist, Jesus cousin born a few months before Jesus.

Both John the Baptist (son of Elizabeth – Jesus’ mother’s cousin – and Zechariah) AS WELL AS John the disciple/apostle (born of Salome – Jesus’ mother’s sister – and Zebedee) were cousins of Jesus.

I read where Jesus was born about 3 AD which would have made him 3 years older than John the Apostle. But the BC and AD calendar confuses me, too.

It is confusing mainly because of switching to the Gregorian calendar. Because of some pretty solid historical facts Jesus was born probably between 4 and 6 BC. That in itself is confusing (bc)!
I am amazed by many of the postings on this Revelation subject, most of which don’t seem to follow scripture at all.

John was born 6 a.d means that Jesus was older to John for 6 years. In Christ Ministry , He called John and James to follow Him. Because John had contemplated much about the grace and love of Jesus, the Bible teaches us that early life of John was bad. he was called the son of thunder. Because of taking time to be close to Jesus , He went on experiencing life transforming power from the word of God in the mouth of Jesus. Later John became an intimate friend of Jesus everywhere Christ was. It is the same like me and you , as soon as you get closer to Jesus in prayer and constant study of the Bible , you will become like Jesus. God bless you .

You are right to question. BC means Before Christ and AD means After Death of Christ Jesus.

The Life of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, who is our Lord and Father God in the flesh is a time of itself in between BC and AD. What Indescribable and cannot be compared Living Lord and Saviour Father God and Christ Jesus the Spirit of Truth. Amen.

Not after death, Latin anno domini, Year of the Lord, because all the years of the world belong to our Lord since is birth. Now they try to change it to C. E, for common era because they want to deny that these are the years of the Lord.

A.D. is Latin for “Anno Domini” which translates as “in the year of our Lord”. This is a pretty common mistake. If it meant “After Death,” then would we call the years between His birth and His death?

You have wrong information. Anno Domini means after the birth.

Anno Domini= after the birth.

Was John able to see when he was at the island of potmas ?

Atlist i’ve learnt something…Thanks

A really informative moment. Keep it up and God reveal more for us.

How old was John when
he arrived at Patmos?

I read where John was exiled about 81 AD, but didn’t get the revelation until 95 AD and died in Ephesus about 100 AD.

People for all of time have tried to understand the Revelation of John… not just the symbolism, but the message. What is amazing to me is that this is taking place right here, right now… all that was to “come to pass” is coming to pass…. and the message is just as real today as it’s ever been. When we see these things we are to look up, for our redemption draws near. I believe with my spirit and soul that it is very nigh. Thank you for your words of understanding.

I respect your opinion but I don’t believe it’s accurate. Those living in the first century AD were told they were living in the last days and the end was near. The question is: The end of what? The Old Covenant age is the focus of eschatology. It came to an end shortly after the completion of the New Testament. That age ended in AD 70. We are not living in the last days! Great news!

That is a belief that many hold but it is not true. The book of Revelation was written after 70 “AD and nothing that happened in 70 AD fits any of the prophesies of the Old Testament, much less the New. God reveals His Word to those who search it and study it. The idea that the Covenant of Grace only lasted 40 years is stretching God’s Word by just a couple of thousand years.

Many scholars believe Jesus was born at 4 BC, as a Monk merely guessed at the year of His birth. But judging by Leaders at the time of His birth, that guess was off by a few years. It was the will of God for John to have a long life, as he had much to accomplish in writing the Gospels and Revelation. John was younger than Jesus by about ten years..and lived to be nearly 100.

Do we know if John was on Patmos with other prisoners and what type of mining were the prisoners bound to? Also what would he have sustained himself with I am looking to present to my students and would like to paint a picture of what life might have been like for John. Thank you, God Bless you.

did mary the mother of Jesus died as other apostle or she was assumed into haven?

The Bible does not say. I have to refer you to your pastor since we are only qualified to respond to historical questions.

She was human and she died.
No record but common sense. It is given unto man once to die and then comes judgement.

Revelation is not a prediction of the future. John was writing directly about what was going on in Rome and its provinces at the time. He was responding to the cultural, political and economic climate where Jew believers of Christ were accommodating Rome imperial cult worship at Trade guild events in order for political and economic advancement. He was Palestinian Jew who professed Jesus as Isreal’s Messiah much like the James, Jesus brother, and Peter. The first part of Revelation is a direct polemic against Pauline tradition omitting the Torah requirements for converted Gentiles. Having a vast knowledge of the Hebrew bible, he makes allusions in to stories only insider Jews would know, converted Gentiles would not have made the connection. Case in point, Rev 2:14 and the reference to Balaam and Balak in Numbers. converts would not have made the connection. He also ues Pauls exact wording when he speaks about stumbling blocks for believers that Paul uses in in I Corinthians 8. He sets up his writing much like Paul does, by claiming the information is reveled by Christ. He also follows the prophetic tradition of declaring the word of God found in the Hebrew Prophets, Thus says…
Lastly, John is almost writing his fantasy on how Yom Yahweh takes place with the Chirst figure. the day of atonement that Amos references. What is very clear once the taken the time to actually study the book, the overarching message John is making that Jesus Christ is the Israelite Messiah.

The dangers of not understanding John of Patmos, his world and his traditions has lead to the book of Revelations being one of the most misunderstood, miss used books in the new testament. Starting with the misuse to influence the early church in the second century.

You are correct! If one would only study context, learn when John wrote his Revelation, which was approximately AD 68, and how it aligns with the coming destruction of the temple just two years later, one would start to understand that Revelation has nothing to do with us in the 21 century western Christianity, but for the AD 70 converts from Judaism to followers of Christ, that were reverting to the Old Covenant, of which, Revelation admonishes them.

This does make some sense because the seven lampstands were the seven churches all in the same region close to each other in what is now western Turkey.
However, I believe all those letters written to the churches in the New Testament were intended for all the churches to come as well. There were specific messages for the churches. What modern church now does not need those messages, even the messages in Revelation?

Few of the events seen by John have come to pass. While some may be applied to his personal era, the worlds Oceans have not turned to blood 1/3 of the fish have not died 1/3 of the people have not died and a burning star the size of a mountain has not hit the Earth. Just saying…

Did John have to do hard labor with the other prisoners while he was in Pathmos?

Did John have his eyes plucked out as alleged by most people and if yes, at which point did it happen?

In preparing my book, I have noticed that ‘Bibles”, while believed to be the “Word of God” by many, have been systematically edited/modified over the years. No, I am not talking about the various translations, I am talking about references being made, then omitted later. Years ago, the Book of Revelation was entitled:
“The Apocalypse of Jesus Christ as Given to John the Beloved, an Apostle of Jesus Christ while in exile on the Isle of Patmos”

Attempt to locate a bible with that information on the ‘Book of Revelation!

The original meaning of “Apocalypse” was to Reveal to make known something hidden. The Apocalypse of Jesus( ‘ ) Christ is the revealing of the resurrected Christ in the Believers- those who are Alive in the Earth! This is what occurred in the Upper Room, as well as receiving the Holy Spirit. What the Apostles received has been conveniently omitted in most Bibles today!!

One is only “alive” if Christ has been resurrected within. That spiritual life is the only ‘life’ God acknowledges. These have their names written in the Book of LIfe. The remainder of humanity will be destroyed and eventually will be judged and cast into hell – around 6-7 billion people.

The Bible, an most other information from the time of Jesus has been omitted, edited and changed until little remains today of the Truth. The Bible still says that ‘… anyone that denies that Jesus’ Christ has come in the flesh is of the anti-Christ…’ Note the tense of the word ‘Jesus’ , it is possessive. That simple punctuation mark has been omitted throughout the New Testament, which changes the Gospel and ignores the Truth. Obviously Christians, their Church, their literature, their religion etc, etc is of the Anti- Christ. Sorry – but do you know the “Truth”? Jesus was the Truth, the Reality of God’s plan for all his children- the resurrection of Christ, the anointing of every man- exactly as Jesus was anointed!! The End… Freely received, freely given: [email protected]

Please do not omit the email address. I am more than willing to converse with anyone who is sincere and hungry. Thanks much

Some people say 7 is the perfect number of the Lord God, 7 times 7 forgiveness, 7 angels, 7 churches, 7 days, 77 is the symbol of the cross…for me yes it make sense. In the Bible, GOD created earth in 7 days and on the 7th he rested. So that means Earth is only 7 days old to God? but some said 1,000 years mans time equals to 1 day God’s time? what do you think? and yet in Science, scientists mentioned billions of years old here and there? how can a man measured billion years old? while in the Bible before? man can only live up to 900 years old or so? does it make sense. to me I think Earth is only 7,000 years old? and we are only in 2,000 years old, right? 2018…So that means, If a man now a days can live up to 101 or so then the 7 days work of GOD make sense?, Me as an artist I like peoples idea and comments right or wrong who knows? at the end of our time, where are you going to be? floating in the air? In Heaven? in hell? Only God Jesus Christ can judge right? I cannot judge anyone in this world or comments against anyone? but I just want to praise God my Creator and my salvation that’s all I know…the rest is up to you brothers and Sisters. Now read and study about the story of Noah? on which tribe you came from or which of Noah’s sons you belong?, wow that’s interesting you think? please share it to me when you have time? God Bless you all!

There is absolutely 0 evidence to support that John was captured and banished under the rule of Domitian. There is however evidence to argue he was banished under Nero.

Nice but can you tell me what it is please? I have been looking all day without result other than John would be knocking on 90 by Domitians day… I cannot see the Romans sending a 90 year old to a work camp xsomehow… But in Neros day hed have been nearly 60 which makes sense…

John was also called ‘Salt Mine John’. Researchers believe that sodium fumes which John inhaled at the salt mine caused him to have the visions.
Most actually what is written in the Bible is fiction and just stories made up by illiterate, poor and downtrodden people at a time when story telling was the only way of expressing yourself. All religions are the creation of man – man created gods, not gods that created man. Just sit still for a moment and think you will realize that religion caused more wars, discontent and strife in this world than anything else also, THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH WORLD WIDE IS THE RICHEST ORGANIZATION THE WORLD HAS EVER KNOWN with as many millionaires in charge than in business houses…Mega Churches spouting just a lot of nonsense.

What nonsense from someone whose mind seems to have been damaged by living in this toxic culture of the Western world presently being led by the USA . May the LORD of all heal you and allow you to see the Truth who was expressed to all in the flesh and blood of Yeshua.

If you read the Bible, you would have a much different opinion. In any library, Find 56 books written by 40 authors over 1500 years that agree. The Bible does. If you study the Book of Isiah you will find it explains the bible. The book of Isiah also explains Christ’s crucifiction hundreds of years before crucifiction was used as a means of punishment. Read about the Dead Sea Scrolls, the book of Isiah is there, not fiction, not opinion, fact. I pray you find Christ before it is too late. May GOD Bless you.

I need to disagree with one of the 1st statements made about John on Patmos. You have him listed as being born about 6 A.D. Simply impossible if he was a disciple of Jesus. You can’t be friends with someone if your born after they died.

Different accounts indicate that Jesus was born between 1 AD and 4 AD. Jesus was 2 to 6 years older John.

6 A.D. means that John was born 6 years after Jesus was born, making him only 6 years younger.
A.D. (Anno Domini) means after the birth, not after death.

Please read comments about what ad means. It doesn’t mean after death. I thought that too. Aloha!!

[…] through an angel by Christ. John had been exiled to and was on the Island of Patmos. According to this page on “The Amazing Bible Timeline Page With World History” site, it is believed John was […]

Key Facts & Information


  • Ephesus is located near the western shores of modern-day Turkey, where the Aegean Sea meets the former estuary of the River Kaystros, about 80 kilometers south of Izmir, Turkey.
  • According to legend, the Ionian prince Androclos founded Ephesus in the eleventh century BC. The legend says that as Androclos searched for a new Greek settlement, he turned to the Delphi oracles for guidance.
  • The oracles told him a boar and a fish would show him the new location. One day, as Androclos was frying fish over an open fire, a fish flopped out of the frying pan and landed in the nearby bushes.
  • A spark ignited the bushes and a wild boar ran out. Recalling the oracles’ wisdom, Androclos built his new settlement where the bushes stood and called it Ephesus.


  • Ephesus entered history in the mid-7th century BC, when it was attacked by the Cimmerians.
  • Unlike its neighbor, Magnesia, it survived the attacks. For part of the early 6th century, the city was under tyrants.
  • Though allied by marriage to the kings of Lydia, its people could not hold back the Lydian Croesus, who asserted a general suzerainty over the city.
  • He did, however, present many columns and some golden cows for a new and splendid rebuilding of the Artemisium (Temple of Artemis).


  • Much of Ephesus’ ancient history is unrecorded and sketchy. What is known is that in the seventh century BC, Ephesus fell under the rule of the Lydian Kings and became a thriving city where men and women enjoyed equal opportunities. It was also the birthplace of renowned philosopher Heraclitus.
  • The Lydian King Croesus, who ruled from 560 BC to 547 BC, was most famous for funding the rebuilding of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. Artemis was the goddess of the hunt, chastity, childbirth, wild animals, and the wilderness.
  • Artemis was also one of the most revered Greek deities. Modern-day excavations have revealed that three smaller Artemis temples preceded the Croesus temple.
  • In 356 BC, a crazed man named Herostratus burned down the Temple of Artemis. The Ephesians rebuilt the temple even bigger. It was estimated to be four times larger than the Parthenon and became known as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
  • The temple was later destroyed and never rebuilt. Little remains of it today, although some of its remnants reside in the British Museum, including a column with Croesus’ signature.


  • In 546 BC, Ephesus fell to the Persian Empire, along with the rest of Anatolia. Ephesus continued to thrive even as other Ionian cities rebelled against Persian rule.
  • In 334 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and entered Ephesus. Upon his death in 323 BC, one of his generals, Lysimachus, took over the city and renamed it Arsiniega.
  • Lysimachus moved Ephesus two miles away and built a new harbor and new defensive walls. The Ephesian people, however, wouldn’t relocate and remained in their homes until Lysimachus forced them to move.
  • In 281 BC, Lysimachus was killed at the Battle of Corupedium and the city was named Ephesus again.
  • In 263 BC, Ephesus fell under Egyptian rule along with much of the Seleucid Empire. The Seleucid king Antiochus III took back Ephesus in 196 BC however, after being defeated at the Battle of Magnesia six years later, Ephesus fell under Pergamon rule.


  • The history of archaeological research in Ephesus dates back to 1863 when British engineer John Turtle Wood began searching for the remains of the Temple of Artemis. Six years later, he succeeded in identifying its location and then dedicated five years to the excavations in this area.
  • The next round of archaeological work in Ephesus took place from 1895 to 1913 and was conducted by German and Austrian archaeologists under the direction of Otto Benndorf and Carl Humann. In 1898, Benndorf founded the Austrian Archaeological Institute, which has been conducting archaeological studies in Ephesus ever since.
  • The finds from Ephesus are scattered in many museums around the world. The most impressive collections of objects found in Ephesus are in Ephesus Museum in Selçuk, Ephesus Museum in Vienna and the British Museum in London.

Ephesus Worksheets

This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Ephesus Plan across 20 in-depth pages. These are ready-to-use Ephesus worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Ephesus which was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometers southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists.

Complete List Of Included Worksheets

  • Ephesus in Turkey Facts
  • Ephesus Facts
  • Ephesus Timeline
  • Prince Androclos and Lysimachus
  • Good or Trash?
  • Learn More About Ephesus
  • My Ephesus!
  • See, Think, Wonder
  • Ephesus Puzzle
  • Learning About Turkey
  • Latest Info!

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Ephesos Timeline - History

(permitted), the capital of the Roman province of Asia, and an illustrious city in the district of Ionia, nearly opposite the island of Samos. Buildings. --Conspicuous at the head of the harbor of Ephesus was the great temple of Diana or Artemis, the tutelary divinity of the city. This building was raised on immense substructions, in consequence of the swampy nature of the ground. The earlier temple, which had been begun before the Persian war, was burnt down in the night when Alexander the Great was born and another structure, raise by the enthusiastic co-operation of all the inhabitants of "Asia," had taken its place. The magnificence of this sanctuary was a proverb throughout the civilized world. In consequence of this devotion the city of Ephesus was called neokoros, (Acts 19:35) or "warden" of Diana. Another consequence of the celebrity of Diana's worship at Ephesus was that a large manufactory grew up there of portable shrines, which strangers purchased, and devotees carried with them on journeys or set up in the houses. The theatre , into which the mob who had seized on Paul, (Acts 19:29) rushed, was capable of holding 25,000 or 30,000 persons, and was the largest ever built by the Greeks. The stadium or circus, 685 feet long by 200 wide, where the Ephesians held their shows, is probably referred to by Paul as the place where he "fought with beasts at Ephesus." (1 Corinthians 15:32) Connection with Christianity --The Jews were established at Ephesus in considerable numbers. (Acts 2:9 6:9) It is here and here only that we find disciples of John the Baptist explicitly mentioned after the ascension of Christ. (Acts 18:25 19:3) The first seeds of Christian truth were possibly sown here immediately after the great Pentecost. (Acts 2:1) . St. Paul remained in the place more than two years, (Acts 19:8,10 20:31) during which he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians. At a later period Timothy was set over the disciples, as we learn from the two epistles addressed to him. Among St. Paul's other companions, two, Trophimus and Tychicus, were natives of Asia, (Acts 20:4) and the latter was probably, (2 Timothy 4:12) the former certainly, (Acts 21:29) a native of Ephesus. Present condition --The whole place is now utterly desolate, with the exception of the small Turkish village at Ayasaluk . The ruins are of vast extent.

The capital of Ionia, a celebrated city of Asia Minor, situated near the mouth of the Cayster, about forty miles southeast of Smyrna. It was chiefly celebrated for the worship and temple of Diana, which last was, accounted one of the seven wonders of the world. See DIANA. Paul first visited Ephesus about A. D. 54, Acts 18:19,21. This first brief visit was followed by a longer one towards the close of the same year, and continuing through the two following years, Acts 19:10 20:31. The church thus early established, enjoyed the laborers of Aquila and Priscilla, of Tychicus and Timothy. It was favored with one of the best of Paul's epistles its elders held an interview with him at Miletus, before he saw Rome, and he is supposed to have visited them after his first imprisonment. Here the apostle John is said to have spent the latter part of his life, and written his gospel and epistles and having penned Christ's message to them in the isle of Patmos, to have returned and died among them. Christ gives the church at Ephesus a high degree of praise, coupled with a solemn warning, Revelation 2:1-5, which seems not to have prevented its final extinction, though it remained in existence six hundred years. But now its candlestick is indeed removed out of its place. The site of that great and opulent city is desolate. Its harbor has become a pestilential marsh the lovely and fertile level ground south of the Cayster now languishes under Turkish misrule and the heights upon its border bear only shapeless ruins. The outlines of the immense theatre, Acts 19:29, yet remain in the solid rock but no vestige of the temple of Diana can be traced.

Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9 6:9). At the close of his second missionary journey (about A.D. 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city. He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel.

During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), i.e., from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10). Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes.

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35. Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Timothy 1:3).

Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4 21:29 2 Timothy 4:12). In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Timothy 1:18). He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there. Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11 2:1).

The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried.

A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos i.e., "the holy divine."

A city of the Roman province of Asia, near the mouth of the Cayster river, 3 miles from the western coast of Asia Minor, and opposite the island of Samos. With an artificial harbor accessible to the largest ships, and rivaling the harbor at Miletus, standing at the entrance of the valley which reaches far into the interior of Asia Minor, and connected by highways with the chief cities of the province, Ephesus was the most easily accessible city in Asia, both by land and sea. Its location, therefore, favored its religious, political and commercial development, and presented a most advantageous field for the missionary labors of Paul. The city stood upon the sloping sides and at the base of two hills, Prion and Coressus, commanding a beautiful view its climate was exceptionally fine, and the soil of the valley was unusually fertile.

Tradition says that in early times near the place where the mother goddess of the earth was born, the Amazons built a city and a temple in which they might worship. This little city of the Amazons, bearing at different times the names of Samorna, Trachea, Ortygia and Ptelea, flourished until in the early Greek days it aroused the cupidity of Androclus, a prince of Athens. He captured it and made it a Greek city. Still another tradition says that Androclus was its founder. However, under Greek rule the Greek civilization gradually supplanted that of the Orientals, the Greek language was spoken in place of the Asiatic and the Asiatic goddess of the temple assumed more or less the character of the Greek Artemis. Ephesus, therefore, and all that pertained to it, was a mixture of oriental and Greek Though the early history of the city is obscure, it seems that at different times it was in the hands of the Carians, the Leleges and Ionians in the early historical period it was one of a league of twelve Ionfan cities. In 560 B.C. it came into the possession of the Lydians 3 years later, in 557, it was taken by the Persians and during the following years the Greeks and Persians were constantly disputing for its possession. Finally, Alexander the Great took it and at his death it fell to Lysimachus, who gave it the name of Arsinoe, from his second wife. Upon the death of Attalus II (Philadelphus), king of Pergamos, it was bequeathed to the Roman Empire and in 190, when the Roman province of Asia was formed, it became a part of it. Ephesus and Pergamos, the capital of Asia, were the two great rival cities of the province. Though Pergamos was the center of the Roman religion and of the government, Ephesus was the more accessible, the commercial center and the home of the native goddess Diana and because of its wealth and situation it gradually became the chief city of the province. It is to the temple of Diana, however, that its great wealth and prominence are largely due. Like the city, it dates from the time of the Amazons, yet what the early temple was like we now have no means of knowing, and of its history we know little except that it was seven times destroyed by fire and rebuilt, each time on a scale larger and grander than before. The wealthy king Croesus supplied it with many of its stone columns, and the pilgrims from all the oriental world brought it of their wealth. In time the temple possessed valuable lands it controlled the fishcries its priests were the bankers of its enormous revenues. Because of its strength the people stored there their money for safe-keeping and it became to the ancient world practically all that the Bank of England is to the modern world.

In 356 B.C., on the very night when Alexander the Great was born, it was burned and when he grew to manhood he offered to rebuild it at his own expense if his name might be inscribed upon its portals. This the priests of Ephesus were unwilling to permit, and they politely rejected his offer by saying that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. The wealthy Ephesians themselves undertook its reconstruction, and 220 years passed before its final completion. Not only was the temple of Diana a place of worship, and a treasure-house, but it was also a museum in which the best statuary and most beautiful paintings were preserved. Among the paintings was one by the famous Apelles, a native of Ephesus, representing Alexander the Great hurling a thunderbolt. It was also a sanctuary for the criminal, a kind of city of refuge, for none might be arrested for any crime whatever when within a bowshot of its walls. There sprang up, therefore, about the temple a village in which the thieves and murderers and other criminals made their homes. Not only did the temple bring vast numbers of pilgrims to the city, as does the Kaaba at Mecca at the present time, but it employed hosts of people apart from the priests and priestesses among them were the large number of artisans who manufactured images of the goddess Diana, or shrines to sell to the visiting strangers.

Such was Ephesus when Paul on his 2nd missionary journey in Acts (18:19-21) first visited the city, and when, on his 3rd journey (19:8-10 20:31), he remained there for two years preaching in the synagogue (19:8, 10), in the school of Tyrannus (19:9) and in private houses (20:20). Though Paul was probably not the first to bring Christianity to Ephesus, for Jews had long lived there (2:9 6:9), he was the first to make progress against the worship of Diana. As the fame of his teachings was carried by the pilgrims to their distant homes, his influence extended to every part of Asia Minor. In time the pilgrims, with decreasing faith in Diana, came in fewer numbers the sales of the shrines of the goddess fell off Diana of the Ephesians was no longer great a Christian church was rounded there and flourished, and one of its first leaders was the apostle John. Finally in 262 A.D., when the temple of Diana was again burned, its influence had so far departed that it was never again rebuilt. Diana was dead. Ephesus became a Christian city, and in 341 A.D. a council of the Christian church was held there. The city itself soon lost its importance and decreased in population. The sculptured stones of its great buildings, which were no longer in use and were falling to ruins, were carried away to Italy, and especially to Constantinople for the great church of Saint Sophia. In 1308 the Turks took possession of the little that remained of the city, and deported or murdered its inhabitants. The Cayster river, overflowing its banks, gradually covered with its muddy deposit the spot where the temple of Diana had once stood, and at last its very site was forgotten.

The small village of Ayasaluk, 36 miles from Smyrna on the Aidin R. R., does not mark the site of the ancient city of Ephesus, yet it stands nearest to its ruins. The name Ayasaluk is the corruption of three Greek words meaning "the Holy Word of God." Passing beyond the village one comes to the ruins of the old aqueduct, the fallen city walls, the so-called church of John or the baths, the Turkish fort which is sometimes called Paul's prison, the huge theater which was the scene of the riot of Paul's time, but which now, with its marble torn away, presents but a hole in the side of the hill Prion. In 1863 Mr. J. T. Wood, for the British Museum, obtained permission from the Turkish government to search for the site of the lost temple of Diana. During the eleven years of his excavations at Ephesus, USD80,000 were spent, and few cities of antiquity have been more thoroughly explored. The city wall of Lysimachus was found to be 36,000 ft. in length, enclosing an area of 1,027 acres. It was 10 1/2 ft. thick, and strengthened by towers at intervals of 100 ft. The six gates which pierced the wall are now marked by mounds of rubbish. The sites and dimensions of the various public buildings, the streets, the harbor, and the foundations of many of the private houses were ascertained, and numerous inscriptions and sculptures and coins were discovered. Search, however, did not reveal the site of the temple until January 1, 1870, after six years of faithful work. Almost by accident it was then found in the valley outside the city walls, several feet below the present surface. Its foundation, which alone remained, enabled Mr. Wood to reconstruct the entire temple plan. The temple was built upon a foundation which was reached by a flight of ten steps. The building itself was 425 ft. long and 220 ft. wide each of its 127 pillars which supported the roof of its colonnade was 60 ft. high like the temples of Greece, its interior was open to the sky. For a further description of the temple, see Mr. Wood's excellent book, Discoveries at Ephesus.

2179. Ephesinos -- of Ephesus.
. 2178, 2179. Ephesinos. 2180 . of Ephesus. Transliteration: Ephesinos Phonetic
Spelling: (ef-es-ee'-nos) Short Definition: Ephesus. . of Ephesus. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2179.htm - 5k

5211. Humenaios -- Hymenaeus, a heretical teacher at Ephesus
. Hymenaeus, a heretical teacher at Ephesus. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine
Transliteration: Humenaios Phonetic Spelling: (hoo-men-ah'-yos) Short Definition .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5211.htm - 6k

5372. Philetos -- "worthy of love," Philetus, an erring Christian .
. 5371, 5372. Philetos. 5373 . "worthy of love," Philetus, an erring Christian
at Ephesus. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Philetos Phonetic .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5372.htm - 6k

2180. Ephesios -- Ephesian
. Ephesian. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: Ephesios Phonetic Spelling:
(ef-es'-ee-os) Short Definition: Ephesian Definition: Ephesian, of Ephesus. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2180.htm - 6k

1122. grammateus -- a writer, scribe
. a scribe, town-clerk, man of learning Definition: (a) in Jerusalem, a scribe, one
learned in the Jewish Law, a religious teacher, (b) at Ephesus, the town-clerk .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1122.htm - 7k

4630. Skeuas -- Sceva, a Jewish chief priest
. Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Skeuas Phonetic Spelling:
(skyoo-as') Short Definition: Sceva Definition: Sceva, an inhabitant of Ephesus. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4630.htm - 6k

3531. Nikolaites -- a Nicolaitan, a follower of Nicolaus
. Phonetic Spelling: (nik-ol-ah-ee'-tace) Short Definition: a Nicolaitan Definition:
a Nicolaitan, possibly a follower of Nicolaus (a heretic at Ephesus). .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3531.htm - 6k

5161. Trophimos -- Trophimus, a Christian
. Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Trophimos Phonetic Spelling: (trof'-ee-mos) Short
Definition: Trophimus Definition: Trophimus, a Christian of Ephesus in Asia. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5161.htm - 6k

3963. Patmos -- Patmos, an island in the Aegean Sea
. Transliteration: Patmos Phonetic Spelling: (pat'-mos) Short Definition: Patmos
Definition: Patmos, a small rocky island in the Aegean sea, south-west of Ephesus .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3963.htm - 6k

. EPHESUS. In the Epistle to the Assembly at Ephesus, the reference is to Exodus:
to God's love in choosing them out of Egypt, and them making them a nation. .
//christianbookshelf.org/bullinger/commentary on revelation/ephesus.htm

. Lesson 27 Ephesus. [This chapter is based on Acts 19:1-20.] While Apollos was preaching
at Corinth, Paul fulfilled his promise to return to Ephesus. .
//christianbookshelf.org/white/the acts of the apostles/lesson 27 ephesus.htm

Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus.
. Fragments from His Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church.
Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus. [ad130-196.] This author .
//christianbookshelf.org/unknown/the decretals/polycrates bishop of ephesus.htm

Ephesus. Rev 2:1,7
. Hymn 136 EPHESUS. Rev 2:1,7. John Newton 8,8,8,8. EPHESUS. Rev 2:1,7. Thus
saith the LORD to Ephesus,. And thus he speaks to some of us .
//christianbookshelf.org/newton/olney hymns/hymn 136 ephesus rev 2 17.htm

The Council of Ephesus. .
. Chapter XXX. The Council of Ephesus.? The Council of Ephesus. . after the Council
of Ephesus, and before Cyril's death. Cyril died in 444. .
/. /vincent/the commonitory of vincent of lerins/chapter xxx the council of.htm

The Fight with Wild Beasts at Ephesus
residence in Ephesus indicates the importance of the position. .
/. /maclaren/expositions of holy scripture the acts/the fight with wild beasts.htm

In Christ and in Ephesus
. TALK THIRTY-FOUR. IN CHRIST AND IN EPHESUS. . What did it mean to be in Ephesus?
Ephesus was one of the great centers of paganism. .
//christianbookshelf.org/naylor/heart talks/talk thirty-four in christ and.htm

Letter xxxiii. To the Synod of Ephesus .
. Letter XXXIII. To the Synod of Ephesus . To the Synod of Ephesus [331] . Leo,
bishop, to the holy Synod which is assembled at Ephesus. .
/. /leo/writings of leo the great/letter xxxiii to the synod.htm

Paul in Ephesus.
. PAUL IN EPHESUS. Chap. . At the time of his appearance in Ephesus, he was imperfectly
instructed in the religion of Christ, for he knew only the baptism of John. .
/. /dick/lectures on the acts of the apostles/lecture xxii paul in ephesus.htm

The Uproar in Ephesus.
. THE UPROAR IN EPHESUS. Chap. . This triumph of the truth was displayed in the transactions
at Ephesus, which are, recorded in the preceding part of the chapter. .
/. /dick/lectures on the acts of the apostles/lecture xxiii the uproar in.htm

Onesiphorus (2 Occurrences)
. ashamed of my chain but, when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found
me." Onesiphorus was one of the Christians of the church in Ephesus and the .
/o/onesiphorus.htm - 11k

Apollos (11 Occurrences)
. He came to Ephesus (about AD 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue (18:26),
although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah. .
/a/apollos.htm - 16k

Hermogenes (1 Occurrence)
. being brought before the emperor's supreme court, to be tried on a charge now involving
the death penalty, or whether it was at some previous time in Ephesus. .
/h/hermogenes.htm - 10k

Artemis (5 Occurrences)
. di-an'-a (Artemis "prompt," "safe"): A deity of Asiatic origin, the mother goddess
of the earth, whose seat of worship was the temple in Ephesus, the capital .
/a/artemis.htm - 14k

Aquila (7 Occurrences)
. On Paul's departure from Corinth after eighteen months, Aquila and his wife accompanied
him to Ephesus, where they remained, while he proceeded to Syria (Acts .
/a/aquila.htm - 13k

Diana (5 Occurrences)
. Her most noted temple was that at Ephesus. It was built outside the city walls,
and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. .
/d/diana.htm - 15k

Ephesian (4 Occurrences)
. Noah Webster's Dictionary 1. (a.) Of or pertaining to Ephesus, an ancient
city Of Ionia, in Asia Minor. 2. (n.) A native of Ephesus. .
/e/ephesian.htm - 8k

Miletus (3 Occurrences)
. (Miletum, 2 Timothy 4:20), a seaport town and the ancient capital of Ionia, about
36 miles south of Ephesus. . 28) of Ephesus recorded in Acts 20:15-35. .
/m/miletus.htm - 9k

Tychicus (5 Occurrences)
. 20:4). He is alluded to also in Colossians 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Timothy 4:12 as
having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus, probably for .
/t/tychicus.htm - 14k

Acts 18:19
He came to Ephesus , and he left them there but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews.

Acts 18:21
but taking his leave of them, and saying, "I must by all means keep this coming feast in Jerusalem, but I will return again to you if God wills," he set sail from Ephesus .

Acts 18:24
Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus . He was mighty in the Scriptures.

Acts 19:1
It happened that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul, having passed through the upper country, came to Ephesus , and found certain disciples.

Acts 19:17
This became known to all, both Jews and Greeks, who lived at Ephesus . Fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.

Acts 19:26
You see and hear, that not at Ephesus alone, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul has persuaded and turned away many people, saying that they are no gods, that are made with hands.

Acts 19:28
And when they heard this they were filled with wrath, and cried out, saying, Great is Diana of the Ephesus .

Acts 19:34
But when they saw that he was a Jew, all of them with one voice went on crying out for about two hours, Great is Diana of Ephesus .

Acts 19:35
When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus , what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus?

Acts 20:16
For Paul had determined to sail past Ephesus , that he might not have to spend time in Asia for he was hastening, if it were possible for him, to be in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.

Acts 20:17
From Miletus he sent to Ephesus , and called to himself the elders of the assembly.

Acts 21:29
For they had seen him before in the town with Trophimus of Ephesus , and had the idea that Paul had taken him with him into the Temple.

1 Corinthians 15:32
If I fought with animals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If the dead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die."

1 Corinthians 16:8
But I will stay at Ephesus until Pentecost,

Ephesians 1:1
Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, to the saints who are at Ephesus , and the faithful in Christ Jesus:

1 Timothy 1:3
As I urged you when I was going into Macedonia, stay at Ephesus that you might command certain men not to teach a different doctrine,

2 Timothy 1:18
(the Lord grant to him to find the Lord's mercy in that day) and in how many things he served at Ephesus , you know very well.

2 Timothy 4:12
But I sent Tychicus to Ephesus .

Revelation 1:11
saying, " What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies : to Ephesus , Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."

Revelation 2:1
"To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks among the seven golden lampstands says these things:

Jay T

Ephesus was one of the great cities of antiquity, and erstwhile home to the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After its harbor silted up, Ephesus lost value as a commercial center and never recovered. However, it left behind impressive ruins, which unfortunately don't include the Temple of Artemis. Ephesus is also important for Christian travelers, both for its Biblical history and as a pilgrimage site to the believed last home of Mary, the mother of Jesus. With such history I was surprised it took until 2015 for the city to become a World Heritage Site. I visited Ephesus in the spring of 2013, and thoroughly enjoyed wandering the ruins of the city. The restored façade of the Library of Celsus was magnificent, as was the large theater at the end of the former Harbor Street. Also on view were ancient baths, the agora, and a smaller Odeon theater. Although I didn't visit them, there was an archeological excavation of Terrace Houses on display for an additional fee. Ephesus was crowded with tour groups, but I didn't notice them because the city was so fascinating to explore.

Logistics: Ephesus is located near Selçuk, and can be reached by walking, biking, minibuses, or private transportation or tours. Ephesus is a popular stop for cruise ships, which often bring large tour groups.

Watch the video: Ephesus, Turkey: Ancient City