Birka Timeline

Birka Timeline

  • c. 750 - c. 800

    The presumed founding of the important Viking trading center of Birka in Sweden.

  • c. 790 - c. 1100

  • c. 829 - c. 831

    The Frankish missionary St. Ansgar (801-865 CE) first introduces the Swedes to Christianity in the Viking trading town of Birka.

  • c. 950

    The Viking trading center of Birka in present-day Sweden goes into abrupt decline around the mid-10th century CE.

  • 1993

    UNESCO declares the Viking trading center of Birka in present-day Sweden a World Heritage Site, together with the neighboring site of Hovgården.


Chronology of Sweden

Copyright © 2000-2021 Ken Polsson
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All rights reserved. Permission is granted to create web links
to this site, not to copy these pages to other web sites.
URL: http://kpolsson.com/sweden/

This document is an attempt to bring various published sources together to present a timeline about Sweden.

References are numbered in [brackets], which are listed here. A number after the dot gives the page in the source.

Last updated: 2018 April 30.

  • Roman historian Tacitus writes in the Latin book De Germania about tribes of Suiones in Scandinavia, who live off the ocean, sailing in large fleets of boats with a prow at either end, no sail, using paddles, and strong, loyal, well-armed men with spikes in their helmets. [1.9] [47.18] [48.10] [267.13]
  • Egyptian astrologer and geographer Ptolemy of Alexandria draws his first map of countries on the Baltic Sea, with Scandia as the largest and most easterly of four islands in the "Germanic Ocean". [1.10]
  • A system of beacons for defence are established along the eastern shores of Scandinavia and coast of Finland. [48.19]
  • The first Swedish state comes into existence, the Kingdon of the Svear, centered on Uppland (north side of modern Lak Mälaren). [1.11] [47.18]
  • Eadgils (Adils), son of Svear King Othere (Ottar) conquers his father in Sweden, with help from Geats, becoming King. Othere's father Ongentheow (Angantyr) also fights the Geats and is killed in battle. [1.12]
  • Gotlanders put themselves under the protection of the Swedish king, for payment of 60 silver marks per year, and reciprocal free trade. [120.50]
  • The Gothic historian Jordanes writes of the Suehans of Scandinavia, with fine horses, rich apparel, and trading in furs. [47.19] (about 550 [232.12])
  • (8th or 9th century) The Svear conquer the Götar, forming the Svea rike , the Svea Kingdom. ( Over time, the name is shortened to Sverige . ) [303.38]
  • The town of Birka is founded, on the island of Björkö. [50.292]

  • Björn is king of the Svear in the Mälar district. [48.25] [232.136]
  • King Björn of the Svear requests of the Frankish king assistance in establishing the Christian religion in Sweden. The Frankish king Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, sends Ansgar, a Christian monk, to Birka, on Lake Mälaren. Ansgar convinces the King to build a Christian (Chruch of Rome) church there. [1.24] [47.26] [48.34] [232.13] [267.22] [303.73]
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Battle-Scarred Viking Shield-Maiden Gets Facial Reconstruction for First Time

First unearthed in 1900, this 1,000-year-old Viking shield-maiden was apparently cut down in her prime.

When the sword came down upon her head, the blade cut her to the bone. Scientists studying the Viking woman's fractured skull 1,000 years later still aren't sure whether the blow actually killed her — however, the trove of weapons buried with her make it clear that she died a warrior nonetheless.

That Viking, who lived and died around the year 900, was first excavated from a farm in Solør, Norway, in 1900. Her head rested on a shield, a bridled horse skeleton lay curled at her feet, and her body was boxed in by a sword, spear, battle-ax and arrows. When a quick analysis revealed the skeleton to be female, it was immediately interpreted as the first physical example of a shield-maiden — a mythical female warrior only referenced in medieval texts before then.

Now, for the first time, researchers at the University of Dundee in Scotland have used facial reconstruction technology to re-create that maiden's appearance — including the wound that may have ended her career.

The results, which you can see above and in the new National Geographic documentary "Viking Warrior Women," show a woman of about 18 or 19 years old with a strong jaw, swollen eye and a forehead that's seen better days. According to the team's analysis of the warrior's skull, the maiden suffered a serious head injury consistent with a sword strike — however, the wound showed signs of healing and may not have been her ultimate cause of death.

Whether the wound was fatal or not, the new reconstruction suggests that this skeleton may be "the first evidence ever found of a Viking woman with a battle injury," archaeologist Ella Al-Shamahi, who hosts the new documentary, told The Guardian.

That's exciting news, especially for researchers trying to overturn the centuries-old assumption that Viking warriors were exclusively men. This stereotype took its own blow in 2017, when a Viking skeleton presumed for the past 70 years to be a man (because it had been buried with a trove of weapons) was proven to be a woman following a DNA analysis.

Like the shield-maiden of Solør, this woman was buried with an array of weapons and horses, plus a set of chess-like gaming pieces that suggested a tactical aptitude commensurate with a high-ranking military official, the researchers who made the discovery wrote in a study. Not only is it likely that she was a warrior, but she may also have been a general.

"Our results caution against sweeping interpretations based on … preconceptions," the researchers wrote in their 2017 paper. "Our results … suggest that [Viking] women, indeed, were able to be full members of male dominated spheres."

If you'd like to pay homage to the shield-maiden of Solør, you can find her dented skull and well-worn weapons on display at the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo, Norway, until Nov. 22.

"Viking Warrior Woman" first aired on Nov. 3 on the National Geographic channel.


14. Who re-discovered America first? Part 1

By now we’re all familiar with the voyage of Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the “New World” aka the United States.

However, we have now come to discover, there are several possible inaccuracies surrounding these historical events that may well disprove, what was considered, an integral part of American history.

Africa is the first of three possibilities. There are several things that point towards the African people beating Columbus to the punch.

The first of these is drawn from the actual proximity between Africa and South America.

Columbus initially departed from the Spanish port of Palos, heading to the Bahamas.

Upon further inspection of the world map, it can clearly be identified that the distance covered by Columbus in comparison to the distance between Sierra Leone and the Brazilian city Natal, is a far lengthier journey.

The African route is nearly three times shorter than what Columbus allegedly achieved.

Another often-revisited clue comes from the Piri Reis map. According to history, Columbus had no idea that he was heading into a new continent, but the Piri Reis, which was put together in 1513 (fifteen years after Columbus’ voyage) depicts a reasonably accurate state of North Africa and coast of Brazil.

The third clue focuses on Mexico’s ‘Olmec Colossal Heads’, stone sculptures of human heads created from large basalt boulders. These heads are said to depict the Olmecs, or the first inhabitants of the Americas, however, they have a stronger resemblance to Africans.

Finally, a teenage girl whose remains were found in an underwater cave on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula, may hold the key to the age-old mystery of who discovered America.

Nicknamed Naia (after the Greek term for a water nymph), it is believed the girl lived 12,000 years ago in Mexico.

Considered one of the earliest known residents of the Americas, her skull bears a striking resemblance to the African or South Pacific population.

Although not definitive proof that Africans re-discovered America before the Europeans did, it certainly makes you wonder.


Timeline

Before the Great Age of Pirates

The Mink Tribe isolate themselves from the outside world on Zou.

A great civilization dominates the planet from one corner to the next, and great weapons of mass destruction are built. In the same century, they also disappear under mysterious circumstances. The only traces left behind of their civilization are the Poneglyphs.

During his journies, Noland arrives on Green Bit, where he protects the dwarves from humans he is made a hero and a statue is erected in his honor.

Sea Circle Calendar 1122, May 21: Noland arrives on Jaya island and brings about the end of a horrible disease that made the Shandia sick.

4 years later, a large portion of Jaya is shot into the air by the Knock Up Stream. The war between the Skypieans and the Shandia begins. ⎘]

Sea Circle Calendar 1127, November 16: Noland brings the King of Lvneel to Jaya to show him the treasures of the people there. He sets sail with 3 ships however, due to a storm, two are sacrificed to protect the King. When they arrive on Jaya (November 16th), there is no one living there and the City of Gold is gone. ⎘]

The World Government makes an alliance with Fish-Man Island after centuries of discrimination. The institution of slavery is prohibited by the World Government to secure a peace agreement. Ryugu Kingdom also attended its first Levely, to which it doesn't attend another until 200 years later.

The disease-carrying Kestia is believed to be extinct.

Morley was imprisoned at Impel Down. He later digs tunnels there and created Level 5.5. ⎛]

On the seventh day of fasting, five days before the Winter Solstice, Linlin destroys a village on Elbaf over a craving of semla, killing Jorul in the process. The Sheep's House leaves Elbaf.

Sometime after the Sheep's House celebrates Linlin's “sixth birthday”, Linlin was left alone. Elbaf became so repugnant of Linlin that they refrain from saying her name.

Shimotsuki Kozaburo sets sail to the East Blue, saves locals from bandits, and found a village, which he called Shimotsuki Village. ⎣]

Oimo and Kashii are tricked into working for the World Government.

The Rumbar Pirates are annihilated by an unknown assailant in the Florian Triangle, leaving no survivors.

Oden set a casino on fire after getting blacklisted and banned from it. ⎢]

Charlotte Linlin gives birth to her first child, Charlotte Perospero, setting the foundation of what would become the massive Charlotte Family. ⎥]

Oden killed someone and was sentenced to hard labor in the stone quarry. He later climbed the ranks until he ran the place. ⎢]

The Royal Capital experiences a drought. After Kozuki Oden diverts a river straight to the Capital, it gets flooded. He uses the route to escape to sea. However, the voyage is short-lived. ⎢]

Kokoro's tail fin splits into two legs. ⎫]

Shakuyaku gives up pirating to open a bar on the Sabaody Archipelago.

Mountain God Incident: The Mountain God invades the capital of Wano. Oden slices the boar down and immeadiately gets exiled by his father from the Flower Capital afterwards. ⎭]

Gol D. Roger and his crew became the first to reach Lodestar Island: the island at the end of the Log Pose. ⎯]

Doctor Hiriluk returns to Drum Island and begins his research into finding a cure for the sickness that plagues his homeland. ⎳]

Some thugs wounded Charlotte Brûlée, causing Katakuri to make a vow to hide his mouth. Η]

Pleasure Town was destroyed by pirates. Since then, the town made a rule of "Make everyone happy and be gentle to everyone". ⎝]

Survivors of the Rocks Pirates started recruiting their own crewmembers. ⎺]

Inuarashi and Nekomamushi washed up on shore, where they Kawamatsu are tortured but they were saved by Oden and were recruited as his samurai. ⎺]

Shimotsuki Yasuie has Oden's samurai trained to be proper.

Chinjao engages in a fight with Monkey D. Garp and ends up getting his pointy head blunted, preventing him from reaching his treasures and leading him to hold a grudge against Garp. ⎼]

After failing to challenge the Grand Line, resulting many of the crew members being killed or injured, Bacca returns to Swallow Island and sets fire to his hometown to find treasure buried on the island.

Kozuki Oden leaves Wano Country along with Izo, Nekomamushi, and Inuarashi and takes a trial to join the Whitebeard Pirates. Despite failing it, Oden saving Amatsuki Toki from trouble was enough to join the crew.

Nico Olvia leaves Ohara and her daughter Robin to embark on a Poneglyph expedition. ⏁]

Heracles sets out to sea to expand his notions as a botanist. Η]

Shyarly is left in the care of a then 15-year old Arlong by her father. ⎿]

Twin sisters Charlotte Lola and Chiffon are born to Charlotte Linlin. Immediately after their birth, Linlin casts their father Pound out of her kingdom.

Roger Pirates and Whitebeard Pirates have a battle in a fight that took 3 days and 3 nights. But everybody make peace in the fourth day. ⏈]

Roger arrives in Skypiea and makes Oden engrave the message near the Poneglyph. ⏉]

Shyarly predicts the Mermaid Princess will be born in 10 years. ⏊]

The Roger Pirates complete their journey to Laugh Tale. Having conquered the entire Grand Line, Gold Roger becomes known as the Pirate King. Shortly afterwards, Roger disbands his pirate crew, allowing them to return to peaceful lives of their choosing. ⏀] Η] Kozuki Oden dreams of opening the borders of Wano Country in 20 years time. ⏍]

Shyarly predicts the coming of the great pirate era that comes a year later. ⏎]

Heracles and his friends arrive at Boin Archipelago, and study the plants there. Η]

After hearing about Kurozumi Orochi’s rule in Wano and the raid six months, Oden tries to go after Orochi as others believed in him. However, Oden at some point decides to dance naked and make a fool of himself for 5 years, as the desperation of people turned into anger. ⏏]

Great Age of Pirates

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
24 years ago
The great pirate Gol D. Roger turns himself in to the Marines and is sentenced to death. Roger's speech before his death leads pirates to the Grand Line to seek out his hidden treasure, dubbed 'One Piece'. This event marks the beginning of an era called "The Great Age of Pirates" ( 大海賊時代 , Daikaizokujidai ? ) .

Upon hearing of the capture of Roger, and that Roger will be executed within a week, Shiki goes on a rampage throughout Marineford before being brought down by Sengoku and Monkey D. Garp. He is sent to Level 6 of Impel Down for his actions. ⏄]

Shanks begins his journey as a pirate captain by asking Buggy to join his crew. Buggy declines, and this is the last time the pair meets for the next 22 years until reuniting during the Marineford War.

The legendary Shipwright Tom is put on trial for building Gol D. Roger's ship, the Oro Jackson. He was given ten years to complete his idea of a Sea Train to be exonerated of this crime.

Heracles loses all of his friends due to the dangers of the island. Η]

Ohara Incident: Ohara is burned to the ground by a Buster Call summoned by the CP9. Professor Clover, Olvia and all of the citizens of Ohara are killed. Nico Robin, the sole survivor, begins her life on the run from the World Government with a 79,000,000 bounty. Jaguar D. Saul presumably dies when he is frozen by Aokiji.

Gaimon arrives at the Island of Rare Animals and through a mishap is trapped inside a treasure chest. He is left behind by his crew.

Hatchan saves Silvers Rayleigh out at sea and subsequently befriends him. ⏀]

Shiki escapes from Impel Down. ⏕]

Portgas D. Ace is born as "Gol D. Ace". His mother, Portgas D. Rouge, dies shortly after his birth.

Kozuki Oden and the Nine Red Scabbards try to defeat Kaido to open the borders of Wano Country, but failed. Both Oden and his wife Kozuki Toki are executed by Kurozumi Orochi and Kaido. Before her demise, Toki uses the powers of the Toki Toki no Mi to send her son with the Ame no Habakiri and their retainers to safety 20 years into the future. ⏚]

Inuarashi and Nekomamushi begin their feud.

The Charlotte Decuplets are born, the largest of Charlotte Linlin's multiple births. ⏠]

An incident on an island leaves five hundred soldiers being held hostage by pirates. The pirates demand their captain be made the king of the island in exchange for the release of the five hundred captives. The World Government sends in one thirteen-year-old boy to end the hostage situation he kills the five hundred soldiers and then the pirates when they open fire on him. The boy later goes on to become the top killing machine of the secret CP9: Rob Lucci. ⎽]

An unnamed king of an unnamed kingdom visited Kamabakka Kingdom on Momoiro Island. After he returned, he was an okama. This incident tore the kingdom and the family apart, and they were later exiled. Bellett, son of this unnamed king, became a pirate and would later blame Emporio Ivankov for this incident.

Portgas D. Ace and Sabo start saving up money in order to buy a pirate ship, leave Dawn Island, and become pirates.

Tony Tony Chopper is born on Drum Island. He becomes an outcast of his herd because of his blue nose.

As the original “Corazón”, Vergo passes on the name to Donquixote Rosinante. Η]

The extermination of the people of Flevance occurs. Trafalgar Law is recruited into the Donquixote Pirates.

Vergo left the Donquixote Pirates to go on a secret mission. Η]

Fisher Tiger rebrands the mark of the Celestial Dragons on the freed fish-men slaves into the mark of the sun and forms the Sun Pirates. ⏢]

The Boa sisters are found by Gloriosa, Silvers Rayleigh and Shakuyaku, who take them back to Amazon Lily. ⏢]

Under the orders of Donquixote Doflamingo, Vergo joins the Marines.

The Nox Expedition party were begin chased by the government for searching for poneglyphs, thus they became the Nox Pirates. ⏣]

Foxy's boxing license was revoked as he was caught cheating with a weapon. Η]

Vergo enters G-5 base after personally requesting it. Η]

Toto and his son Koza set off from Alubarna to set up a village in the Oasis of Yuba.

Shachi and Penguin’s parents died in a tsunami. They were raised by Shachi’s aunt and uncle, who made them do illegal activities. ⎝]

Boa Hancock becomes the new empress of the Kuja and captain of the Kuja Pirates. She is also given a position in the Seven Warlords of the Sea. ⏥]

Donquixote Rosinante and Trafalgar Law travel to Minion Island to steal the Ope Ope no Mi to save Law's life but are discovered by the Donquixote family after accidentally giving an intelligence letter to Vergo, a member of Donflamingo's crew undercover as a Marine. Rosinate is killed by his brother and the island undergoes the Birdcage, which kills everyone except a boy that was a member of a local pirate crew.

Doflamingo later recruits Sugar and Monet to his family. ⏦]

Sanji is expelled from the Vinsmoke Family at the age of 8 by his father Vinsmoke Judge, and he's allowed to leave the Germa Kingdom while they're invading a country in the East Blue. He boards a nearby cruise ship called the Orbit and works there as a trainee chef for the next 2 years. ⏧]

While wandering around Swallow Island, Bepo is bullied by two delinquents named Shachi and Penguin. Trafalgar Law witnesses the beating and Shachi and Penguin pick a fight with him. Law defeats them and Bepo joins up with him. ⏨]

Kawamatsu and Onimaru start to hide the weapons from grave robbers. Eventually, the kappa gets locked up in Udon after trying to procure food from the Flower Capital and eats rotten fish everyday for the next 13 years. ⏩] ⏪]

Red-Haired Shanks, then twenty-seven years old, arrives at Luffy's hometown and decides to stay there. Luffy accidentally eats the Gomu Gomu no Mi, giving him rubber powers and an inability to swim. Higuma is eaten by a Sea King in an incident involving Luffy and Shanks. Shanks leaves Luffy's hometown after staying there for almost a year. ⏫]

Shortly after Shanks' departure, Luffy is taken by his grandfather Monkey D. Garp to train with Curly Dadan and meets his adopted brother Portgas D. Ace. Luffy soon forms a brotherhood with Ace and Sabo based on their shared desire to become pirates.

Disgusted by Porchemy’s failure, Bluejam shoots Porchemy.

The Celestial Dragons come to visit the Goa Kingdom on Dawn Island. The Bluejam Pirates set fire to the Gray Terminal in preparation for their arrival, but most who reside there are saved from being burnt to death by Monkey D. Dragon and the Revolutionaries.

Sabo is attacked by a World Noble and presumed dead. He is rescued by Dragon, but loses his memories and joins the revolutionaries.

The pirate captain Mont Blanc Cricket arrives at Jaya. He stays to search for the truth about whether his ancestor was a liar so that he may be liberated from his family curse. His crew abandons him shortly afterward.

The famous actress Victoria Cindry dies in a tragic accident. Dr. Hogback meets the Warlord of the Sea Gecko Moria, along with Absalom and Perona.

Hatchan visits Shakuyaku and Silvers Rayleigh for the last time after joining the Sun Pirates.

The Sun Pirates meet Koala, a young girl who was a slave of the Celestial Dragons. Fisher Tiger rebrands her slave mark into the mark of the sun, making her the first human to bear the Sun Pirates' emblem.

Upon returning Koala to her home island, Fisher Tiger is ambushed by a group of Marines led by Rear Admiral Strawberry. After barely escaping the island with a Marine ship stolen by his crew, Tiger chooses to die rather than receive a transfusion of the human blood on the ship.

Angered by Tiger's death, Arlong heads back to Foolshout Island to get revenge on the humans who betrayed Tiger, only to be defeated and captured by Vice Admiral Borsalino. He is then imprisoned in Impel Down.

Zeff returns from the Grand Line. A storm sinks the Orbit and Zeff's pirate ship. Zeff and Sanji end up stranded on an island with very little food for 85 days and are eventually saved. Baratie is opened.

Kuina and Roronoa Zoro made a promise for one of them to become the greatest swords-person. After Kuina dies, Koushirou gives Zoro the Wado Ichimonji to reach his goal. Η]

Doflamingo frames Riku Doldo III and his soldiers for various crimes against their own citizens before swooping in and claiming the position of king of Dressrosa.

Arlong invades Cocoyasi Village and begins to build his empire. Bell-mère is murdered by him and Nami is conscripted into the Arlong Pirates.

Tom completes the Sea Train, the Puffing Tom. It took an extra four years for him and the others to add the tracks to other islands.

CP5, led by Spandam, frames Tom, who is carted away to Enies Lobby. Cutty Flam is presumed dead after attempting to stop the sea train that was carrying Tom.

Princess Shirahoshi gets touched by Vander Decken IX, making her a target for his powers.

Queen Otohime is assassinated, causing an uproar on Fish-Man Island.

Hody steals the energy pills from the Tamate Box and resigns from the Neptune army. In case of another theft, the Minister of the Right places explosives inside the box that will detonate the moment it is opened.

Shirahoshi is locked inside Hard-Shell Tower of Ryugu Palace to protect her from Decken's projectile gifts and threats.

Pekoms lead the other minks of the Nox Pirates who couldn't continue their journey, leaving just Pedro and Zepo. Later, Pekoms and his group arrived at Big Mom's territory. There, their lives were saved and they entered into her care. ⏮]

Minatomo sells the blueprints to Kaido’s mansion at a pawnshop. Sometime later, Ashura Doji stole the blueprints from Rakuda and ran over to Kuri with them. ⏯] 𖏜]

After hearing about Davy Jones, Foxy starts to amass a crew through Davy Back Fights. Η]

Despite Ashura Doji’s warning to wait, many of his friends head over to Onigashima to fight Kaido. They eventually got killed. 𖏝]

Koala joins the Revolutionary Army.

Gan Fall is replaced as the God of Skypiea by Enel in a coup d'État.

A meeting is held at Mary Geoise with the World Counsel to discuss Dragon and his Revolutionary movement.

Hiriluk dies upon his death, Tony Tony Chopper goes to live with Doctor Kureha, who begins to teach him how to be a real doctor. ⎳]

Two fans of the book on Mont Blanc Noland, Masira and his brother Shoujou, show up at Jaya to help Mont Blanc Cricket in his efforts to settle things with his ancestor.

Rob Lucci, Kaku and Kalifa from CP9 go undercover and join the Galley-La Company in order to learn more about Pluton's blueprints. Blueno goes to Water 7 with them but gets work as a bartender instead.

Nico Robin is hired by Crocodile into Baroque Works as his partner.

A drought starts in Arabasta, with the king being suspected of causing it with the use of Dance Powder.

Axe-Hand Morgan is honored for bringing in the infamous "Captain Kuro" and begins his rise to power in the Marines. 𖏠]

The Franky Family begins to collect 200,000,000.

Kaya's parents die. Soon afterward, Kaya falls ill. 𖏣]

Koby accidentally ends up as the chore boy for the pirate Alvida. 𖏤]

In defiance of Dr. Vegapunk, Caesar Clown performs an experiment involving chemical weaponry on Punk Hazard. The experiment destroys the island's entire ecosystem and leaves many prisoners paralyzed.

Amigasa village experiences a famine. Portgas D. Ace and his crew were captured by the villagers of Amigasa, who stole their food. The pirates freed themselves but were able to stay in the village as a guest for a few weeks. Tama takes a liking to Ace and decides to become an enchanting kunoichi for when he returns.

Chouchou's owner goes to the hospital and never returns. ⏭]

Mocha and Sind were kidnapped and brought to Punk Hazard to be the first two subjects for the gigantification experiment. 𖏥] 𖏦]

Cavendish appears in the New World as a powerful new Super Rookie.

Pre-timeskip events

Note: This is being written as though looking back on the events. Please keep in mind the people of the One Piece world may not know the events as the reader is being told them. Prime example being the events of Arabasta and the World Governments cover up.

Zoro saves Rika from Soro, Helmeppo's dog. For defying him and killing Soro, Helmeppo has Zoro crucified for nine days without food or water. Luffy rescues Zoro and recruits him as his first crew member. Koby joins the Marines.

Nami agrees to travel with Luffy for their mutual convenience. Luffy, Nami, and Zoro defeat Buggy and his crew at Orange Town, obtaining a map of the Grand Line.

Klahadore plans to kill Kaya and inherit her fortune, but the Straw Hats help Usopp defeat him and his crew. They receive the Going Merry from Merry, and Usopp joins their crew. The Straw Hat Pirates' jolly roger is established.

Zoro has two katanas broken by Dracule Mihawk, and then Luffy defeats Don Krieg at the Baratie, and Sanji joins the Straw hats.

At Cocoyasi Village, Arlong breaks his agreement with Nami and is subsequently defeated along with his entire crew. Nami joins the Straw Hats for real this time.

Having defeated three people with high bounties, Luffy receives his first bounty from the Marines: 30 million bellies. The Straw Hats enter the Grand Line.

Thatch discovers the Yami Yami no Mi. Marshall D. Teach murders him and steals the fruit. Portgas D. Ace leaves the Moby Dick to find him.

Blackbeard and his crew raid Drum Island. Wapol flees in fear.

A coup leads to Vira being taken over.

Feburary 18: Η] Luffy and Usopp create Mr. Snowman and Snow Queen, but they get destroyed in their bickering.

Feburary 19: Η] Igaram creates three Honohonouenchi dummies and tries to head over to Arabasta, but Miss All Sunday blows up his ship.

The Straw Hats befriend Nefertari Vivi, defeat Wapol, recruit Tony Tony Chopper, meet Dorry and Brogy, and head to Arabasta. Dalton is appointed as ruler of the renamed Sakura Kingdom. When they dismantle Baroque Works and take down Crocodile, the government covers it up. Crocodile is arrested by Tashigi and Smoker in Arabasta, both of whom are promoted for their efforts. The drought ends and peace returns to the country. Princess Vivi returns after having disappeared a few years prior. Nico Robin joins the Straw Hats.

Enel is defeated by the Straw Hats. Gan Fall returns as God of Skypiea. The war between the Skypieans and Shandia ends.

Foxy's Davy Back Fight winning streak, after 920 victories, is broken.

CP9 leader Spandam accidentally summons a Buster Call to Enies Lobby, annihilating the island of justice. The destruction is blamed on the Straw Hats, all of whom are assigned bounties.

Shu uses his Sabi Sabi no Mi powers to rust Yubashiri.

March 25 Η] : The Thousand Sunny is manufactured. Franky joins the Straw Hats.

A small time Mafia thug known as Duval is hunted down by bounty hunters as a result of his striking resemblance to Sanji's new bounty poster. Marines from the Marine HQ are also deployed after him at the behest of Vinsmoke Judge. 𖏩]

Shanks makes contact with Whitebeard. Despite Marine efforts, the two meet with each other. Two days prior to their meeting, "Fire Fist" Ace was defeated by Blackbeard. He is handed into the Marines, who set a date for his execution. The World Government summons the Seven Warlords of the Sea to rally together with the Marines for a war against Whitebeard. Blackbeard is appointed to the position of Warlord of the Sea for his role in bringing in Ace.

Shusui is given to Roronoa Zoro by Ryuma. Over a thousand shadows abducted by Warlord Gecko Moria are returned to their original owners. Most suspect Moria was defeated however, Moria retains Warlord status and no reports are released on any such defeat. Brook joins the Straw Hats.

At the Sabaody Archipelago, Luffy punches a World Noble in the face, and Bartholomew Kuma sends each member of the Straw Hat Pirates flying to a separate island.

Luffy becomes the first male to ever set foot on Amazon Lily.

Monkey D. Luffy, captain of the Straw Hat Pirates, breaks into Impel Down, from which Buggy happens to be trying to escape. 241 prisoners successfully escape the prison, marking the first mass breakout in its history. Meanwhile Blackbeard invades Impel Down to liberate and recruit the former chief jailer of Impel Down, Shiryu, and several convicts from the apocryphal Level 6: Vasco Shot, Catarina Devon, Sanjuan Wolf, and Avalo Pizarro.

The Manticore from Impel Down escapes the prison and is caught by the Big Mom Pirates, in which Charlotte Mont-d'Or seals it in a book.

The Summit War of Marineford takes place. Both Luffy's and Ace's heritage are revealed to the public. Portgas D. Ace dies when Admiral Akainu's magma fist goes through his chest. Edward Newgate dies standing up at Marineford. Marshall D. Teach somehow steals and assimilates Whitebeard's Devil Fruit power, making him the only human known to wield the power of two Devil Fruits. The battle is brought to an end with the arrival of Shanks and the Red Hair Pirates. Other pirates start to invade Whitebeard's territory after hearing of his death.

Monkey D. Garp and Sengoku resign from the Marines.

Monkey D. Luffy, Jinbe, Trafalgar Law, and the Heart Pirates are the first males ever permitted to set foot on Amazon Lily, an island that is usually off-limits to men.

Luffy, Jinbe, and Silvers Rayleigh return to Marineford. They sailed around the island once, Luffy rang the Ox Bell sixteen times and gave a silent prayer, and they left once again on the Kuja Pirates' ship.

The original childhood lab of Dr. Vegapunk on Karakuri Island explodes after Franky presses a self-destruct button in the lab. This event becomes known to the world as the "Nightmare of Baldimore". Soon after that, Franky causes another incident, which would become known as the Legend of the Sacred Burning Beast of Baldimore.

Monkey D. Luffy decides to disband the Straw Hat Pirates for two years in order to allow the crew to train and become stronger.

Buggy is invited into the Seven Warlords of the Sea and accepts.

Sabo regains his memory of Luffy and Ace before he decides to find the Mera Mera no Mi.

During the timeskip

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
1 year ago
A great battle takes place between the Marines and the combined forces of Duval and his Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Bartholomew Kuma, over the Straw Hat Pirates' ship, the Thousand Sunny. In the end, the Marines were forced to retreat, with the Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Kuma sustaining serious damage. The Thousand Sunny was left unharmed.

An argument occurs between Admirals Aokiji and Akainu for the vacant position of Fleet Admiral. The two engage in a duel to the death on Punk Hazard, which lasted for ten days and left both men severely wounded. In the end, Sakazuki wins and is promoted to the position of fleet admiral. This results in the transfer of Marineford to the New World, the relocation of the G-1 branch, the resignation of Aokiji from the Marines, and the reconstruction of the Marines. The battle causes one side of Punk Hazard to be permanently embroiled in flames, leaving the other half permanently frozen over. The World Military draft is held, and the two vacant Admiral positions are filled by Issho and Ryokugyu.

After defeating the remnants of the Whitebeard Pirates in the Payback War, Marshall D. Teach acquires great notoriety in the New World by conquering Whitebeard's former sphere of influence, attacking and murdering Devil Fruit users, and stealing their abilities to increase the abilities of his crew, resulting in him usurping Whitebeard's previous status as one of the Four Emperors.

Bartolomeo appears in the New World as a powerful new Super Rookie.

Trafalgar Law obtains a bounty of 440,000,000 for unknown reasons. After sending the disembodied (but living) hearts of 100 pirates to Marineford, he is appointed to a Warlord of the Sea position. 𖏪]

X Drake allies with the Beast Pirates and aides in the destruction of Amigasa Village. 𖏫]

Capone Bege starts planning the assassination of Big Mom. 𖏬]

Komurasaki gradually tricks Bingo into giving away all of his money, and then later spends it all. 𖏭]

Marshall D. Teach acquires the status of Emperor.

Current Storyline

When did it happen? (Years Ago)
Current Storyline
The prince and king of the Goa Kingdom die of a suspicious death, resulting in Sterry ascending to the throne. 𖏮]

Kin'emon, Kiku, Raizo, Kanjuro, and Kozuki Momonosuke arrive in the Wano Country of this year from 20 years ago, having been sent forward through time by the powers of the Toki Toki no Mi. While Kiku stays at Wano, the rest left to recruit allies. 𖏯]

The Fake Straw Hat Crew recruit famous pirates but are unmasked by Sentomaru, who has been promoted into the Marines. The real Straw Hat Pirates reunite at Sabaody Archipelago and word gets out that they're back in action. Upon pursuit by marines, they escape with their coated ship into the sea. With help from various groups of people, the Straw Hats set off for Fish-Man Island.

As punishment for helping the Straw Hats, Bartholomew Kuma was enslaved by the Celestial Dragons some point later. Η]

Madam Shyarly of the Mermaid Cafe predicts the destruction of Fish-Man Island at the hands of Straw Hat Luffy. Meanwhile, Hody Jones, captain of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken IX, captain of the Flying Pirates, form an alliance and initiate a rebellion against the Ryugu Kingdom. Princess Shirahoshi manifests her ability to summon Sea Kings in order to stop Noah from falling onto Fish-Man Island. She is revealed to be the ancient weapon, Poseidon. Jinbe donates blood to Luffy in the very first human-fish-man blood transfusion since it was outlawed.

Jinbe promises to join the Straw Hats once he finished taking care of his duties.

Neptune frees the human pirates makes the Fish-Man subordinates work under him and arrests Hody, officers of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken. Some of the human pirates were later captured by G-5.

The Straw Hat Pirates are targeted by Big Mom after Luffy challenges her and declares himself as the future protector of Fish-Man Island. Luffy gives Tamago and Pekoms the treasure that Caribou stole, including the Tamate Box with an explosive inside of it.

The Straw Hats form an alliance with the Heart Pirates in order to dethrone Kaido. Smiley eats the candy, causing a poisonous gas that can petrify people to spread across Punk Hazard. The group defeats and kidnaps Caesar Clown at Punk Hazard before continuing to Dressrosa in order to take down Donquixote Doflamingo. Both Vergo and Monet die.

G-5 take the children from Punk Hazard to see Vegapunk.

An alliance between the Kid, On Air and Hawkins Pirates to depose the Emperor Shanks is formed.

Jinbe places Caribou in a G-5 Marine base. The Caribou Pirates tried to rescue him, but got captured as he sails free. Caribou ends up on one of Kaido’s favorite islands. The Caribou Pirates meet up on the island with a Marine ship. They defeat Scotch and destroyed the factory, but Caribou is taken by X Drake and is later taken prisoner in Wano.

Zou is invaded by Jack and his division of the Beasts Pirates, who cause mass devastation while hunting the ninja, Raizo.

Kuzan becomes an affiliate of the Blackbeard Pirates.

All toys on the island of Dressrosa return to their original forms after Sugar loses consciousness. Sabo, the second-in-command of the Revolutionary Army, consumes the Mera Mera no Mi, which previously belonged to his late brother, Portgas D. Ace. Donquixote Doflamingo is defeated, his crew is arrested, and reign over Dressrosa is returned to the Riku Family. Doflamingo's fall sends many nations that depended on him into chaos, allowing the Revolutionaries to increase their victories.

Seven crews pledge their allegiance to the Straw Hat Pirates, forming the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, which consists of over 5000 members. Due to the events from their reunion at Sabaody Archipelago until Dressrosa, all of the Straw Hats receive new bounties, with updated pictures on their posters, and Sanji's status is changed to "Wanted Only Alive".

After confronting Kaido, the On Air Pirates and Hawkins Pirates become subordinates of the Beasts Pirates while Kid remains prisoner.

Jack attacks Doflamingo's escort. He sinks two of the ships, but is ultimately defeated. He survives, and the newspapers falsely report him as dead.

The Blackbeard Pirates attack the Revolutionaries' island base of Baltigo, resulting in the base being completely destroyed in which the new base is located in Momoiro Island. 𖏰]

Brook of the Straw Hat Pirates creates copies of Charlotte Linlin's Road Poneglyph after infiltrating her storeroom, making the Straw Hats one of the few factions in the world to have possession of one at the time.

The Tamate Box explodes, causing Whole Cake Chateau to fall.

Pedro blows himself up with dynamite to have the Straw Hats move forward.

Morgans reports the details of the Sanji Retrieval Team's successful raid against the Emperors Charlotte Linlin to the entire world. Morgans also reveals to the world of Sanji's heritage, the formation of the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, and the addition of the former Warlord of the Sea Jinbe to the Straw Hat Pirates. Following this news, Germa Kingdom is officially expelled from the Government for their attempted alliance. It is also reported that Luffy is considered by certain parts of the world to be a fifth Emperor. 𖏱]

March 3 Η] : Luffy washes up on Kuri Beach in Wano Country and saves Tama from a group of Beasts Pirates.

Shimotsuki Yasuie gets executed. This year’s Levely ends. Roronoa Zoro makes a deal to replace Shusui with Enma. Charlotte Linlin and Kaido decide to form a temporary alliance with their pirate crews.

The Seven Warlords of the Sea system is abolished and the Marines start to attack the former Warlords. 𖏳]

During the Fire Festival on Onigashima the Ninja-Pirate-Mink-Samurai Alliance affiliates begin an attack. Kurozumi Orochi is betrayed. Kurozumi Kanjuro is killed by Kozuki Oden's retainers.


Cuerdale Hoard (United Kingdom)

The Cuerdale Hoard is an enormous Viking silver treasure of some 8000 silver coins and pieces of bullion, discovered in Lancashire, England in 1840 in the region called the Danelaw.

Cuerdale is only one of several Viking hoards found in the Danelaw, a region owned by the Danes in the 10th century AD, but is the largest found yet to date. Weighing almost 40 kilograms (88 pounds), the hoard was found by workmen in 1840, where it had been buried in a lead chest sometime between AD 905 and 910.

Coins in the Cuerdale Hoard include a large number of Islamic and Carolingian coins, numerous local Christian Anglo-Saxon coins and smaller amounts of Byzantine and Danish coins. Most of the coins are of English Viking coinage. Carolingian (from the empire established by Charlemagne) coins in the collection came from Aquitaine or a Netherland mint Kufic dirhams come from the Abbasid dynasty of the Islamic civilization.

The oldest coins in the Cuerdale Hoard are dated to the 870s and are the Cross and Lozenge type made for Alfred and Ceolwulf II of Mercia. The most recent coin in the collection (and thus the date usually assigned to the hoard) was minted in 905 AD by Louis the Blind of the West Franks. Most of the rest can be assigned to the Norse-Irish or the Franks.

The Cuerdale Hoard also contained hack-silver and ornaments from the Baltic, Frankish, and Scandinavian regions. Also present was a pendant known as "Thor's hammer", a stylized representation of the Norse god's weapon of choice. Scholars are unable to say whether the presence of both Christian and Norse iconography represents the owner's brand of religion or the materials were simply scrap for bullion.


Klaus Freisinger

There is only a handful of WH sites associated with the Vikings, and the major reason for this seems to be that they just didn't leave that many traces. Their buildings were made of wood, so the major Viking remains are runestones and burial mounds. These are also what you can see in this site, spread over 2 islands in Lake Mälar, just outside Stockholm. Birka, on the island of Björkö, is only reachable by boat, and there is a daily excursion boat leaving from Stadshuset. The island includes a decent museum with many findings (although most are in Stockholm museums), and the guided tours take you to the major burial mounds and modern additions (a chapel and a large cross dedicated to St. Ansgar, who - unsuccessfully - tried to bring Christianity to Birka). Birka was a large trading post in its heyday, and one of only a handful of Viking-age cities. The king, however, resided in Hovgarden, on the island of Adelsö, just a short boat ride away. I wasn't really sure how to include this in my travel plans, but in the end, it was pretty easy. Just 30 minutes after the boat to Stockholm left, another boat made the trip to Adelsö, and I could explore the site on my own. There are burial mounds there as well, plus a few scattered runestones, which I didn't see in Birka. So I think both islands are worth a visit, even if the bus trip from Adelsö back to Stockholm took over an hour. This is one of the few insights into authentic Viking life that one can get anywhere - and there is a realistic imitation of a Viking settlement close to the museum in Birka.


4 Viking Parliament

For years, the exact location of a Viking Parliament in Dingwall, Scotland, have eluded archaeologists and historians alike. It was only in 2013 when it was finally located. After excavating for more than a year, archaeologists hit the jackpot&mdashthey unearthed the remains of the lost Viking parliament at a parking lot known as the Cromartie Memorial car park.

More popularly known as a &ldquoThing,&rdquo the Viking parliament was built on the instructions of a powerful Viking earl named Thorfinn the Mighty. Aside from the Thing, Thorfinn also commissioned the construction of a ditch, an aqueduct, and a road.

This discovery has elicited excitement among historians in the United Kingdom since it could &ldquohelp them learn more about the Norse Vikings, who battled for control of land across the north of Scotland.&rdquo


The Sami are one of the indigenous people of the world. The first document to mention the Sami in Sweden was written almost 2,000 years ago. Inland parts of upper Norrland are known to have been inhabited even longer, however – for close to 10,000 years.

The Viking Age (800–1050 AD) was characterised by a significant expansion of activity, in Sweden’s case largely toward the east. Many Viking expeditions set off from Sweden to both plunder and trade along the Baltic coast and the rivers that stretched deep into present-day Russia. The Vikings traveled as far as the Black and Caspian Seas, where they developed trading links with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab kingdoms. Christianity first reached Sweden with a mission led by Ansgar, who visited in the 9th century, but the country was not converted to Christianity until the 11th century.

There are more than 2,500 rune stones in Sweden, with messages dating from the 5th century to the mid-12th century, making them the oldest preserved Swedish documents. Relatives often had stones erected in memory of a dead family member.


History of Venetian Masks

Venetian masks have a long history of protecting their wearer's identity during promiscuous or decadent activities. Made for centuries in Venice, these distinctive masks were formed from paper-mache and wildly decorated with fur, fabric, gems, or feathers. Eventually, Venetian masks re-emerged as the emblem of Carnevale (Venetian Carnival), a pageant and street fair celebrating hedonism.
Venetian masks have been worn in Venice, Italy, since antiquity.
Unlike the vast majority of their counterparts in contemporary European nations, each citizen in Venice enjoyed a high standard of living. Everyone was part of the great economic machine that was the Republic. Venice was capitalizing on its position, on its gains, long before its contemporaries had realized the value of a market economy. With a level of social wealth unequaled since, the citizens of Venice developed a unique culture&mdashone in which the concealing of the identity in daily life became paramount to daily activity. Part of the secrecy was pragmatic: there were things to do, people to see, and perhaps you might not want others to know what deals you were cutting. After all, the city is relatively small.
Additionally, the masks served an important social purpose of keeping every citizen on an equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be mistaken for a nobleman&mdashor vice versa. State inquisitors and spies could question citizens without fear of their true identity being discovered (and citizens could answer without fear of retribution). The morale of the people was maintained through the use of masks&mdashfor with no faces, everyone had voices.
As a result of the concealment of identity, however, people naturally found themselves taking advantage of the situation. The society grew ever more decadent. The immense amount of travelers coming through the city meant that sexual promiscuity was commonplace and acceptable. Gambling went on all day and night in the streets and houses, even in convents. Women's clothing became more revealing homosexuality, while publicly condemned, was embraced by the populace. Even the nuns and monks of the clergy, bejeweled and dressed in the latest imported creations, wore masks and engaged in the same acts as the majority of their fellow citizens. Rome turned a blind eye, as long as the Republic continued to make generous donations.
The Republic fell into a state of luxury, indolence, and moral decay. Eventually the wearing of masks in daily life was banned and limited only to certain months of the year. During the last year of the Republic's existence, this period extended for over three months from December 26. After the 1100s, the masquerade went through periods of being outlawed by the Catholic Church, especially during holy days. Their policy leads to eventual acceptance when they declared the months between Christmas and Shrove Tuesday free for Venetian mask - attired decadence. This period evolved into Carnival, the pre-Lent celebration meaning, "remove meat." Although Venetian Carnival lost popularity as Venice's cultural production faltered during the Enlightenment, it was officially reintroduced in 1979.
The modern celebration of Venetian Carnival has reinvigorated the art and craft of making Venetian masks. Recognizable types of Venetian masks continue to dazzle tourists, dancers, and pageant participants during Carnival and year round. Wearing Venetian masks has spread to Halloween masquerade balls and what North and South Americans call Mardi Gras, but they always carry their rich Italian history.

In general all Venetian masks may be classified under two major groups:

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE MASKS

These masks date back to the second half of the sixteenth century and represent characters, ethnic traditions, professions and trades closely tied to the different cities of Italy personified by professional actors in the Commedia dell'Arte (means Art of Comedy in Italian)

Commedia dell'Arte was a form of improvisational theater, which began in the 16th century and was popular until the 18th century, although it is still performed today. Traveling teams of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics, and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called Canovaccio.
Troupes occasionally would perform directly from the back of their traveling wagon, but this is more typical of Carro di Tespi, a sort of traveling theatre that dates back to antiquity.

The performances were improvised around a repertory of stock conventional situations, adultery, jealousy, old age, love, some of which can be traced in Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence. The dialogue and action could easily be made topical and adjusted to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, mixed with ancient jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costume,masks, and even props, such as the slapstick.
Male Commedia dell'Arte characters were depicted by actors wearing masks representing regions or towns. The female characters, however, were usually not masked. In fact, the roles were often played by males in women's clothing and wigs, in travesti, as it is called.

Thus, the Commedia dell'Arte, with its stock situations and characters and improvised dialogue, has shown the way to many other forms of drama, from pantomime and Punch and Judy - which features debased forms of the commedia characters - to the modern animated cartoon, situation comedy, and even professional wrestling. The characters and tropes of the Commedia have also been used in modern novels, from sword and sorcery to literary works, notably by Michael Moorcock in his Jerry Cornelius stories that culminate with the Guardian prize-winning The Condition of Muzak.

ARLECCHINO is a most popular of Zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'Arte. Arlecchino traditionally wore an outfit of patches and rags, which evolved into the lozenge-shaped motley seen today. His mask was black with a large red blemish on his forehead similar to a boil.
The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. While generally depicted as quite stupid and greedy (in a gastronomic sense) his acrobatics were what an audience expected to see. The character would never simply perform an action when the addition of a cartwheel or back flip would spice up the movement.
Within these restrictions the character was terribly elastic. Various troupes and actors would alter his behavior to suit style, personal preferences, or even the particular scenario being performed.
He is typically cast as the servant of an innamorato or vecchio much to the detriment of his master's plans. Arlecchino often had a love interest in the person of Colombina, and his lust for her was only superseded by his desire for food or fear of his master.
The origins of the name are uncertain. Some say it comes from Dante's Commedia where one of devils is called Alichino. Others say it could come from Harlenkoenig, a Scandinavian hero. In another hypothesis it comes from Harlay, an English gentleman of the court of Henri III, who had protected an Italian actor.

BRIGHELLA is a comic, masked character from the Commedia dell'Arte, a money-grubbing villain and a partner of Arlecchino. His costume consisted of loosely fitting, white smock and pants with green trim and was often equipped with a battachio or slapstick. He wore a green half-mask displaying a look of preternatural lust and greed.
He is loosely categorized as one of the Zanni or servant characters though he often was portrayed as a member of the middle class such as a tavern owner. He is essentially Arlecchino's smarter and much more vindictive older brother. As is typical of those who have risen from poverty, he is often most cruel to those beneath him on the social ladder.
He is an inveterate schemer. Frequently paired with other Zanni as his assistants or employees, Brighella's plans were frequently foiled by their own ineptitude.

BURRATINO is a minor character from the Commedia dell'arte, one from the Zanni class.He is often not a servant, but is not well to do either. He is the quick witted earthy fellow who might be the innkeeper or grocer. If he is not a servant, he is often friends with them.
Though only mildly popular on the stage, Burrattino found his real fame in the marionette theater. According to Pierre Louis Ducharte, Burrattino puppet's influence in Italy was so great that "by the end of the sixteenth century, all marionettes operated by strings and a wire were called burattini, instead of bagatelli or fantoccini, as they had been known up to that time."

CAPITAN SCARAMOUCHE either a young man of adventure or a quite old mariner, a boasting, swashbuckling officer, often Spanish, dressed-to-kill in cape, feathered hat, high boots, with sword in belt, was always a prime favorite. He told extraordinary tales about how he beat a whole army of Turks and carried off the beard of the Sultan, but when there was a hint of real danger he was the first to run away. He made love to the none-too-innocent servant maid, and got trashed by her Harlequin lover. This character, of course, is none other than the Miles Glorious of Plautus, called in Italy Il Capitano Spavento della Valle Inferno, or simply Spavento.

COLOMBINA (means "little dove" in Italian) is a comic servant character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Colombina was usually dressed in a ragged and patched dress appropriate to a hired servant. Occasionally, under the name Arlecchina she would wear motley similar to her counterpart Arlecchino. She was also known to wear heavy makeup around her eyes and carry a tambourine which she could use to fend off the amorous advances of Pantalone. She was often the only functional intellect on the stage. Colombina aided her mistress, the inamorata to gain the affections of her one true love by manipulating Arlecchino and counter-plotting against Pantalone while simultaneously managing the whereabouts of the inamorato.

ILL DOTTORE is a local aristocrat and/or doctor of medicine or law or anything else he claims to know about, which is most things. He traditionally is portrayed as having been educated in Bologna. He is often extremely rich, generally with "old" money, though the needs of the scenario might have things otherwise. He is extremely pompous, and loves the sound of his own voice, spouting ersatz Latin and Greek. His interaction in the play is usually mostly with Pantalone, either as a friend, mentor or competitor.
He is typically depicted as an elderly man who only knows nonsense. He makes many cruel jokes about the opposite sex and believes that he knows everything about everything. He is an obese man that enjoys the bottle and eating to excess. His mask is unique in that it is the only mask in Commedia dell'Arte to cover only the forehead and nose. It is sometimes black in color or else flesh-toned with a red nose.
His costume is usually all or mostly black, sometimes with a white collar. He frequently wears a hat, and long, trailing robes. If the actor playing the role is not naturally fat then he is padded out to make him seem so.

PANTALONE is a miserly, libidinous, aged character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Usually he is a shopkeeper from Vienna, somewhat stupid, fond of food and of pretty women, talkative, gullible, full of temper, and the butt of all the jokes, some of them very indecent, yet forgiving in the end.
He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility, which everyone around him knows to be long gone.
He is often cast as the parent of one of the inamorata and has some business or personal relationship with Dottore or Capitano. Pantalone's plans to profit at the expense of his family and friends are guaranteed to be thwarted by his servant. He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility (which everyone around him knows to be long gone) along with a mask with a long hooked nose, a tight red vest, red breeches and stockings, a black cassock, slippers and a brimless hat.

PIERROT (Pedrolino in his Italian incarnation) is a stock figure in the Commedia dell'Arte. Pierrot is normally portrayed as personable, charming and kind, to the point of excess he blames himself for wrongs never done and because of his good and trusting nature is often easily tricked. The noticeable feature of Pierrot's behavior is his naiveness, he is seen as a fool, always being cheated and joked on by the others. Despite his suspicions about things, Pierrot always ends up trusting people and believing in their lies. Pierrot is also called as a lunatic, an a person outside the reality, in a state of unawareness about what's happening around, someone for whom anything matters, just cheering and playing all the time.
Pierrot wears white clothes, which are occasionally overlarge for him but more commonly are well fitted, and sometimes black accessories. On his head he wears a hat that is either tall and pointed or else small and brimmed. Pierrot is very occasionally depicted with a teardrop on his face, and he usually wears no mask the actor is generally expected to have a great range of facial expression, and this tradition has been in play since at least the start of the 1600s. His face is sometimes whitened with powder or flour.

PULCINELLA is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dell'Arte of the 17th century, a hunchback who still chases women. Pulcinella was the model for Punch in the English variation Punch and Judy. Pulcinella became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. His main characteristic, from which he acquired his name, is his extremely long nose, which resembles a beak. In Latin, this was a pullus gallinaceus, which led to the word "Pulliciniello" and "Pulcinella", related to the Italian pulcino or chick. His traditional temperament is to be mean, vicious, and crafty: Pulcinella main mode of defense is to pretend to be too stupid to know what's going on, and his secondary mode is to physically beat people.
Pulcinella often wears a black mask and long white coat, and has loose and straggly hair.

ZANNI is the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dell'arte. Its name comes from Giovanni (also said Zan, Zane, Zuane), a typical name of servants whose forefathers emigrated in Venice search for work from the valleys around Bergamo. Opposed to the Magnifici (the masters), the role of the Zanni is very changeable: silly, simple-minded, and vulgar. Once inside the city environment Zanni becomes sly, cunning, meddling, and cheeky. Many times he remains poor, constantly hungry.
Zanni's costume was loosely fitting white smock and pants. He wore a black mask reminiscent of his more popular descendant, Arlecchino.

CARNIVAL MASKS

Venetian Mask is the object, which most represents Venice, because it plays the Venetian spirit projected towards the party, the transgression and the amusement. There were many occasions when people turned to dressing up, in fact masks were worn many months of the year. In the eighteenth century, Venice enjoyed the reputation of having the most famous Carnival in the world. All the social classes took part and the mask represented the trick for the expression of that big collective magic.

BAUTA is famous through the Carnival of Venice as it is the main type of mask worn during the Carnival. Bauta was used also on many other occasions as a device for hiding the wearer's identity and social status. It would permit the wearer to act more freely in cases where he or she wanted to interact with other members of the society outside the bounds of identity and everyday convention. It was thus useful for a variety of purposes, some of them illicit or criminal, others just personal, such as romantic encounters.
The name Bauta does not have up to now, a definite interpretation. It may came from the German "behten" (to protect), as well as from "bau"(or "babau"), typical Italian representation of the monster, or bad beast, used by adults to scare children. "Se non stai bravo viene il babau e ti porta via &hellip (if you do not behave, the babau will come and take you away &hellip)".
This very Venetian mask was considered an ideal disguise by kings and princes who could move freely into the city without being recognized but was worn by strangers too. Fame of the Bauta went on along the Serenissima Republic, with the French and Austrian rules it started to disappear, considered as a reactionary symbol.
Bauta is quite ghostlike and with the centuries the fashion was to wear it with a black tricorno (the 3-pointed typical Venetian hat), zendale (long hood made of satin and macrame), and long cape.

DAMA , which presents many elegant variations corresponds to the ladies of the Cinquecento (the period of Titian) who covered themselves in jewels, expensive clothing and elaborate coifs. In our days this is probably the most popular and most beautiful mask type used during the Venetian Carnival.

GATTO (means cat in Italian) is a traditional Venetian Carnival mask. Cats were so scarce in Venice that they became the subject of one of the most typical masks. Legend has it that a man who owned nothing but his old cat came to Venice from China. The cat rid the palace of all its mice and the man became rich. When he went back home, his rich neighbor was green with envy and rushed to Venice with his most precious silks, thinking that if a mere cat made the other man rich, he would be enormously rewarded for these precious items. Indeed, the Duke promised him his most precious possession in return for his gifts. and the neighbor went home with the cat!

JESTER , or JOLLY as a female variant, is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. Starting in Italy, Jester moved into all of Europe, influencing theatre in Spain, Holland, Germany, Austria, England, and especially, France.
The origins of the Jester are said to have been in prehistoric Western tribal society. Pliny the Elder mentions a royal Jester (planus regius) when recounting Apelles' visit to the palace of the Hellenistic King Ptolemy I. However, Jesters are mainly thought of in association with the European Middle Ages. Jester was symbolic twin of the king. All Jesters and fools in those days were thought of as special cases whom God had touched with a childlike madness&mdasha gift, or perhaps a curse. Mentally handicapped people sometimes found employment by capering and behaving in an amusing way. In the harsh world of medieval Europe, people who might not be able to survive any other way thus found a social niche.
Jesters typically wore brightly colored clothing in a motley pattern. Their hats were especially distinctive made of cloth, they were floppy with three points, each of which had a jingle bell at the end. The three points of the hat represent the asses' ears and tail worn by Jesters in earlier times. Other things distinctive about the jester were his incessant laughter and his mock scepter, known as a bauble or marotte.

MORETTA is traditional Venetian mask. This mask was worn by Venetian women all year around. Moretta is an oval mask of black velvet that was usually worn by women visiting convents. It was invented in France and rapidly became popular in Venice as it brought out the beauty of feminine features. The mask was finished off with a veil.

VOLTO (means face in Italian) also known as the Citizen mask, because it was worn by the common people during all Holidays since ancient time: S. Marco's day, Sensa feast day, S. Vito and Modesto, S. Stefano festivities are only a few examples.

DOTTORE PESTE is a modern Venetian Carnival mask. This mask has a very unique history. One of the worst scourges for the city of Venice was without any doubt the Plague, which struck the city on several occasions. Because of this the Plague Doctor isn't a real mask but was a disguise used by local plague doctors who went on visits wearing this strange costume to people afflicted with plague.
Dottore Peste outfit consisted of a hat to show that the man was a doctor, a mask to protect the face which included crystal eyes to protect the wearer's eyes and the beak which was stuffed with spices or herbs to purify the air that the doctor breathed, a wooden stick to push away victims who would get too close to him, a pair of leather gloves to protect the hands, a gown waxed from the exterior, and full length boots.


Watch the video: Secrets of the Dead Viking Warrior Queen