Edward Penfield

Edward Penfield

Edward Penfield was born in the United States in 1866. His work appeared in Colliers Magazine, Scribner's and Harper's Magazine. President of the Society of Illustrators (1921-22), Penfield died in 1925.


Edward Penfield - History

The Norman Conquest of England

The Vikings invade England in the late 900s

The story of the Norman conquest of England begins in the late 900s, when the English king, Aethelred, found his kingdom attacked by Viking invaders, as Alfred the Great had seen England invaded a hundred years earlier.

After losing a great battle to the Vikings, Aethelred tried to pay off the Vikings with tribute, called the "Danegeld." This only encouraged more Viking attacks. Aethelred had to raise taxes on the English to keep the tribute money flowing to the Vikings.

Aethelred needed an ally, so he married Emma of Normandy. Normandy was a duchy in Northern France, and the powerful Duke of Normandy offered his sister's hand in marriage to the English king. The Normans were former Vikings who settled in France. After the marriage, the Duke of Normandy did not allow the Vikings to set sail from Normandy to attack England. This marriage seemed to help the English.

Aethelred then made a bad mistake, he ordered that all of the Danes living in England should be put to death. Many Danes were killed, even those whose families had lived peacefully in England for many years. And, when a Danish woman named Gunhilde was murdered in England, Sweyn Forkbeard attacked with a vengeance. Sweyn was a Danish King, and he would get even for his sister's (Gunhilde's) death. Though the English tried to defend their country, Sweyn won out in the end, he was crowned King of England on Christmas day 1013. Aethelred, along with his family, was forced to flee England and live in Normandy with Emma's family.

Sweyn died only five weeks into his reign of England. Aethelred returned but had to promise the English he would rule more wisely if they were to accept him as king again. In England at that time, kings could not rule as tyrants and had to answer to the people.

Aethelred died, and Cnut, the son of Sweyn Forkbeard, arrived in England. There were battles between Cnut and Edmund Ironside, a son of Aethelred. Eventually, Cnut won and became king of England in 1016. Emma, now a widow, married Cnut but sent her children back to Normandy and safety. Since her sons were descendants of the former king, Aethelred, they were a threat to her new husband, Cnut. Emma became queen of England for a second time.

Cnut now possessed a kingdom that included Denmark, Norway, and England. With a Kingdom so vast, Cnut needed trusted men to watch areas for him in his absence, since he needed to travel to different parts of his kingdom. Cnut chose Godwin to be his Earl of Wessex, a large area in Southern England this made Godwin the most powerful man in England. By all accounts, Cnut was a good king and the English liked him, although he was not English.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a primary source for events during this period of history

When Cnut died, there was a struggle for the English throne between his sons and those of Aethelred. This put Emma in an awkward position of wanting her sons from Cnut to take the throne, not her children from her marriage to Aethelred. In the end, Edward, her oldest son from her marriage to Aethelred became king in 1042. England once again had an English king. It was important that Godwin, the powerful English Earl of Wessex, supported Edward as king. Godwin arranged that the king marry his daughter, Edith.

Although Edward was English, he had spent a large portion of his life living in Normandy during the reigns of the Danish kings of England. He was only nine years old when he fled with his family to Normandy. Edward, later known as Edward the Confessor, was more comfortable with Norman culture. He invited many of his friends from Normandy to fill important positions in his court and church in England. This upset the English, they did not welcome these Normans and resented their presence in England.

Edward is crowned king of England

The Normans looked down on the English during this time. With King Edward on their side, the Normans felt they could disrespect the English as they chose. One story tells of the Norman, Count Eustace, as he traveled to Dover in England with his Norman friends. Eustace demanded food and drink from an Englishman. A fight broke out, and about twenty English and twenty Normans were killed. Eustace, who happened to be Edward's brother-in-law, ran to the king and complained about the treatment they had received. Edward demanded that Godwin since he was the earl of the area where the incident took place, punish the English responsible. The king did not even care to hear the other side of the story. Godwin refused, and a struggle between the king and Godwin began. Godwin was forced to leave the country in 1051, and his land was handed over to others. The King even considered divorcing Godwin's daughter and sent her to a convent.

It was also during the year 1051 that William, the Duke of Normandy, and Edward's cousin, traveled to England. During this visit, Edward apparently promised young William the throne of England, though we only have William's word. It should also be mentioned that it was not the king's place to give the kingdom to anyone, as the English have a council called the Witan that elects the new king.


Edward hears the dispute between the Normans and English

Edward was surprised when Godwin and his family, with an army of supporters, returned to England the following year. He was even more surprised that the English people supported Godwin. There would be no conflict between the king and his rival, and the English people, weary of a civil war that may weaken the country, would not back the king. Godwin's lands were restored. In 1053, Godwin died, his lands were divided between his two sons, Harold, and Tostig.

During the end of Edward's reign, his brother-in-law, Harold ran the country. Edward had become weak and feeble. During this time Harold was sailing in the English Channel, the body of water that separates England and France. No one knows the reason for this voyage. A storm came up on the seas and Harold was shipwrecked in Normandy. He was treated as a guest of William, Duke of Normandy. During his stay in Normandy, Harold swore an oath on the bones of saints, that he would support and help William gain the crown of England after Edward's death. Then, Harold returned to England. If Harold swore this oath willingly or had been forced to do so by Duke William, we will never know. Again, it was not Harold's place to chose a king, as the English people always voted for the next king.

Edward the Confessor died on January 5, 1066. On his death bed, Edward indicated that he wished that his brother-in-law, Harold, be the next king. Had Edward changed his mind about William? No one knows to this day, it is one of history's mysteries.

Harold was crowned King of England by the English Witan one day after the death of Edward. When William found this out in Normandy, he was furious. William pledged to take the crown by force from Harold, the man who had promised to help him gain the throne.

One of the first things Harold did as king was to ask his brother, Tostig, to leave England. Tostig had abused his power in the north of England and had mistreated the people. Tostig fled to Norway, where he was received by Harald Hardrada, King of Norway. These two plotted to invade England. Hardrada was related to one of the Viking kings of England, and he felt the crown belonged to him. With Tostig's help, perhaps he could win England.

The year 1066 is known as the year of three kings, two battles, and a comet. Three people contended for the throne, there were two great battles, and Halley's Comet was seen in the sky that year, which was seen as a bad omen for King Harold. People were superstitious in those days. On the other hand, when William landed with his invasion force, he slipped off the boat and went head-first into the wet mud and sand. This was seen as a bad omen for William.


The Bayeux Tapestry is a primary source of the Norman Invasion of England from the Norman point of view. This scene shows the crowning of Harold as King of England.

Play the interactive Battle of Hastings game below to learn more about what happened. You can play as William or Harold. Be sure to read the text as well as making the battle decisions, especially when playing as Harold. Also, explore the timerime timeline for the order of events in 1066, the year that changed history. ( The interactive game link is found below. The timerine timeline is no longer available )


large view
William at the Battle of Hastings, AD 1066


large view
Emma of Normandy Family Tree


large view
Battle formations at Hastings

1066 and the Norman Invasion read aloud (MP3 12.96 MB)
1066 and the Norman Invasion read aloud


Meaning & Origin

"Recorded as Penfold and Pinfold, this is an English surname. It derives from the Olde English pre 7th century word "pundfald", meaning a pound or walled enclosure where stray animals and sometimes vagrants and gipsies, were kept. It was originally given either as an occupational name to someone in charge of such a pen or pound, or as a topographical name to one who lived by this man-made feature. Topographical surnames were among the earliest created, since both natural and man-made features in the landscape provided easily recognisable distinguishing names in the small communities of the Middle Ages. Early examples ofd the surname recording include Philip de la Pundfold and a Roger de la Pundfaude who appear in the Hundred Rolls of landowners of Sussex and Oxfordshire in 1275. Further early recordings from Sussex include Thomas ate Pundfolde in 1296, and John Pennefold in 1332. On January 24th 1590, Ann, daughter of John Pinfold, was christened at St. Dunstan's, Stepney, London and on March 28th 1665 An(n) Penfold and Hendory Smith were married at Sunbury on Thames. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert del Punfold. This was dated 1273, in the Subsidy Rolls of Suffolk, during the reign of King Edward 1st of England, and known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272 - 1307. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling."

"Pinfold or Penfold, a pound for cattle or sheep.

"Proteus. Nay, in that you stray 'twere best pound you.

"Speed. Nay, sir ! less than a pound shall serve me for carrying your letter.

"Pro. You mistake I mean the pound — a pinfold.

"Speed. From a pound to a pin, fold it over and over,

'Tis threefold too little for carrying a letter to your lover.""

"The Penfield name was originally an Anglo-Saxon name that was given to a keeper of the pound where animals were sheltered. 'Pinfold' was an area where stray animals were rounded up if their owners failed to properly supervise their use of common grazing land."

"The name Penfield has undergone many spelling variations, including Penfold, Penfield, Pinfold and others."


Edward Penfield

Edward Penfield received his training at the Art Students League in New York City. He went on to become the art director at Harper’s magazine and also designed a series of monthly posters for Harper’s that won enormous critical acclaim. By the turn of the century, Penfield’s reputation as an important graphic designer was assured.

The Harper’s posters have been characterized as the definitive graphic works of the 1890 s. Penfield took full advantage of recent improvements in color printing to create works that were effective vehicles of communication and also aesthetically engaging. Less concerned with the dramatic curving lines of Art Nouveau than his contemporary Will Bradley, Penfield synthesized a number of stylistic sources in his work, including Japanese prints and those of French artists such as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Jules Chéret.

After leaving Harper’s in 1901 , Penfield continued to be extremely active in both design and illustration. In addition to posters for other magazines including Scribner’s and Collier’s, he executed illustrations and covers for many books and generated designs for numerous commercial concerns. Together with Will Bradley, Penfield was instrumental in creating the rich fabric of American graphic design work in the 1890 s.


1923 Magazine Article About Edward Penfield's Mosquito Extermination Efforts in Pelham Manor

I previously have posted to the Historic Pelham Blog an odd item about the efforts of famed illustrator Edward Penfield to eradicate mosquitoes in Pelham Manor during the 1920s. See:

I since have located a magazine article authored and illustrated by Edward Penfield that was published in December, 1923. The text of the article as well as its two illustrations appear below, followed by a citation to their source.

"Art and Science Combine in a Village Campaign Against Mosquitoes

An unceasing war against mosquitoes has been waged in Pelham Manor for several years, as a result of which it was found this past summer that the pests had been practically eliminated from the village. The first definite steps towards mosquito control were taken in 1918, at which time the insects were so numerous throughout the community as to make outdoor summer life almost an impossibility. During several previous years the writer had personally taken up the study of scientific methods of mosquito control. The literature from the State Board of Health emphasized the fact that the most effective way to get rid of mosquitoes is to drain and keep drained all deposits of stagnant water. Contrary to the belief of many people, the sprinkling of oil on stagnant water does not actually poison the insects. If it is sprayed in a thin layer on a pool, it will retard breding, by suffocating the 'wigglers' as they come to the surface for air but a slight breeze will blow the oil to one side, and breeding will continue in the clear space.

With this knowledge in hand, the President and Board of Trustees of Pelham Manor were appealed to, but no immediate action was taken. The problem was then brought to the attention of the local Women's Club, and it was arranged that the writer should give short talks on the subject of mosquito control at the weekly meetings of the club. These talks were aided considerably by a map showing the breeding places in the community and a number of colored cartoons, two of which are reproduced herewith. In a short time enough members were sufficiently interested to form a committee to make a second appeal to the village authorities. This resulted in appropriating the sum of $300 for mosquito elimination work.

The first year showed a great diminishing in the number of mosquitoes, and this ultimately led to a demand by the voters that a large drain be built through the most trouble- [Page 577 / Page 578] some section of the community. An appropriation of $2,000 was then made for the ditching, draining and oiling of the low lands. This work was laid out be an engineer, who indicated the levels and the right locations and directions for the ditches. All land that could not be drained has been filled in, and oil is sprayed on all catch-basins every four days during the summer months.

The residents of Pelham Manor are cooperating by keeping their property clean and free from any receptacle in which water may lodge. They also see that no water collects in the gutters on the eaves of their houses, keep their rain barrels covered, and, in fact, do everything possible to assist in the campaign against mosquitoes.

Source: Penfield, Edward, Art and Science Combine in a Village Campaign Against Mosquitoes in The American City Magazine, Vol. XXIX July-December, 1923, pp. 577-78 (NY, NY: The Civic Press, 1923) (Containing Vol. XXIX, No. 6, Dec. 1923 of the Magazine in bound volume).


A short history of the poster

A rich and accessible art form, our collection of pictoral posters charts global concerns, popular tastes and artistic and technological developments across two centuries.

The process of posting up hand-drawn public notices can be traced back to antiquity. One of the earliest known examples of printed advertising in Britain dates from 1477 – a small dark block of text advertising a handbook for priests in Salisbury, south-west England. The advert was printed by William Caxton, who introduced the printing press to Britain and was the first person in the country to make a living printing and selling books, having opened a shop near Westminster Abbey in 1476. By the 19th century, text-heavy posters printed from woodblocks were commonplace, but the rise of the colourful pictorial poster didn't come about until the middle of the century, following significant advances in printing techniques.

Left to right: The Siege of Troy or The Giant Horse of Sinon, poster, woodcut and letterpress, printed by Thomas Romney, England, 1833. Museum no. S.2-1983. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Jack Sheppard, poster, woodcut and letterpress, printed by S. G. Fairbrother and Son, 1839, England. Museum no. S.2583-1986. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

The pioneering French poster artist Jules Chéret (1836 – 1932) is credited with producing the first colour lithograph posters in 1866, having finessed the black and white process invented by Alois Senefelder in 1798. In lithographic printing, the design is drawn in waxy crayon onto a smooth surface, typically limestone blocks (later metal plates) which are then doused with water and covered with an oil-based ink. The waxy drawn areas repel the water and soak up the ink, before being transferred to the paper. Most posters are still printed lithographically with a mechanised offset process, where the image is transferred from a metal plate onto a rubber roller before being printed.

Left to right: Bal du Moulin Rouge, Place Blanche, colour lithograph poster, Jules Chéret, 1889, France. Museum no. E.107-1921. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Quinquina Dubonnet, Apéritif Dans tous les Cafés, colour lithograph poster, Jules Chéret, 1895, France. Museum no. E.2406-1938. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Perfecting large-scale colour printing had eluded artists for decades until Chéret made the breakthrough with a three-stone process and relatively transparent inks. He broke the design down into individual colours, which were drawn onto separate stones, and then overlaid in the printing process. Chéret also incorporated hand-drawn lettering which led to innovative and original typography and a more unified design overall. His posters had a lightness and sense of movement which captivated the public imagination and led to comparisons with decorative painters of the previous century, such as Tiepolo, master of the European Rococo style.

Troupe de Mlle Églantine, colour lithograph poster, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1896, France. Museum no. E.1374-1931. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Other artists shook off these historical comparisons and experimented with more contemporary ways to depict the modern world. Toulouse-Lautrec remains the best-known name from this French heyday of the 'art' poster, although his style – part-caricature, part-realism – was widely criticised at the time.

Bières De La Meuse, colour lithograph poster, Alphonse Mucha, 1897, France. Museum no. E.78-1956. © ADAGP, Paris, and DACS, London 1997

Over the decades that followed, designers from around the world followed suit in experimenting with poster design. The Art Nouveau style, popularised by Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, took the poster world by storm and inspired other national variants. The US also had its own Art Nouveau poster artists such as William H. Bradley and Edward Penfield, both very much inspired by the clean and sinuous lines of the British artist Victor Bicycles, colour lithograph poster, William H. Bradley, 1896, US. Museum no. E.414-1921. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Harper's June, chromo lithograph poster, Edward Penfield, 1887, US. Museum no. E.1386-2004. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Gradually, the excessive ornamentation of Art Nouveau was abandoned in favour of more angular Art Deco designs, a style which marvelled at technological innovations such as cruise ships and high-speed trains, as in the work of A.M. Cassandre, Edward McKnight Kauffer and Vera Willoughby, for example.

Left to right: Nord Express, colour lithograph poster, Cassandre, 1927, France. Museum no. E.223-1935. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London General Joy, colour lithograph poster, Vera Willoughby, 1928, UK. Museum no. E.940-1928. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

The Russian Constructivists revolutionised the poster using photo-montage and bold geometric forms in the 1920s, following the onslaught of poster propaganda that had been generated during the First World War. Their arresting style spread through the Communist world, influencing the poster output of Revolutionary Spain in the 1930s as well as Chinese and Cuban graphic design for several decades.

Left to right: House on a Volcano, photolithograph poster, Raphael Ter, 1928, Russia. Museum no. E.615-2014. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Spanish Civil War colour lithograph poster, José Bardasano, 1937, Spain. Museum no. E.361-2003. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Hanoi Martes 13, screenprint poster, Alfredo Rostgaard, 1967, Cuba. Museum no. E.1975-2004. © Victoria and Albert Museum The People's Army is the Root of Victory, colour offset lithograph poster, unknown, about 1970, China. Museum no. E.1759-2004. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Many of the lessons learned about the power of the poster during the two World Wars went on to inform the burgeoning advertising industry and, in Britain, the birth of the welfare state. The 1950s saw a boom in illustrative posters as well as a renewed focus on textual posters. The rise of the International Typographic Style, developed in Switzerland, introduced sans-serif fonts characterised by simple geometry and uncluttered clarity.

Left to right: Temple und Tee-haus in Japan, screenprint poster, Armin Hofmann, about 1955, Switzerland. Museum no. E.4-2006. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Henry Moore and Oskar Schlemmer exhibition, screenprint poster, Armin Hofmann, about 1955, Switzerland. Museum no. E.6-2006. © Victoria and Albert Museum

In the 1960s, the motifs and mannerisms of Art Nouveau were recycled to create psychedelic graphics. Groups such as Michael English and Nigel Waymouth's 'Hapshash and the Coloured Coat' experimented with the rich intensity of silkscreen colour, while in America, the San Francisco 'Big Five' psychedelic poster designers (Rick Griffin, Alton Kelley, Victor Moscoso, Stanley Mouse, and Wes Wilson) largely continued with lithography. This visual dynamism was also advanced in Poland in the 1960s and 70s, with a strong school of poster artists designing for cinema and the arts, pulling together distinctive Surrealist elements and a vibrant colour palette.

CIA v UFO, colour screenprint poster, Michael English and Nigel Waymouth, 1967, UK. Museum no. E.1713-1991. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Otis Rush, colour offset lithograph poster, Wes Wilson, 1967, US. Museum no. E.507-2004. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London Cyrk, colour lithograph poster, Hubert Hilscher, 1970, Poland. Museum no. E.1084-1976. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

In the 1980s, artists and activist collectives such as Gran Fury and Keith Haring in the US harnessed the power of the poster as a tool of mass communication and community building to promote awareness during the global AIDS crisis. These posters provide a lens on the varying degrees of tolerance and support at the peak of the crisis, embodying a sense of urgency, and capturing the zeitgeist of 1980s and 90s graphic design.

Act Up, colour screenprint poster, Keith Haring, 1989, US. Museum no. E.82-1996. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Running parallel to this was a trend in commercial advertising towards increasingly controversial imagery. Clothing brand United Colors of Benetton appropriated documentary photographs of AIDS patients on their death-beds and the blood-soaked clothing of Bosnian war victims in order to sell their products. Designed to whip up a media frenzy, these campaigns also played with poster advertising as a platform for confronting political issues and exposing social prejudices.

Man dying of AIDS, colour offset lithograph poster, concept by Oliviero Toscani, photograph by Therese Frare, for United Colors of Benetton, 1992, Italy. Museum no. E.2207-1997. © Oliviero Toscani/United Colors of Benetton

In the digital age, the rise of the internet meme – an image or piece of text that is copied and spread rapidly by internet users – can be seen as the digital descendent of the poster. While the poster no longer dominates today's media environment, it continues to have a powerful impact, perhaps most critically in the realm of politics and activism. Darren Cullen's 2018 poster Great War brings the story full circle by parodying a famous First World War army recruitment poster from 1915, Daddy, What did YOU do in the Great War?. Marking the centenary of the end of the War, Cullen's design critiques the senselessness of warfare and the continued use of emotional blackmail in army recruitment poster campaigns.


Edward Penfield - History

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Contents

Chromolithography (color lithography) was invented by Engelmann & Son, who were granted a patent in 1837. [3] After that, it was a matter of time before it reached full commercial development.

Because of its low production costs, over the 50 years after the American Civil War, millions of chromolithographs were printed and were sold for under $10. Louis Prang, a Bostonian, produced fine-art subjects, such as still lifes, landscapes, and classical subjects. [4] Nevertheless, it was only after 1847 that the Jules Chéret posters showed their potential. [5]

Examples Edit

Jules Chéret Edit

Chéret's posters elevated advertisement to an art form. In 1858 he printed his first color poster in France. His art excelled in showing the body in movement. [6]

Hand-lettered titles were used in harmony with the design. [7] Chéret used design as the dominant features while reducing the text to a minor role.

The women of Chéret's posters, playful, elegant, and lively were very different from previously depicted prostitutes or puritans.

Chéret minimized the role of the text. In this poster, all of the relevant information is said in two words.

19th century posters in the US Edit

Louis John Rhead Edit

Louis John Rhead was English, sent to Paris at the age of thirteen to study under Boulanger. When he arrived in America in 1888, he was one of the leaders in the Art Nouveau movement. He created posters for Scribner's and Century magazines. [9]

In the 1890s Rhead designed nearly one hundred posters. In England and the U.S. he did memorable posters for magazines: Cassell's Magazine, the Weekly Dispatch, The Century, St. Nicholas, Harper's, The Bookman and Scribners'. [10]

Many consider his use of colors startling, and his compositions sophisticated. He created artwork that in his time looked modern and vanguard.

In 1895 he won a Gold Medal for Best American Poster Design at the first International Poster Show in Boston. By the late 1890s, the popularity of poster art declined and Rhead turned his skills to book illustration. [11]

Edward Penfield Edit

Edward Penfield was the “originator of the poster in America". Edward studied painting under the impressionist George de Forest Brush around 1890. He is mostly known for his advertising ‘placards’ for Harper's New Monthly Magazine.

Penfield’s first published work appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1891. In his early works, Penfield did ink and watercolor wash illustrations in a similar style to the older generation of graphic artists. [12]

His trademark linework and use of broad tonal areas developed after his return from Europe. There influences from Japanese prints, the Arts and Crafts movement, and the impressionistic approach of Parisian poster-making. [13]

Penfield is credited with bringing abstraction to commercial art through his boldly simplified shapes. [14]

Toulouse-Lautrec and Post-impressionism Edit

Henri Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), the deformed son of an aristocratic family, went to Paris in 1882. He became a part of the bohemian community of Montmartre with its nightlife of cabarets, cafes, restaurants, sleazy dance halls and brothels. 1892/3. [15]

Lautrec was deeply influenced by Japanese woodblock printing: from the 1850s onwards, Japanese artwork flowed into the west. The nightlife of Montmartre inspired the content of his work. 1892. [16]

The women accepted him as a fellow outcast. They let him to wander about, sketching and painting freely. He grew close to his models, brought them presents, and took them to his studio, restaurants, circuses, or theatres during their time off. 1892. [17]

Lautrec wove the text into the graphics, but here there is almost no text. Still, this poster probably has all the necessary information. People would know who Cadieux was, and where the theatre was. Shows a terrific sense of movement. 1893. [18]

The English graphic artist Aubrey Beardsley illustrated periodicals. Clearly art nouveau, with elegant and flowing lines and splendid elongated figures. Beardsley suggested vice and moral corruption, where Lautrec simply showed people. [19]

Alphonse Mucha was another influential Art Nouveau designer. The subjects of his posters are often beautiful, with joyous young women, flowing lines, and decorative flowers. He used an innovative soft pastel coloring scheme in his posters. [20]

Henri Privat-Livement's typical use of organic forms in this poster for a seaside casino.

The works of Gustav Klimt, the Austrian painter, are an example of the influence of graphic design on painting. [21] This portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer shows many of the influences of the graphic design of those times. [22]

Posters were used for war propaganda, to encourage young people to enlist in the army, and to sell government war bonds. From a strictly artistic view, the posters were unimaginative and far from the masterpieces of the late 19th century posters. The posters almost all came with a caption to bang the message home.

This is virtually a copy of the famous British poster featuring Lord Kitchener 'Your country needs YOU' (1914).

No sign of art nouveau here simplicity itself in a British poster designed for use in the USA. 1917. [23]

Among the propaganda war posters, this stands out, with its distinct blend of sympathy and help. Norman Rockwell, 1918. [24] [25]

The French graphic artist Jean Carlu, who was influenced by cubism, had style. This 1942 war poster is tinged with Art Deco and streamlining. [26]


Edward Penfield - History

We know you have been wondering what is going on at the Homestead. The museum will be open to tours by appointment only. We are planning on being open on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, again by appointment. Please give us a call or send an email with the day and time you would like to visit. We will be scheduling 1-hour tours from 10am to 2pm on those days. If you need a special day or time, just ask.

Since the COVID-19 health emergency, restrictions and rules are changing almost daily, the Board of Trustees has decided to not have public events, at this time. We began the year with calls from prospective brides and grooms who were concerned about their weddings and receptions. We made the decision to postpone these events until 2022. Many of the couples have already rescheduled. And there are dates available for next season.

This weekend would have been our normal date for the Annual Pancake Breakfast. Again, we have decided to not have this public event. The current restrictions on volunteer food events prevents us from preparing and serving the public. Currently, we do not plan on having Heritage Day or Applefolkfest. If things change, we will let you know.

We have been busy at the Parsonage and Homestead. We have moved the contents of a large storage room in the Homestead upstairs to the upstairs storage in the Parsonage. The items included clothing, artifacts and papers. Each item was photographed, inventoried and placed in an archival bag, box or folder. This took volunteers 4 or 5 months to complete.

Volunteers have painted floors, walls and ceilings and a major project was undertaken to inspect, repoint, reglaze and reinstall all the windows in the homestead. The exterior of the homestead was painted along with the fence. Currently, volunteers are repairing the parsonage knee wall under the kitchen. The windstorm in the spring blew off several slate from the church and those have been replaced. The last wind event blew down trees near the hay barn and shed and that will be taken care of soon.

It might seem that without our public and special use events that nothing is going on at Penfield but let us assure you that that is far from the truth. We continue to work every week on Penfield projects. Board members and volunteers complete research requests, update our research and archive files, gift shop improvements, our website and facebook page, a biography of Anna Scott Penfield, work with community groups including the Hometown Hero Banners, Memorial Day and the Veteran’s Memorial stone updates.

We must thank all the old and new members who have supported us financially these past two years. Our sincere appreciation is gratefully extended to all our volunteers and trustees who have completed tasks big and small. We are planning on returning to a normal schedule of all events in 2022. The Board of Trustees is in discussion with a local caterer and those public gatherings are being planned. We hope to see you next year if not sooner for a museum tour!


You've only scratched the surface of Penfield family history.

Between 1950 and 2004, in the United States, Penfield life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1950, and highest in 1967. The average life expectancy for Penfield in 1950 was 47, and 84 in 2004.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Penfield ancestors lived in harsh conditions. A short lifespan might also indicate health problems that were once prevalent in your family. The SSDI is a searchable database of more than 70 million names. You can find birthdates, death dates, addresses and more.


Watch the video: Friesland Drawings - E Penfield