Hispano-Roman Tragedy Mask

Hispano-Roman Tragedy Mask


Massacre begins at Munich Olympics

During the 1972 Summer Olympics at Munich, in the early morning of September 5, a group of Palestinian terrorists storms the Olympic Village apartment of the Israeli athletes, killing two and taking nine others hostage. The terrorists were part of a group known as Black September, in return for the release of the hostages, they demanded that Israel release over 230 Arab prisoners being held in Israeli jails and two German terrorists. In an ensuing shootout at the Munich airport, the nine Israeli hostages were killed along with five terrorists and one West German policeman. Olympic competition was suspended for 24 hours to hold memorial services for the slain athletes.

The Munich Olympics opened on August 26, 1972, with 195 events and 7,173 athletes representing 121 countries. On the morning of September 5, Palestinian terrorists in ski masks ambushed the Israeli team. After negotiations to free the nine Israelis broke down, the terrorists took the hostages to the Munich airport. Once there, German police opened fire from rooftops and killed three of the terrorists. A gun battle erupted and left the hostages, two more Palestinians and a policeman dead.

After a memorial service was held for the athletes at the main Olympic stadium, International Olympic Committee President Avery Brundage ordered that the games continue, to show that the terrorists hadn’t won. Although the tragedy deeply marred the games, there were numerous moments of spectacular athletic achievement, including American swimmer Mark Spitz’s seven gold medals and teenage Russian gymnast Olga Korbut’s two dramatic gold-medal victories.


The Masked Merriment of Mardi Gras

Vintage Mardi Gras postcard, date unknown.

Shrove Tuesday is a day to be remembered by strangers in New Orleans, for that is the day for fun, frolic, and comic masquerading. All of the mischief of the city is alive and wide awake in active operation. Men and boys, women and girls, bond and free, white and black, yellow and brown, exert themselves to invent and appear in grotesque, quizzical, diabolic, horrible, strange masks, and disguises. Human bodies are seen with heads of beasts and birds, beasts and birds with human heads demi-beasts, demi-fishes, snakes’ heads and bodies with arms of apes man-bats from the moon mermaids satyrs, beggars, monks, and robbers parade and march on foot, on horseback, in wagons, carts, coaches, cars, &c., in rich confusion, up and down the streets, wildly shouting, singing, laughing, drumming, fiddling, fifeing, and all throwing flour broadcast as they wend their reckless way.

– James R. Creecy, Scenes in the South, and Other Miscellaneous Pieces, 1860

Costume Institute Fashion Plates, Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, Mardi Gras 1, Part 028, date unknown.

Drunken revelry. Beaded necklaces. Doubloon throws. Zulu coconuts. Today is Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday), the culmination of weeks of Carnival celebrations that end on Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent. It is a time when hundreds of thousands of tourists stream into New Orleans and treat the city like one huge frat party. Many local New Orleanians will avoid the French Quarter ,just as New Yorkers stay away from Times Square on New Year’s Eve. Yet, like New Year’s in New York City, Mardi Gras is an institution.

Mardi Gras made landfall in the United States back in the 17th century when the French explorer Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville set up camp 60 miles from New Orleans on the day that the holiday was being celebrated in France. He called the location Point du Mardi Gras. But, Mardi Gras and the accompanying masked balls associated with the holiday were outlawed when the Spanish governor took control of the area in 1766 as well as when it came under U.S. rule in 1803. But by 1823, the Creole population convinced the governor to permit masked balls. By 1827, wearing a mask in the street was legalized in New Orleans. (They’re now only legal to wear on Mardi Gras Day.) When the first official “krewe,” or elite social club, was established in 1857, the Mardi Gras parades that they organized became formalized annual occasions, which meant that parade participants donned masks and colorful regalia with greater frequency.

Taking cues from masquerade balls that made their way through Europe as early as the Middle Ages and Venetian carnival celebrations, the now-familiar face covers we see on Shove Tuesday (as Fat Tuesday is also known) mimic variations that have been around for centuries. The Bauta (full-faced mask shaped for ease of eating and drinking), Columbina (half mask), and Medico della Peste? (the beak-like steampunk-esque mask that is familiar to anyone who’s attended the interactive, immersive theatrical performance Sleep No More), but thankfully not the Moretta (a terrifying blank-faced mask held in place by biting a button inside the mask, thus inhibiting speech), all frequently associated with the Venice Carnival, are on grand display during the festivities (and legally to boot, as the law prohibiting mask-wearing, which is in effect throughout the year, is suspended on Mardi Gras Day in New Orleans). Today, the feathered, sequined, glittering disguises use the now-universal Mardi Gras colors originally established by the krewe of the Rex parade in 1872: purple symbolizing justice, green for faith and gold for power.

Scurlock Studio, Omega Mardi Gras, Washington, D.C., n.d. (c. 1940), National Museum of American History.

A mask is a funny thing. Slide one over your face and, with its exaggerated expression, the mask immediately transforms you into someone else (say, Richard Nixon) while also making you expressionless under a frozen guise. It’s also the manifestation of one’s id. According to Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrant, “in Robert Laffont’s A Dictionary of Symbols masks do not hide the persona, but reveal and liberate the lower tendencies of the true personality of the one who wears the mask.”  Think Tom Cruise as doctor-by-day, sexual escapader-by-night in Eyes Wide Shut. Mardi Gras masks provide the freedom to hide behind, or embrace, the creature of our choosing, real or made-up—even, in James R Creecy’s words, “manbats from the moon.”

But not everyone celebrating Mardi Gras will follow the mask tradition. Tomorrow on Facebook you might see “Frat” Tuesday photos of girls exposing themselves wearing only beads and dudes drinking ’til they’ve vomited.  Sadly, these revelers will wish they’d chosen to disguise themselves with “heads of beasts and birds” before taking those photos.

About Emily Spivack

Emily Spivack creates and edits the sites Worn Stories and Sentimental Value. She lives in Brooklyn, NY.


In-game events

The lover of the Traitors' Child, Ze'mer, retreated to her house in the Resting Grounds and became known as the Grey Mourner. She gives the Knight a quest to deliver a Delicate Flower to the grave of the Traitors' Child as a final gift to her lover. Α] This flower has to be delivered without taking any damage.

Once the flower has been brought to her grave, the Traitors' Child appears as a spirit above her grave and bows to the Knight. She disappears after this and her spirit is not seen again.

The grave of the Traitors' Child is seen in the background of the Traitor Lord's arena when he is fought in Godhome.


Types of Chinese Masks

Lion Head Mask

The Chinese lion mask is used in the lion dance, a ritual performed at the end of the Chinese New Year. The lion dance is inspired by a mythical monster named Nian, that was driven away from Guangdong. The masks are usually constructed on a wooden frame with a papier-mâché design.

Dragon Head Mask

Dragons have always been a symbol of prosperity and fortune in China. They are worshipped by performing a dance done by 6 – 8 people since the costume is very large. The movement is manipulated by poles which are situated at appropriate places along the length of the dragon. The dragon mask is usually decorated with gold and silver colors, depicting prosperity. The typical mask usually has a wide mouth or a gaping jaw and is covered with feathers and fur. While green color depicts a better harvest, red color symbolizes excitement, while yellow depicts a solemn empire.

Tibetan Masks

Tibetan masks were painted on the faces of the inhabitants with blood to scare off their enemies. Their face-painting technique seems to have been around since the Neolithic times. Tibetans used white masks until the sixth century, while the blue masks came into existence from the fifteenth century onwards. Buddhism played a major role in the cultivation of Tibetan opera and the survival of this art form. They worshipped deities, and the masks were made in their image from gum, flour, and cloth. Clay casts are used to create hard-shaped masks. The teeth are made of pearls and shells, while designs are painted directly on the masks. Tibetan masks are usually made of an animal, demon, or human forms.


Hispano-Roman Tragedy Mask - History

Masks served several important purposes in Ancient Greek theater: their exaggerated expressions helped define the characters the actors were playing they allowed actors to play more than one role (or gender) they helped audience members in the distant seats see and, by projecting sound somewhat like a small megaphone, even hear the characters better. In a tragedy, masks were more life-like in a comedy or satyr play, masks were ugly and grotesque. Masks were constructed out of lightweight materials such as wood, linen, cork, and sometimes real hair. Unfortunately, they lacked durability, and none has survived.

Costumes

Costumes, along with masks and props, helped indicate the social status, gender, and age of a character. Athenian characters wore more elaborate, decorated versions of everyday clothing, such as a tunic or undergarment (chitôn or peplos), a cloak or over-garment (himation). Costumes for characters that were non-Athenians were more outlandish. Tragic actors wore buskins (raised platform shoes) to symbolize superior status, while comic actors wore plain socks. When depicting women, actors wore body stockings, with a progastreda and a prosterneda to make their bodies appear feminine. Some plays even called for actors to wear animal costumes.

Props

In addition to masks, actors also used props to create a character. These could be a crown to represent a king a lyre for a musician a walking stick to suggest age a caduceus for a messenger spears and helmets to suggest military men. A "props-maker" (skeuopoios) would create and provide these to the actors. Props can also be used for symbolism, as in the red carpet Agamemnon walks on when he returns home from war, signifying the blood he spilled at Troy.

Special Props

Ekkyklêma—Literally, "wheel out," a large wheeled platform that could be rolled out to display scenes that had taken place beyond the view of the spectators (usually the results of violent acts since those never took place on stage).

Mêchanê/Krane—Literally, "machine," a crane-like device used to lift actors, allowing performers to appear in the air or to enter dramatically from behind the skene (which was a common method of portraying the gods).


'A lot of stock in masks'

Just two months earlier, in September, the first case of the so-called Spanish flu was identified in San Francisco and city health officials sprung into action.

Dr. William C. Hassler, the city’s health officer, ordered the local man who apparently brought the disease to the city after a trip to Chicago into quarantine to stop the disease from finding another human host, according to the center's research of reported accounts.

But it was too late as the virus had already begun to make its way through the city. By mid-October, the cases jumped from 169 to 2,000 in just one week. Later that month, Mayor James Rolph put in place social distancing practices and met with Hassler, other health officials, local business owners as well as officials from the federal government to discuss a plan to close the city.

Some officials demurred at the idea, worried about damage to the city’s economy and the risk of causing public panic. Eventually, on Oct. 18, the city voted to shut down "all places of public amusement."

City officials also strongly advocated for face coverings, which were at first optional and soon required by a mayoral order — the country's first at the time, Navarro said.

"They were the one city that put a lot of stock in masks," he said.

With the pandemic still raging across the globe during World War I, the mask also became a symbol of "wartime patriotism."

"The man or woman or child who will not wear a mask now is a dangerous slacker," a public service announcement from the American Red Cross said at the time, according to Navarro’s research.

That, however, did not stop people from defying the order — 110 people were arrested and given a $5 fine in one day in October shortly after the measure went into place, improperly wearing a mask or not wearing one entirely, according to the center's research. Over time, the jails were overcrowded with people failing to adhere to the rules. However, most cases were later dismissed.

By the end of October, there were 20,000 cases and more than 1,000 deaths. However, as the days went on, the city saw a dip in newly reported cases, which prompted officials to begin to reopen the city and rescind the mask order. By the end of November, officials believed the city had stabilized.


Hillsborough: Statements were altered to 'mask police failings' in dealing with tragedy, court told

One of the accused was a solicitor who advised officers what alterations should be made to 'minimise the blame', the jury hears.

Tuesday 20 April 2021 16:56, UK

Three men have gone on trial accused of deliberately altering police statements after the Hillsborough disaster to "mask the failings" of South Yorkshire Police.

A total of 96 Liverpool fans died as a result of the crush at Hillsborough stadium in Sheffield on 15 April 1989 as their club played an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest.

Former police officers Donald Denton, 83, and Alan Foster, 74, along with former police solicitor Peter Metcalf, 71, are accused of perverting the course of justice in the aftermath of the tragedy.

After the jury was sworn in at the Lowry Theatre in Salford, which is operating as a Nightingale court (a temporary location to help with coronavirus restrictions), prosecutor Sarah Whitehouse QC opened the case.

She told the jury: "This trial is not about the cause of the disaster it is not about whose fault it was. This trial is about the actions of three people… after the event."

"You may be saying - as doubtless others are - what else can be said about Hillsborough?

"Haven't we had countless trials and enquiries and inquests? It is true that we have… but this trial is the first and only time a jury of 12 people will consider the evidence that you are about to hear in a criminal trial."

More on Hillsborough

Hillsborough disaster: 600 survivors and families to get compensation from police over cover-up

Hillsborough disaster trial collapses as judge rules no case to answer

Hillsborough: References to police officers being like 'headless chickens' on day of disaster were removed, court hears

Hillsborough tragedy: Support group disbands as 'time for families to move on'

Hillsborough survivor from poignant image dies with coronavirus

Hillsborough: Families' anger as David Duckenfield found not guilty of gross negligence manslaughter

Ms Whitehouse said the three defendants had tried to "minimise the blame" for South Yorkshire Police - the statements were used at the various inquiries that followed the worst sporting disaster in UK history.

She said: "They did this by altering accounts given by police officers who were present on the day.

"Peter Metcalf was a solicitor and he advised on what alterations should be made to accounts made by South Yorkshire Police on the day."

Denton and Foster, senior officers with the South Yorkshire Police, saw to it the advice given by Metcalfe was followed and the accounts were amended, she said, adding: "They were the main points of contact with Mr Metcalf and acted to carry out Mr Metcalf's instructions."

She went on to say a number of accounts were altered by them, or at their direction.

"The effect of the alterations was to mask the failings on the part of South Yorkshire Police in their planning and execution of the policing of the football match."

Judge Mr William Davis reminded the jury even though he was sitting on the stage of a theatre the venue is operating just like a crown court and they should judge the case entirely on the evidence they hear in the coming weeks.

Metcalf, Denton and Foster all deny the charges and the trial is expected to last up to 16 weeks.


[9/5/2007] - After the “Mysterious Object” event on Roblox had ended, the Void Star was released to the public. Noli had gotten the first Void Star and is reported to display weird behavior shortly after. His physical appearance was a big part - anything he stood on would emit an odd aura, corrupt anything he stood on, shut games down, hack into accounts, and edit the site.

[9/10/2007] - Shortly after the incident and his termination, Noli re-appeared. He started to hack into accounts that had the Void Star and stole them. Once again, Noli terrorized the site, even shutting down Roblox’s games and stealing accounts. Mods were unable to ban him for over two weeks, chaos still ensuing. When mods were questioned about this period, they refused to speak.

[9/5/2008] - After one year, Noli reemerged. However, instead of causing chaos and destruction, he influenced hundreds of players to join his religious cult, with the use of the Void Star. This group came to be the Void Cult, who followed Noli and his teachings. Shortly after the creation of this cult, Noli vanished once again.

[5/16/2010] - Noli revives his original account, but that came with a few strange changes. An example of said change would be his avatar picture and last seen date would all be question marks - which was a side effect of the exploit Noli used. Noli posted “And so darkness descends” on the forums, which caused many Hunters to do everything in their power to remove Noli again. One hunter (name unknown) was able to contact a Roblox moderator and removed traces of Noli, wiping the site clean. 

[5/16/2012] - Different cult groups began to stir up chaos in the community, claiming that Noli would return once again, and bring down those who opposed him and the Void Cult. This would happen continuously throughout the years, typically happening on the 16th of each month. The cultists would hold summonings, hoping for their leader to return. The Void Cultists also harbored an extreme hatred against the myth community, believing they were the ones who caused their lord to disappear. 


There's no such thing as a 'child pilot': The tragedy of Jessica Dubroff

The four-seat Cessna never made it above 200 feet, tumbling through a freezing Wyoming thunderstorm into a residential street, leaving all aboard dead, including its 7-year-old pilot.

&ldquoDubroff&rsquos story began last week as a sweet kind of human-interest tale,&rdquo the papers wrote after the crash on April 11, 1996, &ldquoa tiny 7-year-old with oversized ambitions trying to set a world record as the youngest person to fly across the country.&rdquo

Did a 7-year-old really have that agency and &ldquooversized ambitions&rdquo to guide an airplane across America? Or was the doomed mission fueled by other forces ⁠&mdash her parents' ambitions and the national media demanding that this wunderkind break a world record that should have never existed in the first place?

Jessica Dubroff was born in a tub of warm water at her parents&rsquo home in Falmouth, Mass., on May 5, 1988. Her mom, Lisa Hathaway, a self-described spiritual healer, didn&rsquot believe much in western medicine, or traditional schooling, or children&rsquos books, or even toys. (While in Falmouth, police later told the media that Hathaway was in fact a squatter, living off handouts from a local health food store.)

Hathaway sought an idealistic New Age life for her three children and moved across the country to Pescadero, the close-knit pastoral town of dilapidated barns and mom and pop stores near Half Moon Bay.

In that little Bay Area town, Jessica never enrolled in school and never watched TV. Her bedroom looked over a field of grazing cows. But despite the back-to-nature idyll created there, her parents had sky-high ambitions for Jessica, and on her 6th birthday enrolled her in flying lessons from a man named Joe Reid, a stockbroker who gave lessons out of the Half Moon Bay airport.

Despite them separating a few years earlier, Jessica&rsquos father Lloyd was still close with the family and lived nearby.

Lloyd Dubroff studied engineering at Florida State University but never graduated. He longed to fly in the Air Force, but at 6&rsquo 4'' was too tall to pilot a plane. Over the years he went to court on numerous occasions, as a defendant in small-claims complaints about debts for back rent, taxes and car repairs. In 1993 he declared bankruptcy, as Jessica&rsquos mom had in 1985.

He found work in insurance in San Francisco but always had loftier goals. &ldquoLloyd was a big thinker, an entrepreneur,&rdquo Ruth Schwartz, who worked at a travel company with Dubroff told People Magazine after the crash. &ldquoSometimes his ideas worked out, sometimes they didn&rsquot. He was always looking for an opportunity to make money.&rdquo

In contrast to Jessica&rsquos mom&rsquos hippie ideals, Joe Reid was a deeply religious Vietnam veteran and a member of the Knights of Columbus, but was happy to take the whip-smart Jessica into the air and teach her to fly.

His youngest-ever student had clocked only 33 hours in the air when Reid and the parents together concocted a plan that would send the country&rsquos media into a frenzy, and end in tragedy.

Reid&rsquos wife Ana said it was Hathaway who broached the idea of a cross-country flight with Joe, while Lloyd Dubroff said that he had thought of the idea. Either way, the three adults involved all loved the plan to have Jessica pilot a small airplane from Half Moon Bay to Massachusetts and back, beating the &ldquorecord&rdquo for the youngest transcontinental pilot.

Dubbed &ldquoThe Sea to Shining Sea&rdquo journey, a flight plan was laid out that involved a one-week circuit with many stops across the continent and back.

Planned "Sea to Shining Sea" route map red shows legs flown blue circle marks accident site.

Lloyd quickly alerted the media and ordered custom-made caps and T-shirts with the &ldquoSea to Shining Sea&rdquo logo to distribute as souvenirs during their stops. A red duffle bag full of the caps sat behind them in the cockpit, ready to hand out to well-wishers along the way as the media attention and journey gained traction.

A San Francisco landlord, Suzanne Cahn, who evicted Lloyd Dubroff in 1993 at the time of his bankruptcy, was surprised to hear news of the ambitious, and costly, adventure. "I don't understand how he could come up with the money to pay for a flight like this," Cahn told the Examiner at the time, "unless he was planning to write a book and sell it or something like that."

News coverage in the weeks leading up to the flight was as widespread as Lloyd had hoped. The New York Times called the girl who had become an instant celebrity &ldquospunky, freckle-faced Jessica.&rdquo ABC News gave Lloyd a video camera and blank cassettes to record the flight.

From the minute they set off from Half Moon Bay, the press spurred her on, and few issued any word of caution.

&ldquoThe four-foot-two Pescadero resident ⁠&mdash who has her father and her flight instructor, Joe Reid, as passengers ⁠&mdash hopes to be the youngest pilot to fly across the continent,&rdquo the San Francisco Examiner wrote under a dramatic photo of Jessica and her father on the runway, as dark clouds loom over their plane in the background.

The San Francisco Examiner, April 10, 1996.

Lloyd Dubroff faxed the Guinness Book of Records weeks earlier, in the hope that his daughter&rsquos achievement would be formally recognized. But he was informed that the publication had stopped certifying the &ldquoyoungest pilot&rdquo record a few years earlier for fear of encouraging unsafe flights. A Guinness representative did tell reporters on the day of the first flight that they would feature Jessica in the company museum if she was successful.

Although billed by the media as a pilot, Dubroff&rsquos age meant she was technically and legally no such thing. She didn&rsquot possess a medical or student pilot certificate, as these are restricted to those over the age of 16, according to FAA regulations.

But that didn&rsquot mean that Jessica wasn&rsquot in full control of the flight. The Cessna 177B Cardinal single-engine aircraft was outfitted with a red booster seat so Jessica could see out the window, and also had extensions on the pedals so her legs could reach them.

Dubroff would sit in the pilot&rsquos seat, in control and in front of the plane&rsquos instruments, Reid next to her, and Lloyd in the back. The aircraft had dual controls, though the team&rsquos flight plan called for Reid to take over only in an emergency.

The first leg of the flight from Half Moon Bay was a success, and after a long day in the air, the crew arrived in Cheyenne, Wyoming on the evening of April 10.

At a news conference at Cheyenne Airport that night, Dubroff captivated reporters, though in hindsight her words, and her father&rsquos, maybe spoke to fatigue setting in before they had even crossed the Mississippi.

"It's been a long day," Jessica told the gathered local press. "I can't wait until the next day. I can't wait to sleep. I had two hours of sleep last night."

"She really does love to fly,&rdquo her father added. &ldquoThis started off as a father-daughter adventure and it's gotten wonderfully out of hand."

As the cold rain fell on Cheyenne Regional Airport at dawn, a radio director who had interviewed Jessica invited the crew to stay in the city and hold out for clearer skies, but Lloyd Dubroff declined, insisting they should beat the storm.

In her final interview on the tarmac before the flight, Jessica looked cold, tired and distracted.

&ldquoOn my sixth birthday my mom said, &lsquoDo you want to go down to the airport and see the small planes?&rsquo&rdquo she told a reporter as the icy wind blew her hair around her blue &ldquoWomen Fly&rdquo baseball cap.

&ldquoDo you ever get scared up there?&rdquo the reporter asks. Jessica dismissed the idea with a &ldquonah,&rdquo but looked off to the side, as if agitated. The reporter picked up on her apparent discomfort.

&ldquoAre you cold right now?&rdquo he asks sympathetically. &ldquoYeah,&rdquo Jessica replies, and her last TV interview ends.

(Combing through old interviews, when asked that question of &ldquobeing scared,&rdquo Jessica often stopped talking and looked away from reporters, as can be seen in this similar moment.)

As the Cessna taxied to the runway, with all three crew members aboard, the heavens opened. Rain and sleet battered the 1,500-pound aircraft&rsquos wings, as the visibility dropped below three miles.

Cheyenne&rsquos control tower advised the cockpit that in these conditions only Special Visual Flight Rules operations could proceed. As the onlookers with placards reading &ldquoGood Luck Jessica&rdquo cheered her through the incoming storm, Reid requested special clearance from the tower and got it. The plane took off at 8:24 a.m.

Witnesses said the Cessna slowly climbed through the thick clouds, wings shaking in the wind, before rolling out of its turn, dropping through the sleet and crashing at a near-vertical angle into Kornegay Court, a street in a residential neighborhood under a mile from the airport.

"I was shocked to see an airplane taking off in these weather conditions ⁠&mdash my wipers on high speed could barely keep up," a Sam's Club store worker who was stopped in his car at an intersection near the airport told the New York Times. "The plane was struggling and dipping."

As the wind rattled the windows on their suburban Cheyenne home that morning, Harry and Vickie Golden and their daughter Mindy talked over coffee while reading the morning paper. They discussed how it made no sense that a child should fly in these conditions.

&ldquoTwo minutes later we heard the thunder and then the boom.&rdquo Vickie Golden told People Magazine. The family were among the first to arrive at the crash site, a half-block from their home. &ldquoI&rsquoll never forget the red bag, like a duffel bag, just strewn around,&rdquo said Vickie. &ldquoAll these hats were all over the ground. They read, &lsquoJessica Whitney Dubroff, Sea to Shining Sea, April 1996.&rsquo&rdquo

As the news broke, mourners gathered at the crash site that had been quickly covered by a tarpaulin. Flowers, stuffed toys and bible verses were left by the wreckage.

The Mayor of Cheyenne, Leo Pando, broke down in tears at a news conference that morning, saying that Jessica had reminded him of his own daughter, who died in a flood 11 years before.

The National Transportation Safety Board investigation into the crash blamed Joe Reid's &ldquoaeronautical decision making.&rdquo It revealed that the plane was overweight and should never have taken off in that thunderstorm.

They also shone a light on the media's role in pressuring the crew to make those bad decisions.

&ldquoContributing to the pilot in command's decision to take off was a desire to adhere to an overly ambitious itinerary, in part, because of media commitments,&rdquo the NTSB concluded.


Watch the video: A Short History of Hispania