Hawker Hartebeeste

Hawker Hartebeeste

Hawker Hartebeeste

The Hawker Hartebeeste was a version of the Hawker Audax air co-operation aircraft modified for use in South Africa. Four were produced by Hawker in 1934-35, with another sixty five built by Roberts Heights in South Africa from 1937. The main difference between the Hartebeeste and the Audax was a change of engine to the Rolls Royce Kestrel VFP, producing 608hp. The more powerful engine compensated for the addition of some armour around the cockpits.

The Hartebeeste had a short front line career with the South African Air Force. Two squadrons were equipped with the Hartebeeste when the Italians entered the war on 10 June 1940. The next day the Hartebeeste’s undertook their biggest operation of the war, a large scale attack on Italian positions. Soon after that the Hartebeeste was withdrawn from the front line, and transferred to training and communications units, remaining in service for the rest of the war.

Engine: Rolls-Royce Kestrel VFP
Horsepower: 608
Max Speed: 176mph at 6,000ft
Ceiling: 22,000 ft
Endurance: 3 hours 10 minutes
Span: 37ft 3in
Length: 29ft 7in
Armament: Two 0.303in machine guns, one forward firing and one in aft cockpit plus light bombs or supply canisters under the wings.

Making do: the air war in East Africa, 1940-1941.

In the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the Second World War it was said that you could tell how far your unit was from the Home Islands by the type of aircraft with which it was equipped. This maxim more than applied to the air units of the British Commonwealth deployed to East Africa in 1940 and 1941 to protect British Imperial interests from Italian forces attempting to conquer Benito Mussolini's new Roman Empire. Flying a mixed bag of British, American, and even German aircraft, many of which were better suited for training squadrons or even museums, and tasked to defend an area half the size of the United States, Commonwealth air forces faced a daunting task. Fortunately for the British, the Italians were in even worse shape. Although more homogenous in terms of equipment, the aircraft of the Regia Aeronautica in Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI--Italian East Africa) were generally inferior to that of their enemies and Italian forces were primarily trained and equipped for colonial operations, not modern warfare. (1) Additionally, due to British control of the sea-lanes, the Italians could not expect substantial reinforcements whereas British naval superiority and external lines of communication ensured Commonwealth air forces received meager, yet crucial reinforcements from the far-flung reaches of the British Empire. (2) While lacking the intensity of other theaters, the air war in East Africa still saw more than seventeen months of fierce fighting in difficult conditions and over long distances and the ultimate victory of the Allies in this theater played a key role in securing important air and sea lines of communication to North Africa, the Middle East, Iran, and India.

Aerial warfare was not new to the skies of East Africa. In World War I, British colonial forces employed aircraft in limited numbers against Col. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck's Schutztruppe with varying degrees of success. (3) Most notably, in 1915, a small number of land- and sea-based British aircraft were instrumental in helping to locate the German cruiser Konigsberg which had taken up refuge in the Rufiji River Delta after preying on British shipping in the Indian Ocean early in the war. After Konigsberg was located, British aircraft also played an important role as gunnery spotters and in assessing damage for the Royal Navy monitors tasked with destroying it. (4) Elsewhere in East Africa, British colonial forces operated their small air force of land based aircraft and float planes from crude airfields and lakes in roles such as close air support, reconnaissance, and liaison with limited success although this theater of operations in the Great War did see the first use of an airplane as an ambulance. (5)

More significantly, in 1935 and 1936, Italy employed an air arm of 150 aircraft in its conquest of Abyssinia. The Italians employed aircraft for transport, close support, and the terror bombing of cities and even used aircraft to drop mustard gas on Abyssinian troops. In fact, in one week in February 1936, forty tons of mustard gas was dropped on Abyssinian troops by the Regia Aeronautica, and in March 1936, air dropped mustard gas played a key role in halting an Abyssinian counter-attack against Italian Somaliland. (6) The subsequent capture of Abyssinia's capital, Addis Ababa, on May 5, 1936, ended a short but devastating war that saw the death of more than 700,000 Abyssinians along with approximately fourteen million of their farm animals. (7) Strategically, the war led to the consolidation of Abyssinia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland into the single entity of Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI), continuing a downward spiral in Italian relations with Great Britain and France and setting the stage for the fighting in the East African Theater between Italian and Allied forces during World War II. (8)

While aerial warfare was not new to East Africa, during World War II, for the first time, both sides possessed not only an air force, but also enough aircraft to have a decisive impact on operations in the theater. While Italy's decision to go to war on June 10, 1940, caught the Italian commander in AOI, Prince Amedeo, the Duke of Aosta, unprepared, his strategic position appeared quite advantageous at first glance. His ground forces consisted of 250,000 soldiers and his air force, numbering about 200 operational aircraft, supplemented by approximately 130 more in reserve or various states of maintenance represented, at that point in the war, a significant commitment of air power by a continental nation to its overseas colonies. (9) Italy also possessed a small naval force in the region known as the Red Sea Flotilla consisting of seven destroyers, eight submarines, and fourteen additional vessels, such as, torpedo boats, armed merchant cruisers, and a hospital ship. This small force meant that beginning in June 1940, when Italy entered the war, the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden were declared combat zones by the United States and thus due to its neutrality laws, American merchant ships were forbidden from delivering supplies to British controlled ports in the region. (10)

Although impressive in numbers, the Regia Aeronautica in AOI under the command of General Pietro Pinna was not prepared for modern warfare. Of the 187 operational combat aircraft deployed at the beginning of hostilities, 136 were bombers organized into twenty-three squadrons of about six aircraft apiece and fifty-one were fighters organized into squadrons of about nine aircraft apiece. Of the bombers, eighty-two were Caproni CA.133s, a hope lessly obsolete high wing monoplane with a fixed undercarriage. Whether it was used as a bomber or a transport, this slow and poorly armed aircraft was only useful when the enemy possessed negligible air defenses. Of the remainder, forty-two were Savoia-Marchetti Sm-81s and while this aircraft was superior in performance to the CA.133, it was still so ineffective that it was quickly relegated to night bombing missions. Only the twelve Savoia-Marchetti SM.79s equipping the 6th and 7th Squadrons could be called modern bombers in terms of speed, range, and bomb load, and overall these aircraft probably represented the most capable bomber employed by either side in East Africa although they were too few in number to be able to make much of a difference. (11)

Of the fighters, the twenty-four Fiat CR.42s Falcos (Falcons) of the 412th, 413th, and 414th Squadrons represented the most well equipped fighter squadrons on either side at the start of the war. The CR.42 has the distinction of the being the pinnacle of biplane fighter design. It was the Regia Aeronautica's primary fighter during the early years of the war and was produced in greater numbers than any other Italian aircraft in World War II. (12) Faster and more heavily armed than its British counterpart, the Gloster Gladiator, and more maneuverable than the Hawker Hurricane, Italian pilots employed the CR.42 to good effect during the war in East Africa. Four pilots made ace flying the CR.42 in East Africa including Mario Visintini, the top scoring biplane ace of World War II. Four other aces also made some of their claims while flying the nimble biplane over East African skies. (13) The remainder of the Italian fighter force in AOI consisted of the 410th and 411th Squadrons equipped with the Fiat Cr-32, the forerunner to the CR.42. An excellent fighter when introduced in 1934, the Cr-32 enjoyed a considerable degree of success in the Spanish Civil War. However but by 1940, it was obsolete and often proved to be slower than the bombers it was tasked to intercept although its pilots did enjoy some success over East Africa with three aces making a portion of their claims in the Cr-32. (14) In addition to the five squadrons of CR.42s and -32s, a sixth fighter squadron, the 110th, was equipped with nine aging Meridionali Ro-37bis two seat reconnaissance biplanes that proved ineffective as interceptors. (15) Along with their generally obsolete airframes, most Italian aircraft did not carry radios making air-to-air and air-to-ground coordination difficult if not impossible. (16)

Balancing out the bomber and fighter squadrons was a transport force of 25 aircraft consisting primarily of CA.133s and Sm-73s, the transport aircraft upon which the Sm-81 bomber was based. The Regia Aeronautica in AOI also possessed 134 additional aircraft that were in various states of maintenance or were placed in reserve status due to a shortage of pilots. This force was comprised of eighty-three CA.133s, seventeen Sm-81s, six Sm-79s, sixteen Cr-32s, eight CR.42s, and four Ro-37bis reconnaissance aircraft. (17)

With only twelve modern operational bombers and twenty-four barely modern operational fighters, General Pinna's forces were in bad enough shape when the war began. However, an obsolete inventory of combat aircraft was only the tip of the iceberg. The Regia Aeronautica in AOI was also desperately short of munitions with bombs over 100kg in short supply. The small stock of 250kg bombs was held in reserve for use against ships in harbors while aircraft flying other missions generally carried 50 or 100kg bombs hardly large enough to do significant damage against most targets unless a direct hit was scored. (18) Additionally, the majority of the airfields in AOI were around the periphery of the territory and thus vulnerable to air attack and of being overrun, while only a small number of airstrips were long enough to operate the two most modern aircraft employed by the Italians--the SM.79 and CR.42. Due to the lack of suitable airfields, the fighters and the units equipped with the more modern bombers were concentrated in central Ethiopia or near the coast of the Red Sea in Eritrea. (19) It was with this obsolete and poorly supported air force that General Pinna was assigned the mission of defending an area six times the size of the Italian homeland while also conducting offensive operations against British airfields, ports, and naval units operating at sea.

Facing Regia Aeronautica in AOI were the equally obsolete air forces of the British Empire. With roughly 100 operational aircraft available in June 1940, British and Imperial air forces began the war outnumbered almost two to one and dispersed at bases throughout the region. To the north and west of AOI, in the Sudan, was the Advanced Striking Force of the RAF under the control of 254 Wing composed of three bomber squadrons: Numbers 14, 47, and 223) equipped with the obsolete Vickers Wellesley, based at three airfields near Port Sudan. (20) Withdrawn from service in all other theaters, the Wellesley had set a world long distance flight record in 1938 when two aircraft completed a 7,162-mile flight from Ismailia, Egypt, to Darwin, Australia, in forty-eight hours. (21) Despite its obsolescence, the rugged and long-legged Wellesley was a workhorse of RAF bomber squadrons in East Africa, providing valuable service throughout the theater of operations flying long range missions against Italian airfields and ground troops. (22) Attached to 47 Squadron was a flight of seven Vickers Vincent general purpose biplanes for Army co-operation duties while a detachment of nine Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters from 112 Squadron arrived on 3 June 3, and were split between Summit and Port Sudan. (23) The Gladiator represented the ultimate in British biplane fighter design and served as the primary fighter for British air forces operating in East Africa through early 1941 and five aces, all South African, made some of their claims while flying the Gladiator over East Africa. (24) The missions of British air units over the Sudan included the protection of shipping in the Red Sea (including anti-submarine patrols), air defense, and close support for land forces.

Complementing the forces in the Sudan was a small number of air units based in the protectorate of Aden under the command of Air Vice Marshal (AVM) George Reid. This force consisted of 8 Squadron operating a mix of Bristol Blenheim I bombers and Vincent biplanes, 94 Squadron equipped with sixteen Gladiators, and 203 Squadron operating Blenheim IV long range fighters. Also, at the start of hostilities reinforcements were already flowing to Aden. Blenheim I bombers of 39 Squadron arrived from India while the Blenheim Is of Singapore based 11 Squadron were on their way. (25)

South of AOI in Kenya there were no RAF units and none scheduled to reinforce the British colonies in Southern Africa. However, in this area the forces of the Empire were able to lend a hand. In April 1940, the Rhodesian Air Force deployed to Nairobi its lone squadron equipped with a mix of Hawker Audax, Hardy, and Hart two seat general purpose biplanes where it was designated 237 Squadron RAF. (26) In May 1940, South African units began arriving in Kenya to reinforce the Rhodesians. On May 19, 11 Squadron equipped with twenty-four Hawker Hartebeeste ground support biplanes and a single Fairey Battle deployed to Nairobi, followed on May 25, by 12 Squadron equipped with thirteen South African Airways Junkers Ju-86 airliners converted for bombing. In early June, I Squadron of the South African Air Force (SAAF) was in place with its Hawker Fury and Hurricane fighters with a further twelve pilots detached to Egypt for conversion training with the Gladiator--they were to arrive in Kenya in late July. Overall, by the start of hostilities with Italy in June 1940, three SAAF squadrons equipped with a total of forty-six aircraft were operating out of bases at Nairobi, Mombasa, and Dar-Es-Salaam. For transportation and logistics, the SAAF also contributed 10 Junkers Ju-52 transports, requisitioned from South African Airways and three obsolete but still useful Vickers Valentia biplanes from 50 Squadron. (27) The employment of Ju-86s and Ju-52s by the SAAF is one of the few examples of an Allied air force employing German built aircraft in combat during the Second World War. (28)

War in East Africa began on June 11, 1940, when eight Wellesleys of 47 Squadron struck three Italian airfields destroying 780 gallons of gasoline. This effort was complemented by four SAAF Ju-86s bombing Italian positions near the Kenyan border, six hours before South Africa officially declared war on Italy while six Blenheims from Aden attacked Italian targets along the Red Sea coast. (29) The first air-to-air kill of the campaign was a Sm-81 shot down by a Gladiator of 94 Squadron on June 13, during an attack on Aden. (30)

Initial attacks by the Italians focused on port facilities at Aden, airfields in the Sudan, and Alhed positions in Kenya in support of Italian ground troops pursuing raiding parties from the King's African Rifles. (31) One of the most successful Italian air attacks of the early stages of the war came on the early morning of June 13, when three CA.133s attacked the airfield at Wajir in Kenya. Braving heavy anti-aircraft fire, the Italians pressed their attack and according to British records damaged two Hawker Audaxes and destroyed 5,000 gallons of fuel. (32) These types of harassment attacks with small numbers of aircraft characterized the air war in East Africa for both sides and while sometimes the attacks caused significant damage, for the most part the damage was minor in spite of the often optimistic claims from the air crews.

Despite the best efforts of the Commonwealth Air Forces to apply pressure to the Italians, the first offensives and the first victories in the war in East Africa went to the Italians. In early July, in order to tie down the British and prevent raids into Italian territory, the Italians attacked along the frontiers of the Sudan and Kenya. In the Sudan, supported by the Regia Aeronautica, Italian troops captured the border towns of Cassala, Gallabat, and Kurmuk, while in Kenya the Italians took the town of Moyale without the loss of any aircraft. In all cases Italian troops heavily outnumbered the colonial garrisons which retreated in good order after offering initial resistance. (33)

However, these actions were nothing more than minor border skirmishes and the Italians failed to use these early victories to make further territorial gains in the Sudan or Kenya. The real prize, at least from the standpoint of Italy's initial war aims was British Somaliland. The Italian invasion of the British colony began in early August 1940, with Italian commanders under enormous pressure from Rome to produce a victory. The British were outnumbered and with no hope of reinforcement, particularly after the fall of France and the elimination of any assistance from French Somaliland. However, the British were determined to put up a fight and RAF units did their part to keep pressure on advancing enemy troops. (34) Fighters based at airfields in Somaliland and bombers flying from Aden attacked Italian airfields and advancing Italian columns. During the height of the campaign, between August 5 and 19, Aden-based air units flew 184 sorties, dropping sixty tons of bombs for the cost of seven aircraft. (35) Wellesleys flying from Aden even provided air cover to convoys in the Red Sea. Bomber sorties from Aden were often flown without fighter support due to Italian pressure on RAF fighter airfields in Somaliland. (36) South African units operating from airfields in Kenya contributed to the fight with attacks on Italian airfields in Ethiopia. However, it was not enough and on August 19, 1940, the last British troops were evacuated from Somaliland. The Italians had the victory they needed, albeit after suffering almost ten times the casualties they inflicted on their British opponents. (37)

Despite the initial victories in East Africa going to the Italians, the long term trends were not on their side. All of Italy's victories in Somaliland as well as capture of border towns in the Sudan and Kenya involved higher casualties than they inflicted on their enemies in battles where Italian troops held a significant numerical advantage. Additionally, while the Regia Aeronautica managed to receive a trickle of reinforcements through the end of 1940, the year ended with Italy's air component in East Africa weaker than when the war began. The Regia Aeronautica began the war with 187 operational fighters and bombers and flew in an additional 74 aircraft during the early months of fighting, including thirty-six CR.42s disassembled and stowed in the cargo holds of Sm-82 transports. (38) However, the Regia Aeronautica in AOI closed out 1940 with only 132 operational fighters and bombers (along with another 125 in various states of repair) due to high losses in seven months of fighting. Making matters worse, British success against Italian forces in Libya in early 1941 shut down the airborne reinforcement route and Italian forces would only receive twenty-one new aircraft in 1941. (39) On October 22, the Regia Aeronautica also began to feel the pinch of its untenable supply situation when it was put on strict fuel rationing. (40)

For the Allies, the opposite was the case. A small but steady stream of reinforcements improved both the quantity and quality of aircraft available to the British and South Africans. Throughout the summer and fall of 1940, 1 and 2 Squadrons of the SAAF replaced their aging Hawker Furies with Hawker Hurricane Mark Is to complement their Gladiators. In October 1940, 3 Squadron SAAF arrived in Kenya equipped with Hurricanes. The arrival of 3 Squadron in Kenya enabled the transfer of some of 2 Squadron's aircraft north to the Sudan to reinforce a detachment of 1 Squadron that had transferred there in September. The British even welcomed two French Air Force, U.S.-built Martin 167F reconnaissance bombers flown to Aden from Syria by French pilots aider the fall of France. In early August 1940, Fairey Battles of 11 Squadron of the SAAF flew their first sorties against the Italians. Obsolete in other theaters, the Battles proved effective in close air support and offensive counter air missions in East Africa. One mission by Battles of 11 Squadron highlights the difficulties aircrews in East Africa faced in assessing damage done to enemy targets. On August 28, 1940, 11 Squadron dive bombed a "substantial vehicle park" at Mogadishu in Italian Somaliland claiming the destruction of 800 trucks. However, when Mogadishu was captured in February 1941, the trucks were discovered to be worn out wrecks that had been dumped there in 1936 after the Italian conquest of Ethiopia. (41)

Additional bombers also arrived in theater with aircraft from the Blenheim equipped 84 Squadron of the RAF based in Iraq arriving in Aden and Blenheims from 45 Squadron arrived in the Sudan from Egypt in August and September. By the end of 1940, Allied units had achieved quantitative parity and qualitative superiority over the Italians with the aircraft available to the SAAF in Kenya more than doubling from its strength at the start of the war. The British and South Africans also consistently employed the flexibility of their exterior lines of communication by shifting units to satellite airfields, between Kenya and the Sudan as needed, as well from the Sudan and Aden to Egypt and from Egypt to the Sudan and Aden based on the demands of commanders in theater. This flexibility increasingly allowed Imperial air forces to achieve local air superiority when and where needed. (42)

After the fall of British Somaliland, the British spent the fall of 1940, consolidating their positions in East Africa, integrating the above mentioned reinforcements, and launching harassment raids into Ethiopia. Italian air operations mirrored British attacks and on October 16, 1940, the Regia Aeronautica executed a particularly impressive counter air mission. In the early morning hours a single Vickers Vincent attacked the Italian airfield at Tessenei in Ethiopia. The offending aircraft was in turn followed home to its base at Gedaref in the Sudan by a single CA.133. After making an unsuccessful attack run the CA.133 returned to Tessenei and reported the location of the British airfield. A follow up attack by nine CR.42s of 412 Squadron led by a single SM.79 destroyed eight of 47 Squadron's Wellesleys and two Vincents while also damaging an ammunition dump. Participating in the attack was the Regia Aeronautica's leading East African ace, Capt. Mario Visintini. (43)

The year 1941 began with the Allies poised to take the offensive and in early January British troops reoccupied the frontier posts in the Sudan after the Italians pulled back to consolidate their lines. (44) With an increasing number of Gladiators and Hurricanes equipping their fighter squadrons RAF and SAAF operations put a great deal of pressure on the Regia Aeronautica wearing it down through the attrition of constant operations. In early February, Italian commanders informed Rome that without reinforcements the Regia Aeronautica's ability to conduct effective operations would cease. Losses due to all causes as well as damage to aircraft meant that on February 1, the Italians had eighty-two fighters and bombers available for operations, a drop of almost 40% in one month. By March 1, the number of operational aircraft available to the Regia Aeronautica was down to forty-two despite a small number of reinforcements from Italy and the return of damaged aircraft to service, a drop of almost 70 percent from the beginning of the year. Additionally, increased RAF and SAAF fighter activity meant that the Italian's primary bomber, the CA.133, could not operate without heavy fighter escort. (45) During the fighting in early 1941, three South African pilots from 1 Squadron Ken Driver, Brian "Piggy" Boyle, and Robin Pare all earned their fifth victories, achieving ace status. (46)

Allied offensive operations in East Africa in early 1941, quickly gained momentum. In February, troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Alan Cunningham, younger brother of the renowned Fleet Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, launched what was intended to be a limited offensive from Kenya into Italian Somaliland. Cunningham's army composed of troops from East, West, and South Africa reached the port of Mogadishu before the end of the month and pursued the retreating Italians into Ethiopia. (47) During the advance, Cunningham's troops were ably supported by SAAF units based in Kenya. Ju-86s of 12 Squadron conducted deep strikes against Italian positions and lines of communication while Fairey Battles of 11 Squadron flew close support missions and harassed retreating Italian columns. Cunningham's advance was also received air and gunfire support from the Royal Navy. Fairey Swordfish bombers operated from the aircraft carrier HMS Hermes while in one particularly effective joint operation on February 15, the cruiser HMS Shropshire provided gunfire support to Cunningham's troops with Hurricane's from 3 Squadron flying air cover and a U.S. built Martin Maryland reconnaissance bomber directing the cruiser's gunfire. (48) Cunningham's forces continued their advance and on April 3, 1941, they entered Addis Ababa. In less than eight weeks, Cunningham's men advanced almost 2,700 kilometers, through harsh terrain, while defeating a numerically superior army. (49)

Although they faced tougher opposition, British offensive operations in the north were just as impressive as Cunningham's drive on Addis Ababa. After a hard fought siege of over one month, the Italian fortress town of Keren in Eritrea fell on March 27, to British, Indian, and Free French troops. (50) Outnumbered on the ground, but better trained and better equipped the Allied troops, led by the 4th and 5th Indian Divisions ultimately succeeded against the determined Italians in large part due to air superiority won by the RAF and SAAF. On March 15, alone, Blenheims and Wellesleys dropped 38,800 pounds of bombs on the Italian defenses. (51) Sustained ground support operations were enabled by the air cover provided by 1 and 2 Squadrons of the SAAF with 1 Squadron now fully equipped with Hurricanes. The importance of the increasing number of Hurricanes in achieving air superiority during the fight for Keren over the Regia Aeronautica's dwindling inventory of Cr-42s and Cr-32s was later acknowledged by Winston Churchill in his postwar writings. (52)

During the offensive against Keren, Italian pilots fought back valiantly against impossible odds. Italian pilots often launched single attacks against Allied bombing raids and continued to make claims with aces Mario Visintini, Luigi Baron, Aroldo Soffritti, Antonia Giardina, and Carlo Canella from 412 Squadron adding to their scores. However, down to only fifteen serviceable CR.42s, the end result was inevitable and the fighting around Keren even saw the death of Italy's East African aces of aces, Mario Visintini, who crashed into a mountain on February 9. (53) Once Keren fell, the Italian position in Eritrea became untenable with Allied troops capturing Asmara just north of the Ethiopian border on April 1, 1940, and the port of Massawa a week later, although the destruction at the port rendered it useless until repairs could be made. In addition to the drive through Eritrea, on March 16, two battalions of Indian troops landed at Berbera in British Somaliland, only to find the Italian garrison commander and sixty of his men lined up in formation waiting to surrender. (54)

During the final drive through Eritrea, British air power scored a significant strategic victory in early April 1941, with the final destruction of the Regia Marina's Red Sea Flotilla. While the original force had been gradually worn down due to combat losses and lack of fuel and spare parts, the flotilla remained a small but viable fleet in being that still posed a threat to Allied shipping. This continued to keep the Red Sea designated as a combat zone by the United States and thus forbade entry to American merchant ships. (55) However, as the situation on the ground deteriorated for Italy, the Red Sea Flotilla's position became untenable. Its commander, Admiral Mario Bonetti, ordered the remaining four submarines to Bourdeaux, France, to join the Regia Marina's submarine flotilla operating there, while three armed merchant cruisers were ordered to Kobe, Japan, with one succumbing to the guns of the light cruiser HMNZS Leander en-route. (56)

Finally, in late March 1941, with British troops closing in on their main base at Massawa, Admiral Bonetti ordered the six remaining destroyers of the flotilla on a desperate mission to attack British shipping in the Suez Canal and the Red Sea. One destroyer ran aground and had to be scuttled on April 1, 1941, while on April 3, the other five came under attack by the Swordfish attack aircraft of HMS Eagle's 813 and 824 Naval Air Squadrons, temporarily operating ashore at Port Sudan as well as by RAF Blenheims from 14 Squadron and Wellesleys from 223 Squadron. Two of the destroyers were sunk, while the other three were damaged and eventually scuttled. (57) In addition to losses in warships, almost 90,000 tons of Italian and German merchant shipping were scuttled in Massawa on April 4, with another 62,000 tons of Italian merchant ships scuttled on April 10. (58) While the final destruction of the Red Sea Flotilla by the Fleet Air Arm and the RAF in April 1941, is not listed among the great victories of air power over naval forces in World War II, the battle had a strategic effect on the course of the war disproportionate to the tonnage of ships sunk. The destruction of the Red Sea Flotilla cleared that crucial waterway of Axis warships, allowing President Roosevelt to declare on April 10 that the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden were no longer combat zones, permitting unarmed American merchant ships to directly supply British forces operating in Egypt and the Middle East. (59) In addition to securing sea lines of communication, British victories in East Africa and the Red Sea also helped secure air lines of communication which would permit the movement through the region of air units destined to reinforce Allied positions in North Africa, the Middle East, and India.

With the capture of Massawa and Addis Ababa in April 1941, the fighting in East Africa began to wind down although Italian troops would continue to hold out at the inland fortress of Gondar until November 1941. However, after April, the air war for the Italians was for all practical purposes over. Down to just seven fighters, six bombers, and minimal supplies, the Regia Aeronautica in AOI was limited to occasional harassment attacks and attempting to provide aerial resupply to isolated Italian garrisons. (60) To the credit of the Italians, they managed to keep two CR.42s operational through October 1941, flying reconnaissance missions and attacking British ground troops and vehicles. For the British, while some units re-equipped with new aircraft and were redeployed to Egypt after the fall of Addis Ababa, most units continued to soldier on with their aging and well worn equipment flying reconnaissance, bombing, and close support missions until the end of the campaign. Very little air to air combat occurred although the remaining two CR.42s along with occasional supply flights flown to Gondar from Italy through Vichy French controlled Djibouti proved to be a considerable annoyance to the British who were determined to end these activities by the Italians. In September 1941, B Flight of 3 Squadron SAAF, recently re-equipped with twenty P-36 Mohawk fighters deployed to the theater where one of their missions was flying patrols against Italian aircraft using Djibouti's airspace. (61) On October 5, 1941, Capt. Jack Parsonson strafed an Italian Sm-75 cargo plane on the airfield at Djibouti, the only enemy aircraft destroyed by the P-36 in East Africa. (62) Later that month on the 24th, one of the two remaining CR.42s in AOI was shot down while on a reconnaissance sortie by Lt. L. C. H. Hope of the SAAF. Appropriately, Lieutenant Hope was flying a Gladiator, the CR.42's primary opponent in the theater of operations. His victory was the last against an Italian aircraft in East Africa and the last air to air kill by a Gladiator pilot serving in British markings. On the 25th, Hope flew over Italian positions and dropped a message, "Tribute to the pilot of the Fiat, he was a brave man, South African Air Force." (63)

Except for mopping up operations against Italian troops operating as guerillas in the mountains, the war in East Africa came to an end in November 1941. The last sortie flown by the Regia Aeronautica in AOI was on November 22, when the remaining Cr-42 strafed a British artillery position, killing the regimental commander. The Italians burned the Italians to prevent its capture. On the 27th, British and South African aircraft flew their last sorties of the campaign when thirty planes dropped some 12,000 pounds of bombs on Italian positions around Gondar. The Italians surrendered later that day. (64) It was a hard fought campaign by both sides with imagination, courage, and determination in extremely difficult conditions with obsolete equipment and particularly for the Italians, at the end of very long and often tenuous supply lines was over. The campaign ended with the capture of more than 20,000 Italian and native troops and resulted in the first substantive ground victories for the British in the Second World War and secure lines of communication through southern and central Africa and in the western Indian Ocean. These lines of communication would be vital to sustaining the flow of supplies to Allied forces in North Africa and once Japan entered the war in December 1941, throughout the periphery of the Indian Ocean.

(1.) Christopher Shores, Dust Clouds in the Middle East--the Air War for East Africa, Iraq, Syria, Iran, and Madagascar, 1940-42, London: Grub Street, 1996), pp. 4-5.

(2.) Giovanni Massimello and Giorgio Apostolo, Italian Aces of World War H, London and N.Y: Osprey Publishing, 2005, p. 15.

(3.) Byron Farwell, The Great War in Africa, 1914-1918, N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Co., 1986, p.135.

(6.) Jon Sutherland and Diane Canwell, Air War East Africa 1940-1941, the RAF Versus the Italian Air Force, (South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Aviation, 2009), pp.19-20.

(8.) Douglas Porch, The Path to Victory--the Mediterranean Theater in World War H, N.Y. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2004, p. 128.

(9.) Shores, p. 11 and Porch, p. 129.

(10.) Winston S. Churchill, The Grand Alliance, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1950, p. 80 and Francis L. Loewenheim, Harold D. Langley, and Manfred Jonas ed., Roosevelt and Churchill--Their Secret Wartime Correspondence, New York: De Capo Press, 1975., pp. 137-38.

(12.) Sutherland and Canwell, pp. 184-86.

(13.) Hakan Gustavsson and Ludovico Slongo, Fiat CR-42 Aces of World War H, London and New York: Osprey Publishingk, 2009, pp. 87-88 Massimello and Apostolo, pp. 86-87 and and Shores, pp. 9-11.

(14.) David Mondey, Axis Aircraft of World War II, London: Chancellor Press, 1996., pp. 54-55 and Massimello and Apostolo,, pp. 86-87 and Shores, pp. 59-11.

(16.) Sutherland and Canwell, p. 25.

(17.) Mondey, Axis Aircraft of World War II, p. 240 and Shores p. 11.

(18.) Shores, p. 10 and Sutherland and Canwell, ,pp. 23.

(21.) David Mondey, British Aircraft of World War H, London: Chancellor Press, 1994, p. 216.

(23.) Andrew Thomas, Gloster Gladiator Aces of World War H, London and N.Y.: Osprey Publishing, 2002, p. 70 and Shores, p. 12.

(25.) Thomas, p.70 and Shores, pp. 13-14.

(27.) Sutherland and Canwell, pp. 26-7 and Thomas, p. 72.

(28.) In addition to the South African Air Force, both Greece and China employed small numbers of German built aircraft during World War II, see Mondey, Axis Aircraft of World War II.

(29.) Sutherland and Canwell, p. 31.

(31.) Sutherland and Canwell, p. 36.

(37.) Sutherland and Canwell, pp. 58-60.

(38.) Mondey, Axis Aircraft of World War II, p. 242.

(40.) Sutherland and Canwell, p. 70.

(43.) Gustavsson and Slongo, p. 70 and Shores, pp. 67-68.

(46.) Thomas, Gloster Gladiator Aces of World War II, p. 76 and Andrew Thomas, Hurricane Aces 1941-45, pp. 59-61.

(47.) Michael Wright ed., The Reader's Digest Illustrated History of World War II, London and N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association, 1989, pp. 77-79.

(48.) Sutherland and Canwell, pp. 97-98.

(49.) Michael Wright ed., p. 79.

(52.) Winston S. Churchill, The Grand Alliance, p.79.

(53.) Gustavsson and Slongo, pp. 62-65.

(54.) Anthony Mockler, Haile Selassie's War: The Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, (N.Y.: Random House, 1984), pp. 365-66.

(55.) Loewenheim, Langley, Jonas ed., pp. 137-38.

(56.) Ashley Jackson, The British Empire and the Second World War, (London: Hambledon Continuum, 2006), p. 281.

(57.) David Brown, Warship Losses of World War II, (London: Arms and Armor, 1990), p. 43 Jackson, p. 283 Sutherland and Canwell, pp. 124-25 and Shores, pp.138-40.

(59.) Churchill, p. 80 Loewenheim, Langley, and Jonas ed., pp. 137-38 and Sutherland and Canwell, p. 128.

(60.) Sutherland and Canwell, p. 133.

(62.) Andrew Thomas, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk Aces of the RAF and Commonwealth, pp. 96-97.

Initial concerns

The legendary De Havilland Aircraft Company initially proposed the jet. However, Hawker Siddeley took over the company at the turn of the 1960s. Before this acquisition, American Airlines expressed its interest in a three-engined plane, but the carrier eventually opted for the American-made 727. Thus, De Havilland adapted its design to meet the requirements of British European Airways (BEA) and the domestic United Kingdom market.

Notably, it was this adaptation that caused the initial model of the type to suffer. It was felt that the plane lacked the range to truly compete with the 727.

Moreover, while the plane could perform well at high speeds, the Trident 1C’s wing generated less lift at low speeds when against its rivals. With this aspect, the three-member crews found that there were longer take-off rolls. Subsequently, the plane attained the nickname of “The Gripper.”

Despite these concerns, the aircraft was designed with the latest technology in mind. For instance, it pioneered the Smiths Aircraft Industries Autoland System. This feature enabled pilots to fly in effectively zero visibility conditions. This factor allowed launch customer BEA to continue operating well throughout the harsh British winters.

WI: both Hawker Fury and Gloster Gladiator conceived as monoplanes?

1) Hawker builds a Kestrel powered Hurricane prototype instead of the High Speed Fury and then a Goshawk powered Hurricane prototype instead of the P.V.3 as its submission to Spec. F.7/30.

2) Then it builds a Merlin powered Hurricane prototype to Spec F.5/34 and F.36/34. The real Hurricane prototype flew in November 1935, but the TTL Merlin-Hurricane should be ready as soon as the Merlin is.

So is your argument that they skip the Merlin-Hurricane and instead design a new aircraft that would be as fast that the Merlin-Spitfire and with as much development potential? That is a third possibility. However, I think a clean sheet of paper aircraft would take longer to develop and put into production and would not enter service until the end of 1938 about 18 months behind a re-engine Hurricane.

Some Bloke

Tomo pauk

1) Hawker builds a Kestrel powered Hurricane prototype instead of the High Speed Fury and then a Goshawk powered Hurricane prototype instead of the P.V.3 as its submission to Spec. F.7/30.

2) Then it builds a Merlin powered Hurricane prototype to Spec F.5/34 and F.36/34. The real Hurricane prototype flew in November 1935, but the TTL Merlin-Hurricane should be ready as soon as the Merlin is.

So is your argument that they skip the Merlin-Hurricane and instead design a new aircraft that would be as fast that the Merlin-Spitfire and with as much development potential? That is a third possibility. However, I think a clean sheet of paper aircraft would take longer to develop and put into production and would not enter service until the end of 1938 about 18 months behind a re-engine Hurricane.


I don't know, but in your OP you asked how it would alter bomber development.

One might be that some or all of the Hawker Hart family (about 2,500 aircraft) are built as fixed undercarriage monoplanes because the Hart was sort of the bomber version of the Fury. (Or was it the other way around?)

Also the Hawker Nimrod naval fighter was a navalised Fury and the Hawker Osprey was a navalised Hart. Therefore the FAA gets monoplanes earlier too.

In the late 1920s Handley Page built the HP.43 bomber-transport to Spec. C.16/28. It was sort of a smaller 2-engine version of the HP.42 airliner. In the middle 1930s Handley Page rebuilt the HP.43 into the HP.51 monoplane to meet Spec. C.26/31. The production contract was awarded to the Bristol Bombay, however, the Air Ministry did order 100 heavy bomber versions of the HP.51 under Expansion Scheme C. This was the HP.54 Harrow.

If Hawker built the Fury and Hart as monoplanes that might make Handley Page build the HP.42 and HP.43 as monoplanes instead of biplanes.

Handley Pages last biplane heavy bomber was the Heyford, built to Spec. B.19/27. 125 were built (including the prototype) and it entered service in the early 1930s. As it was designed at about the same time as HP.42 and HP.43 the Heyford might be designed as a fixed undercarriage monoplane as well - effectively the HP.54 Harrow, but with less powerful Kestrel engines.

As it happens the Fairey submission to B.19/27, the Hendon, was a fixed undercarriage monoplane. The prototype flew in November 1930, but it didn't enter service until November 1936 and the Air Ministry cut the production contracts back from 74 (some sources say more) to 14. Presumably so Fairey could concentrate on its naval contracts and the Battle.

Tomo pauk

I don't know, but in your OP you asked how it would alter bomber development.

One might be that some or all of the Hawker Hart family (about 2,500 aircraft) are built as fixed undercarriage monoplanes because the Hart was sort of the bomber version of the Fury. (Or was it the other way around?)


Can we stick with the OP's original question about a "monoplane Fury" as a logical progression?
Each successive generation of Hawker fighters introduced one new gadget. They perfected that gadget while gaining operational experience, then incorporated that gadget into the next generation . along with another new gadget.

For example: we can see a logical progression throughout Hawkers' long line of fighters. Starting with Tom Sopwith's WW1 fighters made of wooden sticks wired together and covered with fabric.
1930s-vintage Hawker biplanes looked the same, but were updated with aluminum tubing.
Fury biplane added cantilever undercarriage legs.
Hurricane added a cantilever wing AND retractable undercarriage.
Later Marks of Hurricanes added wing-mounted cannons.
Typhoon added sheet aluminum aft fuselage.
Tempest added a laminar airfoil.
Sea Fury added a sheet aluminum center fuselage and forward fuselage.

WI your design staff has limited time to design each new generation of fighters, so they only have time to design one new gadget, so the proposed "monoplane Fury" only innovates wing design, while retaining the old aluminum tube fuselage, fuselage mounted guns and fuselage mounted cantilever undercarriage legs.
For nostalgia's sake, retain the open cockpit on "monoplane Fury Mark 1."

Some Bloke

It seems that Hawker's taking the evolutionary design thing even further than OTL. Assuming the procurement policies are more or less the same despite different designs, then yes, the Hawker Nimrod gives the FAA a monoplane fighter. Does this mean that the FAA upgrades to a Sea Hurricane? Perhaps not.

In OTL the Nimrod used a Kestrel engine. Perhaps here the RAF are loath to give the brand spanking new Merlin Engines to the Navy, and instead the FAA gets an upgraded Nimrod using the Peregrine engine (a development of the Kestrel). With more attention being paid to this line of engine, maybe its successor, the Vulture has more luck in this scenario.

1931: Hawker Fury enters service per OTL (except that it's the first monoplane fighter in British service).
1933: Hawker Nimrod (Navalised Fury) enters naval service (again OTL)
1934: Gloster Gladiator enters service
1937: Hawker Hurricane with Merlin engine (initially conceived as Fury III?) Enters service
1938: Supermarine Spitfire enter service. Hawker Hooghly? (Peregrine engined Nimrod) Enters naval service. Gladiator Mark II enters production, upgrades include fully retractable undercarriage, giving speed performance comporable to the Hurricane. With the RAF committed to the Hurricane and Spitfire, and the Navy switching over to the Hooghly, it is decided to earmark the Mark II Gladiator for export, both to the Dominions and elsewhere. However, there has been talk of switching the engine to the more powerful sleeve valved Perseus * .

* The Blackburn Skua II used a Perseus where the Mark I used a Mercury IOTL.

Just Leo

Tomo pauk

Re. engines for the FAA - the Bristol Taurus, while by no means a wonder engine, could provide a reasonable service in the alternative Gloster from 1940 on. Though, I'd like that Australia produces the alt Gloster with Twin Wasps, the engines they had in license production.

The earlier Sea Hurricane would've been cool, though.

Some Bloke

Re. engines for the FAA - the Bristol Taurus, while by no means a wonder engine, could provide a reasonable service in the alternative Gloster from 1940 on. Though, I'd like that Australia produces the alt Gloster with Twin Wasps, the engines they had in license production.

Excellent point. Although I suspect the Australian plane will be better hand have a longer service life. You'd also save the Reaper that way.

Tomo pauk


To keep a monoplane Gladiator or Gloster 5/34 alive in this ATL, you would need to avoid the 1934 corporate merger than saw Gloster absorbed into the Hawker Siddeley Group.

OTL by 1936, Henry Folland was growing increasingly frustrated that his designs (e.g. Gloster F5/34) were ignored in favour of Hawker designs. In 1937, Folland left to start his own Folland Company. During WW2 Folland was mainly a "shadow factory" building airplanes under-license from other firms.

If you were a managing director of Hawker Siddeley (1934 to 1937) how would you justify keeping two parallel fighter development streams?
. Hawkers with RR inline engines . versus . Glosters with radial engines .

Some Bloke


. in your OP you asked how it would alter bomber development. .

In the late 1920s Handley Page built the HP.43 bomber-transport to Spec. C.16/28. It was sort of a smaller 2-engine version of the HP.42 airliner. In the middle 1930s Handley Page rebuilt the HP.43 into the HP.51 monoplane to meet Spec. C.26/31. The production contract was awarded to the Bristol Bombay, however, the Air Ministry did order 100 heavy bomber versions of the HP.51 under Expansion Scheme C. This was the HP.54 Harrow.

If Hawker built the Fury and Hart as monoplanes that might make Handley Page build the HP.42 and HP.43 as monoplanes instead of biplanes.

On the subject of monoplane bombers . let's narrow our focus to a trio of OTL bomber/transports: Handley-Page 43, HP Harrow and Bristol Bombay.

All three share similar fuselages, radial engines and fixed gear because they were all designed for the same "colonial" role where the primary goal was supplying out-lying police stations, with a secondary role of dropping a few bombs onto uppity tribesmen. Transport airplanes allowed colonial police forces to avoid most road-side ambushes laid by rebel tribesmen and common thieves. The distinction between "rebels" and "common thieves" was never clear to soldiers on the ground

Back to transport airplanes: HP 42 perfected the basic fuselage lay-out, but was hampered by obsolete biplane wings.
HP Harrow merely added a monoplane wing and reliable radial engines. HP built 100 Harrows and they served through much of the fighting in North Africa.
Bristol Bombays resembled Harrows and flew similar missions.

Now we get to the "WI?" part of the question .
WI Harrow and Bombay were only the first steps in a series of RAF transports?

The Royal Navy orders a few Harrows. Royal Marine Commandos start parachuting out of their new airplanes. RM paratroopers ask for a door 2 yards tall by 1 yard wide. RM paratroopers drop increasing large bundles from Harrow bomb racks. Next thing you know they are dropping Klepper Folboats from Harrows, soon followed by small lifeboats.
The RN insists that Harrow Mark 2 have hatches 2 or 3 yards long by a yard wide under the aft fuselage. A series of "training accidents" drive early development of a low altitude parachute extraction system for delivering lifeboats to sailors in distress.
RN demands lead to a succession of upgrades, until HP transports resemble Budd Conestogas with nose wheels, tail ramps, etc. IOW modern military transport airplanes.
RN Harrow Mark Vs get pressed into service dropping ammo to desperate British 'paras around Arnhem (Operation Marketgarden, September 1944), allowing paras to hold the North Bank of the Rhine River . etc.

Let's keep the original radial engines on our await transports/bombers. Radial engines proved more reliable and more efficient in post-war airline service. With high wings and tail ramps, they will never be able to compete with low-winged Douglas transports (DC3, DC4, C47, C54, etc.) on long routes but will be ideal for short to medium range army-support missions. Army-support missions require retaining large tires to operate off soft grass fields

Hawker Hartebeeste - History

UNITED KINGDOM: RAF Bomber Command: 4 Group (Whitley). Bombing - oil targets at Gelsenkirchen and Dorsten. 58 Sqn. Six aircraft. All bombed from low-level (2 - 8,000 feet). Severe opposition. 77 Sqn. Two aircraft. Both bombed, one badly damaged by Flak. 102 Sqn. Four aircraft. Extremely severe opposition, one FTR.

Churchill makes his first broadcast as Prime Minister, calling Nazism "the foulest and most soul-destroying tyranny that has ever darkened and stained the pages of history."

NORWEGIAN CAMPAIGN: (Mark Horan) At 0800 the three carriers were at position 70.27N, 15.47E, but weather conditions were such that no operations could be flown on this date. At 1115 word arrived that Bardufoss would be ready to receive the Gladiators of 263 Squadron on HMS Furious on 22 May, while Skaanland landing ground would not be ready for 46 Squadrons Hurricanes on HMS Glorious until 26 May.

On her first patrol, U-122 transported material to Trondheim during the Norwegian campaign - one 88-mm Flak with ammunition, some bombs, 90 cbm (some 750 barrels) fuel for aircraft and motor oil.

Western Front: RN: W class Destroyer HMS Whitley is bombed two miles off Nieuport on the Belgian Coast at 51 11N, 02 40E. After sustaining severe bomb damage she is beached off Nieuport and destroyed by gunfire on the same day from HMS KEITH. (Alex Gordon)(108)

The Wehrmacht High Command announced:

The Luftwaffe has effectively supported the Army advance. Its main stress has continued to be on the enemy's rear communications, traffic installations and paths of retreat. Bombs dropped on several airfields destroyed hangars, repair sheds and aircraft on the ground.

FRANCE: The German Panzers halt near Pervine and St. Quentein. Rommel's 7th Panzer division is near Arras.

The first discussions between London and the field commanders about possible evacuation from France occur today.

The Germans today have a pause and re-organisation. Because of this, "enemy pressure against us was not very strong", as Billotte declared in the afternoon to Georges, and his armies carried out the withdrawal decided upon the day before without much difficulty. The Belgian Army took up positions on the canal at Terneuzen (between Terneuzen and Ghent) and on the Escaut as far as Audenarde. The British Army withdrew to the Escaut between Audendarde and the French frontier (Maulde), and the First Army to the Escaut at Conde, Valenciennes and Bouchain.

Further, on the extreme right of No. 1 Army Group, the British formed a hooked defence line facing south, in the triangle formed by Arras, Doullens, and Saint-Pol, to protect their lines of communication. The mechanised divisions of the French Cavalry Corps were ordered to re-group on the right flank of the BEF in the Arras-Douai area.

The only French offensive action is an attack by 4 Armoured Div., towards the Serre, 9 miles to the north. Colonel de Gaulle started the action at dawn with the intention of seizing the bridges at Pouilly, Crecy, and Mortiers, and cutting the Germans route to La Fere.

Meeting no opposition at first, the armoured division only came to grips with the Germans at the Serre, the crossings of which were heavily defended by Germans, supported by heavy artillery. Without infantry and sufficient artillery, the division was incapable of forcing a crossing.

KENYA : 11 Squadron SAAF equipped with twenty-four Hawker Hartebeeste ground support biplanes and a single Fairey Battle deploy to Nairobi.

U.S.A. : Roosevelts replies to Churchill's request for help. He says that the loan or gift of destroyers would have to be approved by Congress and the time was not opportune.

With respect to Churchill's other requests, he would facilitate to the utmost the Allied Governments receiving the latest United States equipment.

Early years Edit

Locke was born in Germiston, South Africa the only son of Mr. C.J. and Mrs. O. Locke of 70 Nottingham Road, Kensington, Johannesburg. He obtained his Educational Junior Certificate pass at Benoni High School in 1934.

Early professional career Edit

Locke won the South African Open for the first of nine times in 1935, at the Parkview Golf Club in Johannesburg, with a score of 296, playing as an amateur. He played in his first Open Championship in 1936, when he was eighteen, and finished as low amateur.

He turned professional in March 1938 at the age of 20 [3] and was engaged by the Maccauvlei Country Club as club professional in December 1939. Problems arose [4] when Locke wanted to give lessons to non-members as well as take leave of absence, without advance request, to take part in outside competitions such as the U.S. Open. Locke resigned from the Club, by letter, on 26 July 1940.

Service in World War II Edit

His golf career was interrupted by service in the South African Air Force during World War II. His Official War Record is held at the South African Department of Defence archives under his Service No: 103940.

Alternate descriptions of Locke's war record Edit

Other descriptions of Locke's war record suggest he was more active than the transport duties he undertook, with SAAF Number 31 Squadron in Italy, that are described by the official SANDF archives. The descriptions include: he spent twelve months in a Liberator Squadron in Italy [5] : 40 he was a bomber pilot who bombed Monte Casino, [6] he fought for Britain as a bomber pilot [7] he flew over 100 missions over Europe with the SAAF [8] and 'served with distinction as a Royal Airforce Bomber pilot'. [9] Locke also claims that:

  • In a photograph of him and others, [5] : 39 he was playing golf at Gizeh Golf & Country Club, in Cairo, in 1943, and
  • "My stay in the Air Force lasted five years and three months, in which time I completed 1,800 hours on single-, twin- and four-engined aircraft" [5] : 39, 40

Success in the United States Edit

Following the end of World War II, Locke successfully resumed his career in South Africa in 1946. He hosted Sam Snead, one of the top American golfers of the day, for a series of exhibition matches in South Africa in January/February 1947, winning 12 out of the 16 matches, two were halved and Snead won two. [5] : 147 So impressed was Snead that he suggested that Locke come to the United States and give the PGA Tour a try, advice that Locke quickly followed. [10]

Locke arrived in the U.S. for the first time in April 1947, well after the American Tour season had begun. In two-and-a-half years on the PGA Tour, Locke played in 59 events he won 11, and finished in the top three in 30, just over half. In 1947, despite a late start, Locke dominated the American tour, winning six tournaments (including four in a five-week period), and finishing second to Jimmy Demaret on the money list.

Controversy and PGA Tour ban Edit

In 1948, he won the Chicago Victory National by 16 strokes, which remains a PGA Tour record for margin of victory (tied for margin of victory with J. Douglas Edgar's win in the 1919 Canadian Open). [11]

The following year, Locke was banned from the tour, ostensibly because of a dispute over playing commitments. Locke had indeed given several advance commitments to appear at tournaments and exhibitions, then had not turned up nor given adequate notice nor explanations for his absences. [10] However, the 1948 Masters champion Claude Harmon stated, unsolicited, to another golf personality during that era: "Locke was simply too good. They had to ban him." [12] The ban was lifted in 1951, but Locke chose not to return to play in the United States, except for a few isolated appearances.

Locke explains his point of view and events leading up to the banning. [5] : 57,58 He had accepted invitations, organised through the PGA to play in two local tournaments, The Inverness Fourball and Western Open. He explained how he had been helped to iron out a putting problem which led to him winning the 1949 British Open. He gives the "Open" win as one of his reasons to breach his contract. The text indicates that he understood the contractual nature of his dealings with the PGA.

Worldwide success Edit

After leaving the PGA Tour, Locke continued his career in Europe and Africa, where he felt more comfortable. He won 23 times in Europe, most notably a quartet of successes in The Open Championship, which came in 1949, 1950, 1952 and 1957. He was the first of many South Africans who subsequently won major championships, including Gary Player, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel. His win in the 1957 Open Championship was with some controversy. Locke had failed to properly replace his ball after marking on the 72nd green, and proceeded to putt out. This had been confirmed through newsreel footage provided to the Royal and Ancient after the trophy presentation. The rules at the time made no provision for a two shot penalty, thus Locke's win could have been overturned through disqualification. However, the Championship committee did not enforce the disqualification rule, citing "equity and spirit of the game" as overriding factors in sustaining the posted result.

During this time Locke also played many other parts of the world. In 1955 he won the Australian Open held at Gailes Golf Club in Queensland he later rated this as one of the best courses he had ever played. In 1959, Locke was involved in a serious car accident, and subsequently he suffered from migraines and eye problems that put an end to his competitive career, although he continued competing occasionally after that, without much success.

Locke was elected to the World Golf Hall of Fame in 1977. He was only the second member (after Gary Player) who did not come from either the United States or the United Kingdom. He died in Johannesburg, South Africa in 1987.

Locke built his success around his outstanding putting ability, coining the phrase "You drive for show, but putt for dough." [13] Wearing his trademark knickerbockers, white shoes, and stockings, Locke played the game at a slow and deliberate pace, perhaps another reason that American pros were annoyed with him. On the greens, Locke was a bona fide genius, using a very unusual putting style (he would bring the putter back far to the inside on the backstroke, then virtually "trap" the ball with a hooded, closed clubface on the forward stroke, imparting a tremendous amount of overspin), and a great eye for reading breaks, to put on veritable putting clinics every time he played. Locke believed he could put spin on putts [14] (similar to full-swing shots) and make them "hook" and "slice", and used his unorthodox technique to great success.

Locke was not particularly long from the tee, but placed great emphasis on accuracy in hitting fairways and greens he employed an extreme right-to-left ball flight (one that bordered on a hook) on nearly every full shot. [14]

Australian contemporary pro Jim Ferrier, who played the U.S. Tour during the late 1940s with Locke, described Locke's putting method as being designed to overcome the very heavy grain present on many Bermuda-grass greens of that era, particularly in warm-climate regions such as South Africa and the southern United States. In these regions, greens had to be constructed during that era using Bermuda-grass turf in order to survive the extreme summer heat turfgrass research eventually developed a wider variety of strains which could be used. Locke's putting method allowed the ball to glide on top of the grass without being affected very much by the grain. Ferrier explained that Locke had apparently learned the technique from an Englishman in Egypt, while he was stationed there during World War II. Locke had in actual fact learned the technique from Walter Hagen during the "Haigs" tour of South Africa with Joe Kirkwood in 1938. [5] [15]

  • 1931 South Africa Boys
  • 1935 South Africa Amateur, Natal Amateur, Transvaal Amateur
  • 1936 Natal Amateur, Lucifer Empire Trophy
  • 1937 South Africa Amateur, Transvaal Amateur, Orange Free State Amateur

PGA Tour wins (15) Edit

Major championships (4)
Other PGA Tour (11)
No. Date Tournament Winning score Margin of
1 11 May 1947 Houston Open −11 (71-67-70-69=277) 5 strokes Johnny Palmer, Ellsworth Vines
2 25 May 1947 Philadelphia Inquirer Open −7 (68-69-70-70=277) 4 strokes Matt Kowal, Lloyd Mangrum
3 1 Jun 1947 Goodall Round Robin +37 points 4 points Vic Ghezzi
4 8 Jul 1947 All American Open −12 (66-68-71-71=276) Playoff Ed Oliver
5 19 Jul 1947 Canadian Open −16 (68-66-67-67=268) 2 strokes Ed Oliver
6 27 Jul 1947 Columbus Invitational −14 (70-68-67-69=274) 5 strokes Jimmy Demaret
7 25 Jan 1948 Phoenix Open −16 (65-69-67-67=268) 1 stroke Jimmy Demaret
8 20 Jun 1948 Chicago Victory National Open −18 (65-65-70-66=266) 16 strokes Ellsworth Vines
9 18 Apr 1949 Cavalier Specialists Invitational −6 (67-68-66=201) Playoff Frank Stranahan (a)
10 15 May 1949 Goodall Round Robin (2) +66 points 33 points Herman Barron
11 9 Jul 1949 The Open Championship −5 (69-76-68-70=283) Playoff Harry Bradshaw
12 7 Jul 1950 The Open Championship (2) −1 (69-72-70-68=279) 2 strokes Roberto De Vicenzo
13 9 Aug 1950 All American Open (2) −6 (72-74-69-67=282) Playoff Lloyd Mangrum
14 11 Jul 1952 The Open Championship (3) −1 (69-71-74-73=287) 1 stroke Peter Thomson
15 5 Jul 1957 The Open Championship (4) −9 (69-72-68-70=279) 3 strokes Peter Thomson

PGA Tour playoff record (4–0)

No. Year Tournament Opponent Result
1 1947 All American Open Ed Oliver Won 36-hole playoff
Locke: −4 (68-72=140),
Oliver: +2 (71-75=146)
2 1949 Cavalier Specialists Invitational Frank Stranahan (a) Won 18-hole playoff
Locke: −1 (68),
Stranahan: +1 (70)
3 1949 The Open Championship Harry Bradshaw Won 36-hole playoff
Locke: −9 (67-68=135),
Bradshaw: +3 (74-73=147)
4 1950 All American Open Lloyd Mangrum Won 18-hole playoff
Locke: −3 (69),
Mangrum: +1 (73)

South Africa wins (41) Edit

  • 1935 Natal Open, South African Open (both as an amateur)
  • 1936 Natal Open (as an amateur)
  • 1937 South African Open, Transvaal Open[16] (both as an amateur)
  • 1938 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
  • 1939 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
  • 1940 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
  • 1946 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
  • 1949 Transvaal Open, 1,000 Guineas Tournament
  • 1950 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open, 1,000 Guineas Tournament, Western Transvaal Open, [17] Dunlop £1.000 Tournament, [18] Grey Slax £1,000 Tournament [19]
  • 1951 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open, Stag £1,000 Matchplay, [20] Stanley Motors 1,000 Guineas Tournament, [21] Dunlop Masters £1.000 Tournament [22]
  • 1952 Stanley Motors 1,000 Guineas Tournament [23]
  • 1953 Natal Open
  • 1954 Transvaal Open, Mills 1,000 Guineas Tournament [24]
  • 1955 South African Open, South Africa Professional, Transvaal Open
  • 1956 Western Province Open
  • 1958 Transvaal Open, [25]Western Province Open, East Rand Open Championship (tie with Eric Moore)

Other wins (29) Edit

  • 1938 Irish Open, New Zealand Open
  • 1939 Dutch Open
  • 1946 Yorkshire Evening News Tournament, Brand-Lochryn Tournament, Dunlop Masters
  • 1947 Carolinas Open, Carolinas PGA Championship
  • 1948 Carolinas Open
  • 1950 Dunlop Tournament, Spalding Tournament, North British-Harrogate Tournament
  • 1952 French Open, Mexican Open, Lotus Tournament, Carolinas Open
  • 1953 French Open
  • 1954 Egyptian Open, German Open, Swiss Open, Dunlop Tournament, Dunlop British Masters (tie with Jimmy Adams), Egyptian Match Play, Swallow-Harrogate Tournament (Stroke play stage)
  • 1955 Australian Open
  • 1957 Daks Tournament, Bowmaker Tournament (tied with Frank Jowle)
  • 1959 New Hampshire Open, Bowmaker Tournament

Wins (4) Edit

Year Championship 54 holes Winning score Margin Runner-up
1949 The Open Championship Tied for lead −5 (69-76-68-70=283) Playoff 1 Harry Bradshaw
1950 The Open Championship (2) Tied for lead −1 (69-72-70-68=279) 2 strokes Roberto De Vicenzo
1952 The Open Championship (3) 1 shot deficit −1 (69-71-74-73=287) 1 stroke Peter Thomson
1957 The Open Championship (4) 3 shot lead −9 (69-72-68-70=279) 3 strokes Peter Thomson

1 Defeated Harry Bradshaw in 36-hole playoff: Locke (135), Bradshaw (147)

Results timeline Edit

Tournament 1936 1937 1938 1939
Masters Tournament
U.S. Open
The Open Championship T8 LA T17 LA T10 T9
PGA Championship
The Amateur Championship R256 R64
Tournament 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
Masters Tournament NT NT NT T14 T10 T13
U.S. Open NT NT NT NT T3 4 T4
The Open Championship NT NT NT NT NT NT T2 1
PGA Championship NT T33
Tournament 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
Masters Tournament T21
U.S. Open 3 WD T14 5
The Open Championship 1 T6 1 8 T2 4 CUT 1 T16 T29
PGA Championship
Tournament 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Masters Tournament
U.S. Open
The Open Championship CUT CUT CUT CUT CUT
PGA Championship
Tournament 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978
Masters Tournament
U.S. Open
The Open Championship CUT T49 CUT CUT CUT CUT WD CUT
PGA Championship

NT = No tournament
LA = Low amateur
CUT = missed the half-way cut
WD = Withdrew
"T" indicates a tie for a place

All Singapore under one roof

A second home to many, Singapore’s hawker centers are a melting pot of cuisines where a number of subcultures have formed.

The sound of clattering dishes, a sizzling grill and the intermittent blast of a fiery wok furnace: some sounds are enough to make your mouth water. Couple that with the smell of heady spices, sticky barbeque glazes and steaming hot broth, this lively assault on the senses is enough to make any sane person go weak at the knees.

Welcome to Singapore’s community dining rooms where a nation of foodies come together to share plates piled high with char kway teow, sizzling satay sticks, spicy crab, and fragrant curries. With an array of stalls under one roof, each hawker boasts their own family recipe perfected over generations.

Dating as far back as the 1800s, hawker culture in Singapore originated from the early migrant population selling quick, affordable meals on street pavements, in town squares and parks – wherever they could set up their makeshift stalls. Their main advertisement? The lip-smacking aromas of delicacies being cooked, served and eaten on the spot by hungry passers-by.

Fast-forward a couple of centuries and the Singapore government has sought to bring hawkers under one roof. Hawker centers have now become a safe, clean, open kitchen where customers can watch exactly how their food is being prepared and served. And the best part? Right next door and in every direction you look there’s a dizzying array of dishes to choose from. This has got to be one of the most diverse and extensive menus on the planet.

Consider the plethora of hot drink options: there is an astounding number of permutations of tea and coffee. Say goodbye to milk and two sugars. And hello to rich condensed milk, masala spices and ginger, left to steep, served on shaved ice or ‘pulled’ from a great height. Each morning, seniors gather to read their papers whilst sipping from their saucers – an old and ingenious way to cool down their piping hot drink. Young or old, it’s clear that hawker centers have shaped the nation’s daily routine.

So how do you choose from the hundreds of stalls? The answer is simple. Look for the longest line, of course. When it comes to hawker cuisine, the queue is the best testament to the quality of food at the stall.

Come lunchtime in the bustling Central Business District (CBD), the Amoy Street Food Centre is alive with the low buzz of anticipation from Singapore’s hungry workforce. These savvy diners know very well that if you want the best of what the stalls have to offer, you’ll have to spend half of your one-hour lunch break standing in line. With only a short time to sit and enjoy your meal, wandering aimlessly with a tray of steaming hot food is out of the question. So in the name of mutual respect and Singapore’s signature efficiency, an unspoken agreement has been formed amongst the regulars. To “chope” has become part of the Singlish vernacular. Referring to throwing down a packet of tissue on a seat to reserve your space, “choping” originated from the English word “chop”, which means to stamp or mark your spot another example of hawker center etiquette entering Singapore’s mainstream culture.

Home to the world’s cheapest Michelin-starred meal, there’s no doubt the food is exceptional, but the significance of hawker cuisine reaches much further than a quick, cheap eat.

Singaporean culture is family culture, community culture, and hawker culture all rolled into one. Support Singapore’s bid to “chope” a deserved place on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity today.

What Hawker family records will you find?

There are 61,000 census records available for the last name Hawker. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Hawker census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 16,000 immigration records available for the last name Hawker. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 4,000 military records available for the last name Hawker. For the veterans among your Hawker ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 61,000 census records available for the last name Hawker. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Hawker census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 16,000 immigration records available for the last name Hawker. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 4,000 military records available for the last name Hawker. For the veterans among your Hawker ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

Hawker Hartebeeste - History

The aim of this website is to locate, identify and document Warplanes from the Second World War preserved in South Africa. Many contributors have assisted in the hunt for these aircraft to provide and update the data on this website. Photos are by the author unless otherwise credited. Any errors found here are by the author, and any additions, corrections or amendments to this list of Warplane Survivors of the Second World War in South Africa would be most welcome and may be e-mailed to the author at [email protected]

Oorlogsvliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog
in Suid-Afrika bewaa

Die doel van hierdie webwerf is om oorlogsvliegtuie uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat in Suid-Afrika bewaar is, op te spoor, te identifiseer en te dokumenteer. Baie bydraers het gehelp om hierdie vliegtuie te soek om die inligting op hierdie webwerf te voorsien en op te dateer. Foto's is deur die outeur, tensy anders gekrediteer. Enige foute wat hier aangetref word, is deur die skrywer, en enige aanvullings, korreksies of wysigings aan hierdie lys van Warplane Survivors van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in Suid-Afrika is baie welkom en kan aan die skrywer per e-pos gestuur word aan [email protected]

Data current to 6 Feb 2020.

(RAF Photo)

Bristol Beaufighter in service with a ircrew of 16 Squadron SAAF and No. 227 Squadron RAF at Biferno, Italy, prior to taking off to attack a German headquarters building in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 14 August 1944.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Avro Anson, composite airframe from RAF (Serial No. EG559), RAF (Serial No. MG802), SAAF (Serial No. 4437), and SAAF (Serial No. 4588). South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

de Havilland DH.87B Hornet Moth (Serial No. 2007), c/n 8121, Reg. No. ZS-ALA "African Queen". South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

de Havilland DH-82A Tiger Moth, RAF (Serial No. T6523), c/n 84864, SAAF (Serial No. 2185), Reg. No. ZS-BCN. Recently rebuilt, it is operated by the South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

de Havilland DH-82A Tiger Moth, RAF (Serial No. DX491), c/n DHA.568, SAAF (Serial No. 2341), Reg. No. ZS-BGN. South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide (Serial No. NR743) Reg. No. ZS-JGV, airworthy, flown out of East London in the Eastern Province, owned by Mark Sahd. This aircraft was originally built as a Dominie for the RAF in 1944.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide (Serial No. NR674), c/n 6773, Reg. No. ZS-DLS, remains preserved in the South African Air Force Museum Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Douglas C-47A Dakota, USAAC (Serial No. 42-92320), c/n 12107, RAF (Serial No. FZ572), SAAF (Serial No. 6821). South African Airways in 1948, Reg. No. ZS-BXF. Remained in civil hands until rejoining the SAAF in 1971, renumbered as (Serial No. 6888. Demobilized bed again in 1991, it is now operated on charter work by the South African Airways Historic Flight.

(Nolween Photo)

Douglas C-47 Dakota (Serial No. TBC), South African Air Force, South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Douglas C-47TP Turbo Dakota, USAAC (Serial No. 42-92760), built in 1944, c/n 12596, RAF (Serial No. KG484), SAAF (Serial No. 6885). Demobilized in 1955, Reg. No. ZS-DJX. After rejoining the SAAF (Serial No. 6885) was converted into a Turbo Dakota and is now operated in the maritime patrol role by 35 Sqns based at Ysterplaat AFB, Cape Town.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Douglas C-47B Skytrain (Serial No. 44-77249), c/n 16833/33581, RAF (Serial No. KP279). In civil use it then flew in Britain, Spain, Sweden, South Africa and Botswana before becoming the 11th Basler Turbo conversion in 1992. Since then it has operated in Brasil and South Africa carrying out electromagnetic surveys, currently operated by Spectrem Air, a division of Anglo American Corporation, Reg. No. ZN-ASN, at Wonderboom, Pretoria, South Africa.

(IWM Photo CM 2084)

Douglas Boston Mk. III (Serial No. Z2183), E, No. 24 Squadron SAAF, on a flight test shortly after the Squadron re-equipped with the type at Shandur, Egypt, ca 1943.

(IWM Photo CM 3043)

Douglas Boston Mk. IIIs (Serial Nos. Z2218, Z2225 and Z2237), flying in formation near the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, on an air test or delivery flight from Kasfareet. These aircraft served with No. 24 Squadron SAAF, so may be flying to join the unit in the Western Desert, ca 1942.

(IWM Photo TR 838)

Douglas Boston (Serial No. AL683), V, No 24 Squadron, South African Air Force lined up at Zuara, Tripolitania, 1 March 1943.

(IWM Photo TR 856)

Douglas Boston, S-Sugar' of No 24 Squadron, South African Air Force running up its engines on an airfield in the North African desert, ca 1942.

(IWM Photo CM 2079)

Douglas Boston Mk. III (Serial No. W8376), C, No. 24 Squadron, South African Air Force, walking away from their aircraft on an airfield in Libya after a sortie, ca 1942.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Douglas AD-4N Skyraider (BuNo. 127894), c/n 7909, French Air Force (Serial No. 68), Gabon, Reg. No. TR-KFQ. Did not leave France, Reg. No. N92072, shipped South Africa. Currently awaiting restoration at the South African Air Force Museum at Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Douglas DC-4-1009 (Serial No. 6902), c/n 43155. South African Airways Reg. No. ZS-BMF. Joined the SAAF in January 1966, flown by 44 Sqn until retired in January 1993. Now on display at the South African Air Force Museum, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Douglas DC4-1009 (Serial No. 6905), c/n 42984, Reg. No. ZS-AUB. This aircraft was South African Airways' first DC-4 and was delivered in May 1946. She later flew with the South African Air Force as '6905' but is now operated by the South African Airways Historic Flight, based at Rand Airport, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Douglas DC4-1009 (Serial No.), c/n 43157, last DC-4 built in August 1947, South African Airways Reg. No. ZS-BMH In 1947, Douglas production had moved to the DC-6 and when SAA placed a further order for DC-4s, Douglas were no longer producing DC-4 noses, so this aircraft was built with, and still retains, a DC-6 nose. After SAA service it then flew for the South African Air Force as (Serial No. 6905?). On retirement it went to the South African Airways Historic Flight.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Fairchild UC-61K Argus Mk. III, USAAF UC-61K (Serial No. 44-83133), c/n 1094, RAF (Serial No. KK476). South African Air Force Museum Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

(Nolween Photo)

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Focke-Wulf Fw 190A-6/R6, (Wk. Nr. 550214), PN+LU, possibly flown by III./NJG 11 as it was fitted with a FuG 217 Neptun radar system. This aircraft was built by the Ago factory in mid-1943, and was captured complete at Leck-Holstein at the end of the war. It was allocated RAF Air Ministry Number AM10 and was delivered from Schleswig to Farnborough on 16 June 1945. Initially displayed in the UK, this aircraft was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov. It is now on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Saxonwold, Johannesburg

(RAF Photo)

Fieseler Fi 156C-7 Storch, (Wk. Nr. 475149), VD+TD, STOL reconnaissance aircraft captured at Flensburg. Designated RAF AM99, this aircraft was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov. It is now on display at the South African National Museum of Military History, Saxonwold, Johannesburg, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Fieseler Fi 156C Storch (Wk. Nr. 475099), VD+TD, built by Mraz in Czechoslovakia and assigned to an unknown unit. This aircraft is believed to have been surrendered in Flensburg at the end of the war. Recorded as being in service with the RAE at Farnborough in September 1945 as Air Min 99, 475099 was shipped from Birkenhead, England to Capetown, South Africa on the SS Perthshire on 20 Oct 1946, arriving on 6 Nov. South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(RAF Photo)

Hawker Hartebeest, Reg. No. G-ABMR dressed as the first production Hart (Serial No. J9953), as she was between 1959 and 1970. Many served with the SAAF. A derivative of the Audax, the Hawker Hartebeest, a light bomber, was built for the South African Air Force with modifications made from the Audax. Sixty-five of these aircraft were built, the majority in South Africa. The aircraft saw action in East Africa during clashes against Italy who occupied Abyssinia. None have been preserved in South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIc (Serial No. 5285). Originally built at Hawkers Langley factory in 1943, (Serial No. LD619), this Hurricane initially went to North Africa, hence the tropical filter. It didn't see RAF service, however, and was instead transferred to the South African Air Force as (Serial No. 5285) in April 1944. In May 1950 it joined the South African National Museum of Military History where it remains on display at Saxonwold, Johannesburg.

(Bundesarchiv, Bild 141-2402)

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Junkers Ju 86Z-I (Wk. Nr. 647), Reg. No. ZS-AGJ. One of 31 Ju 86 transports operated by South African Airways at the outbreak of the Second World War. Joined the SAAF as No. 647. Crashed 8 July 1942 while on a flight from Swartkop AB to Brooklyn AB, Cape Town. It flew into a mountain in bad weather with the loss of all three crew. The remains of the airframe were recovered in 1978 and are now on display at the South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

At the outbreak of war, South Africa had no naval vessels and the UDF's first priority was to ensure the safety of the South African coastal waters as well as the strategically important Cape sea-route. For maritime patrol operations, the SAAF took over all 29 passenger aircraft of South African Airways: 18 Junkers Ju 86Z-ls for maritime patrols and eleven Junkers Ju 52s for transport purposes. SAAF maritime patrols commenced on 21 September 1939 with 16 Squadron flying three JU-86Z's from Walvis Bay. By 1940, the Ju 86s were replaced by Ansons and Coastal Command SAAF had been established, eventually consisting of 6, 10, 22, 23, 25, 27 and 29 Squadrons. By the end of the Second World War in August 1945, SAAF aircraft (in conjunction with British and Dutch aircraft stationed in South Africa) had intercepted 17 enemy ships, assisted in the rescue of 437 survivors of sunken ships, attacked 26 of the 36 enemy submarines that operated around the South African coast, and flown 15,000 coastal patrol sorties. (Wikipedia)

(Alan Wilson Photos)

(Aeroprints.com Photo)

Lockheed 18-08 Lodestar, SAAF (Serial No.), c/n 18-2058, Reg. No. ZS-ATL. Despite the camouflage, this Lodestar has no military history. Built in 1941 it originally flew for South African Airways, later flying with Comair between 1954 and 1958. South African Air Force Museum, Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(IWM Photo CM6226)

Lockheed Ventura GR Mk. Vs, No. 22 Squadron, SAAF illuminated by searchlights at Gibraltar, ca 1942.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Lockheed Ventura GR.V, USN (BuNo. 49403), c/n 237-6219, RAF (Serial No. JT861), SAAF (Serial No. 6487), polished metal scheme. South African Air Force Museum, Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

(NJR ZA Photo)

Lockheed Ventura GR.V, USN (BuNo. 49474), c/n 237-6290, RAF (Serial No. JT867), SAAF (Serial No. 6498), 29 Sqn. It was later converted into a transport and flew with 17 Sqn before ending up at the South African Airways apprentice training school. It was eventually passed back for preservation and is now restored in a maritime colour scheme and on display at the South African Air Force Museum, Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Lockheed Ventura GR.V, USN (BuNo. 34967), c/n 237-5857, RAF (Serial No. FP684), SAAF (Serial No. 6453), now in storage for the South African Air Force Museum at Swartkop Airfield, Pertoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Lockheed Ventura Mk. II, RAF (Serial No. AJ508), c/n 137-4646, SAAF (Serial No. 6120). This aircraft sat derelict on a farm between 1951 and 1978 but is now in storage with the South African Air Force Museum at Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photos)

Lockheed Ventura Mk. II, RAF (Serial No. AJ504), c/n 137-4642, SAAF (Serial No. 6112). The SAAF received 135 Ventura Mk. IIs from RAF stocks. This unrestored example is stored with the South African Air Force Museum, Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

Lockheed Ventura Mk. II (Serial No. TBC), AFB Ysterplaat.

(NJR ZA Photo)

Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3, (Wk. Nr. 1289), coded SH + FA, 2/JG 26 (Schlageter) "Red 2", was delivered to JG 26 in 1939, coded as SH + EA, "Black 2". The aircraft crash-landed at Udimor, England. The unrestored remains are preserved in the South African Museum of Military History, Johannesburg.

(SAAF Photo)

Messerschmitt Bf 109F, (Wk. Nr. unknown) captured in North Africa. This aircraft was given South African Air Force markings and serial "KJ-?", on the airfield at Martuba No. 4 Landing Ground in North Africa, January 1943. It was operated by No. 4 Squadron, SAAF.

(NR ZA Photo)

Messerschmitt Bf 109F-2/Trop, (Wk. Nr. 31010), coded "White 6", I./JG 27, South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg.

(RAF Photo, 1945)

(Paulmaz Photo)

(NJR ZA Photo)

(Alan Wilson Photo)

Messerschmitt Me 262B-1a/U1 (Wk. Nr. 110305), "Red 8", 10./NJG11, 305, two-seat trainer converted into a provisional night fighter version equipped with FuG 218 Neptun radar and Hirschgeweih (stag antler) eight-dipole antenna array. This aircraft was collected at Schleswig-Jagel, Germany in May 1945. "Red 8" flew operationally with Kurt Welters 10./NJG11 at Magdeburg. While at this location it was painted with all-black undersurfaces and mostly black engine nacelles. "'Red 8" was ferried to the UK on 19 May 1945 by Wg Cdr RJ 'Roly' Falk, via Twente, Gilze-Rijen and Melsbroek. It was then flown by Wg Cdr Gonsalvez from the RAE to RNAS Ford, and used for radar and tactical trials from 6 July 1945. Designated AM50, it was later given RAF Serial No. VH519. It was damaged on its first landing at RNAS Ford, but quickly repaired. "Red 8" is the only genuine night fighter version of the Me262 which has survived to the present day. It is currently displayed in the Ditsong National Museum of Military History, Saxonwold, Johannesburg, South Africa. (RAF Photos)

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. III, USAAC (Serial No. 41-34052 ) c/n 88-15683, RAF (Serial No. EZ179), SAAF (Serial No. 7001), Reg. No. ZU-CXV. South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(NJR ZA Photo)

North American Harvard (T6 Texan) (Serial No. 7028). South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. IIa, USAAC (Serial No. 41-33309) c/n 88-9868, RAF (Serial No. EX336), SAAF (Serial No. 7072). South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. IIa, USAAC (Serial No. 41-33241), c/n 88-9684, RAF (Serial No. EX268), SAAF (Serial No. 7111). South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. IIa, USAAC (Serial No. 41-33543) c/n 88-10663, RAF (Serial No. EX570), SAAF (Serial No. 723). South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

North American Harvard (T6 Texan) (Serial No. 7306). South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. III, USAAC (Serial No. 41-33891), c/n 88-14725, RAF (Serial No. EX918), SAAF (Serial No. 7480), Reg. No. ZU-DML. South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American Harvard Mk. III, SAAF, USAAF (Serial No. 41-34019), c/n 88-15336, RAF (Serial No. EZ146), SAAF (Serial No. 7573). SAAF Museum painted in in false American markings. South African Air Force Museum. Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(NJR ZA Photo)

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American AT-6A Texan, USAAC (Serial No. 41-16762), c/n 78-7140, SAAF (Serial No. 7643), Reg. No. ZU-AOX. South African Air Force Historic Flight, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

(Alan Wilson Photo)

North American AT-6A Texan, ex USAAC (Serial No. 41-0508), c/n 77-4467, SAAF (Serial No. 7675), "Siyandiza", Reg. No. ZU-CXX. South African Air Force Historic Flight in a national flag colour scheme, Swartkop AFB, Pretoria, South Africa.

North American Harvard (Serial No. TBC), AFB Ysterplaat.

(Gerhard Roux Photo)

North American Harvard (Serial No. TBC), being restored, Port Elizabeth.

(USAF Photo)

North American F-51D Mustang fighters of No. 2 Squadron of the South African Air Force in Korea, on 1 May 1951.

(DanieB52 Photo)

(Alan Wilson Photos)

North American P-51D-20NA Mustang, USAAF (Serial No. 44-72202), c/n 122-38661. This aircraft flew with the Swedish Air Force (Serial No. Fv26112) between 1948 and 1952, then joined the Dominican Air Force (Serial No. FAD-1917). It was acquired from the USA in 1987, and slowly restored until it flew again in 1998, painted as ‘325’, "Patsy Dawn". As part of the SAAF Museum and therefore under SAAF control, no civil registration was required and ‘325’ actually became it’s identity. This is the third P-51D to carry the serial ‘325’ in SAAF service. Sadly in 2001 it suffered a wheels-up landing and although the minor structural damage was quickly repaired, the cost of returning the engine and prop to flying status was prohibitive and the aircraft was placed on static display in the South African Air Force Museum at Swartkop Airfield, Pretoria.

(IWM TR 1020)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VB (Serial No. ER622), WR-D, No. 40 Squadron, South African Air Force, which served in a ground support role in North Africa. This pair is shown on patrol over the Tunisian coast in the spring of 1943.

(IWM Photo TR 1030)

(IWM Photo TR 1033)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VB (Serial No. ER622), No. 40 Squadron, South African Air Force, at Gabes, Tunisia, April 1943.

(IWM Photo CNA 2102)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VCs of No. 2 Squadron SAAF based at Palata, Italy, flying in loose line astern formation over the Adriatic Sea while on a bombing mission to the Sangro River battlefront, ca 1943.

(IWM CNA 2107)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VC (Serial No. JK--), DB-R, of No. 2 Squadron SAAF based at Palata, Italy, carrying a 250-lb GP bomb beneath the fuselage, in flight along the Adriatic Coast while on a bombing mission to the Sangro River battlefront. Note the badge of No. 7 Wing SAAF, a leaping hartebeest on a red shield, painted on the rudder of the aircraft, ca 1943.

(IWM CM 5723)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII (Serial No. JF294), being flown from Cairo to Cape Town by Flying Officer G E "Tiger" Camplin of RAF Transport Command Mediterranean Group, for presentation to the South African Government. From March to September 1944, Fg Off Camplin gave a number of flying demonstrations in the Union and the aircraft was exhibited during the 'Liberty Cavalcades' in a number of towns. JF294 was transferred to the SAAF in October 1944 and was passed to the South African National Museum of Military History at Saxonwold in 1948, where it is presently displayed as (Serial No. 5501).

(NJR ZA Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII (Serial No. JF294), painted as (Serial No. 5501), South African National Museum of Military History, Johannesburg.

(Bob Adams Photo)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk. IXe (Serial No. TE213), SAAF (Serial No. 5553), AX-K, crashed 15 Apr 2000, currently in storage awaiting restoration.

Laksa: Coconut Curry Noodle Soup

One of the Laksa Stalls at Old Airport Road Hawker Centre

Popular Curry Puff Stall at Old Airport Road Hawker Centre

Watch the video: Hawker Hind Last One Flying