Karl Hermann Brunck

Karl Hermann Brunck

Karl Hermann Brunck was born in Germany in 1900. While studying economics at university he developed left-wing political views. A strong opponent of Adolf Hitler he moved to the United States. Hope Hale Davis, who worked for the Consumers' Counsel of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), met Brunck in 1933: "He (Karl Hermann Brunck) was sturdy, but not tall... He expected people to take him seriously, and I responded, though maybe subliminally, to the way he held himself in his gray linen suit, and even the burnished glow of the heavy brogues he wore." (1)

Karl Hermann Brunck was employed by the National Recovery Administration as an economist. He argued that President Franklin Roosevelt was well-meaning but believed his New Deal program lacked a distinct political philosophy. He told Hope Hale Davis that Roosevelt was "like a blind sculptor." Brunck eventually began to appreciate the difference that President Roosevelt had made: "Letting a whole industry get together to set prices and limit production had the effect of canceling all the hard-won antitrust laws, but in return for this the industries had to let unions be legalized. Also, for the first time in history child labor was prohibited. This and the minimum wage of fifteen dollars for a forty-hour week seemed advance enough to balance almost anything. Women in the cotton mills had been earning four or five dollars a week for such long hours that they worked through winter weeks without seeing daylight. Children spent their childhood rushing from one loom to another tying threads with their tiny nimble fingers, until they collapsed with tuberculosis and their little brothers and sisters took their places." (2)

In 1934 Hope Hale Davis divorced Claud Cockburn and married Karl Hermann Brunck. The same year, they both joined the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). They were invited to the home of Charles Kramer, for their first meeting. Also in attendance were Mildred Kramer, Victor Perlo and Marion Bachrach. Kramer explained that the CPUSA was organized in units. "Charles... explained that... we would try to limit our knowledge of other members, in case of interrogation, possible torture. Such an idea, he admitted, might seem rather remote in the radical Washington climate, but climates could change fast. In most places members of units knew each other only by their Party pseudonyms, so as not to be able to give real names if questioned."

Kramer explained that as members they were expected to contribute money to the CPUSA: "Basically they would be ten per-cent of our salary, plus occasional extras. We had been warned of this... Charles was explaining that more was expected of us as a privileged group. Our salaries - even in the Depression - were far above the average comrade's. We were permitted - in fact, urged - to win career advancement, usually impossible for open activists. Extra assessments from us would help support comrades who could not make public appeals for funds. While rallies in Madison Square Garden could collect money for such causes as the Scottsboro Boys, there were unknown comrades in the South living on almost nothing - eating with the sharecroppers they were trying to organize - alone and always in danger of being beaten up or shot. We could think of our money going to help them."

Charles Kramer also told the group that in future they should obtain their copies of the Daily Worker and the New Masses from him instead of newsstands. "We must keep away from any place where leftists might gather. We must avoid, as far as possible, associating with radicals, difficult as that would be in Washington." Even outspoken liberals such as Jerome Frank and Gardner Jackson "were out of bounds". Kramer added "we couldn't go near any public protests or rallies."

Hope Hale was encouraged to get articles on politics published in national magazine. Marion Bachrach told the group that she had recently had an a piece published in Atlantic Monthly. Bachrach was currently working on an article on education: "Marion reported that she was writing a profile of a typical American teacher, one lucky enough to be still employed. A quarter of a million teachers had no job, and a huge number worked without pay. In eighteen states they were paid in IOU vouchers called scrip, for which they could never get the stated value. Low as salaries already were, they were constantly being cut. Even so, Chicago owed back salaries amounting to $28 million. Marion's figures showed that at least 200,000 children couldn't go to school for lack of clothes. And there would be many more, she said, but for the teachers themselves. In New York City alone they had given over $3 million to buy hot lunches, shoes and so on, for the children who otherwise wouldn't be able to come to school. Marion planned to show the teacher in her everyday life, handing out her own lunch to hungry-eyed kids around her desk, slipping a sweater or a pair of socks to a cold child in the cloakroom. If teachers hadn't made these sacrifices the country's educational system would have fallen apart totally in the past five years." Bachrach said she hoped to get the article published in Scribner's Magazine.

The meeting reminded Hope Hale of the words of Arthur Koestler, who in his memoir, Arrow in the Blue, describes his first meeting with a group of comrades as "one of those rare moments when intellectual conviction is in complete harmony with feeling, when your reason approves of your euphoria, and your emotion is as lover to your thought." She recalled in Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994): "It was true for me that night, though I couldn't have analyzed it if I had tried - though I wish I had. I just told Hermann that I'd never been so stimulated in my life. That delighted him. We hurried home newly elated toward another night together." (3)

Karl Hermann Brunck and Hope Hale Davis attended one meeting addressed by Joszef Peter. Other members at the meeting included Lee Pressman, Marion Bachrach and John Abt. "Steve (Joszef Peter) had made the trip to give us authoritative answers to our larger questions." Brunck criticized the way party publications had attacked Sidney Hook. "When Hermann's turn came he mentioned reviews in Party publications of a recent book by the philosopher Sidney Hook. Wouldn't Party critics have a more convincing effect, he asked, by analyzing and demolishing the book's arguments on philosophical grounds rather than using the space for invective? Peter replied: "This kind of stupid talk I never expected tonight! To call by the name philosophy the filth that renegade spews out!"

Hope recalled that "Hermann went on to say that we members of the lower ranks couldn't keep questioning policies. The Party's strength lay in its unity. Any attempt to change the agreed-on position would lead to fragmentation, breaking up into weak and ineffectual splinter groups. I loved Hermann for this ability to be objective even about what he might well have resented as a personal insult. It showed an inner assurance that attracted me strongly." However, after Joszef Peter's outburst, "comrades asked only cautious questions after that." (4)

Karl Hermann Brunck was introduced to Harold Ware who was a consultant to the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). Hope Hale Davis described Ware as having a voice that was "always easy sounding, unlike the staccato of most Party men" and was reassured by Ware's "tanned lean face, his rolled-up blue shirt sleeves showing the muscles in his forearms". (5) Ware's "discussion group" included Charles Kramer, Alger Hiss, Nathaniel Weyl, John Abt, Laurence Duggan, Harry Dexter White, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, Henry H. Collins, Lee Pressman, Charles Kramer and Victor Perlo. Ware was working very close with Joszef Peter, the "head of the underground section of the American Communist Party." It was claimed that Peter's design for the group of government agencies, to "influence policy at several levels" as their careers progressed". Weyl later recalled that every member of the Ware Group was also a member of the CPUSA: "No outsider or fellow traveler was ever admitted... I found the secrecy uncomfortable and disquieting." (6)

Hope Hale claimed that Harold Ware "directed the Washington underground". He told her and Brunck that the "Party wanted us to rise fast in our professions to be ready" for what he called the "next stage". They were asked to obtain any government documents that would be useful to the Soviet Union. Although they agreed to do this Hope Hale claimed the material was of little importance. She later told the Boston Globe: "The only thing I ever stole from the Department of Agriculture was the formula for making soybean milk." (7)

In July, 1935, Ware asked Brunck if he ever visited the German Embassy. When he said no he was asked: "How about wangling an invitation for yourself?" According to Hope Hale Davis Ware told him: "This might be a good moment to become persona grata there. The task was essential, and Hermann was uniquely qualified." Brunck set about the task and two weeks later they visited the embassy to attend a reception for Leni Riefenstahl and managed to have several conversations with staff members.

The operation came to an end when Ware was killed in a car accident in Harrisburg on 14th August, 1935. Hope later recalled: "On one of Hal's trips among the Pennsylvania mines his car crashed into a coal truck and he was killed... Someone said Hal had been trying to avoid a school bus. And we all knew he would have been driving too fast." Brunck commented that he always drove "as if the devil was after him." (8) The death caused great confusion in the spy network. Hope Hale later explained that unit heads suspended meetings and there was to be "no unnecessary contact with other members... if we had to communicate, we must use the conspiratorial techniques we had learned, such as pay phones at preplanned hours and intervals."

It has been claimed by Stephen Miller that Brunck's spying activities caused him to have a mental breakdown. (9) Brunck was taken to Chestnut Lodge in Rockville, Maryland, where he was treated by Dr. Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, the former wife of Erich Fromm. Brunck's wife was told, "No one really knows (why he was suffering from this mental illness)... All we can say for sure about his sort of illness is that it has its roots in the failure of the parents - commonly the mother figure - to provide emotional security in infancy. This causes a weak ego organization, inability to give and receive love on an adult level." (10)

Brunck made several attempts to kill himself. On one occasion he tried to do it when the hospital allowed him to spend the weekend with his wife. Hope Hale Davis recalled what happened in her memoir, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994): "In the kitchen Mimi had Hermann locked in a grip from behind, pinning his arms against his body. Hermann's hand gripped the carving knife... He was jerking and flinging himself from side to side, trying to wrench away from her. I ran and seized Hermann's wrist, but he was stronger than I expected. Slender as his wrist was in my two hands, he was able to twist the knife suddenly, first toward himself and then toward me. I had to step back to escape its thrust. Incredulous, I cried out his name, protesting, but he seemed not to hear. His face was pale and distracted, absent looking, yet with an expression of impersonal resolve. Then for a moment anger contorted it as he summoned the force to break away. For all Mimi's strength, his body's spasmodic heaves of effort were becoming almost too much for us. As I clung to his wrist I was half lifted off my feet and swung to one side and then the other, the knife jerking in directions I was never prepared for. Hermann really intended, I soon realized, to point the knife toward his own neck. I concentrated on preventing this, forgetting to guard against the rebound, when to loosen my hands he suddenly shifted the position of his. The knife grazed my cheek." (11)

At the sight of Hope's blood he relaxed his hold. "At that moment Mimi let go of one arm and brought her right hand down with a chop that sent the knife clattering to the floor. I caught it up and carried it away. When I had hidden it I came back to hear Mimi trying to argue with him openly against suicide. I begged him to promise not to try it again, but he only looked around desperately as if for another method."

Karl Hermann Brunck returned to Chestnut Lodge but in 1937 "the most elementary routine precautions had been neglected, and Hermann had used a belt to hang himself." (12) Hope Hale Davis has suggested that his suicide was linked to his disillusionment with the Soviet Union. Davis left the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) after the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact. (13) "Had Hermann seen this, that autumn of 1935, when he found truths that conflicted with his commitment to the Party? In confronting that choice he retreated into madness. When I look back at my last visit at Stony Lodge, his frown of fear and foreboding seems all too sane; his ominous words express dread of a terrible reality. I even wonder if he saw this risk from the beginning, when I was so fervent, so eager to take the step from which his nature held him back. I laughed at his caution, at his need to consider consequences. Might not his foresight have added unbearably to the conflict between his Party duties and his loyalty to those who trusted him?" (14)

He was sturdy, but not tall, compared to Claud's willowy six feet four. And though Claud took a genuine interest in other people, he could hardly enter a room before he became the center of a group listening and laughing. They would hear some comic tale such as his being swindled at age eighteen in a Budapest castle by a shady count teaching him Hungarian. Claud's sort of self-mocking humor required a special kind of assurance - maybe cultivated only in England.

This man's confidence was different, but real. He expected people to take him seriously, and I responded, though maybe subliminally, to the way he held himself in his gray linen suit, and even the burnished glow of the heavy brogues he wore. My conscious interest was in his knowledge of Russian.

A little, he said: just what he had picked up during three weeks in the Soviet Union last summer. He stood waiting with the towel for me to wrap the baby in.

While I powdered the crevices in the baby's solid pink body he talked about Moscow, the parks of Culture and Rest. They really swarmed, he said, with people playing games (soccer and chess), listening to concerts or just sitting reading. Everyone had learned to read, and they were all reading!

His manner of speaking - the inflection pure American but with a European edge of precision - gave a convincing effect of accuracy. Since he had come to Washington for an interview at the National Recovery Administration, he might clear up some of my confusion. "Does your taking a job at NRA," I asked, "mean you believe in Roosevelt's grand schemes?"

He said he doubted if even Roosevelt did, or knew what he would do from one day to the next. "He's like a blind sculptor."

That statement caught my attention, as it deserved to. Later I could see more than one meaning in it. But that day I heard it as he intended simply dismissive. I told him it was the first straight talk I'd heard since I left New York. (20)

At first his letters had caused me problems. Claud was the one I wanted letters from and Hermann's handwriting was almost illegible.

But I soon began to value them, even when they were only brief accounts of talk among the Marxists in the John Reed Club. He reported their ridicule of his prospective chief, General Hugh Johnson, and the campaign to get industry's compliance with the National Recovery Administration. The president was helping; in his Fireside Chats he urged consumers to buy only where they could see the NRA sign with its blue eagle and the words We Do Our Part.

"The crazy thing is that it's working," Hermann said, "even on me." He had accepted the Washington job, in spite of misgivings.

Letting a whole industry get together to set prices and limit production had the effect of canceling all the hard-won antitrust laws, but in return for this the industries had to let unions be legalized. Children spent their childhood rushing from one loom to another tying threads with their tiny nimble fingers, until they collapsed with tuberculosis and their little brothers and sisters took their places.

Gradually I began to look forward to his letters. He was making me see the schemes and patterns, the power plays behind the events in the news. They helped me wake up from my heat-drugged days of waiting, to exercise my mind (to a limited degree, at least). I began transcribing some of his reports and sending them to Claud; soon in an issue of The Week I recognized an item of New Deal gossip Hermann had picked up from his friend John Donovan.
John had already started at NRA, working in the unit set up to enforce Section 7a guaranteeing the right of workers to organize. Hermann's ambivalence about this "wild-eyed red" was a bit like the mix of attraction and resistance I had felt in grammar school for the bad boy of the class. But Hermann had come much farther from eighth grade than I had. It was a long time before I really understood this, and by then it was too late.

In September he wrote of watching a huge Blue Eagle parade down Fifth Avenue, which had lasted from morning till midnight, people marching all that time, bands playing "Happy Days Are Here Again," the atmosphere festive and exhilarated. "They think everyone will have a job tomorrow, at thirty a week," Hermann wrote. "They're in for a big come-down." And yet their excitement had been infectious. "It was just a matter of numbers, I suppose. All those millions marching together. Nothing has ever been seen like it. I kept thinking what a kick you'd have got out of it"

We set out for our first Party meeting on a mild winter evening. To passersby we must have appeared as we were meant to - just one more strolling pair of lovers. "Act as if you're visiting us socially," Charles had murmured, bending over my desk with his finger on a line of milk-price figures.

As we walked I must have said it felt strange to go to a meeting on the very Euclid Street where at age eighteen I had lived with my mother in a "light housekeeping" room. Refusing to go to Iowa university as a poor "town girl" I wanted to be "independent." But Mother had come with me to Washington.

The Kramer apartment was not in one of those row houses, where everyone sees who comes and goes. In a modern building, with an unusual entrance at the back, it seemed almost too obviously suited for conspiratorial purposes.

There was no lobby, just a bare, open stairway, where we found Charles leaning over the fourth-floor railing. As we reached the top he greeted us with a warm smile I had never seen before.

In the office I had first met him as a morose man named Krevisky. The change to Kramer had not caused much comment, perhaps because he never took part in the camaraderie of the staff. Among all these vocal New Dealers his silence had made me curious. When I came to know him better I would realize that he had to keep his lips shut tight to hold in his rage and scorn.

Inside the apartment his wife Mildred was waiting, a shy southern girl with ash-blond hair and the pallor of the Appalachian children whose pictures we had been publishing in our articles about how Subsistence Homesteads would better their lot. Beyond her, in the light of a bridge lamp, a boy knelt trying to untie a bundle wrapped in brown paper. He looked up distractedly, biting his lip and brushing back his hair, when Charles spoke his name, Victor Perlo. A mathematical prodigy, he had been at City College in New York with Charles. Now at age twenty-one he was a full-fledged statistician. The other member of the unit, Marion Bachrach, looked small and hunched in a deep canvas sling chair. But her face was fine-featured, with intelligent brown eyes and smiling, receptive lips.

Charles began talking in an assured voice I hardly recognized as his. He explained that though there might be changes - a comrade had already been drawn away to head another unit - we would try to limit our knowledge of other members, in case of interrogation, possible torture. In most places members of units knew each other only by their Party pseudonyms, so as not to be able to give real names if questioned. But here in Washington, where the New Dealers were always meeting one another socially, we'd run the opposite risk, of using the Party name at the wrong time. But though they would be used only on official records, we should each choose one now.

I listed myself as Mary MacFarland, after my strong-willed, talented musician aunt who had died in Mother's arms at the age of twenty. To me she was a romantic figure; for exactly the opposite reasons Hermann chose the unremarkable name, Walter Becker.

Continuing about precautions, Charles warned us that Marion's husband, who as a nonmember must be kept in ignorance, caused practical problems. Marion had made every effort to bring him close enough to recruit, but though sympathetic he had the typical liberal's fear of committing himself. Charles turned to Marion. "is that a fair statement?"

"Let's just put it," Marion said, "that he's a wise old bird."

Charles smiled, but in a strained way. Even I, new to the Party, felt a slight shock. It would take a while to learn that under Marion's mischief was a dedication deeper than that of many comrades who religiously parroted the official line.

She would rise to the next-to-highest national rank in the Party, be indicted under the Smith Act, and escape trial only by death. Charles went on to say that Marion was a writer who had published in Atlantic Monthly. We would hear later about her project.

But first came collection of dues. Basically they would be ten per-cent of our salary, plus occasional extras. We had been warned of this. It had given Hermann some concern, since he sent a regular stipend to his friend Ernst, who was on the last lap of his doctorate in chemistry. But we could manage, I was sure. Mary and I had proposed a consumer column to McCall's magazine which they seemed about to take. And in free-lancing I had ranged from Snappy Stories to the New Yorker.

Charles was explaining that more was expected of us as a privileged group. We could think of our money going to help them.

I hardly needed his persuasion any more, I suppose, than my mother had needed the minister's persuasion to find somehow an extra quarter or half dollar for a foreign missionary. And Party dues of ten percent-thirty dollars out of my three hundred a month seemed quite normal to one whose mother tithed. She had given to the Lord's work ten percent of an income that was sometimes as low as fifteen dollars a month, even including what my oldest brother earned by chopping wood for neighbors.

Hermann was taking out his penknife; he cut the cord that Victor Perlo had been struggling to untie. (When he told me later that he had seen the address - John Smith on Third Street northeast I had visions of a murky cellarway over beyond the Capitol. A dark figure was emerging with this bundle, hurrying across the sidewalk, glancing over his shoulder, tossing his burden into a shabby black coupe and speeding away. One day I would take my turn at being that dark figure.)

On the floor were stacks of the Daily Worker, the thick red Communist, the red and white Communist International, the violent black and white New Masses, and the mimeographed agitprop bulletin.

Hermann declined New Masses, saying he had bought it at the newsstand on Pennsylvania Avenue. Charles told him sharply never to go there again. We must keep away from any place where leftists might gather. We must avoid, as far as possible, associating with radicals, difficult as that would be in Washington. Even liberals, outspoken ones such as Gardner Jackson, Charles said, looking my way, were out of bounds. This saddened me. Pat had been so kind a friend.

Obviously, Charles added, we couldn't go near any public protests or rallies.

This disappointed me, remembering Trafalgar Square, feeling part of a huge crowd unified in the same uplifting urgency. But these directives carried their own charge, setting our group apart, preparing us to face our own hard challenges.

The literature we had to buy cost almost ten dollars. This, plus the dues, almost exactly equaled the wages I paid Mamie, the cheerful woman who now brought Claudia home for lunch and put her to bed. Hermann had insisted on hiring her after going once with me to pick up Claudia after work. Sitting on the nurse's lap she had seemed quite contented, but at her first sight of me large round tears had spurted from her eyes, splashing on the floor. Mamie must stay, whatever else we gave up to the Party.

When Victor Perlo had bundled up the leftover literature, he gave a report on the national news, starting with Roosevelt's appointment of Joseph P. Kennedy as chairman of the new Stock Exchange Commission. He called it a capitulation to the most vicious political elements. A Wall Street operator himself, Kennedy had made his millions in bootlegging. Such facts were probably a fraction of the truth, Vic said; but enough to rid us of the illusion that FDR was "any better than a glorified ward heeler."

These words were painful to hear. I knew Roosevelt was a politician, but nothing I learned about his compromises could keep his voice from stirring me physically. Sometimes I spent a night in erotic, idolatrous contact with him, waking to a sense of privilege which might stay with me for days. When I told Hermann about my dream he did not laugh. He envied me in a way; he himself could not remember ever having dreamed. Because I was a posthumous child, he said, I was even more vulnerable than most, but the whole population right now felt a childlike need of a father figure. I resisted this. I had no wish to share that private intimacy with 120 million people.

Marion reported that she was writing a profile of a typical American teacher, one lucky enough to be still employed. Even so, Chicago owed back salaries amounting to $28 million.

Marion's figures showed that at least 200,000 children couldn't go to school for lack of clothes. In New York City alone they had given over $3 million to buy hot lunches, shoes and so on, for the children who otherwise wouldn't be able to come to school.

Marion planned to show the teacher in her everyday life, handing out her own lunch to hungry-eyed kids around her desk, slipping a sweater or a pair of socks to a cold child in the cloakroom.

If teachers hadn't made these sacrifices the country's educational system would have fallen apart totally in the past five years.

Charles asked dubiously where she planned to publish this. In the Atlantic, Marion hoped, or Scribner's. Vic waved his hand urgently. When he got the floor he asked why she should glorify a group of fuzzy-minded liberals who were only postponing the moment when the workers would seize the means of education. He moved that the comrade point this out, showing how piecemeal charity was reactionary reformism; that these inequities could not be corrected under capitalism.

"But if she put that in," I asked before I could stop myself, "where could she publish her piece?"

"Exactly." Marion's grateful glance may have begun the collaboration that would bind us so close. She said that what Vic had outlined would fit into the Sunday Worker but would come as no surprise to its readers. Whereas she could reach a wider audience, one less political. And mightn't such readers one day become important to us? Having them friendly - or at least not hostile could make a crucial difference when the chips were down.

Charles thought she had a point there. The Party needed to "neutralize" potential class enemies. But Vic insisted that any valuable material we had must be used to strengthen the voice of the Party.

Hermann said in his reflective way that he was struck by how often the Times quoted quite radical statements by New Dealers. Didn't that suggest that the middle class at the moment was more ready to listen than we might assume? He proposed that our comrade use her material doubly. She could first follow her strong impulse, then afterward put her facts into form for Party publication.

"That's the second Gordian knot he's cut tonight," Marion cried.

The group agreed on a plan to have editorials ready to go into Party publications when Marion's article was published, calling attention to it and making any points that seemed strategically desirable.

It was the sort of consensus that Hermann often brought about during the next few months. Soon he would be put in charge of a new unit of high-powered, neurotic economists...

On the way home Hermann was silent at first. I wondered what Charles had asked him to do. But from now on we would have to have secrets from each other.

I couldn't hold back my relief at the prediction of Hitler's downfall. And I remember the doubtful way Hermann said he hoped they were right. But ever since 1924 he had heard the line, "Hitler can't last."

I suggested the Party might know things that we didn't know. There was Claud's dispatch in The Week about the illegal publications that kept appearing, in spite of Hitler. Sometimes a folded mimeograph would have "Horoscope" outside, and inside would be items of world news that had been suppressed in the newspapers.

Hermann agreed that this sort of mass operation was encouraging, and the great reason for working in the Party. But it may have been then that he spoke worriedly about the engineer's letter. What would happen if it landed in the hands of someone with poor judgment? Suppose this comrade met the engineer and thought from something he said that he was ready to be recruited. Whereas in fact the engineer was a Trotskyist, say, rabid against the Party. Wouldn't he betray the Consumers' Counsel rather than miss a chance to damage the Party? Our office was already suspect because of vocal liberals like Howe and Jackson. If it got out that a letter to the Consumers' Counsel had been given to the CP, the fat would be in the fire. A lot of powerful people were looking for just such an excuse to get rid of the whole group and put in their own puppets.

That was frightening. But surely, I said, the Party would understand the danger and be careful. Hermann hoped they would, but they were human, with built-in fallibility. I refused to let my spirits be damped. "We've joined," I said, "so we've got to trust them." And he agreed.

After a silent step or two, I suddenly stopped short on the sidewalk. The letter had not even been addressed to us. It had been passed on by the Consumer Board of NRA. Hermann laughed, saying that NRA might as well be hung for a lamb as a sheep. He had been talking out of fatigue, he said. The meeting, like all meetings, had been tiring.
Tiring? In my mood the word was unthinkable.

Arthur Koestler's memoir, Arrow in the Blue, describes his first meeting with a group of comrades as "one of those rare moments when intellectual conviction is in complete harmony with feeling, when your reason approves of your euphoria, and your emotion is as lover to your thought." It was true for me that night, though I couldn't have analyzed it if I had tried - though I wish I had. We hurried home newly elated toward another night together.

"Steve" was J. Peters, in charge of the Communist underground nationally. On one of his visits to Washington about fifteen of us a sort of chosen elite, mostly unit leaders, some with their wives had gathered at Lee Pressman's new house in the suburbs. Marion Bachrach had come with her brother, John Abt, a handsome brown-eyed lawyer, already important in a quiet way.

Steve had made the trip to give us authoritative answers to our larger questions. When Hermann's turn came he mentioned reviews in Party publications of a recent book by the philosopher Sidney Hook. Wouldn't Party critics have a more convincing effect, he asked, by analyzing and demolishing the book's arguments on philosophical grounds rather than using the space for invective?

Steve's heavy brows had knotted furiously. "This kind of stupid talk I never expected tonight!" he shouted. "To call by the name philosophy the filth that renegade spews out!"

After a moment John rather hesitantly reminded Steve that Hermann, though a new comrade, had faithfully followed Party directives, and was successfully handling a difficult unit. Steve calmed down, probably remembering the material Hermann had carried to the New York waterfront; still, the comrades asked only cautious questions after that.

Driving home I cried out against Steve's unfairness. Hermann explained that Sydney Hook was a former Communist, and his turning against the Party's policies made him seem a traitor. "Just forget what happened tonight." (I couldn't forget it, but I failed to take in its full significance.)

Hermann went on to say that we members of the lower ranks couldn't keep questioning policies. It showed an inner assurance that attracted me strongly. And that night, in a state the Party would have called "confused," I needed his instruction. My memory was still warm with Tresca's charm, his intentness on giving us a superlative meal, his refusal to act the prima donna. Why did the Party hate him so? Was he a Trotskyite? I knew that the very name of the Red Army leader Stalin had exiled after Lenin's death was anathema to the Party.

Tresca was an anarchist, Hermann said. Quite close to the Party until a few years ago, he had suddenly turned against us. When that happened, the Party had to expose him, show the consequences of what he was doing.
But Jerome Frank had told me that Tresca did courageous work against Mussolini among the Italians in this country, and had great influence. Hermann agreed about his bravery in fighting fascists.

Returning, I knew something was wrong almost before I entered the house. I told Claudia to play outside and rushed up the stairs. At the door I could hear grunting breaths, sounds of struggle.

In the kitchen Mimi had Hermann locked in a grip from behind, pinning his arms against his body. Hermann's hand gripped the carving knife he had used an hour before. Then for a moment anger contorted it as he summoned the force to break away.

For all Mimi's strength, his body's spasmodic heaves of effort were becoming almost too much for us. The knife grazed my cheek.

Mimi reproached him. Hermann, his face shocked as he saw the scratch, relaxed his hold. At that moment Mimi let go of one arm and brought her right hand down with a chop that sent the knife clattering to the floor. I begged him to promise not to try it again, but he only looked around desperately as if for another method. Mimi told me to phone Chestnut Lodge. Hermann moaned, entreating me not to phone. His voice had changed from before, had lost all fight and resolve. But I had to make the call, which I had agreed to do if things went wrong.

Naturally I want to face facts honestly. Of course. But it has taken me years, out of range of pressures, to free my conscience from its blind loyalties. Even when much later I was given reason to believe that Trotsky's assassination had been planned in my inner room on Bank Street, I could only hope I would not have agreed to its use if I had known.

When blind people suddenly are given sight they often find it painful at first the harshness, the garish light; it hurts to look at what they have to see.

We who were self-blinded suffer the further pain of shame. Not shame that we joined in the fight, which indeed must be renewed and renewed, as long as people are still ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed, and brutally tortured. My shame is in the terms of my joining: I forfeited my most essential freedom, to think for myself. Instead of keeping my wits about me, I gave them over to others, believing big lies and rejecting truths as big as millions starving. No excuse can lighten the knowledge that I used my brain and talents in defense of Stalin.

Had Hermann seen this, that autumn of 1935, when he found truths that conflicted with his commitment to the Party? In confronting that choice he retreated into madness. Might not his foresight have added unbearably to the conflict between his Party duties and his loyalty to those who trusted him?

We can never be sure of a final answer. But in writing this history I have learned enough to ask the question. And the question is important, not just in its implications for one man's life. Hermann's history becomes a major tragedy when we see him as an early sacrifice of a whole generation of young believers whose lives were damaged by disillusionment in the Soviet Union's false promise. Their loss went far beyond the loss of their years of effort to help keep this promise. It was an irreparable loss, a loss of faith in their own integrity.

Hope Hale was born in Iowa, daughter of a schoolteacher and a school superintendent. She left home early and settled at a Washington, D.C., boarding house, living near an older sister. There she met her first husband, a scenery carpenter for a theater company. "I was decorating a Christmas tree," she told the Boston Globe, "and he came in to the parlor and took one look at me - I was, you see, up on the ladder - and a half an hour later he proposed." She toured with the theater company and helped paint sets. "In Cleveland he took out after the stage carpenter, a person he actually respected, with a hatchet. He was quite violent."

Marriage no. 1 having failed, she arrived in New York in the mid-1920s and soon established herself in bohemian society in Greenwich Village. Despite having no college education, she found work writing advertising jingles for cereals (she wrote that her male boss took credit for her work) and then as promotions manager of Life, a humorous weekly magazine that happened to have the same title as Time's later photogenic sibling. She later founded a magazine called Love Mirror that was sold in department stores.

By 1930 she was earning the princely salary of $4,000 a year, holding formal dinners for the smart set in her basement apartment, and contributing to the Talk of the Town section of The New Yorker. Already possessed of a keen social conscience, she was proud of publishing romantic stories that included tableaux of rural squalor, including the Harlan County coal strike and the plight of sharecroppers.

In 1932, she married Claud Cockburn, the junior New York correspondent for the Times of London. Cockburn was an ardent Stalinist, and although Davis did not join the Communist Party, she fully partook of his vision of "the revolution that had to come." Cockburn would soon return to England and found The Week, the notorious radical paper that was suppressed by the government during World War II. Orwell condemned Cockburn in Homage to Catalonia for issuing communist propaganda during the Spanish Civil War....

Stuck with a baby and little means of support, Davis went to Washington, where she moved into a small cabin near her sister's home and divorced Cockburn. Soon, Davis found work writing consumer guides for the Agricultural Adjustment Agency. There she met a bright young German immigrant economist, Hermann Brunck, and together they embarked on a love affair that revolved around their membership in the Communist Party. They were married in short order before a disapproving minister who chewed jelly beans as he performed the ceremony.

Davis tithed to the party, and even admitted to doing a bit of spying: "The only thing I ever stole from the Department of Agriculture was the formula for making soybean milk," she told the Boston Globe. Later, she spoke with distaste of Alger Hiss's refusal to admit to communist affiliations. "The Washington spectrum ranged only from pink to red at that time," she wrote to a friend.

Brunck was less comfortable taking orders from the party hierarchy, who apparently wanted him to cozy up to Nazis at the German Embassy. He was prone to depression, which the party seemed to regard as somewhat counter-revolutionary. Brunck was institutionalized, and hung himself with his belt in the hospital.

Always resilient, Davis lastly married husband no. 4, Robert Gorham Davis, another communist, whom she met at a workshop for radical writers in 1939.The two resigned from the party on the eve of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. They were finished with radical politics, although they retained a deep sensitivity to social injustice. In her memoir, Davis wrote of the fight that "indeed must be renewed and renewed as long as people are ill-fed, ill clothed, ill-housed, and brutally tortured. My shame is in the terms of my joining (the communists): I forfeited my most essential freedom, to think for myself."

After retiring to Connecticut in the 1970s, the Davises moved to Boston when Davis received a fellowship from Radcliffe to begin work on her memoir, in 1983. She ended up taking a permanent teaching post. Among her topics was how to keep a journal, something she had done religiously all her life.

As an early feminist and communist, the unconventional was always expected from the author and teacher Hope Hale Davis, who has died aged 100.

She certainly fulfilled such expectations with her Project Revolutionary Baby. This was the name she gave to the planned child from her brief marriage in February 1932 to the renowned British journalist, author and communist, Claud Cockburn, then a correspondent in New York for the Times of London. He later joined the Daily Worker, reported from the Spanish civil war, and became a radical commentator and Private Eye columnist. He died in 1981.

The Davis-Cockburn wedding in New York, celebrated at a party given by Claud's cousin Alec Waugh, was intended, Davis asserted, only for "the marriage certificate from Claud as necessary for the child's sake".

Although being a lawfully wedded wife was perhaps less revolutionary than the project indicated, the couple did not live together. By July that year, Cockburn's posting for the Times was up, and he sailed to England, leaving Hope pregnant. Although he kept in touch, the marriage, his first of three, was over.

The child, Claudia, married the entertainer and writer Michael Flanders, who with composer Donald Swann wrote At The Drop Of A Hat, in which her husband and Swann appeared in London's West End in 1956. Flanders, who was confined to a wheelchair by polio, died in 1975, and Claudia died in 1998.

This was Davis's second marriage. Her first husband was a vaudeville scenery painter, and her third was the German economist Hermann Brunck. They lived in Washington where she wrote romantic stories with a message for women, and both joined the Communist party in 1934.

But Brunck was ordered to spy on the Nazis at the German embassy and the strain of having to socialise with fascists, as well as keep his party membership secret, weighed heavily on him, and he committed suicide in 1937.

Davis married her fourth husband Robert Gorham Davis, the literary critic and professor of English at Columbia university, in 1939. Gorham died in 1998.

Davis's writing career included stories for the New Yorker and other magazines, and they were published as a collection, The Dark Way To The Plaza, in 1968. Her memoirs of the 1930s, Great Day Coming, appeared in 1995.

She wrote of Cockburn: "I wanted what a woman has traditionally asked of a lover going off to war - his qualities and his heritage." She was attracted to him for his "charm, gaiety, mischief and wit" and the way he made people laugh. But privately with her, she added, he would talk seriously about how "we could sweep away all these disgraces at once and build a new society that would rule them out forever".

Davis's teacher father died before her birth in a small town in Iowa. Her mother, also a teacher, raised her but Davis did not attend college. Instead, she headed to New York and wrote fiction. She left the Communist party over the 1939 Soviet pact with Hitler's Germany, but remained a committed leftist.

(1) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 20

(2) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 29

(3) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) pages 68-76

(4) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) pages 98-99

(5) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 102

(6) Nathaniel Weyl, interview with US News & World Report (9th January, 1953)

(7) Stephen Miller, New York Sun (8th October, 2004)

(8) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 108

(9) Stephen Miller, New York Sun (8th October, 2004)

(10) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) pages 165

(11) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) pages 263-64

(12) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 315

(13) Dinitia Smith, New York Times (17th July, 1998)

(14) Hope Hale Davis, Great Day Coming: A Memoir of the 1930s (1994) page 337


Memories of Karl Hermann Frank's daughter

Post by Helge » 06 Oct 2020, 07:43

She was beautiful and educated. Her father was one of the richest industrialists in Czechoslovakia at the time. She was admired by many men. Nevertheless, the executioner of the Czech nation, Karl Hermann Frank, became her chosen one. She paid a terrible price for it. And their children also paid a terrible price for it. For the first time in her life, KH Frank's daughter gave us a completely unique and unique testimony.

Person
--------------------
This morning, I took over Frank on behalf of our government. I hand over Karel Hermann Frank to Czechoslovak justice .

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
It's Tuesday, August 7, 1945. He returns to Prague, this time as a prisoner, once the most powerful man in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Karl Hermann Frank. Twelve days later, he writes a letter in his cell, addressed to his wife. The man, who until recently had co-decided on the mass executions, watched the deportation of Jews with a cold face and the fate of the inhabitants of Lidice or Ležáky, is now full of excruciating uncertainty. He is afraid for his wife, he is afraid for his children.

Editor
--------------------
"After endless hours, days and weeks of complete insecurity and the fate of all of you, after torturous self-blame, I was completely at an end with nerves, and I had perpetually ugly compulsions that I thought I could not endure this state for a single day."

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Frank's letter written in pencil on plain paper will never be delivered, and he will not know what happened to his children and his beautiful wife Carola until his execution on May 22, 1946. Their other destinies are not known in our country either. Let's try to reveal this secret. Our search begins in Germany. Somewhere here in this residential area, one of the married daughters of Karel Hermann Frank and Dr. Carola Frank should live. How does he remember his parents after years? After the first and certainly surprising meeting for her, KH Frank's daughter proposes a meeting in a half-empty café. I'm waiting for her and according to the previous agreement, I won't be shooting her face with a camera. I promised not to reveal her identity. He wants to authorize everything he tells me later. She also admitted that she was still shocked that I had discovered her. However, she is most interested in the photo I brought her.

Daughter of KH Frank
--------------------
I see this photo for the first time. She may be my mother, but she has a completely different expression that I've never seen in her. My mother told us about the knocking of the carpet. She recalled that she had been brought to court with a former member of the Czech protectorate government and had been ordered to knock on carpets. And the two agreed to pretend to play tennis. So they knocked on the carpets, but in spirit they played tennis against each other.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Before the war, tennis was part of the entertainment of the then cream and Carola Franková, then still Blašková, daughter of the president of the Most Coal Company, among the cream in the then It undoubtedly belonged to the city of thirty thousand, which we can verify, for example, in the local state regional archive.

Mgr. Martin MYŠIČKA, State District Archive Most
---------------------
It is from the 1921 census.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
---------- ----------
And that's where they smelled, right?

Mgr. Martin MYŠIČKA, State District Archive Most
---------------------
Yes, so .

Stanislav MOTL, editor
------------- -------
Doctor Blašek.

Mgr. Martin MYŠIČKA, State District Archive Most
--------------------
Doctor Blašek, descriptive number .

Stanislav MOTL, editor
----------- ---------
Goren Strasse.
the former Goren Strasse, once the most luxurious residential area of ​​the old Bridge. And here also stood the villa of the doctor of rights and engineer Karel Blašek. He lived here with his wife Anne-Louisa, and their two children were also born here. Older Hans and younger Carola. When Carole Blašková was seventeen, her father died. At that time, she was studying at a German vocational high school in Most. And as the class reports reveal, she was a premium.
She has almost only ones everywhere.

Mgr. Martin MYŠIČKA, State District Archive Most
--------------------
For the whole, for the whole four years, no. So just from chemistry, from chemistry she had two, but differently, otherwise it seems that .

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
And these are graduations ? What is it?

Mgr. Martin MYŠIČKA, State District Archive Most
---------------------
Yes, this is an oral exam, so she had, from German she had, she had Schüller, from French she graduated, Voltaira she had a question and also actually very good, very good, very good.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Former Medical Faculty of the German University in Prague. This building also remembers the young student Carola Blašková. She studied here from 1932 to 1939. She successfully passed three (incomprehensible) and graduated on June 10, 1939. At that time, she was already having a passionate love affair. Her chosen one was a certain Karl Hermann Frank. A doctor from the General University Hospital on Charles Square in Prague, where she is considered a very professional internist and a pleasant, rather apolitical woman, Carola Blašková marries Karel Hermann Frank, who is fifteen years older and once divorced, on April 14, 1940. At that time Frank was Secretary of State of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and / incomprehensible / SS. At that time, as the Protectorate leader of the Hitler Youth Siegfried Zoglman (incomprehensible) also met, as he admitted in 2000,

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
This is Mr. Frank. Well, that's Frank.

Siegfried ZOGLMAN
--------------------
And this is me. This is clear unequivocally. It must have been during a sports or similar competition, probably in Strahov. That's interesting, that's interesting. But let me tell you, he was a very brutal policeman.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Karl Hermann Frank lives with his wife in a villa in Prague-Bubeneč. They have a daughter, then a son and another daughter. Frank is at the height of his power and is brutally liquidating any attempts at resistance. He still approves death sentences at the end of the war. Agony is approaching. While the Nazi leaders are now sending their families to safety, Frank's wife, who has never shown herself as a zealous Nazi, stays with her children until the last moment. Why? Carola Frank later justified this to her daughter.

KH Frank's daughter
--------------------
It's a matter of her love and honor. She decided to stay with him until the last moment and possibly until his death. She never thought she should leave him. She wanted to be with her husband until the last minute and help him.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Karl Hermann Frank left Prague in the early morning hours of May 9, 1945. He drove an armored Mercedes with bulletproof glass. His wife, three children, and a nanny drove in another car. A convoy of cars passed through Beroun and Holoubkov all the way to Rokycany.

Ing. Ladislav MAYER, witness
--------------------
In these places, about a little further behind you, the vehicle of the KH Frank was stopped and the roads here were on this side. The Americans took him to the square. He had to get out of the square, out of the square, go to the town hall and from there the Americans took him according to the information I have, to the barracks and from the barracks to Ejpovice, where they were to interrogate him in the U Nitků inn and there was written some protocol. in which they speak there.

Jiří VONÁSEK, witness
--------------------
Here I have one again, what I found out .

Stanislav MOTL, editor
-------- ------------
That's his column, right?

Jiří VONÁSEK, witness
--------------------
This is his column. Well, this is the arrival in the square when he was brought there.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
That family was here with him?

Ing. Ladislav MAYER, witness
--------------------
Unfortunately . Well, it is claimed that she came here with him to Rokycany. What happened to that family .

person
--------------------
But in another car like it was in the other car just behind him.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
So they let them go, so I think the family.

Person
--------------------
Yeah, but then they put them in a camp somewhere.

daughter of KH Frank
--------------------
We were separated in the town of Stod. This is somewhere near Pilsen. I was sick and my mother had to go to a nearby school to get milk for me. They arrested her there and separated us from her there as well. She was taken to prison and other refugees and I then went on to Germany separately. I was separated not only from my mother, but also from both siblings.

Lubomír JUNGBAUER, Deputy Mayor of Stod
--------------------
So here I can show you the original, which I found here in the archive by Ondřej Jindřich, where the events of May 45 in our city are described. It says that American soldiers brought about seventy women with children, who were placed here behind the town hall, and there during the inspection of the documents, they found out that there was a lady who did not want to sign up for what was written in her . then I don't know if it was an identity card or what it was.

Věra KYDLIČKOVÁ, daughter of O. Jindřich
--------------------
The man who worked there as an administrator came to tell his father.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
But it was German, wasn't it?

Věra KYDLIČKOVÁ, daughter of O. Jindřich
--------------------
He was German, but so solid. Like he said, look, I promised to tell you everything, to tell you everything. There is a person who does not want to be betrayed. Well, that's how they found out, and it turned out it was Frank.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Former poorhouse and it was here that Dr. Carola Frank was arrested. Ondřej Jindřich wrote about it: "The person was cruelly rude. She denied that she was the wife of KH Frank. The gentlemen also took her with them to Pilsen. They informed me orally that after arriving in Pilsen they confronted one driver, who immediately "It was conceived here that she was KH Frank's wife. She had three small children who remained in the Stoda in that poorhouse at the time. I know nothing more about dealing with this person." Some Czech news informed about the arrest of Carola Franková, which the Americans issued to the Czech authorities. In the book of detainees of the Prague Police Headquarters, we discover that Carola Franková was brought to Bartolomějská No. 4 on May 17, 1945, at one o'clock after midnight. The mentioned photo was taken a day later in the local yard. However, after only two days, Carola Frank is transferred from pre-trial detention elsewhere. Where? In 1945, senior officers of the Soviet army were accommodated in this house in Kampa, Prague. Prominent prisoners of the time worked here as housekeepers. For example, Carola Franková, but also Czech actress Lída Baarová. Lída Baarová, the former mistress of Joseph Goebbels, said that Carola Frank was later taken to the Soviet Union by order of a Russian general. She learned about the execution of her husband in the KGB prison in Ljubljana. She spent the next nine years in the middle of the steppe in a prison camp in Kazakhstan. All this time she did not know at all about the fate of her children, and then he discovered it, as the Bundestag member and the friend, as he told us, of some influential Soviet politicians, Siegfried Zoglman, told us in 2000. He then arranged for her return. After arriving in the Federal Republic of Germany, Carola Frank began looking for her three children. She eventually succeeded. She discovered her eldest daughter in the then German Democratic Republic - Leipzig, she found her second daughter in Frankfurt am Main and finally found her son in Gottingen.

Daughter of KH Frank
--------------------
It's hard to describe. Suddenly she was here for me and I was surprised and glad that suddenly I had such a perfect, beautiful, nice and gentle mother. She was forty when she returned, but she looked at least ten years older, as seen in the photo.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
This film tells about what the prison did to her mother. Carola Frank from 1940 and the same woman after returning from the Soviet Union in 1954. Dr. Carola Frank began her new medical career at one of the largest university clinics in Germany. She later set up a private surgery. She never married. When a man invited her to dance, she refused. It is said that she still remembered her husband, the man who entered our subconscious as an executioner of the Czech nation. She also lived to see November 1989. She also looked to her native Bohemia.

Daughter of KH Frank
--------------------
She was fundamentally against it. She refused. And when I went there in the early 1990s, she gave me the address and a description of how to get to our house. It is a villa in a chestnut alley, it still stands today and in front of it is such a smaller guard house.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
As KH Frank's daughter said during our meeting in the café, her mother never talked about post-war Prague. As if it were a dark period for her. Surprisingly, she quite fondly remembered ordinary Russians and life in Kazakhstan. By the way, in 2004, Russian officials officially apologized for her imprisonment.

Daughter of KH Frank
--------------------
Interestingly, she was never bitter. She took her destiny as a fateful thing. There was also pride in that. In a way, she considered what she had experienced to be an honor. What she experienced in the camp actually elevated her and also enriched her. She used to be a young and spoiled woman who enjoyed her position, but then she got into a situation where she was at the bottom, but she managed it all.

Stanislav MOTL, editor
--------------------
Dr. Carola Frank is resting in this grave. He lies here together with his mother Anna-Louisa, and the fact that their children are still worshiped by their father is also evidenced by this inscription Zum gedenkem and Karl Hermann Frank - we remember Karel Hermann Frank. Later, KH Frank's daughter wrote me an explanation: "The inscription on the grave was my mother's last will and I had to comply."


Davis was born Frances Hope Hale on November 2, 1903 in Iowa City, Iowa, the fifth and youngest child of Hal Hale, a school superintendent, and Frances McFarland, a teacher. Her father died young, and her mother remarried to John Overholt. When her stepfather died, too, Davis and her mother moved to Washington, D.C. [ citation needed ]

In 1924, Davis became assistant to the Stuart Walker Repertory Company's art director, for whom she painted scenery and designed costumes. [1] [4] In 1926, she moved to New York City, where she worked in advertising as a secretary at the Frank Presbrey Agency. There, she wrote copy and sold drawings. She left to become a freelance writer, publishing stories in magazines such as Collier's, The New Yorker, and Bookman. In 1929, she became promotion manager for Life magazine. In 1931, she founded and edited Love Mirror, a women's pulp magazine. [1] [4]

In February 1933, she moved to Washington, D.C., where she worked on the Consumers' Counsel of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) under Frederic C. Howe. Her third husband, German economist Karl Brunck, worked for the National Recovery Administration. [1] [6] [7]

After Brunck's death, Davis returned to New York City, where she worked as a freelance writer, crafting short stories with underlying Communist themes. During her years married to Robert Gorham Davis, she edited his work while writing herself for Redbook and Town & Country, and New Leader magazines. [1] [6]

In 1954, she identified her husband Robert Gorham Davis to the FBI as a communist, along with Len De Caux and his wife, Herman Brunce, John and Elizabeth Donovan, Harold Ware, Charles Kramer and his wife, John Abt and his wife Jessica Smith Ware Abt and his sister Marion Bachrach, Donald Hiss, Jacob Golos, Joseph Freeman, and Joe Currant, along with Pressman, Perlo, Silverman, Collins, Witt, and Alger Hiss. [8]

In 1983-84 she was a fellow at the Bunting Institute at Radcliffe College. In 1985, she received an invitation to remain as a visiting scholar. She taught a class in writing from 1985 until a month before her death. Seminar titles included "How to Keep a Journal" and "Autobiography as Detective Story." [1] [3] [5] [7]

Davis briefly married her first husband, vaudeville scenery designer George Patrick Wood. In 1932, Davis married her second husband, British journalist Claud Cockburn. [9] They did not live together and divorced in 1934 when Cockburn purportedly abandoned Davis while she was pregnant. [9] Their daughter was Claudia Cockburn (died 1998), who married British performer Michael Flanders (died 1975) and had two daughters, journalists Stephanie and Laura Flanders. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

In 1934, she married German economist and Communist Karl Hermann Brunck, who suffered a breakdown and entered a mental institution for treatment by psychologist Frieda Fromm-Reichmann. He committed suicide in 1937. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

In 1939, she left the Communist Party over the Hitler-Stalin Pact, though she remained a "committed leftist". Over the same international incident, Whittaker Chambers met with New Dealer Adolf A. Berle and named Davis as a member of the Ware Group, although he did not cite her name during subpoenaed testimony before HUAC on August 3, 1948. [3] [7] [10]

That same year, she married fellow Communist, professor, and literary critic Robert Gorham Davis (died 1998), whom she met during a congress of the League of American Writers the couple had two children, Stephen and Lydia. [1] [2] [3] [5] In the 1950s and 1960s, the Davises lived on the Upper West Side of New York City and were friends with Bernard Malamud, Lionel Trilling, and Diana Trilling. In the 1970s, they moved to Connecticut. In 1983, they moved to Boston after she received a fellowship from Radcliffe. [4]

Hope Hale Davis died of pneumonia in Boston on October 2, 2004, at age 100. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [7]

At her death, the Guardian called her an "American author who defied social conventions with her feminist, leftwing beliefs." [3] The New York Sun called her a "semi-regretful ex-communist." [4]

Davis' 1994 memoir recounts her membership in and details of the Soviet infiltration apparatus called the 1930s "Ware Group," controlled by J. Peters, founded by Harold Ware, and run successively by Ware, Whittaker Chambers, and Victor Perlo. Her book served as a major source for a biography of J. Peters by scholar Thomas L. Sakmyster. [11] [5]

Her papers include correspondence with numerous communists, New York intellectuals, and even Ware Group members, including Malcolm Cowley, Alfred Kazin, Philip Roth, Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Diana Trilling, Sylvia Townsend Warner, and Nathaniel Weyl. (The online reference leaves out reference to most Ware Group members, however, including J. Peters, Harold Ware, Whittaker Chambers, and those named by Chambers before HUAC in August 1948.) [1]

Of her 1994 memoir, Kirkus wrote: "Davis's account of that experience is masterful she captures the intrigue of underground culture and the seductive, even irresistible, logic of Communist solutions, as well as Party operatives' frightening refusal to see contradictions or hear dissent." [12]


Categories:

  • Peoples
  • Germans
  • Visual Arts
  • Arts and Crafts
  • Painting
  • Photography

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

James Patrick McGuire, &ldquoLungkwitz, Karl Friedrich Hermann,&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed June 29, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/lungkwitz-karl-friedrich-hermann.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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Karl Hermann Brunck - History

Aaron, Rabbi Israel, D.D. & Emma Falk Aaron:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 66
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 118

Adam, Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 119, 122, 164 , 169, 172

Adlersberg, W. G.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 147

Allgewähr (Allgewaehr), Louis:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 144, 149, 150, 152, 156, 163
Buffalo Volksfreund: January 14, 1891, January 22, 1891
Buffalo Frei Presse: August 19, 1901 - Obituary

Armbrüster, Rudolph & Maria Schiffer Armbrüster, Meta Armbrüster, Erna Armbrüster, Ralph Armbrüster, Julius Armbrüster:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 311

Auel, Dr. Carl H. W. & Sophie Sonnemann Auel, Elsa Auel:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 124

Bachman, Rev. E. F.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 289

Bächer, Celestin & Louisa Gerber Bächer
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: 170

Baetzhold (Bätzhold), August Sr., August Bätzhold Jr. & Natalie Kuster Bätzhold, Eugenie Bätzhold, Jenny Bätzhold , August C. Bätzhold , Howard Bätzhold, Theodor Bäzthold & Jenny Hitschler Bäzthold, Alma Bäzthold, Arthur Bäzthold:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 265
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 64
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 261

Baer, Conrad & Ulrike Pielmann Baer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 50

Baer [Bär], Rudolph, Marie Baer Foster:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 33, page 39
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 51

Baethig, Heinrich & Adelaide Ziekursch, Dr. H. Bäthig, Louise Baethig:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 98, 100, 103
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 78
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: June 30, 1855, September 25, 1855

Bald, Nikolaus & Katharine Reinheimer Bald:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 13

Baldauf, Caspar & Marie Jaeckle Baldauf, Jacob Albert Baldauf, Philip Baldauf, Howard Baldauf:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 187

Bapst, Frank L.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 297

Bauer, Franz Anton & Elisabeth Schäfer Bauer, Elisabeth Ascher Bauer, Franz Anton Bauer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 276

Bauer, Henry:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 237

Baum, C.F.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 4, 5
Buffalo Freie Presse: Obituary

Becker, Charles & Margaretha Stephanski Becker:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 331

Becker, Edward Gottfried & Bertha Hettrich Becker, Arthur Eugene Becker, Ralph Edward Becker, Clara Bertha Becker, Henry Becker & Susanne Nauert Becker :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 100

Becker, Philip & Sarah Götz (Goetz) Becker:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 109 , 155, 164 , 258 , 265 , 325 , 327 ,
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 55, page 108 , page 110
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 70
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 80
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: September 25, 1855

Behnke, Emil & Wilhelmine Hornburg Behnke-Dankert, Pauline Behnke:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 61

Beier, Jacob & Katherine Jung Beier, Jacob Beier Jr., Wilhelm Beier, Mrs. Leo Scheu, Katharine Beier van Tine:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 96

Bender, Franz & Barbara Karolina Schäfer Bender, Franz Bender, Hermann Jos. Bender, Emma Bender, Anna Bender, August Heinrich Bender, Anna Barbara Bender, Franziska Wagner Bender:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 322

Bender Warren Prescott & Maria Hessler Bender, Catherine Elisabeth Bender:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 326

Bentz, Carl August & Olive Smith Bentz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 134

Bentz, Dr. Henry George & Louis Amalia Reiser Bentz, Florence Louise Bentz, Mildred Lorrain Bentz, Russell Richard Bentz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 133

Besser, Johann Gottlieb, Otto Besser, Ernst Besser, Gustav Besser:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 145, 159, 161, 164

Beyer, Frank A. & Elisabeth Georgiana Rolls Beyer, Florence Amy Beyer, Marguerite A. Beyer, Lillian B. Beyer, Frank A. Beyer, Jr. :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 157

Beyer, George:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 92

Beyer, Heinrich Ernst & Catharine Kuntgunde Trägve Beyer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 11

Beyer, Jacob & Caroline Rinck Beyer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 92, 104, page 156, 189
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 8

Bierosch, Christian:
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: Footnote 3, Footnote 22, Footnote 25, Footnote 30, Footnote 37

Bindig, Samuel:
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: Footnote 25
Emigration List from The Old Lutheran Emigration at the Middle of the 19th Century: page 256

Bishop, Charles F. & Kate Moran Bishop:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 47
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 76
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 83

Bissing, Frank J. & Gertrude C. Terhaar Bissing:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 7

Bleistein, George & Elizabeth W. McCune Bleistein:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 26

Boehme (Böhme) Friedrich & Maria Miller Beohme:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 167

Boetsch, William & Clara Blessing Boetsch, Edward Boetsch, Charlotte Boetsch, William Boetsch, Frederick Boetsch, Anna Boetsch, Henriette Boetsch, Wilhelm Boetsch & Anna Boetsch:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part IIIB: page 14

Bohneberg, Friedrich & Maria Müller Bohneberg, Theodor Bohneberg, Sarah Bohneberg, Lillie Bohneberg:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 246

Boller, Charles (Karl) & Caroline Hofheins Boller, Henry C. Boller, Albert Boller, Judge Werner:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 84
The Life and Experiences of a Layman

Bollin, Eugen S. & Fredericke Stoll Bollin:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 322

Bollmann, Pastor Wilhelm & Emilie Dieckmann Bollman, Frieda Bollmann, Wilhelm Bollmann, Clara Bollmann, Marie Bollman:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 171

Bolton, John W. & Emma Burrows Bolton, Helen T. Bolton, John F. Bolton:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 269

Bosse, Pastor George von:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 282, 283

Brand, Pastor Peter:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 89
Clarifications on the General Meeting held by the Synod of Buffalo: pages 19, 26 & 28, 29, 43
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: page 55

Braun, C. Wm.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 158, 159, 163, 164

Breitwieser, Heinrich & Maria L. Schänlin Breitwieser, Louise Stroh Neubauer Breitwieser:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 259 , 267
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 7

Brendel, Henry:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: 337
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 52
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 92

Breuer, Dr. Max & (no first name given) Preusser Breuer, Annie Breuer, Camilla Breuer, Carl Breuer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 115 - 116

Brezing, Pastor Herman, Pastor Jacob Brezing & Elisabeth Hauff Brezing:
Niagara Falls and its German Community: page 12

Brick, Nicholas C. & Rosa W. Dickmann Brick, Margaret Brick, Theresa Brick, Gerald A. Brick:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 212

Broezel, John & Elizabeth Roskopf Broezel, S.F. Broezel Eagan, John Broezel, Jr.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 18

Bruck, John Peter, Louise Bruck, Peter Bruck & Catherine Schappard Bruck:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 224

Bruiknern, Gustav & Catherine Granacher Bruiknern, Florence Bruiknern, Mathilda Bruiknern, Gustav Bruiknern, Howard Bruiknern, Esther Bruiknern, Lorinda Bruiknern, Julius Bruiknern & Emilie Baetzhold Bruiknern:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 212

Brunck, Dr. Francis Charles & Catherine Hecox Brunck:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 57 , pages 71 , 95 , 103, 150, 183 , 258 ,265
Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger, September 25, 1855
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 2

Brunner, Friedrich & Marie Edelmann Brunner, Johann Brunner, Catherine E. Brunner, Anna Brunner:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 79

Burger, Ernst Moritz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 227, 272
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62

Burger, Dr. Otto:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 79 , 183 , 296, 297

Burkard, Joseph & Anna Düthorn Burkard, Raymond George Burkard, Ruth Elisabeth Burkard:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 279

Burkhardt, Karl Hermann & Leila A. Powelson Burkhardt, Ruth A. Burkhardt:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 174

Büttner (Buettner), Erwin :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 217

Carl, Andreas & Pauline Rupprecht Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 55

Chemnitz, Matthew J. & Emilie Eggers Chemnitz, Matthew E. Chemnitz, Emily Chemnitz, Heinrich Chemnitz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 81, 325 , 329 ,
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 93
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 121

Christmann, Philip & Caroline Wenz Christmann ,Philip Christmann Jr., Peter Christmann , George Christmann , William Christmann , Caroline Christmann , Elisabeth Christmann, Tillie Christmann, Lotte Christman :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 266

Clement, John & Anna Keen Clement:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 233

Cohauss, Rev. Bernard Clarence:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 109

Cornelius, Adam & Caroline Huber Cornelius, Caroline Scheu Cornelius:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 267
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 23

Curtiss, Harlow C.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 163

Daniels, William H. & Grace E. Ness Daniels:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 102
Buffalo Frei Presse: February 4, 1902

Dauterman, Henry & Catherine Krämer Dauterman, John Dauterman, Albert Dauterman, Mary Dauterman Peking, Elisabeth Dauterman Wahl:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 244

de Haas, Dr. Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 103, 104, 146
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 53
Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger, September 25, 1855

Dellenbaugh [Dellenbach], Dr. Friedrich:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 78, 92, pages 103
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 70
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 53
The Democracy
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: September 25, 1855
Buffalo Volksfreund: January 16, 1891 - Obituary

Dellenbaugh, Dr. Samuel:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 70
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: September 25, 1855

de Nyiri, John (Johann Nyiri von Szekely) & Helene Markos de Nyiri:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 109

Devening, Dr. Daniel:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 36 , page 39
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 53

Dieckmann, Ewald & Magdalena Kirdorf Dieckmann, Ewald Dieckmann, Adolph Dieckmann:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 241

Diehl, Dr. Conrad & Caroline Trautman Diehl, Loi M. Martin Diehl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 78, 330 ,
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 43
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 82
Pan Am Journal

Diehl, Henry & Salome Kabel Diehl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 43

Diehl, Jacob W. & Louisa D. Dickman Diehl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 265
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 43

Diehl, John P. & Louisa A. Smith Diehl
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: 259 , 265
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 43

Dietz, Paul & Mary Goetz Dietz:
Niagara Falls and its German Community:">page 21

Dingens, Jos.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 78

Dold, Jacob:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 258 , 259, 265

Doll, Henry William & Jennie Theim Doll, Karl Doll & Theresia Kaiser Doll:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 336

Dörfler, Frank, John Dörfler, Frank Dörfler, Elisabeth Dörfler:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 301

Dorn, Fred. F. & Hattie Clelland Dorn, Widow Bormuth Dorn:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 53

Dorn, Fred Joseph:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 146

Dorrer, Michael & Katharina Dorrer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 36

Dorsheimer, William:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 24
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 52

Dreher, Eugen & Louise Schneider Dreher, Harold Dreher, Eugen Dreher:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 285

Dreyer, Ludwig & Dorothea Harders Dreyer, Emma H. Dreyer, Charles H. Dreyer, Louis Dreyer, Alma D. Dreyer :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 300

Duchmann, Charles:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 69

Dudley, Wesley C.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 163

Dufner, Bernhard & Anna Freiner Dufner, Anton Dufner:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 25

Dunbar, Harris & Minnie C. Hardison Dunbar, Doris Dunbar, Lucilla Dunbar, Margaretha Dunbar:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 257

Eckhert, Peter & Anna Barbara Herbst Eckhert:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 210

Eggert, O.J.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 258 , 259

Ehler, Edward & Louise Malsch Ehler, Clara Ehler Wagner, Cathryn Ehler:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 141

Ehlers, Otto C. J. (Otto Claus Johann)& Katherine Molt Ehlers:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 285

Ehms, Alwin (Wilhelm Albert Alwin ):
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 253

Eichel, Robert:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 176

Eichel, Dr. Otto R.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 281

Einsfeld, John Philipp & Barbara Weaver Einsfeld, Mrs. Adolph Frankenstein (Maria):
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 260
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 25

Eisele, Eduard Johann & Margaretha Hilfinger Eisele, Edward Albert Eisele, Christine Eisele, Anna Eisele, Margarethe Eisele, Emma Eisele :
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 44
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 76
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 143

Elbers, Heinrich H. & Julia Louise Frommel Elbers, Leonora Bertha Elbers:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 196

Emerson, Dr. Henry P.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 120

Enders, Joseph & Catherina Reimann Enders, Stephan Enders, Louise Enders:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 253

Erb, Pastor John & Anna Mahnken Erb, Lydead A. Erb, Martha J. Erb:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 179

Erb, Titus & Maria Rosina Seilheimer Erb:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 30

Erfling, Fred & Maria Magdalena Filsinger Erfling, Anna Erfling Sahla, Fritz Erfling, Emma Erfling, Gertrud Erfling:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 218

Erion, Friedrich & Marthe Schlänker Erion, Edward P. Erion, Fred J. Erion, Arthur W. Erion, Walter C. Erion, Lydia Erion, Ella Erion:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 149

Esenwein, August C.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 293
Pan Am Journal

Faude, Carl Gottlieb:
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: page 3

Federlein, Frederick (Friedrich) Anna, Minna, Julie, Adam & Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 160, 161 , 162 - 166 , 167, 168 , 183
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 4, 17(biography)

Fedders, Theodor C. & Mathilde Peterson Fedders:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 145

Feine, August & Barbara Weber Feine, August C. Feine, George R. Feine, Charles F. Feine, Ernst B. Feine, Mrs. Anna Feine Jung, and Mrs. Katherine Feine Bernhard:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 27
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 151

Fink, Heinrich & Anna Koch Fink, Amanda Fink:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 256

Fischer, Francis Charles & Josephine Walkam Fischer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 2a & 3

Fiscus, Julius & Amelia Rochevot Fiscus:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 17

Fisher (Fischer), Frederick W. & Ella C. Snedaker Fisher, Harold S. Fischer, Evelyn S. Fisher, Friedrich Fischer & Katharine Speith Fischer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 226

Fitscher, Nikolaus, Henry Fitscher, Fred Fitscher, Lillie Fitscher, Hans Fitscher, Mamie Fitscher:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 319

Fix, Charles J. & Adaline F. Georger Fix, William C. Fix, Arthur F. Fix, Mrs. Alfred Lang:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 141

Forbach, Christoph & Margarethe Weller Forbach, Elisabeth Forbach, Wilhelm C.Forbach, Klara Forbach, Richard Forbach, Walter Forbach, Barbara Forbach, Edwin Forbach, Maria Forbach:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 190

Forbach, Conrad & Louise Kakuschke Forbach, Herbert Elmer Forbach, Lydia Amanda Forbach:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 185

Frank, Edward J. & Agnes Brautigam Frank, Marie Frank, Georg Frank Elisabeth Gebhard Frank:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 262

Frank, John G. (Johannes Gottlieb) & Karoline Frabel Frank, Wilhelm Frank, Walter Frank, Edwin Frank, Helene Frank, Margarethe Frank:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 277

Frankenstein, Adolph & Maria Einsfeld Frankenstein, Oscar Frankenstein (J. O.), Philip Frankenstein, Herbert Frankenstein, Alma Frankenstein , Helen Frankenstein , Dorothea Frankenstein:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 180

Frankenstein, Friedrich:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 115

Frankenstein, Dr. J. O. & Jane S. Mann Frankenstein, Jeannette Frankenstein:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 180

Frey, Rudolf:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 277

Frisch, Dr. Friedrich:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 182

Frisch, Gustav A. W.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 182

Fritz, C. Louis & Elizabeth M. Witte Fritz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 82

Fritz, Louis J. & Anna M. Eitelmann Fritz, Edward C. Fritz, Fred E. Fritz, Clara L. Fritz, Clarence L. Fritz, Margaret A. Fritz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 191

Frohe, Leo P. & Magdalena Weyland Frohe, Gertrude Frohe, Mrs. Albert Stager, Louise A Frohe, Mrs. Edwin Hettig, Edward M. Frohe, Fernando A. Frohe, Laurina C. Frohe:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 146

Fronczak, Dr. Francis E.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 160

Fuhrmann, Gustav E.:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 109

Fuhrmann, Louis P. & Carolina Meahl Fuhrmann, Fred Fuhrmann, Dorothea Fuhrmann, and David Fuhrmann:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 85

Gärtner, William & Emilie Fuchs Gärtner, Edward Karl Gärtner, William Alfred Frederick Gärtner :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 90

Gebauer, Georg H. & Louise M. Walther Gebauer, Bertha L. Gebauer, August P.Gebauer, Carolina Gebauer, Walther F. Gebauer, Fridericka Gebauer, Carl J. Gebauer, Otto Gebauer, Edward Gebauer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 192

Geiershofer, Isaac & Mary Maxon Geiershofer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 33

Geiger, Friedrich & Caroline Hochstein Geiger, Regina Brunn Geoger, Charles Geiger, Max Geiger:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 38

Gelb, Friedrich & Elisabeth Klein Gelb, Laura C. Gelb:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 72
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 49

Gelbke, Johannes & Mathilde Margarethe Hütter Gelbke:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 159, 160 , 167 , 171
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 66
Buffalo Freie Presse: Obituary

Gentsch, Bernhard F. & Catharin May Gentsch:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 68 , 164
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 78
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 52

Georger, Johann Martin & Marianna Heyl Georger, F.A. Georger, Karl Georger, Julie Georger Günther, Frank Georger, Rosa Georger Harries, Fannie Georger Adam:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 36

Georger, Karl & Dorothea Schuh Georger:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 84 , 259
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 36

Gerking, Friedrich Wilhelm (Fred) & Anna Reinde Gerking, Anna Gerking, Laura Gerking:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 312

Gerst, Philip, Jacob Gerst & Eva Dormire Gerst:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 43

Geyler, Fritz Otto:
Niagara Falls and its German Community:"page 17

Gillig, Lorenz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 144
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: September 25, 1855

Glawatz, Adolph & Meta Addicks Glawatz,Anna Eckmann Glawatz, Hertha Glawatz, Kurt Glawatz, Hilda Glawatz, Kathie Glawatz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 230

Glawatz, Peter Heinrich Gustav & Louise Wilhelm Glawatz, Anna Delitsch Glawatz, Cecilie Glawatz, Bernhard Glawatz, Anna Glawatz, Herman Glawatz, Emma Glawatz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 74

Goehle, Carl August & Auguste Dette Goehle, Alfred Goehle (Göhle)& Helene Posselt Göhle, Helene Göhle, Linda Göhle, Hulda M. Goehle Maul:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 79, 164
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 88, 131, 236

Gomph, William J. & Mary L. Williams Gomph, Martha Gomph:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 307

Gosar, John & Antonia Medic Gosar, Cyrill Gosar, Vida Gosar:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 335

Göttelmann, Julius Jr. & Rosa S. Hall Göttelmann:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 283

Grabau, Pastor John A.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 287

Grabau, Pastor Johannes Andreas August (J. A. A.) & Christina Sophie Burggraf Grabau, Wilhelm Grabau, Johannes (John) A. Grabau, Beata Grabau Gram:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 268
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 89, 286
Pastoral Letter and Correspondence between J. A. A. Grabau and the Missouri Synod
The Life of the Reverend J. An. A. Grabau
Emigration List from The Old Lutheran Emigration at the Middle of the 19th Century: page 253

Grabau, Pastor Johannes Nathaniel, John A. Grabau:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 271, 277
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 287

Grabau, John F. & Minna Mason Grabau, Dorothy Grabau, Wilhelm M. Grabau, Grace Grabau, Francis Grabau, Adele Grabau:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 286

Grabau, Pastor Wilhelm (Wilhelm) & Maria von Rohr Grabau, Minna Tobschall Grabau, H.R. Grabau , Prof. Dr. A.W. Grabau & Mary Antin Grabau, Adele Grabau Ziemer & Pastor Robert Ziemer in Altamont, Illinois, Philip Grabau, John F. Grabau, Grace Grabau Bruss & Pastor Otto Bruss, Lucy Grabau, Rose Grabau:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 270, 277
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 286

Gräfe, Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 146, 149

Greiner, Fred:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 52

Greiner, John:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 110 , 164
 Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger: September 25, 1855

Greinert, Herman & Maria Bender Greinert, Heinrich Greinert, Margaretha Greinert, Maria Greinert, Hermann Greinert:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 320

Gruber, Charles:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 150
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 4, 5

Gruener, Carl:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 49, 98

Gunther, Francis H. (Reverend):
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 280
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62

Haas, Pastor Christian Georg & Rosa Nolte Haas, Olga Haas, Evelyn, Helene Haas, Rossina Haas, Doris Haas, Christian Haas, Oliver Haas:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 114

Hager, Georg L. & Carrie R. Baker Hager, Lyman B. Hager, Clara Barbara Hager:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 181

Hager, Otto Philip, Bernhard Hager & Margaret Bickel Hager:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 242

Hart, Louis Bret:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 159

Hartmayer, Frederick L. & Anna E. Keating Hartmayer, Herbert Hartmayer, Frederick Hartmayer Jr., Raymund Hartmayer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 150

Haupt, Friedrich & Emma Schenkelberger Haupt, Charles Ferd. Haupt, Ellis Haupt, Charlotte Haupt:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 166

Haupt, Dr. Friedrich & Auguste, Baroness of Busack:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 108 , 258 , 259
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 64

Heiser, Gottfried:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 35

Held, Friedrich & Caroline L. Beyer Held, Frank C. B. Held:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 71
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 53
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 55
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 222
Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger, September 25, 1855
Das Buch der Deutschen in America: pages 524

Hellriegel, Conrad:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 77, 258
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 6

Hellriegel, Wilhelm & Louisa Rinck Hellriegel:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 259 ,
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 45

Hempel, Henry A.:
Tägliche Buffalo Volksfreund: Obituary

Hengerer, William & Louisa Duerr:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 284, 325 , 337
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 57
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 70

Herbold, Philip M., Martin Herbold & Emilie Wetter Herbold:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 234

Hering, Leodegar & Emma Kirchner Hering, Irma Hering:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 217

Heussler, Robert Henry & Ida M. Hornung Heussler, Arthur F.Heussler, Robert A. Heussler, Walter G. Heussler, Herman K. Heussler :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 106

Hilburger, Johann & Maria Rudolph Hilburger, Anna Hilburger:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 252

Hilt, Otto:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part IIIB: page 10

Hintz, Carl & Auguste Gatzweiler, Dr. Felix Hintz & Catharina Theurer Hintz, Arthur Paul Hintz, Florence Auguste Hintz :
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 87

Hipelius, Joseph:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 151

Hitzel, Dr. Gustav A. & Roberta Cook Hitzel, Romell Hitzel, Beulah Hitzel:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 129

Hochstetter (Hochstaetter), Pastor Christian:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 270

Hoddick, Frederick Sr. & Henrietta Magnus Hoddick, Frederick Hoddick Jr., Henry C. Hoddick, Arthur E. Hoddick, Otto Hoddick, William Hoddick, Charles Hoddick, August Hoddick, Julia Hoddick:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 119, 124, 125
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 74

Hoesler, Alexander G. & Francis [sic] E. Tallman Hoelser, Maria Elisabeth Hoesler, Frances Ella Hoesler, Antonette Louise Hoesler, Alexander Gottfried Hoesler Jr.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 138

Hof, Peter & Anna Engelhardt Hof, Anna Hof, Josef Hof, Frieda Jung Hof:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 251

Hoffmann, A.O. Hermann & Ernestine Reinhardt Hoffmann:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 77
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 31 , page 83

Hoffmann, Julius & Anna Holierith Hoffmann:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 124
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 65

Hoffmann, Valentine:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 34, 189

Hofheins, George Henry & Harriet G. Miller Hofheins, Lillian E. Hofheins Seeber, George R. Hofheins, Harriet L. Hofheins:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 139
The Life and Experiences of a Layman: page 49

Hofmayr, John (Johann) & Maria A. Hauser Hofmayr, Joseph Hofmayr, Maria Hofmayr, Franziska Hofmayr, Klara Hofmayr (Mrs. Nikolaus Schwab), John Hofmayr, Bernhard Hofmayr:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 197

Holz, Andrew & Helena Neukirchen Holz, Catharine Holz Zubler, Philomena Holz, Loretta Holz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 196

Holzhausen, August & Susanna Schmidt Holzhausen:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 32

Honecker, John & Sphie Becker Honecker, John Honecker, Charles Honecker, Sophie Honecker Kegler :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 167

Houck, Philip & Marie Rodenbach Houck, Eva Ernst Houck:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 258 , 265
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 194
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 13 (biography), 23

Hoyler, August H. & Emma K. Klippel Hoyler, August Hoyler, Margaret Hoyler, Elsa Hoyler:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 187

Hutter, Albert & Julia Zesch Hutter, Harold G. Hutter , Ethel E. Hutter, Marguerite M. Hutter:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 144

Irlbacker, Johann & Katharine Clear Irlbacker, Mary Irlbacker Brunner, Louise Irlbacker Kleber, John Irlbacker, George Irlbacker, Anthony Irlbacker, Katie Irlbacker Chretien, Carrie Irlbacker Schirra, Jacob C. Irlbacker, Edward F. Irlbacker:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 51

Jacobs, Wilhelm Friedrich & Ellen M. Dean Jacobs, Karl Jacobs & Auguste Krüger Jacobs:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 227

Jansen, August F.D., M.D. & Caroline Young Jansen, Louis F. Jansen & Anna Dank Jansen:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 56

Jacobsen, Henry:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 167 , 337

Jokl, Leopold & Leopoldine Grätzer Jokl. Alexander Jokl, Nikolaus Jokl, Erwin Jokl:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 299

Judge, George E.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 164

Juengling, Henry:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 120

Jung, Dr. Albert Hugo:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 329

Jung, Edward Leopold & Katharine Marie Riesberg Jung, Katharine Louise Jung, Karl Edward Jung, Pastor Edward Jung, Karl Jung & Katharina Klein Jung:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: pages 297, 329

Kaffenberger, Prof. Wilhelm Georg & Mary E. Phelps Kaffenberger, Karl Gustav Kaffenberger :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 113

Kahabka, Baptist & Josephina Oestereicher Kahabka, John Kahabka , Peter Kahabka, Baptist Kahabka, Anna-Maria Kahabka, Karolina Kahabka, Appolona Kahabka:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 311

Kaltenbach, Andreas, Mrs. Gräbe, Mrs. Leo Wolf:
Niagara Falls and its German Community: page 14

Kam, John Sr. & Magdalena Beck Kam, Anna Zintl Kam, Henry Kam, Rosa Scharf Kam, Joseph Kam, Ottille Regina Hager Kam, John Kam, Jr., Louise Victoria Simon Kam:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 267
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 10a

Kamphausen, Henry & Minna Amis Kamphausen, John Kamphausen, Louise Kamphausen, Laura Kamphausen, Karl Kamphausen, Julia Kamphausen, Elmer Kamphausen , Florence Kamphausen, Daniel Kamphausen:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 316

Kamprath, William B., George G. Kamprath & Maria Muntz Kamprath:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 305

Kasting, W. F. & Laura LaTour Kasting, Laura Louise Kasting, William Lafay Kasting, and John Roland Kasting:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 96

Kauf, Jacob & Sophie Klüting Kauf, Robert Kauf, Jacob Kauf, Carl Kauf, Fina Kauf, George Kauf, Mamie Kauf, Katie Kauf, Gustav Kauf, Friedrich Kauf, Lottie Kauf:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 321

Kayser, Gustav Adolph & Bena Barth Kayser, Robert E.L. Kayser, Esther M. Kayser, Ralph W. Kayser, Lydia C. Kayser:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 209

Kelch, Otto (Gustav Adolph Otto) & Mila Jacob Kelch, Gertrud Kelch:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 273

Keller, F. Charles & Minnie Musal Keller:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 314

Keller, John J. & Marie Juan Keller, John O. Keller, Margarethe Keller, Augusta Keller, Wilhelmine Keller, Emilie Keller, Elisabeth Keller, Konrad Keller, Martha Keller:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 275

Keller, Philip J. & Lizzie Flay Keller, Lillie Keller, William M. Keller, Charles Keller
Niagara Falls and its German Community: page 9

Kieffer, P. J., Edward Kieffer, Isabella Kieffer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 247

Kiekebusch, Otto Albert & Bertha Wenke Kiekebusch, Emil Kiekebusch, Paul Kiekebusch, Mrs. Martha Kiekebusch Burke:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: 164
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 33
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 201

Kinkel, Louis & Amalia Leusenhuber Kinkel, Reuben Kinkel:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 200

Kirsch, Pastor Johannes Albert Wilhelm & Martha Louise Charlotte Leddin Kirsch, Wilhelmine Gertrude Hammersmith Kirsch, Pastor Paul A. Kirsch, Alvin O.J. Kirsch, Friedrich W. Kirsch, Charlotte W. Kirsch, Julia L. Kirsch, Ruth K.K. Kirsch, Johanna Kirsch, Johannes A.W. Kirsch, Gustav Adolf Kirsch, and Margarethe A. Kirsch. :
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 281
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 71
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 94

Kirchner, Hugo & Katharina Bauer Kirchner, Henry P Kirchner, Hugo Kirchner, Paul Kirchner:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 128

Kleinschmit, Theodor & Sarah Schall Kleinschmit & Barbara Rosa Happ Kleinschmit:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 3

Klepe, William:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 3

Klinck, Christian:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 267, 284
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 54

Klocke, Charles A. & Mary Hauss Klocke, Frederick W. Klocke, Harriet C. Klocke, Le Roy Klocke, Henry C. Klocke & Caroline Muhlenkampf Klocke:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 296

Knepper, Harry J.:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 142

Kobler, Heinrich & Luise Miller Kobler, Ada Kobler:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 202

Kraetz, John G.(Johann) & Kath. Vetter Kraetz, Maria Kraetz, Anna Kraetz, John Kraetz, William Kraetz, Carl Kraetz, Georg Kraetz, Emma Kraetz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 164

Kramer, Georg & Lina Meyer Kramer, George Kramer, Bertha Kramer, Jenny Kramer, Louise Kramer, Ella Kramer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 201

Krämer (Kraemer), Rev. Heinrich A. & Margaretha Wannewetsch Krämer, Dr. Edward Kraemer, Charlotte Kraemer, Ida Kraemer:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 217

Krause, L. F. E. (Reverend)(Lebrecht Friedrich Ehregott):
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 62
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: pages 3, 7ff.
Pastoral Letter and Correspondence between J. A. A. Grabau and the Missouri Synod - pages 35 & 36, 56 & 57, 88 - 91
Emigration List from The Old Lutheran Emigration at the Middle of the 19th Century: page 242

Kreinheder, Henry J. & Ida E. Poedding Kreinheder:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 16

Kreiss, Charles & Emilie H. Meyer Kreiss, Edward J Kreiss., Jesse F. W. Kreiss, Charles F. Kreiss, Jennie M. Kreiss, Margaretha Emilie Kreiss:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 203

Krug, George B. & Jane M. Vorman Krug:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 328

Kuecherer [Kutcherson], John & Christina Bronner Kuecherer, Catharina Kuecherer Kuster, Louise Kuecherer Crosier, Sophie Kuecherer Keller, Johann Kuecherer, Louis Kuecherer, Carl Kuecherer, Friedrich Kuecherer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 32, page 39
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 82
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 51

Kuhn, Anton F.& Louise Neu Kuhn, Anton J. Kuhn, Louise Kuhn, Rosa Kuhn, Flora Kuhn, Karl Kuhn, Harold Kuhn, Walter Kuhn, Maria W. Kuhn, Roland Kuhn:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 304

Kuhn, Franz Anton & Maria Katharina Gramm Kuhn, Joseph Anton Kuhn, Frank Kuhn, Mathilde A. Fuchs Kuhn, Karl Kuhn, Caroline Riegelmann Kuhn, Mrs. Louis Haller (nee Knell), Heinrich, Wilhelm Kuhn, Emma Huber Kuhn, Josephine Kuhn Schultes, & Babette Gramm Rudolph:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 260
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: pages 4, 4a, 5

Kumpf, Henry W. & Loretta M. Gravius Kumpf, Henry Kumpf, Carl Kumpf, Harold Kumpf:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 175

Kusterer, Christian & Friedericke Westerfelder, Louis Kusterer, Christ Kusterer, John Kusterer, Regina Kusterer, Catharine Kusterer, Cora Kusterer:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 56

Lamy, Charles & Magdalena Urban Lamy, Clara B. Demeyer Lamy:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 48

Lang, Rev. Eduard:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 237

Lang, Gerhardt:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part II: page 69
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 96

Lange, Julius & Emma Siebel Lange, Hanna Lange, Irmgard Lange:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 111

Langner, Ferdinand:
Chronicle of the Trinity First Evangelical-Lutheran Church: page83

Lauser, Martin Jr. & Josephine Huber Lauser:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 96

Lautz, Friederich Christopher Martin & Amelia K. Trageser, Auguste J. Lautz, Emma M. Lautz, Elsa C. Lautz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 110 , 164 , 169, 337
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 113
Pan Am Journal

Lautz, J. Adam & Kate Bardol Lautz, Carl A. Lautz, Otto J. Lautz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: 164 , 169
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 113
Buffalo Volksfreund: January 14, 1891, January 22, 1891

Lautz, Wilhelm Sr. & Elisabeth Hiemenz Lautz, Wilhelm Lautz Jr. & Amalie Bank Lautz, J. Adam Lautz & Kate Bardol Lautz, Karl Lautz, Elizabeth Lautz, Friedrich C.M. Lautz, Anna Lautz, Gretchen Lautz, Katharine Lautz Georger, Martin Lautz & Susanna Bensler Lautz, Susanna Lautz:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: pages 146, 149, 170, 337
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part II: page 113
Pan Am Journal
Buffalo Volksfreund: January 22, 1891

Lehr, Henry, John Lehr:
The History of the Germans in Buffalo and Erie County, Part I: page 203

Leininger, Philipp, Burt Leininger, Philip Leininger, Lucy Leininger, Howard Leininger, Margareta Leininger :
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 202

Leo-Wolf, Karl Georg & Clara Gräbe Leo-Wolf, Anita Ottilie Leo-Wolf, Helene Louise Leo-Wolf, Albert Louis Leo-Wolf:
Niagara Falls and its German Community:page 16

Lieder, Henry (Heinrich)& Margaret Fisch Lieder, Marie Wegerer Lieder, Henry Lieder, John Lieder, Therese Lieder, Bertha Lieder, Mathilde Lieder:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 219

Lochmann, Fritz:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 146

Lubelski, Max & Miriam Böttscher Lubelski:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 207

Lüdecke (Luedecke) William Paul & Anna M. Kuster Lüdecke, Ellen Lüdecke, William Lüdecke:
Buffalo and its German Community, Part III: page 106


Bekenntnis der deutschen Professoren zu Adolf Hitler

The Bekenntniss der Professoren an den deutschen Hochschulen und Universitäten zu Adolf Hitler und dem nationalsozialistischen Staat (confession of professors at German universities and colleges to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist state) was persented the 11. November 1933 'to celebrate the "National Socialist revolution" at a ceremony in the Albert Hall in Leipzig. But were not all signatories professors, there are also lecturers, lecturers, lecturers up to individual students including. The title was „Mit Adolf Hitler für des deutschen Volkes Ehre, Freiheit und Recht!“ (With Adolf Hitler for the German people honor, freedom and justice!).

This subordinate project attemps to close gaps in the Geni-World-Tree

To add profiles for this project, please based on the publications at the German Wikipedia side.

If you have any question please contact the project manager Tobias Rachor.

Signatories

Karl von der Aa (Leipziger Wirtschaftspgoge), Narziß Ach (Göttinger Psychologe), Eberhard Ackerknecht (Leipziger Veterinär), Gustav Aeckerlein (Freiberger Physiker), Friedrich Ahlfeld (Marburger Geologe), Karl Albrecht (Pgoge) (Hamburg), Karl Alnor (Kieler Geschichtsdidaktiker), Hermann Altrock (Leipziger Sportpgoge), Friedrich Alverdes (Marburger Zoologe), Georg Anschütz (Hamburger Psychologe), Christian Aretz (Bonner Naturwissenschaftler, 1887�), Emil Artin (Hamburger Mathematiker, 1937 entlassen), Richard Augst (Dresdner Geschichtspgoge, 1884– )

Burkhardt (Leipziger Statistiker), Otto Burmeister (Rostocker Pgoge), Werner Burmeister (Hamburger Kunsthistoriker), Ernst Baars (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Bach (Bonner Germanist), Heinrich Barkhausen (Dresdner Physiker), Sophie Barrelet (Hamburger Fremdsprachendozentin), Julius Bartels (Eberswalder Geophysiker), Karl Hugo Friedrich Bauer (Leipziger Chemiker), Lorenz Bauer (Dillinger Theologe), Friedrich Baumann (Marburger Chirurg), Karl Baumann (Bonner Physikdidaktiker), Max Baur (Marburger Pharmazeut), Werner Bavendamm (Dresdner Botaniker), Fritz Beckert (Maler) (Dresden), Hermann Beenken (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Paul Johannes Beger (Hannoveraner Mineraloge), Johannes Behm (Göttinger Theologe), Carl Julius Peter Behr (Hamburger Augenmediziner), Hans Hermann Bennhold (Hamburger Internist), Ewald Berge (Leipziger Veterinär), Walther Bergt (Dresdner Mineraloge), Erhard Berndt (Leipziger Agrarökonom, SA-Mitglied), Georg Berndt (Dresdner Physiker), Luise Berthold (Marburger Germanistin), Helmut Berve (Leipziger Althistoriker), Theodor Beste (Dresdner Betriebswirt), Erich Bethe (Leipziger Altphilologe), Kurt Beyer (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Robert Bierich (Hamburger Mediziner), Wilhelm Biltz (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Ludwig Binder (Dresdner Physiker), Lothar Birckenbach (Clausthaler Chemiker), Herbert Birtner (Marburger Musikwissenschaftler), Fritz Blättner (Hamburger Pgoge), Max Le Blanc (Leipziger Chemiker), Edwin Blanck (Göttinger Bodenkundler), Wilhelm Blaschke (österreichischer Mathematiker, Hamburg), Hermann Block (Hamburger Pgoge), Otto Blum (Bauingenieur TH Hannover), Werner Blume (Göttinger Anatom und NS-Dozentenführer), Paul Bཬkmann (Hamburger Germanist), Ernst Boehm (Leipziger Pgoge), Gerrit Bol (niederländischer Mathematiker, Hamburg), Otto Friedrich Bollnow (Göttinger Philosoph), Conrad Borchling (Hamburger Germanist), Bruno Borowski (Leipziger Anglist), Wilhelm Böttger (Leipziger Chemiker), Kurt Brand (Marburger Pharmazeut), Erich Brandenburg[4] (Leipziger Historiker), Wilhelm Braeucker (Hamburger Chirurg), Gustav Brandes (Dresdner Zoologe), Ludolph Brauer (Hamburger Luftfahrtmediziner), Friedrich Braun (Leipziger Germanist), Hermann Braune (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Erich Bräunlich (Leipziger Orientalist), Gustav Bredemann (Hamburger Agrarwissenschaftler), Hellmut Bredereck (Leipziger Chemiker), Franz Brenthel (Freiberger Hüttenkundler), Roland Brinkmann (Hamburger Geograf, später NS-Gegner), Georg Brion (1873�, Freiberg), Joachim Brock (Marburger Kinderarzt), Johannes Brodersen (Hamburger Anatom), Ernst Broermann (Bonner Psychologe und Sportpgoge), Paul Brohmer (Kieler Biologiedidaktiker), Leo Bruhns (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Otto Brunck (Freiberger Chemiker), Curt Brunst (Dresden), Eberhard Buchwald (Danziger Physiker), Günther Budelmann (Hamburger Internist), Alfred Burgardsmeier (Bonner Kirchenhistoriker), Felix

Hans Freiherr von Campenhausen (Göttinger Theologe), Ernst Carlsohn (Leipziger Chemiker), Wilhelm Cauer (Göttinger Mathematiker), Peter Claussen (Marburger Botaniker), Paul Cohrs (Leipziger Veterinär), Hermann Cranz (Mechaniker an der TU Hannover), Nikolaus Creutzburg (Geograf an der TH Danzig), Rudolf Criegee (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Dabelow (Marburger Mediziner), Hans Dachs (Historiker) (Regensburg), Petrus Dausch (Dillinger kath. Theologe), Rudolf Degkwitz (senior) (Hamburger Mediziner), Friedrich Delekat (Dresdner Theologe und Religionspgoge), Alfred Dengler (Eberswalder Forstwirt), Georg Dettmar (Hannoveraner E-Techniker), Gustaf Deuchler (Hamburger Pgoge), Paul Deutsch (Ökonom) (Leipzig), Max Deutschbein (Marburger Anglist), Hans Diller (Hamburger Altphilologe), Rudolf Dittler (Marburger Augenmediziner), Ottmar Dittrich (Leipziger Sprachwissenschaftler), Walter Döpp (Marburger Botaniker), Hans Dörries (Göttinger Geograf, später in Münster), Carl Dolezalek (Bauingenieur an der TH Hannover), Heinz Dotterweich (Dresdner Zoologe), Friedrich Drenckhahn (Rostocker Pgoge), Johannes von den Driesch (Bonner Pgoge), Karlfried Graf Dürckheim (Kieler Psychologe), Herbert W. Duda (Leipziger Orientalist), Gerhard Duters

August Eber (Leipziger Veterinär), Margarete Eberhardt (Hamburger Pgogin), Adolf Eberle (Dillinger Moraltheologe), Georg von Ebert (Nürnberg), Friedrich August Ebrard (Hamburger Rechtshistoriker, Schweizer), Heinrich Eddelbüttel (Rostocker Biologe und Pgoge), Richard Egenter (Passauer kath. Theologe), Rudolf Ehrenberg (Göttinger Biologe, später selbst Opfer des NS), Walter Ehrenstein (Danziger Psychologe), Hermann August Eidmann (Hannoversch Mündener Entomologe), Karl Eimer (Marburger Mediziner), Otto Eiselin (Danziger Bauingenieur), Ludwig Eisenhofer (Eichstätter Liturgiewiss.), Curt Eisfeld (Hamburger Betriebswirt), Ernst Elster (Marburger Germanist), Otto Emicke (Freiberger Mineraloge), Josef Engert (Regensburger Dogmatiker), Willi Enke (Marburger Psychiater), Wilhelm Ernst (Geologe) (Hamburg), Ben Esser (Bonner Musikerzieher, 1875�), Erich Everth (Leipziger Publizist und NS-Gegner)

Theodor Fahr (Hamburger Pathologe), Rudolf Fahrner (Marburger Germanist, später Kontakt zum Widerstand), Ferdinand Fehling (L󼯬k-Hamburger Historiker), Karl Feist (Göttinger Pharmazeut), Friedrich Feld (Wirtschaftspgoge) (Berlin), Rainer Fetscher (Dresdner Erbhygieniker), Fritz Fichtner (Dresdner Kunsthistoriker), Paul Ficker (Dresdner Pgoge), Otto Fiederling (Hannoveraner Architekt), Carl August Fischer (Volkswirt) (Hamburg), Eugen Fischer (Mediziner) (Mediziner), Friedrich Fischer (Architekt) (TH Hannover), Otto Flachsbart (Maschinenbauer TU Hannover), Ulrich Fleck (Göttinger Neurologe), Hans Fliege (Marburger Zahnmediziner), Wilhelm Flitner (Hamburger Pgoge), Karl Florenz (Hamburger Japanologe), Gustav Flügel (Ingenieur) (Danzig), Johann Ulrich Folkers (Rostocker Historiker und Volkskundler), Alfred Forke (Hamburger Sinologe), Günther Franz (Marburger Historiker), Otto Franzius (Bauingenieur und Rektor TH Hannover), Hans Freese (Dresdner Architekt), Julius Fressel (Hamburger Gynäkologe), Joseph Freundorfer (Passauer kath. Theologe, später Bischof von Augsburg), Hans Freyer (Leipziger Soziologe), Walter Freytag (Hamburger Missionsdirektor), Ernst Friedrich (Leipziger Geograf), Johannes Friedrich (Altorientalist) (später Leipziger Rektor), Theodor Frings (Leipziger Germanist), Otto Emil Fritzsche (Freiberger Ingenieur), Gotthold Frotscher (Danziger Musikwissenschaftler), Hugo Fuchs (Göttinger Anatom), Vinzenz Fuchs (Dillinger Theologe), Erwin Fues (Hannoveraner Physiker)

Hans-Georg Gadamer (Marburger Philosoph), Kurt Gaede (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Paul Gast (Hannoveraner Geodät), Julius Gebhard (Hamburger Pgoge), Arnold Gehlen (Leipziger Philosoph, Soziologe), Willy Gehler (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Hans Gehrig (Dresdner Volkswirt), Oscar Gehrig (Rostocker Kunsthistoriker), Karl August Geiger (Dillinger Kirchenrechtler), Otto Geißler (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Wilhelm Geißler (Ingenieur) (Dresdner Tiefbauingenieur), Felix Genzmer (Rechtswissenschaftler) (Marburg), Herbert Gerdessen (1892– , Rostocker Geograf), Ernst Gehrhardt (Forstwissenschaftler in Hannoversch Münden), Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg (Forstwissenschaftler in Hannoversch Münden), Gustav Giemsa (Hamburger Chemiker), Wilhelm Giese (Romanist) (Hamburg), Josef Giesen (Bonner Kunsthistoriker, später Vechta), Otto Glauning (Leiter der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig), Engelhardt Glimm (Danziger Agrochemiker), Hermann Gmelin (Danziger Romanist, später Kiel), Otto Goebel (Hannoveraner Volkswirt), Curt Gཬke (1884-, Dresdner Orthop), August Götte (1901�, Clausthaler Mineraloge), Arthur Golf (Leipziger Rektor), Fritz Goos (Hamburger Physiker), Hugo Grau (Leipziger Veterinär), Georg Grimpe (Leipziger Zoologe), Waldemar Grix (Danziger E-Techniker), Franz Groebbels (Hamburger Mediziner), Walter Gro෾ (Leipziger Nationalökonom), H. Großmann (Göttinger Hygieniker), Hermann Großmann (Ökonom) (Leipziger Handelshochschule), Rudolf Grossmann (Romanist) (Hamburg), Eduard Grüneisen (Marburger Physiker), Georg Wilhelm Grüter (Marburger Augenmediziner), Herbert Grundmann (Leipziger Historiker), Georg Grunwald (Regensburger Religionspgoge), Adolf Güntherschulze (Dresdner Physiker)

Rudolf Habermann (1884�, Hamburger Dermatologe), Fedor Haenisch (Hamburger Radiologe), Reinhard Haferkorn (Danziger Anglist), Konstantin von Haffner (Hamburger Zoologe), Jörgen Hansen (Kieler Geograf), Karl Hansen (Pgoge) (Hamburger Sprachheilpgoge), Richard Hanssen (Hamburger Augenarzt), Richard Harder (Biologe) (Göttingen), Helmut Hasse (Marburger Mathematiker), Kurt Hassert (Dresdner Geograf), Edwin Hauberrisser (Göttinger Zahnarzt), Herbert Haupt (Leipziger Veterinär), Johann Nepomuk Hebensperger (Dillinger Historiker), Erich Hecke (Hamburger Mathematiker), Otto Heckmann (Göttinger Astronom), Enno Heidebroek (Dresdner Maschinenbauer und Rektor 1946), Martin Heidegger (Philosoph), Robert Heidenreich (Leipziger Archäologe), Georg Heidingsfelder (Eichstätter Theologe), Alfred Heiduschka (Dresdner Lebensmittelchemiker), Willi Heike (1880�, Freiberger Metallurg), Franz Hein (Chemiker) (Leipzig), Wilhelm Heinitz (Hamburger Musikwissenschaftler), Rudolf Heinz (Geologe) (Hamburg), Heinrich Heiser (Dresdner Wasserbauer), Emil Heitz (Botaniker) (Hamburg), Sven Helander (Schwede und Nürnberger Ökonom), Gustav Heller (Chemiker) (Leipziger Chemiker), Karl Helm (Marburger Germanist und Dekan), Eberhard Hempel (Dresdner Kunsthistoriker), Johannes Hempel (Göttinger Theologe), Friedrich Hempelmann (Leipziger Zoologe), Ernst Hentschel (Hamburger Zoologe), Eduard Hermann (Göttinger Linguist), Ernst Hertel (Leipziger Augenmediziner), Johannes Hertel (Leipziger Indologe), Julius Herweg (Hannoveraner Physiker), Alois Herzog (Dresdner Textiltechnologe), Franz Heske (Dresdner Forstwirt), Herbert Hesmer (Eberswalder Forstwirt), Paul Hesse (Göttinger Agrarwissenschaftler), Theodor Hetzer (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Max Heuwieser (Passauer Kirchenhistoriker), Johannes Erich Heyde (Rostocker Philosoph), Theodor Heynemann (Hamburger Gynäkologe), Emil Hilarius (Dresdner Pgoge), Heinrich Hildebrand (Rechtsmediziner) (Marburg), Leo von Hibler (Anglist in Leipzig und Dresden, später Wien), Emanuel Hirsch (Göttinger Theologe), Alexander Hr (Dresdner Bildhauer), Emil Högg (Dresdner Architekt), Otto Hölder (Leipziger Mathematiker), Cornelius Hölk (Marburger Schulleiter und Didaktiker), Robert Höltje (Danziger Chemiker), Alexander Hoffmann (Leipziger Betriebswirt), Hans Hoffmann (Hamburg), Walter Hoffmann (Wirtschaftswissenschaftler) (Freiberg), Albert von Hofmann (Marburger Historiker), Erich Hofmann (Göttinger Linguist), Johannes Hofmann (Bibliothekar) (Leiter der Stadtbibliothek Leipzig), Paul Hofmann (Hygieniker) (Dresden), Gustav Hopf (Hamburger Dermatologe), Carl Horst (Marburger Kunsthistoriker), Joseph Anton Huber (Dillingen) Alfred H࿋ner (Göttinger Germanist, später Leipzig), Valerius Hüttig (Dresdner Ingenieur für L࿏tung), Reinhard Hugershoff (Dresdner Ge཭ät), Karl Humburg (Hannoveraner E-Techniker)

Edgar Irmscher (Hamburger Botaniker), Otto Israel-Oesterhelt (Dresdner Geodät),Bernhard Iversen (Kieler Musikpgoge), Arnold Jacobi (Dresdner Zoologe), Eduard Jacobshagen (Marburger Anatom), Peter Jaeck (Marburger Sportwissenschaftler), Fritz Jäger (Hamburger Sinologe), Erich Jaensch (Marburger Psychologe), Walther Jaensch (Berliner Sportmediziner), Eduard Jahn (Hannoversch Münder Botaniker), Maximilian Jahrmärker (Marburger Psychiater, Direktor der Landesheilanstalt), Eduard von Jan (Leipziger Romanist), Christian Janentzky (Dresdner Germanist), Heinz Janert (Leipziger Bodenkundler), Harro de Wet Jensen (Marburger Anglist, in Heidelberg 1936�), Christian Jensen (Meteorologe) (Hamburger Physiker), Peter Jensen (Marburger Hethitologe),[5] Gerhard de Jonge (Danziger Ingenieur), Wilhelm Hermann Jost (Dresdner Architekt), Erich Jung (Marburger Rechtsphilosoph), Heinrich Junker (Leipziger Sprachwissenschaftler), Hubert Junker (Passauer kath. Theologe)

Felix Kämpf (Leipziger Physiker, 1877- ), Alfred Kaestner (Dresdner Zoologe), Alfred Kalähne (Danziger Physiker), Paul Kanold (Hannoveraner Architekt), Helmuth Kanter (Hamburger Geograf), Oskar Fritz Karg (Leipziger Germanist, 1934 wegen Diebstahl entlassen), August Karolus (Leipziger Physiker), Walter Kayser (Berliner Sportwissenschaftler), Eduard Keeser (Hamburger Pharmakologe, Rektor 1941�), Karl Kegel (Freiberger Bergbauer), Erwin Kehrer (1874�, Marburger Gynäkologe), Egon Keining (Hamburger Dermatologe), Gustav Keppeler (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Otto Kestner (Hamburger Mediziner und Physiologe), Karl Kiefer (Eichstätter Theologe), Hans Kienle (Göttinger Astronom), Sebastian Killermann (PTH Regensburg, Theologe und Naturwissenschaftler), Heinz Kindermann (Theaterforscher) (Danzig), Karl Kindler (Hamburger Pharmakologe), Paul Kirn (Leipziger Historiker), Walter Rudolf Kirschbaum (Hamburger Neurologe), Otto Kirschmer (Dresdner Physiker), Julius Kister (Hamburger Bakteriologe, 1870�), Rudolf Klapp (Marburger Chirurg), Heinrich Klebahn (Hamburger Mykologe), Johannes Klein (Germanist) (Marburg), Ludwig Klein (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer und Rektor der TH), Otto Klemm (Leipziger Psychologe), Wilhelm Klemm (Chemiker) (Danzig), Felix Klewitz (Marburger Mediziner), Martin Klimmer (Leipziger Veterinär), Erich Klinge (Sportwissenschaftler) (Berlin-Charlottenburg), August Klingenheben (Hamburger Afrikanist), Friedrich Klingner (Leipziger Altphilologe), Otto Kloeppel (Danziger Architekt), August Klughardt (Dresdner Optiker), Friedrich Knauer (Physikochemiker) (Hamburg), Alfred Kneschke (Dresdner Mathematiker), Hans Otto Kneser (Marburger Physiker), Werner Kniehahn (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (Hamburger Internist), Wilhelm Knoll (Mediziner) (Hamburger Sportmediziner), Emil Koch (Hamburger Geograph), Peter Paul Koch (Hamburger Physiker), Carl Walter Kockel (Leipziger Geologe), Paul Koebe (Leipziger Mathematiker und Dekan), Franz Kögler (Freiberger Bauingenieur), Walter König (Chemiker) (Dresden), Max Koernicke (Bonner Agrarwiss.), Alfred Körte (Leipziger Altphilologe), Rudolf Kötzschke (Leipziger Wirtschaftshistoriker), Friedrich Kolbeck (Freiberger Mineraloge), Willy Kolz (Rostocker Pgoge), Harald Koschmieder (Danziger Meteorologe), Walter Kossel (Danziger Physiker), Franz Kossmat (Leipziger Geologe), Gerhard Kowalewski (Dresdner Mathematiker), Maximilian Krafft (Marburger Mathematiker), Werner Krauss (Romanist) (Marburg, später im Widerstand), Erich Krenkel (Leipziger Geologe), Ernst Kretschmer (Marburger Psychiater), Julius Krieg (Regensburger Kirchenrechtler), Martin Kröger (Leipziger Chemiker), Felix Krueger (Leipziger Psychologe), Fritz Krüger (Romanist) (Hamburg), Gerhard Krüger (Philosoph) (Marburg), Friedrich K࿌h (Marburger Archivar), Karl Küpfmüller (Danziger Elektrotechniker), Hermann Kümmell (Hamburger Chirurg), Josef Kürzinger (Eichstätter Theologe), Hans Kuhn (Marburger Germanist), Friedrich Kutscher (Physiologe) (Marburg), Karl Kutzbach (Dresdner Maschinenbauer)

Max Otto Lagally (Dresdner Mathematiker), Albrecht Langel󼷞ke (Hamburger Psychiater), Otto Lauffer (Hamburger Volkskundler), Fritz Laves (Göttinger Mineraloge), Joseph Lechner (Eichstätter Kirchenrechtler), Kurt Leese (Hamburger Philosoph), Bruno Lehmann (Dresden), Max Rudolf Lehmann (Nürnberger Ökonom), Rudolf Lehmann (Leipziger Ethnologe), Walther Lehmann (Hamburger Hygieniker), Erich Lehmensick (Kieler Pgoge), Hans Lemmel (Eberswalde), Wilhelm Lenz (Hamburger Physiker), Philipp Lersch (Leipziger Psychologe), E. H. Lieber, Otto Lienau (Danziger Schiffbauer), Paul Lindemann (Journalist) (Hamburg), Joseph Lippl (Regensburger Alttestamentler), Hans Lipps (Marburger Philosoph), Friedrich Lipsius (Philosoph), Theodor Litt (Philosoph) [Unterschrift zweifelhaft],[6] Helmut Loebell (Marburger Mediziner), Ernst Lommatzsch (Marburger Altphilologe), Hans Lorenz (Maschinenbauingenieur) (Danzig), Alexander Lorey (Hamburger Radiologe), Alfred Lottermoser (Dresdner Chemiker), Heinrich Lottig (Hamburger Luftfahrtmediziner), Rudolf Lütgens (Hamburger Wirtschaftsgeograf), Robert Luther (Chemiker) (Dresden)

Gerhard Mackenroth (Marburger Jurist), Johannes Madel (Freiberger Geologe), Dietrich Mahnke (Marburger Philosoph), Erich Manegold (Göttinger Chemiker), Johann Wilhelm Mannhardt (Volkswissenschaftler), Otto Mattes (Marburger Zoologe und Führer der Dozentenschaft), Eduard Maurer (Freiberger Metallurg), Friedrich Mauz (Marburger Psychiater, später T4-Gutachter der Aktion T4), Kurt May (Göttinger Germanist), Martin Mayer (Hamburger Tropenmediziner, 1934 entlassen), Franz Xaver Mayr (Naturwissenschaftler) (Eichstätt), Hans Mayer-Wegelin (Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Harry Maync (Marburger Germanist), Rudolf Meerwarth (Leipziger Statistiker), Hans Meerwein (Marburger Chemiker), Carl Meinhof (Hamburger Afrikanist), Edwin Meister (Dresdner Textiltechnologe), Konrad Mellerowicz (Berliner Ökonom), Gerhard Menz (Leipziger Ökonom), Heinrich Menzel (Dresdner Chemiker), Eugen von Mercklin (Hamburger Archäologe), Walther Merk (Marburger Jurist und Rektor), Adolf Meyer (Hamburger Biologe), Hans Meyer (Hamburg), Heinrich Meyer-Benfey (Hamburger Germanist), Adolf Meyn (Leipziger Veterinär), Fritz Micheel (Göttinger Chemiker), Eugen Michel (Hannoveraner Architekt), Heinrich von Minnigerode (Marburger Jurist), Hermann Mirbt (Göttinger Jurist), Waldemar Mitscherlich (Göttinger Staatswissenschaftler), Max Mitterer (Passauer Kirchenrechtler), Walther Mitzka (Marburger Sprachwissenschaftler), Willy Mཫius (Leipziger Physiker), Hans Möller (Physiker) (Hamburg), Eugen Mogk (Leipziger Nordist), Bruno Moll (Leipziger Ökonom)

Lorenz Morsbach (Göttinger Anglist), Adolf Muesmann (Dresdner Architekt), Peter Mühlens (Hamburger Hygienemediziner), Conrad Müller (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Erich Müller (Chemiker, Rektor der TU Dresden), Friedrich Müller (Chemiker) (Dresden), Kurt Müller (Archäologe) (Göttingen), Wilhelm Müller-Lenhartz (Leipziger Agrarwissenschaftler), Paul Mulzer (Hamburger Dermatologe), Karl Mylius (Augenarzt) (Hamburg)

Alwin Nachtweh (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Adolf Nägel (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Emil Naetsch (Dresdner Mathematiker), Ernst Georg Nauck (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Hans Naujoks (Marburger Gynäkologe), Friedrich Neesen (1888�, Danziger Bahningenieur), Walter Nehm (Clausthaler Markscheider), Harald Nehrkorn (Hamburger Mathematiker, sp. Schulleiter), Friedrich Wilhelm Neuffer (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Willy Neuling (Hamburger Volkswirt), Ernst Richard Neumann (Marburger Mathematiker), Friedrich Neumann (Germanist) (Göttingen), Johannes Neumann (Hamburger Veterinär), Kurt Neumann (Motorenbauer) (Hannover), Rudolf Otto Neumann (Hamburger Bakteriologe), Karl Nieberle (Leipziger Veterinär), Arthur Philipp Nikisch (Dresdner Jurist), Hermann Noack (Philosoph) (Hamburg), Johannes Nobel (Marburger Indologe), Bernhard Nocht (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Max Nordhausen (Marburger Botaniker)

Karl Justus Obenauer (Leipziger Germanist, später in Bonn Lehrer von Hans Rößner), Erich Obst (Hannoveraner Geograph), Franz Oehlecker (Hamburger Hämatologe), Julius Oelkers (Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Fritz Oesterlen (Hannoveraner Ingenieur), Wolfgang Ostwald (Leipziger Chemiker), Max Pagenstecher (Hamburger Jurist), Georg Pallaske (Leipziger Veterinär), Giulio Panconcelli-Calzia (Hamburger Phonetiker), Erwin Papperitz (Freiberger Mathematiker), Erich Parnitzke (Kieler Kunstpgoge), Enrique Paschen (Hamburger Tropenarzt), Siegfried Passarge (Hamburger Geograf und Völkerkundler), Walther Pauer (Dresdner Energiewiss.), Gustav Pauli (Hamburger Kunsthistoriker), Friedrich Peemöller (Hamburger Mediziner), Balduin Penndorf (Leipziger Ökonom), Hans Pesta (Hamburger Pgoge), Rudolf Peter (Hamburger Pgoge), Ulrich Peters (Pgoge) (Kieler Rektor der LBA), Richard Petersen (Danziger Ingenieur), Hans Petersson (Hamburger Mathematiker), Robert Petsch (Hamburger Germanist), Heinrich Pette (Hamburger Neurologe), Wilhelm Pfannenstiel (Marburger Rassenhygieniker), Georg Pfeilschifter (Münchner Kirchenhistoriker), Kurt Pietzsch (Leipziger Geologe), Wilhelm Pinder (Münchner Kunstgeschichtler), Hans Plischke (Göttinger Ethnologe), Ernst Pohlhausen (Danziger Mathematiker), Hermann Potthoff (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Georg Prange (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Julius Precht (Hannoveraner Physiker), Heinrich Prell (Dresdner Forstwirt), Anton von Premerstein (Marburger Althistoriker), Edgar Prཫster (Leipziger Orientalist), Arthur Pröll (Hannoveraner Flugtechniker), Arthur Prﳾr (Leipziger Musikwissenschaftler)

Paul Rabe (Chemiker) (Hamburg), Michael Rackl (Eichstätter Theologe), Georg Raederscheidt (Direktor der Pgogischen Akademie Bonn), Berthold Rassow (Leipziger Chemiker), Fritz Rauda (Dresdner Architekt), Hans Rebel (Göttinger Zahnmediziner), Otto Reche (rassistischer Leipziger Anthropologe), Joachim von Reckow (Marburger Zahnmediziner), Konstantin Reichardt (Leipziger Nordist, 1937 emigriert), Eduard Reichenow (Hamburger Biologe), Ferdinand Reiff (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Rein (Hamburger Historiker), Hermann Rein (Göttinger Mediziner und Rektor), Richard Reinhardt (Tierarzt) (Leipziger Veterinär), Richard Reißig (Leipziger Deutschpgoge), Viktor Rembold (Danziger Schiffsbauer), Heinrich Remy (Hamburger Chemiker), Theodor Remy (Bonner Forstwirt), Oscar Reuther (Dresdner Archäologe), Johannes Richter (Tierarzt) (Leipzig), Paul Riebesell (Hamburger Versicherungsmathematiker), Wilhelm Rieder (Hamburger Chirurg), August Rippel (Göttinger Mikrobiologe), Curt Risch (Hannoveraner Eisenbahningenieur), Eberhard Rimann (Dresdner Geologe), Curt Risch (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Joachim Ritter (Hamburger Philosoph), Erich Rix (Marburger Pathologe), Ernst Roedelius (Hamburger Chirurg), Karl Rr (Ingenieur) (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Fritz Rössel (Hamburger Heilpgoge), Georg Rohde (Marburger Altphilologe), Hermann Rose (Mineraloge) (Hamburg), Heinrich Roth (Elektrotechniker) (Danzig, 1880�), Konrad Rubner (Dresdner Forstwirt), Hans Rudolphi (Leipziger Geograf), Georg Rüth (Dresdner Hochbauer), Alfred Ruete (Marburger Hautarzt), Wilhelm Ruhland (Leipziger Botaniker), Max Rumpf (Nürnberger Soziologe), Hermann Gustav Runge (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner, 1887�)

Ewald Sachsenberg (Dresdner Betriebswissenschaftler), Horst von Sanden (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Curt Sandig (Leipziger Betriebswirt), Heinrich Sauer (Philosoph) (Hamburg), Ferdinand Sauerbruch (Berliner Chirurg), Erich Schr (Nürnberger Betriebswirt), Karl Theodor Schr (Regensburger Neutestamentler), Wilhelm Schäperclaus (Eberswalder Zoologe), Carl Schall (Leipziger Chemiker), Georg Schaltenbrand (Hamburger Neurologe, später Leiter von Versuchen an Menschen), Johannes Scheffler (Ökonom) (Dresden), Johannes Scheiber (Leipziger Chemiker), Walter Scheidt (Hamburger Rassenbiologe), Georg Scheller (Betriebswirtschaftler) (Nürnberg), Martin Schenck (Leipziger Chemiker), Harald Schering (Hannoveraner E-Techniker), Siegmund Schermer (Göttinger Veterinär und Rektor 1932/33), Karl-Hermann Scheumann (Leipziger Mineraloge), Carl Arthur Scheunert (Leipziger Veterinär), Eberhard Freiherr von Scheurl (Nürnberger Jurist), Martin Schieblich (Leipziger Veterinär), Ernst Schiebold (Leipziger Mineraloge), Carl Schiffner (Freiberger Hüttenkundler), Ludwig Schiller (Leipziger Physiker), Bernhard Schilling (Dresdner Mathematiker), Friedrich Schilling (Mathematiker) (TH Danzig), Werner Schingnitz (Leipziger Philosoph), Arthur Schleede (Leipziger Chemiker), Carl Schlieper (Marburger Zoologe), Josef Schmid (Theologe) (Dillingen), Ernst Schmidt (Thermodynamiker) (TH Danzig), Harry Schmidt (Leipziger Chemiker), Johannes Schmidt (Tierarzt) (Leipzig), Jonas Schmidt (Zoologe) (Göttinger Veterinär), Werner Schmidt (Forstwissenschaftler) (Eberswalde), Wolfgang Schmid(t) (Marburger Anglist), G. Schmitthenner, Eugen Schmitz (Dresdner Musikwissenschaftler), Leonhard Schmöller (Passauer Theologe), Friedrich Schneider (Pgoge) (Bonn), Hermann Schneider (Philosoph) (Leipzig),[7] Paul Schneider (Hamburg), Wilhelm Schneider-Windmüller (Bonn), Franz Schob (Dresdner Psychopathologe), Roland Scholl (Schweizer Chemiker in Dresden), Richard Scholz (Leipziger Mittelalterhistoriker), Richard Schorr (Hamburger Astronom), Gerhard Schott (Ozeanograf)[8] (Hamburg), Hugo Schottmüller (Hamburger Bakteriologe), Friedrich Schreiber (Dresden), Alfred Schrr (Dillinger Theologe), Bruno Schrr (Archäologe) (Dresden), Edward Schrr (Göttinger Germanist), Joseph Schr󶿾r (Eichstätter Theologe), Paul Schubring (Hannoveraner Kunsthistoriker), Walther Schubring (Hamburger Indologe), Levin Ludwig Sch࿌king (Leipziger Anglist und NS-Gegner), Alfred Schüz (Hamburger Wehrwissenschaftler und Historiker), Hans Schulten (Hamburger Internist), Bruno Schultz (Dresdner Wirtschaftswissenschaftler), Helmut Schultz (Musikwissenschaftler) (Leipzig), Ernst Schultze (Soziologe) (Leipzig), Walter Schultze (Hamburger Pgoge), Leonhard Schultze-Jena (Marburger Zoologe), Otto Theodor Schulz (Leipziger Althistoriker), Alfred Schulze (Marburger Romanist), Franz Arthur Schulze (Marburger Physiker), Otto Schulze (Wasserbauer) (Danzig), Gerhard Schulze-Pillot (Danziger Maschinenbauer), Paul Schulz-Kiesow (Hamburger Verkehrswissenschaftler), Rudolf Schulz-Schaeffer (1885�, Marburger Jurist), Friedrich Schumacher (Geologe und Rektor in Freiberg), Otto Schumm (Hamburger Chemiker), Kurt Schwabe (Dresdner Chemiker), Carl Leopold Schwarz (Hamburger Hygieniker), Paul Schwarz (Orientalist) (Leipzig), Bernhard Schweitzer (Leipziger Archäologe), Alfred Schwenkenbecher (Marburger Internist und Rektor), Friedrich Schwerd (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Wilhelm Schwinning (Dresdner Metallurg)

Wilhelm Seedorf (Göttinger Agrarökonom und späterer NS-Gegner), Walter Seiz (Danziger E-Techniker), Emil Sieg (Göttinger Indogermanist), Arthur Simon (Dresdner Chemiker), Aladar Skita (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Alexander Snyckers (belgischer Wirtschaftslinguist in Leipzig), Emil Sörensen (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Max Graf zu Solms (Marburger Soziologe und NS-Gegner), Julius Sommer (Danziger Mathematiker), Curt Sonnenschein (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Adolf Spamer (Dresdner Germanist), Curt Sprehn (Leipziger Veterinär), Paul Ssymank (Göttinger Historiker), Franz Stadtmüller (Göttinger Anatom), Martin Stammer (Rostocker Theologe), Otto Hermann Steche (Leipziger Zoologe), Kurt Steinbart (Marburger Kunsthistoriker), Martha Steinert (Kieler Deutschpgogin), Wilhelm Steinkopf (Dresdner Chemiker, Giftgasforscher), Edmund E. Stengel (Marburger Historiker), Hermann Stephani (Marburger Musikwissenschaftler), Johannes Evangelist Stigler (Eichstätter Mathematiker), Hans Stobbe (Leipziger Chemiker), Karl Stཬkl (Regensburger Physiker), Rose Stoppel (Hamburger Botanikerin), Werner Straub (Dresdener Psychologe), Reinhard Strecker (Eberswalde, später im Widerstand), Wilhelm Strecker (Marburger Chemiker), Rudolf Streller (Leipziger Nationalökonom), Hermann Stremme (Danziger Bodenforscher, später Ost-Berlin), Bernhard Struck (Dresdner Völkerkundler), Fritz St࿌krath (Hamburger Pgoge), Otto Stutzer (Freiberger Geologe), Paul Sudeck (Hamburger Chirurg), Heinrich S࿌hting (Hannoversch Münder Bodenkundler), Karl Süpfle (Dresdner Hygieniker), Heinrich Sulze (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Karl Friedrich Suter (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker, ab 1946 Rostock)

Ernst Tams (Hamburger Geophysiker), Jehangir Tavadia (Hamburger Indologe), Horst Teichmann (Dresdner Physiker), Fritz Terhalle (Hamburger Finanzwissenschaftler), Adolf Teuscher (Dresdner Pgoge), Karl Thalheim (Leipziger Nationalökonom, nach 1945 Westberlin), Alfred Thiel (Marburger Chemiker), Hermann Thiersch (Göttinger Archäologe), Georg Thilenius (Hamburger Völkerkundler), Arthur Thost (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner), William Threlfall (britischer Mathematiker in Dresden), Friedrich Tobler (Dresdner Botaniker), Maximilian Toepler (Dresdner Physiker), Rudolf Tomaschek (Marburger Anhänger der Deutschen Physik), Reinhold Trautmann (Leipziger Slawist), Erich Trefftz (Dresdner Mathematiker), Emil Treptow (Freiberger Bergbauer), Karl Tripp (Marburger Biologe), Walter Ehrenreich Tröger (Dresdner Mineraloge), Carl von Tyszka (Hamburger Finanzwissenschaftler), Hans Ueberschaar (Leipziger Japanologe), Jakob Johann von Uexküll (Hamburger Umweltforscher), Walther Uffenorde (Marburger HNO-Mediziner), Wolfgang Heinz Uhlitzsch (Freiberg), Egon Ullrich (Marburger Mathematiker), Hermann Ullrich (Leipziger Botaniker), Adalbert von Unruh (Göttinger Jurist)

Siegfried Valentiner (Clausthaler Physiker und Rektor), Max Versé (Marburger Mediziner und Rektor), Wilhelm Vershofen (Ökonom und Lehrer Ludwig Erhards), Wilhelm Ernst Vetter (1883- Dresdner Religionspgoge), Ernst Vetterlein (Hannoveraner Architekt), Hermann Vogel (Agrarwissenschaftler) (Göttingen), Paul Vogel (1877- Leipziger Pgoge), Richard Vogel (1881�, Dresdner Pgoge/Zoologe), Rudolf Vogel (Materialforscher) (Göttingen), Sebastian Vogl (Passauer Wissenschaftshistoriker), Eckhardt Vogt (Marburger Physiker), Walter Voigtländer (Dresdner Pgoge), Hans Volkelt (Leipziger Psychologe und Pgoge), Wilhelm Volz (Leipziger Geograf), Friedrich Voß (Zoologe) (Göttingen), Otto Voss (Hamburger Neurochirurg)

Friedrich Wachtsmuth (Marburger Kunsthistoriker, 1945 entlassen), Kurt Wagner (Germanist) (Marburg), Friedrich August Wahl (Marburger Gynäkologe), Gustav Wahl (Hamburger Bibliotheksdirektor), Bernhard Walde (Dillinger Alttestamentler), Michael Waldmann (Regensburger Moraltheologe), Andreas Walther (Soziologe) (Hamburg), Paul Erich Wandhoff (Freiberger Geodät), Otto Wawrziniok (Dresdner Metallurg), Anton Weber (Dillingen), Constantin Weber (Dresdner Mechaniker), Ewald Weber (Leipziger Veterinär), Hermann Weber (Zoologe) (TH Danzig), Werner Weber (Mathematiker) (Göttingen), Edgar Wedekind (Hannoversch Münder Chemiker), Rudolf Wedekind (Paläontologe) (Marburg), Emil Wehrle (Marburger Jurist), Ludwig Weickmann (Leipziger Geophysiker), Walther Weigelt (Freiberger Bergrechtler), Walter Weigmann (Leipziger Ökonom), Karl Friedrich Weimann (Leipziger Historiker), Paul Weinrowsky (Kieler Physikdidaktiker), Franz Heinrich Wei󟮬h (Leipziger Orientalist), Friedrich Weller (Leipziger Indologe), Hermann Wendorf (Leipziger Historiker), Ferdinand von Werden (Eichstätter Kunsthistoriker), Paul Werkmeister (Dresdner Vermessungsingenieur), Otto Westphal (Historiker) (Hamburg), Wilhelm Weygandt (Hamburger Psychiater), Georg Wiarda (Dresdner Mathematiker), Paul Wichmann (Hamburger Dermatologe), Walter Wickop (Hannoveraner Architekt), Eilhard Wiedemann (Eberswalde), Kurt Wiedenfeld (Leipziger Nationalökonom), Gebhardt Wiedmann (Dresdner Physiker), Heinrich Wienhaus (Göttinger Chemiker), Friedrich Adolf Willers (Freiberger Mathematiker), Hans Winkler (Botaniker) (Hamburg), Hugo Wippler (Leipziger Kunstpgoge), Wilhelm Wirth (Leipziger Philosoph und Psychologe), Hans Adolf Wislicenus (Dresdner Forstwirt), Karl Wittmaack (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner), Michael Wittmann (Ethiker) (Eichstätt), Georg Wobbermin (Göttinger Theologe), Gerhard Wörner (Leipziger Jurist und Rektor der Handelshochschule), Georg Wohlmuth (Eichstätter Philosoph), Walther Wolf (Leipziger Ägyptologe), Ludwig Wolff (Germanist) (Göttingen), Max Wolff (Eberswalder Zoologe), Richard Woltereck (Leipziger Zoologe), Ferdinand Wrede (Marburger Linguist), Heinz-Georg Wünscher (Leipziger Student der Tiermedizin), Feodor Wünschmann (Steuerrechtler an der Handelshochschule Leipzig), Heinz Wulf (Hamburger Mediziner, 1908�), Wunniger, Franz Wutz (Eichstํter Theologe), Johann Wysogorski (Hamburger Geologe)

Eduard Zarncke (Leipziger Altphilologe), Rudolph Zaunick (Dresdner Bibliothekar), Oskar Zdralek (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Egmont Zechlin (Marburger Historiker), Paul Zenetti (Dillinger Geologe), Peter Zepp (Bonner Geograph), Erich Ziebarth (Hamburger Althistoriker), Hans-Willi Ziegler (Rostocker Psychologe), Ludwig Zimmermann (Marburger Historiker, später Erlangen), Waldemar Zimmermann (Hamburger Volkswirt), Friedrich Zoepfl (Dillinger Kirchenhistoriker), Ernst Zyhlarz (Hamburger Afrikanist)

Overall, about 900 people signed.

Das Bekenntnis der Professoren an den deutschen Universitäten und Hochschulen zu Adolf Hitler und dem nationalsozialistischen Staat wurde am 11. November 1933 zur Feier der „nationalsozialistischen Revolution“ des Jahres auf einer Festveranstaltung in der Alberthalle in Leipzig als Gelཫnis deutscher Gelehrter – meist im Beamtenverhältnis – vorgetragen. Doch waren nicht alle Unterzeichner Professoren, es finden sich auch Privatdozenten, Lehrbeauftragte, Dozenten bis zu einzelnen Studierenden darunter. Der Titel lautete „Mit Adolf Hitler für des deutschen Volkes Ehre, Freiheit und Recht!“. Weitere Bezeichnungen in der Publizistik der Zeit, in offiziellen Dokumenten und damit in der Historiographie lauten „Kundgebung der deutschen Wissenschaft“ oder kurz Bekenntnis der Professoren sowie Ruf an die Gebildeten der Welt.

Ausrichter der Kundgebung und Herausgeber der Schrift war der Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund Sachsen. Die Veranstaltung fand am Vortag der „Volksabstimmung“ ﲾr den bereits am 14. Oktober vollzogenen Völkerbundaustritt statt, die mit der Reichstagswahl vom November 1933 gekoppelt und eine Scheinwahl war, weil es nur NSDAP-Kandidaten gab. Das Bekenntnis war somit auch ein Wahlaufruf. In mehreren Reden wurde der angebliche Wille Deutschlands zum Frieden hervorgehoben, der neben Freiheit und Ehre anzustreben sei. Der Austritt aus dem Völkerbund wurde mit dem Streben nach Gleichberechtigung Deutschlands auf internationaler Bühne begründet, die ohne die diskriminierenden Bestimmungen des Völkerbundes nur durch den Austritt zu erreichen gewesen sei. Es war den unterschreibenden Wissenschaftlern gleichgültig, dass der nationalsozialistische Staat zuvor durch das Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums massiv in die wissenschaftliche Lehrfreiheit der Hochschulen eingegriffen hatte, indem er Wissenschaftler j࿍ischen Glaubens oder Herkunft oder einfach nur Wissenschaftler demokratischer Gesinnung aus dem Amt vertrieben hatte. Ebenso gleichgültig war den Wissenschaftlern, dass die Selbstbestimmung der Universitäten durch die Einführung des Führerprinzips beseitigt worden war und die NSDAP einen bestimmenden Einfluss an den Universitäten gewonnen hatte.

Der s์hsische NSLB-Gauobmann Arthur Hugo Göpfert hatte im Zusammenwirken mit der Landesuniversität Leipzig dazu aufgerufen, ein �kenntnis freier und politisch nicht gebundener deutscher Gelehrter“ zu ver󶿾ntlichen, einen „Ruf an die Gebildeten der Welt“. Dieser „Ruf“ versprach eine „volksgebundene Wissenschaftspflege“, aus der allein die völkerverbindende Macht der Wissenschaft erwachsen könne. Weiter hieß es: 𠇪us dieser �rzeugung heraus richtet die deutsche Wissenschaft an die Gebildeten der ganzen Welt den Appell, dem Ringen des durch Adolf Hitler geeinten deutschen Volkes um Freiheit, Ehre, Recht und Frieden das gleiche Verständnis entgegenzubringen, welches sie für ihr eigenes Volk erwarten“. Die begleitenden Ansprachen hielten nacheinander der Rektor der Leipziger Universität, der Veterinär und Tierz࿌hter Richard Arthur Golf, schon vor der Machtergreifung Vertrauensdozent des NS-Studentenbundes, ferner Eugen Fischer, Martin Heidegger, Emanuel Hirsch, Wilhelm Pinder, Ferdinand Sauerbruch, Eberhard Schmidt, der Theologe Friedrich Karl Schumann und der Germanist Friedrich Neumann.

Göpfert, ein Lehrer, geb. 1902, wurde 1933 Ministerialrat, ab März 1935 der Zuständige für Bildung in der Reichsstatthalterschaft Sachsen, die das frühere Land Sachsen nach der NS-Zentralisierung ersetzte.

Mit diesem untergeordneten Projekt versuchen wir L࿌ken im Geni-Welt-Stammbaum zu schlie෾n.

Um Profile zu diesem Projekt hinzuzufügen orientieren Sie sich bitte an den Ver󶿾ntlichungen bei Wikipedia.

Bei Fragen wenden Sie sich bitte an den Profilverwalter Tobias Rachor

Unterzeichner

Unter anderem unterzeichneten:

Karl von der Aa (Leipziger Wirtschaftspgoge), Narziß Ach (Göttinger Psychologe), Eberhard Ackerknecht (Leipziger Veterinär), Gustav Aeckerlein (Freiberger Physiker), Friedrich Ahlfeld (Marburger Geologe), Karl Albrecht (Pgoge) (Hamburg), Karl Alnor (Kieler Geschichtsdidaktiker), Hermann Altrock (Leipziger Sportpgoge), Friedrich Alverdes (Marburger Zoologe), Georg Anschütz (Hamburger Psychologe), Christian Aretz (Bonner Naturwissenschaftler, 1887�), Emil Artin (Hamburger Mathematiker, 1937 entlassen), Richard Augst (Dresdner Geschichtspgoge, 1884– )

Burkhardt (Leipziger Statistiker), Otto Burmeister (Rostocker Pgoge), Werner Burmeister (Hamburger Kunsthistoriker), Ernst Baars (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Bach (Bonner Germanist), Heinrich Barkhausen (Dresdner Physiker), Sophie Barrelet (Hamburger Fremdsprachendozentin), Julius Bartels (Eberswalder Geophysiker), Karl Hugo Friedrich Bauer (Leipziger Chemiker), Lorenz Bauer (Dillinger Theologe), Friedrich Baumann (Marburger Chirurg), Karl Baumann (Bonner Physikdidaktiker), Max Baur (Marburger Pharmazeut), Werner Bavendamm (Dresdner Botaniker), Fritz Beckert (Maler) (Dresden), Hermann Beenken (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Paul Johannes Beger (Hannoveraner Mineraloge), Johannes Behm (Göttinger Theologe), Carl Julius Peter Behr (Hamburger Augenmediziner), Hans Hermann Bennhold (Hamburger Internist), Ewald Berge (Leipziger Veterinär), Walther Bergt (Dresdner Mineraloge), Erhard Berndt (Leipziger Agrarökonom, SA-Mitglied), Georg Berndt (Dresdner Physiker), Luise Berthold (Marburger Germanistin), Helmut Berve (Leipziger Althistoriker), Theodor Beste (Dresdner Betriebswirt), Erich Bethe (Leipziger Altphilologe), Kurt Beyer (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Robert Bierich (Hamburger Mediziner), Wilhelm Biltz (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Ludwig Binder (Dresdner Physiker), Lothar Birckenbach (Clausthaler Chemiker), Herbert Birtner (Marburger Musikwissenschaftler), Fritz Blättner (Hamburger Pgoge), Max Le Blanc (Leipziger Chemiker), Edwin Blanck (Göttinger Bodenkundler), Wilhelm Blaschke (österreichischer Mathematiker, Hamburg), Hermann Block (Hamburger Pgoge), Otto Blum (Bauingenieur TH Hannover), Werner Blume (Göttinger Anatom und NS-Dozentenführer), Paul Bཬkmann (Hamburger Germanist), Ernst Boehm (Leipziger Pgoge), Gerrit Bol (niederländischer Mathematiker, Hamburg), Otto Friedrich Bollnow (Göttinger Philosoph), Conrad Borchling (Hamburger Germanist), Bruno Borowski (Leipziger Anglist), Wilhelm Böttger (Leipziger Chemiker), Kurt Brand (Marburger Pharmazeut), Erich Brandenburg[4] (Leipziger Historiker), Wilhelm Braeucker (Hamburger Chirurg), Gustav Brandes (Dresdner Zoologe), Ludolph Brauer (Hamburger Luftfahrtmediziner), Friedrich Braun (Leipziger Germanist), Hermann Braune (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Erich Bräunlich (Leipziger Orientalist), Gustav Bredemann (Hamburger Agrarwissenschaftler), Hellmut Bredereck (Leipziger Chemiker), Franz Brenthel (Freiberger Hüttenkundler), Roland Brinkmann (Hamburger Geograf, später NS-Gegner), Georg Brion (1873�, Freiberg), Joachim Brock (Marburger Kinderarzt), Johannes Brodersen (Hamburger Anatom), Ernst Broermann (Bonner Psychologe und Sportpgoge), Paul Brohmer (Kieler Biologiedidaktiker), Leo Bruhns (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Otto Brunck (Freiberger Chemiker), Curt Brunst (Dresden), Eberhard Buchwald (Danziger Physiker), Günther Budelmann (Hamburger Internist), Alfred Burgardsmeier (Bonner Kirchenhistoriker), Felix

Hans Freiherr von Campenhausen (Göttinger Theologe), Ernst Carlsohn (Leipziger Chemiker), Wilhelm Cauer (Göttinger Mathematiker), Peter Claussen (Marburger Botaniker), Paul Cohrs (Leipziger Veterinär), Hermann Cranz (Mechaniker an der TU Hannover), Nikolaus Creutzburg (Geograf an der TH Danzig), Rudolf Criegee (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Dabelow (Marburger Mediziner), Hans Dachs (Historiker) (Regensburg), Petrus Dausch (Dillinger kath. Theologe), Rudolf Degkwitz (senior) (Hamburger Mediziner), Friedrich Delekat (Dresdner Theologe und Religionspgoge), Alfred Dengler (Eberswalder Forstwirt), Georg Dettmar (Hannoveraner E-Techniker), Gustaf Deuchler (Hamburger Pgoge), Paul Deutsch (Ökonom) (Leipzig), Max Deutschbein (Marburger Anglist), Hans Diller (Hamburger Altphilologe), Rudolf Dittler (Marburger Augenmediziner), Ottmar Dittrich (Leipziger Sprachwissenschaftler), Walter Döpp (Marburger Botaniker), Hans Dörries (Göttinger Geograf, später in Münster), Carl Dolezalek (Bauingenieur an der TH Hannover), Heinz Dotterweich (Dresdner Zoologe), Friedrich Drenckhahn (Rostocker Pgoge), Johannes von den Driesch (Bonner Pgoge), Karlfried Graf Dürckheim (Kieler Psychologe), Herbert W. Duda (Leipziger Orientalist), Gerhard Duters

August Eber (Leipziger Veterinär), Margarete Eberhardt (Hamburger Pgogin), Adolf Eberle (Dillinger Moraltheologe), Georg von Ebert (Nürnberg), Friedrich August Ebrard (Hamburger Rechtshistoriker, Schweizer), Heinrich Eddelbüttel (Rostocker Biologe und Pgoge), Richard Egenter (Passauer kath. Theologe), Rudolf Ehrenberg (Göttinger Biologe, später selbst Opfer des NS), Walter Ehrenstein (Danziger Psychologe), Hermann August Eidmann (Hannoversch Mündener Entomologe), Karl Eimer (Marburger Mediziner), Otto Eiselin (Danziger Bauingenieur), Ludwig Eisenhofer (Eichstätter Liturgiewiss.), Curt Eisfeld (Hamburger Betriebswirt), Ernst Elster (Marburger Germanist), Otto Emicke (Freiberger Mineraloge), Josef Engert (Regensburger Dogmatiker), Willi Enke (Marburger Psychiater), Wilhelm Ernst (Geologe) (Hamburg), Ben Esser (Bonner Musikerzieher, 1875�), Erich Everth (Leipziger Publizist und NS-Gegner)

Theodor Fahr (Hamburger Pathologe), Rudolf Fahrner (Marburger Germanist, später Kontakt zum Widerstand), Ferdinand Fehling (L󼯬k-Hamburger Historiker), Karl Feist (Göttinger Pharmazeut), Friedrich Feld (Wirtschaftspgoge) (Berlin), Rainer Fetscher (Dresdner Erbhygieniker), Fritz Fichtner (Dresdner Kunsthistoriker), Paul Ficker (Dresdner Pgoge), Otto Fiederling (Hannoveraner Architekt), Carl August Fischer (Volkswirt) (Hamburg), Eugen Fischer (Mediziner) (Mediziner), Friedrich Fischer (Architekt) (TH Hannover), Otto Flachsbart (Maschinenbauer TU Hannover), Ulrich Fleck (Göttinger Neurologe), Hans Fliege (Marburger Zahnmediziner), Wilhelm Flitner (Hamburger Pgoge), Karl Florenz (Hamburger Japanologe), Gustav Flügel (Ingenieur) (Danzig), Johann Ulrich Folkers (Rostocker Historiker und Volkskundler), Alfred Forke (Hamburger Sinologe), Günther Franz (Marburger Historiker), Otto Franzius (Bauingenieur und Rektor TH Hannover), Hans Freese (Dresdner Architekt), Julius Fressel (Hamburger Gynäkologe), Joseph Freundorfer (Passauer kath. Theologe, später Bischof von Augsburg), Hans Freyer (Leipziger Soziologe), Walter Freytag (Hamburger Missionsdirektor), Ernst Friedrich (Leipziger Geograf), Johannes Friedrich (Altorientalist) (später Leipziger Rektor), Theodor Frings (Leipziger Germanist), Otto Emil Fritzsche (Freiberger Ingenieur), Gotthold Frotscher (Danziger Musikwissenschaftler), Hugo Fuchs (Göttinger Anatom), Vinzenz Fuchs (Dillinger Theologe), Erwin Fues (Hannoveraner Physiker)

Hans-Georg Gadamer (Marburger Philosoph), Kurt Gaede (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Paul Gast (Hannoveraner Geodät), Julius Gebhard (Hamburger Pgoge), Arnold Gehlen (Leipziger Philosoph, Soziologe), Willy Gehler (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Hans Gehrig (Dresdner Volkswirt), Oscar Gehrig (Rostocker Kunsthistoriker), Karl August Geiger (Dillinger Kirchenrechtler), Otto Geißler (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Wilhelm Geißler (Ingenieur) (Dresdner Tiefbauingenieur), Felix Genzmer (Rechtswissenschaftler) (Marburg), Herbert Gerdessen (1892– , Rostocker Geograf), Ernst Gehrhardt (Forstwissenschaftler in Hannoversch Münden), Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg (Forstwissenschaftler in Hannoversch Münden), Gustav Giemsa (Hamburger Chemiker), Wilhelm Giese (Romanist) (Hamburg), Josef Giesen (Bonner Kunsthistoriker, später Vechta), Otto Glauning (Leiter der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig), Engelhardt Glimm (Danziger Agrochemiker), Hermann Gmelin (Danziger Romanist, später Kiel), Otto Goebel (Hannoveraner Volkswirt), Curt Gཬke (1884-, Dresdner Orthop), August Götte (1901�, Clausthaler Mineraloge), Arthur Golf (Leipziger Rektor), Fritz Goos (Hamburger Physiker), Hugo Grau (Leipziger Veterinär), Georg Grimpe (Leipziger Zoologe), Waldemar Grix (Danziger E-Techniker), Franz Groebbels (Hamburger Mediziner), Walter Gro෾ (Leipziger Nationalökonom), H. Großmann (Göttinger Hygieniker), Hermann Großmann (Ökonom) (Leipziger Handelshochschule), Rudolf Grossmann (Romanist) (Hamburg), Eduard Grüneisen (Marburger Physiker), Georg Wilhelm Grüter (Marburger Augenmediziner), Herbert Grundmann (Leipziger Historiker), Georg Grunwald (Regensburger Religionspgoge), Adolf Güntherschulze (Dresdner Physiker)

Rudolf Habermann (1884�, Hamburger Dermatologe), Fedor Haenisch (Hamburger Radiologe), Reinhard Haferkorn (Danziger Anglist), Konstantin von Haffner (Hamburger Zoologe), Jörgen Hansen (Kieler Geograf), Karl Hansen (Pgoge) (Hamburger Sprachheilpgoge), Richard Hanssen (Hamburger Augenarzt), Richard Harder (Biologe) (Göttingen), Helmut Hasse (Marburger Mathematiker), Kurt Hassert (Dresdner Geograf), Edwin Hauberrisser (Göttinger Zahnarzt), Herbert Haupt (Leipziger Veterinär), Johann Nepomuk Hebensperger (Dillinger Historiker), Erich Hecke (Hamburger Mathematiker), Otto Heckmann (Göttinger Astronom), Enno Heidebroek (Dresdner Maschinenbauer und Rektor 1946), Martin Heidegger (Philosoph), Robert Heidenreich (Leipziger Archäologe), Georg Heidingsfelder (Eichstätter Theologe), Alfred Heiduschka (Dresdner Lebensmittelchemiker), Willi Heike (1880�, Freiberger Metallurg), Franz Hein (Chemiker) (Leipzig), Wilhelm Heinitz (Hamburger Musikwissenschaftler), Rudolf Heinz (Geologe) (Hamburg), Heinrich Heiser (Dresdner Wasserbauer), Emil Heitz (Botaniker) (Hamburg), Sven Helander (Schwede und Nürnberger Ökonom), Gustav Heller (Chemiker) (Leipziger Chemiker), Karl Helm (Marburger Germanist und Dekan), Eberhard Hempel (Dresdner Kunsthistoriker), Johannes Hempel (Göttinger Theologe), Friedrich Hempelmann (Leipziger Zoologe), Ernst Hentschel (Hamburger Zoologe), Eduard Hermann (Göttinger Linguist), Ernst Hertel (Leipziger Augenmediziner), Johannes Hertel (Leipziger Indologe), Julius Herweg (Hannoveraner Physiker), Alois Herzog (Dresdner Textiltechnologe), Franz Heske (Dresdner Forstwirt), Herbert Hesmer (Eberswalder Forstwirt), Paul Hesse (Göttinger Agrarwissenschaftler), Theodor Hetzer (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker), Max Heuwieser (Passauer Kirchenhistoriker), Johannes Erich Heyde (Rostocker Philosoph), Theodor Heynemann (Hamburger Gynäkologe), Emil Hilarius (Dresdner Pgoge), Heinrich Hildebrand (Rechtsmediziner) (Marburg), Leo von Hibler (Anglist in Leipzig und Dresden, später Wien), Emanuel Hirsch (Göttinger Theologe), Alexander Hr (Dresdner Bildhauer), Emil Högg (Dresdner Architekt), Otto Hölder (Leipziger Mathematiker), Cornelius Hölk (Marburger Schulleiter und Didaktiker), Robert Höltje (Danziger Chemiker), Alexander Hoffmann (Leipziger Betriebswirt), Hans Hoffmann (Hamburg), Walter Hoffmann (Wirtschaftswissenschaftler) (Freiberg), Albert von Hofmann (Marburger Historiker), Erich Hofmann (Göttinger Linguist), Johannes Hofmann (Bibliothekar) (Leiter der Stadtbibliothek Leipzig), Paul Hofmann (Hygieniker) (Dresden), Gustav Hopf (Hamburger Dermatologe), Carl Horst (Marburger Kunsthistoriker), Joseph Anton Huber (Dillingen) Alfred H࿋ner (Göttinger Germanist, später Leipzig), Valerius Hüttig (Dresdner Ingenieur für L࿏tung), Reinhard Hugershoff (Dresdner Ge཭ät), Karl Humburg (Hannoveraner E-Techniker)

Edgar Irmscher (Hamburger Botaniker), Otto Israel-Oesterhelt (Dresdner Geodät),Bernhard Iversen (Kieler Musikpgoge), Arnold Jacobi (Dresdner Zoologe), Eduard Jacobshagen (Marburger Anatom), Peter Jaeck (Marburger Sportwissenschaftler), Fritz Jäger (Hamburger Sinologe), Erich Jaensch (Marburger Psychologe), Walther Jaensch (Berliner Sportmediziner), Eduard Jahn (Hannoversch Münder Botaniker), Maximilian Jahrmärker (Marburger Psychiater, Direktor der Landesheilanstalt), Eduard von Jan (Leipziger Romanist), Christian Janentzky (Dresdner Germanist), Heinz Janert (Leipziger Bodenkundler), Harro de Wet Jensen (Marburger Anglist, in Heidelberg 1936�), Christian Jensen (Meteorologe) (Hamburger Physiker), Peter Jensen (Marburger Hethitologe),[5] Gerhard de Jonge (Danziger Ingenieur), Wilhelm Hermann Jost (Dresdner Architekt), Erich Jung (Marburger Rechtsphilosoph), Heinrich Junker (Leipziger Sprachwissenschaftler), Hubert Junker (Passauer kath. Theologe)

Felix Kämpf (Leipziger Physiker, 1877- ), Alfred Kaestner (Dresdner Zoologe), Alfred Kalähne (Danziger Physiker), Paul Kanold (Hannoveraner Architekt), Helmuth Kanter (Hamburger Geograf), Oskar Fritz Karg (Leipziger Germanist, 1934 wegen Diebstahl entlassen), August Karolus (Leipziger Physiker), Walter Kayser (Berliner Sportwissenschaftler), Eduard Keeser (Hamburger Pharmakologe, Rektor 1941�), Karl Kegel (Freiberger Bergbauer), Erwin Kehrer (1874�, Marburger Gynäkologe), Egon Keining (Hamburger Dermatologe), Gustav Keppeler (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Otto Kestner (Hamburger Mediziner und Physiologe), Karl Kiefer (Eichstätter Theologe), Hans Kienle (Göttinger Astronom), Sebastian Killermann (PTH Regensburg, Theologe und Naturwissenschaftler), Heinz Kindermann (Theaterforscher) (Danzig), Karl Kindler (Hamburger Pharmakologe), Paul Kirn (Leipziger Historiker), Walter Rudolf Kirschbaum (Hamburger Neurologe), Otto Kirschmer (Dresdner Physiker), Julius Kister (Hamburger Bakteriologe, 1870�), Rudolf Klapp (Marburger Chirurg), Heinrich Klebahn (Hamburger Mykologe), Johannes Klein (Germanist) (Marburg), Ludwig Klein (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer und Rektor der TH), Otto Klemm (Leipziger Psychologe), Wilhelm Klemm (Chemiker) (Danzig), Felix Klewitz (Marburger Mediziner), Martin Klimmer (Leipziger Veterinär), Erich Klinge (Sportwissenschaftler) (Berlin-Charlottenburg), August Klingenheben (Hamburger Afrikanist), Friedrich Klingner (Leipziger Altphilologe), Otto Kloeppel (Danziger Architekt), August Klughardt (Dresdner Optiker), Friedrich Knauer (Physikochemiker) (Hamburg), Alfred Kneschke (Dresdner Mathematiker), Hans Otto Kneser (Marburger Physiker), Werner Kniehahn (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Hugo Wilhelm Knipping (Hamburger Internist), Wilhelm Knoll (Mediziner) (Hamburger Sportmediziner), Emil Koch (Hamburger Geograph), Peter Paul Koch (Hamburger Physiker), Carl Walter Kockel (Leipziger Geologe), Paul Koebe (Leipziger Mathematiker und Dekan), Franz Kögler (Freiberger Bauingenieur), Walter König (Chemiker) (Dresden), Max Koernicke (Bonner Agrarwiss.), Alfred Körte (Leipziger Altphilologe), Rudolf Kötzschke (Leipziger Wirtschaftshistoriker), Friedrich Kolbeck (Freiberger Mineraloge), Willy Kolz (Rostocker Pgoge), Harald Koschmieder (Danziger Meteorologe), Walter Kossel (Danziger Physiker), Franz Kossmat (Leipziger Geologe), Gerhard Kowalewski (Dresdner Mathematiker), Maximilian Krafft (Marburger Mathematiker), Werner Krauss (Romanist) (Marburg, später im Widerstand), Erich Krenkel (Leipziger Geologe), Ernst Kretschmer (Marburger Psychiater), Julius Krieg (Regensburger Kirchenrechtler), Martin Kröger (Leipziger Chemiker), Felix Krueger (Leipziger Psychologe), Fritz Krüger (Romanist) (Hamburg), Gerhard Krüger (Philosoph) (Marburg), Friedrich K࿌h (Marburger Archivar), Karl Küpfmüller (Danziger Elektrotechniker), Hermann Kümmell (Hamburger Chirurg), Josef Kürzinger (Eichstätter Theologe), Hans Kuhn (Marburger Germanist), Friedrich Kutscher (Physiologe) (Marburg), Karl Kutzbach (Dresdner Maschinenbauer)

Max Otto Lagally (Dresdner Mathematiker), Albrecht Langel󼷞ke (Hamburger Psychiater), Otto Lauffer (Hamburger Volkskundler), Fritz Laves (Göttinger Mineraloge), Joseph Lechner (Eichstätter Kirchenrechtler), Kurt Leese (Hamburger Philosoph), Bruno Lehmann (Dresden), Max Rudolf Lehmann (Nürnberger Ökonom), Rudolf Lehmann (Leipziger Ethnologe), Walther Lehmann (Hamburger Hygieniker), Erich Lehmensick (Kieler Pgoge), Hans Lemmel (Eberswalde), Wilhelm Lenz (Hamburger Physiker), Philipp Lersch (Leipziger Psychologe), E. H. Lieber, Otto Lienau (Danziger Schiffbauer), Paul Lindemann (Journalist) (Hamburg), Joseph Lippl (Regensburger Alttestamentler), Hans Lipps (Marburger Philosoph), Friedrich Lipsius (Philosoph), Theodor Litt (Philosoph) [Unterschrift zweifelhaft],[6] Helmut Loebell (Marburger Mediziner), Ernst Lommatzsch (Marburger Altphilologe), Hans Lorenz (Maschinenbauingenieur) (Danzig), Alexander Lorey (Hamburger Radiologe), Alfred Lottermoser (Dresdner Chemiker), Heinrich Lottig (Hamburger Luftfahrtmediziner), Rudolf Lütgens (Hamburger Wirtschaftsgeograf), Robert Luther (Chemiker) (Dresden)

Gerhard Mackenroth (Marburger Jurist), Johannes Madel (Freiberger Geologe), Dietrich Mahnke (Marburger Philosoph), Erich Manegold (Göttinger Chemiker), Johann Wilhelm Mannhardt (Volkswissenschaftler), Otto Mattes (Marburger Zoologe und Führer der Dozentenschaft), Eduard Maurer (Freiberger Metallurg), Friedrich Mauz (Marburger Psychiater, später T4-Gutachter der Aktion T4), Kurt May (Göttinger Germanist), Martin Mayer (Hamburger Tropenmediziner, 1934 entlassen), Franz Xaver Mayr (Naturwissenschaftler) (Eichstätt), Hans Mayer-Wegelin (Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Harry Maync (Marburger Germanist), Rudolf Meerwarth (Leipziger Statistiker), Hans Meerwein (Marburger Chemiker), Carl Meinhof (Hamburger Afrikanist), Edwin Meister (Dresdner Textiltechnologe), Konrad Mellerowicz (Berliner Ökonom), Gerhard Menz (Leipziger Ökonom), Heinrich Menzel (Dresdner Chemiker), Eugen von Mercklin (Hamburger Archäologe), Walther Merk (Marburger Jurist und Rektor), Adolf Meyer (Hamburger Biologe), Hans Meyer (Hamburg), Heinrich Meyer-Benfey (Hamburger Germanist), Adolf Meyn (Leipziger Veterinär), Fritz Micheel (Göttinger Chemiker), Eugen Michel (Hannoveraner Architekt), Heinrich von Minnigerode (Marburger Jurist), Hermann Mirbt (Göttinger Jurist), Waldemar Mitscherlich (Göttinger Staatswissenschaftler), Max Mitterer (Passauer Kirchenrechtler), Walther Mitzka (Marburger Sprachwissenschaftler), Willy Mཫius (Leipziger Physiker), Hans Möller (Physiker) (Hamburg), Eugen Mogk (Leipziger Nordist), Bruno Moll (Leipziger Ökonom),

Lorenz Morsbach (Göttinger Anglist), Adolf Muesmann (Dresdner Architekt), Peter Mühlens (Hamburger Hygienemediziner), Conrad Müller (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Erich Müller (Chemiker, Rektor der TU Dresden), Friedrich Müller (Chemiker) (Dresden), Kurt Müller (Archäologe) (Göttingen), Wilhelm Müller-Lenhartz (Leipziger Agrarwissenschaftler), Paul Mulzer (Hamburger Dermatologe), Karl Mylius (Augenarzt) (Hamburg)

Alwin Nachtweh (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Adolf Nägel (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Emil Naetsch (Dresdner Mathematiker), Ernst Georg Nauck (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Hans Naujoks (Marburger Gynäkologe), Friedrich Neesen (1888�, Danziger Bahningenieur), Walter Nehm (Clausthaler Markscheider), Harald Nehrkorn (Hamburger Mathematiker, sp. Schulleiter), Friedrich Wilhelm Neuffer (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Willy Neuling (Hamburger Volkswirt), Ernst Richard Neumann (Marburger Mathematiker), Friedrich Neumann (Germanist) (Göttingen), Johannes Neumann (Hamburger Veterinär), Kurt Neumann (Motorenbauer) (Hannover), Rudolf Otto Neumann (Hamburger Bakteriologe), Karl Nieberle (Leipziger Veterinär), Arthur Philipp Nikisch (Dresdner Jurist), Hermann Noack (Philosoph) (Hamburg), Johannes Nobel (Marburger Indologe), Bernhard Nocht (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Max Nordhausen (Marburger Botaniker)

Karl Justus Obenauer (Leipziger Germanist, später in Bonn Lehrer von Hans Rößner), Erich Obst (Hannoveraner Geograph), Franz Oehlecker (Hamburger Hämatologe), Julius Oelkers (Hannoversch Münder Forstwirt), Fritz Oesterlen (Hannoveraner Ingenieur), Wolfgang Ostwald (Leipziger Chemiker), Max Pagenstecher (Hamburger Jurist), Georg Pallaske (Leipziger Veterinär), Giulio Panconcelli-Calzia (Hamburger Phonetiker), Erwin Papperitz (Freiberger Mathematiker), Erich Parnitzke (Kieler Kunstpgoge), Enrique Paschen (Hamburger Tropenarzt), Siegfried Passarge (Hamburger Geograf und Völkerkundler), Walther Pauer (Dresdner Energiewiss.), Gustav Pauli (Hamburger Kunsthistoriker), Friedrich Peemöller (Hamburger Mediziner), Balduin Penndorf (Leipziger Ökonom), Hans Pesta (Hamburger Pgoge), Rudolf Peter (Hamburger Pgoge), Ulrich Peters (Pgoge) (Kieler Rektor der LBA), Richard Petersen (Danziger Ingenieur), Hans Petersson (Hamburger Mathematiker), Robert Petsch (Hamburger Germanist), Heinrich Pette (Hamburger Neurologe), Wilhelm Pfannenstiel (Marburger Rassenhygieniker), Georg Pfeilschifter (Münchner Kirchenhistoriker), Kurt Pietzsch (Leipziger Geologe), Wilhelm Pinder (Münchner Kunstgeschichtler), Hans Plischke (Göttinger Ethnologe), Ernst Pohlhausen (Danziger Mathematiker), Hermann Potthoff (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Georg Prange (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Julius Precht (Hannoveraner Physiker), Heinrich Prell (Dresdner Forstwirt), Anton von Premerstein (Marburger Althistoriker), Edgar Prཫster (Leipziger Orientalist), Arthur Pröll (Hannoveraner Flugtechniker), Arthur Prﳾr (Leipziger Musikwissenschaftler)

Paul Rabe (Chemiker) (Hamburg), Michael Rackl (Eichstätter Theologe), Georg Raederscheidt (Direktor der Pgogischen Akademie Bonn), Berthold Rassow (Leipziger Chemiker), Fritz Rauda (Dresdner Architekt), Hans Rebel (Göttinger Zahnmediziner), Otto Reche (rassistischer Leipziger Anthropologe), Joachim von Reckow (Marburger Zahnmediziner), Konstantin Reichardt (Leipziger Nordist, 1937 emigriert), Eduard Reichenow (Hamburger Biologe), Ferdinand Reiff (Marburger Chemiker), Adolf Rein (Hamburger Historiker), Hermann Rein (Göttinger Mediziner und Rektor), Richard Reinhardt (Tierarzt) (Leipziger Veterinär), Richard Reißig (Leipziger Deutschpgoge), Viktor Rembold (Danziger Schiffsbauer), Heinrich Remy (Hamburger Chemiker), Theodor Remy (Bonner Forstwirt), Oscar Reuther (Dresdner Archäologe), Johannes Richter (Tierarzt) (Leipzig), Paul Riebesell (Hamburger Versicherungsmathematiker), Wilhelm Rieder (Hamburger Chirurg), August Rippel (Göttinger Mikrobiologe), Curt Risch (Hannoveraner Eisenbahningenieur), Eberhard Rimann (Dresdner Geologe), Curt Risch (Hannoveraner Bauingenieur), Joachim Ritter (Hamburger Philosoph), Erich Rix (Marburger Pathologe), Ernst Roedelius (Hamburger Chirurg), Karl Rr (Ingenieur) (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Fritz Rössel (Hamburger Heilpgoge), Georg Rohde (Marburger Altphilologe), Hermann Rose (Mineraloge) (Hamburg), Heinrich Roth (Elektrotechniker) (Danzig, 1880�), Konrad Rubner (Dresdner Forstwirt), Hans Rudolphi (Leipziger Geograf), Georg Rüth (Dresdner Hochbauer), Alfred Ruete (Marburger Hautarzt), Wilhelm Ruhland (Leipziger Botaniker), Max Rumpf (Nürnberger Soziologe), Hermann Gustav Runge (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner, 1887�)

Ewald Sachsenberg (Dresdner Betriebswissenschaftler), Horst von Sanden (Hannoveraner Mathematiker), Curt Sandig (Leipziger Betriebswirt), Heinrich Sauer (Philosoph) (Hamburg), Ferdinand Sauerbruch (Berliner Chirurg), Erich Schr (Nürnberger Betriebswirt), Karl Theodor Schr (Regensburger Neutestamentler), Wilhelm Schäperclaus (Eberswalder Zoologe), Carl Schall (Leipziger Chemiker), Georg Schaltenbrand (Hamburger Neurologe, später Leiter von Versuchen an Menschen), Johannes Scheffler (Ökonom) (Dresden), Johannes Scheiber (Leipziger Chemiker), Walter Scheidt (Hamburger Rassenbiologe), Georg Scheller (Betriebswirtschaftler) (Nürnberg), Martin Schenck (Leipziger Chemiker), Harald Schering (Hannoveraner E-Techniker), Siegmund Schermer (Göttinger Veterinär und Rektor 1932/33), Karl-Hermann Scheumann (Leipziger Mineraloge), Carl Arthur Scheunert (Leipziger Veterinär), Eberhard Freiherr von Scheurl (Nürnberger Jurist), Martin Schieblich (Leipziger Veterinär), Ernst Schiebold (Leipziger Mineraloge), Carl Schiffner (Freiberger Hüttenkundler), Ludwig Schiller (Leipziger Physiker), Bernhard Schilling (Dresdner Mathematiker), Friedrich Schilling (Mathematiker) (TH Danzig), Werner Schingnitz (Leipziger Philosoph), Arthur Schleede (Leipziger Chemiker), Carl Schlieper (Marburger Zoologe), Josef Schmid (Theologe) (Dillingen), Ernst Schmidt (Thermodynamiker) (TH Danzig), Harry Schmidt (Leipziger Chemiker), Johannes Schmidt (Tierarzt) (Leipzig), Jonas Schmidt (Zoologe) (Göttinger Veterinär), Werner Schmidt (Forstwissenschaftler) (Eberswalde), Wolfgang Schmid(t) (Marburger Anglist), G. Schmitthenner, Eugen Schmitz (Dresdner Musikwissenschaftler), Leonhard Schmöller (Passauer Theologe), Friedrich Schneider (Pgoge) (Bonn), Hermann Schneider (Philosoph) (Leipzig),[7] Paul Schneider (Hamburg), Wilhelm Schneider-Windmüller (Bonn), Franz Schob (Dresdner Psychopathologe), Roland Scholl (Schweizer Chemiker in Dresden), Richard Scholz (Leipziger Mittelalterhistoriker), Richard Schorr (Hamburger Astronom), Gerhard Schott (Ozeanograf)[8] (Hamburg), Hugo Schottmüller (Hamburger Bakteriologe), Friedrich Schreiber (Dresden), Alfred Schrr (Dillinger Theologe), Bruno Schrr (Archäologe) (Dresden), Edward Schrr (Göttinger Germanist), Joseph Schr󶿾r (Eichstätter Theologe), Paul Schubring (Hannoveraner Kunsthistoriker), Walther Schubring (Hamburger Indologe), Levin Ludwig Sch࿌king (Leipziger Anglist und NS-Gegner), Alfred Schüz (Hamburger Wehrwissenschaftler und Historiker), Hans Schulten (Hamburger Internist), Bruno Schultz (Dresdner Wirtschaftswissenschaftler), Helmut Schultz (Musikwissenschaftler) (Leipzig), Ernst Schultze (Soziologe) (Leipzig), Walter Schultze (Hamburger Pgoge), Leonhard Schultze-Jena (Marburger Zoologe), Otto Theodor Schulz (Leipziger Althistoriker), Alfred Schulze (Marburger Romanist), Franz Arthur Schulze (Marburger Physiker), Otto Schulze (Wasserbauer) (Danzig), Gerhard Schulze-Pillot (Danziger Maschinenbauer), Paul Schulz-Kiesow (Hamburger Verkehrswissenschaftler), Rudolf Schulz-Schaeffer (1885�, Marburger Jurist), Friedrich Schumacher (Geologe und Rektor in Freiberg), Otto Schumm (Hamburger Chemiker), Kurt Schwabe (Dresdner Chemiker), Carl Leopold Schwarz (Hamburger Hygieniker), Paul Schwarz (Orientalist) (Leipzig), Bernhard Schweitzer (Leipziger Archäologe), Alfred Schwenkenbecher (Marburger Internist und Rektor), Friedrich Schwerd (Hannoveraner Maschinenbauer), Wilhelm Schwinning (Dresdner Metallurg)

Wilhelm Seedorf (Göttinger Agrarökonom und späterer NS-Gegner), Walter Seiz (Danziger E-Techniker), Emil Sieg (Göttinger Indogermanist), Arthur Simon (Dresdner Chemiker), Aladar Skita (Hannoveraner Chemiker), Alexander Snyckers (belgischer Wirtschaftslinguist in Leipzig), Emil Sörensen (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Max Graf zu Solms (Marburger Soziologe und NS-Gegner), Julius Sommer (Danziger Mathematiker), Curt Sonnenschein (Hamburger Tropenmediziner), Adolf Spamer (Dresdner Germanist), Curt Sprehn (Leipziger Veterinär), Paul Ssymank (Göttinger Historiker), Franz Stadtmüller (Göttinger Anatom), Martin Stammer (Rostocker Theologe), Otto Hermann Steche (Leipziger Zoologe), Kurt Steinbart (Marburger Kunsthistoriker), Martha Steinert (Kieler Deutschpgogin), Wilhelm Steinkopf (Dresdner Chemiker, Giftgasforscher), Edmund E. Stengel (Marburger Historiker), Hermann Stephani (Marburger Musikwissenschaftler), Johannes Evangelist Stigler (Eichstätter Mathematiker), Hans Stobbe (Leipziger Chemiker), Karl Stཬkl (Regensburger Physiker), Rose Stoppel (Hamburger Botanikerin), Werner Straub (Dresdener Psychologe), Reinhard Strecker (Eberswalde, später im Widerstand), Wilhelm Strecker (Marburger Chemiker), Rudolf Streller (Leipziger Nationalökonom), Hermann Stremme (Danziger Bodenforscher, später Ost-Berlin), Bernhard Struck (Dresdner Völkerkundler), Fritz St࿌krath (Hamburger Pgoge), Otto Stutzer (Freiberger Geologe), Paul Sudeck (Hamburger Chirurg), Heinrich S࿌hting (Hannoversch Münder Bodenkundler), Karl Süpfle (Dresdner Hygieniker), Heinrich Sulze (Dresdner Bauingenieur), Karl Friedrich Suter (Leipziger Kunsthistoriker, ab 1946 Rostock)

Ernst Tams (Hamburger Geophysiker), Jehangir Tavadia (Hamburger Indologe), Horst Teichmann (Dresdner Physiker), Fritz Terhalle (Hamburger Finanzwissenschaftler), Adolf Teuscher (Dresdner Pgoge), Karl Thalheim (Leipziger Nationalökonom, nach 1945 Westberlin), Alfred Thiel (Marburger Chemiker), Hermann Thiersch (Göttinger Archäologe), Georg Thilenius (Hamburger Völkerkundler), Arthur Thost (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner), William Threlfall (britischer Mathematiker in Dresden), Friedrich Tobler (Dresdner Botaniker), Maximilian Toepler (Dresdner Physiker), Rudolf Tomaschek (Marburger Anhänger der Deutschen Physik), Reinhold Trautmann (Leipziger Slawist), Erich Trefftz (Dresdner Mathematiker), Emil Treptow (Freiberger Bergbauer), Karl Tripp (Marburger Biologe), Walter Ehrenreich Tröger (Dresdner Mineraloge), Carl von Tyszka (Hamburger Finanzwissenschaftler), Hans Ueberschaar (Leipziger Japanologe), Jakob Johann von Uexküll (Hamburger Umweltforscher), Walther Uffenorde (Marburger HNO-Mediziner), Wolfgang Heinz Uhlitzsch (Freiberg), Egon Ullrich (Marburger Mathematiker), Hermann Ullrich (Leipziger Botaniker), Adalbert von Unruh (Göttinger Jurist)

Siegfried Valentiner (Clausthaler Physiker und Rektor), Max Versé (Marburger Mediziner und Rektor), Wilhelm Vershofen (Ökonom und Lehrer Ludwig Erhards), Wilhelm Ernst Vetter (1883- Dresdner Religionspgoge), Ernst Vetterlein (Hannoveraner Architekt), Hermann Vogel (Agrarwissenschaftler) (Göttingen), Paul Vogel (1877- Leipziger Pgoge), Richard Vogel (1881�, Dresdner Pgoge/Zoologe), Rudolf Vogel (Materialforscher) (Göttingen), Sebastian Vogl (Passauer Wissenschaftshistoriker), Eckhardt Vogt (Marburger Physiker), Walter Voigtländer (Dresdner Pgoge), Hans Volkelt (Leipziger Psychologe und Pgoge), Wilhelm Volz (Leipziger Geograf), Friedrich Voß (Zoologe) (Göttingen), Otto Voss (Hamburger Neurochirurg)

Friedrich Wachtsmuth (Marburger Kunsthistoriker, 1945 entlassen), Kurt Wagner (Germanist) (Marburg), Friedrich August Wahl (Marburger Gynäkologe), Gustav Wahl (Hamburger Bibliotheksdirektor), Bernhard Walde (Dillinger Alttestamentler), Michael Waldmann (Regensburger Moraltheologe), Andreas Walther (Soziologe) (Hamburg), Paul Erich Wandhoff (Freiberger Geodät), Otto Wawrziniok (Dresdner Metallurg), Anton Weber (Dillingen), Constantin Weber (Dresdner Mechaniker), Ewald Weber (Leipziger Veterinär), Hermann Weber (Zoologe) (TH Danzig), Werner Weber (Mathematiker) (Göttingen), Edgar Wedekind (Hannoversch Münder Chemiker), Rudolf Wedekind (Paläontologe) (Marburg), Emil Wehrle (Marburger Jurist), Ludwig Weickmann (Leipziger Geophysiker), Walther Weigelt (Freiberger Bergrechtler), Walter Weigmann (Leipziger Ökonom), Karl Friedrich Weimann (Leipziger Historiker), Paul Weinrowsky (Kieler Physikdidaktiker), Franz Heinrich Wei󟮬h (Leipziger Orientalist), Friedrich Weller (Leipziger Indologe), Hermann Wendorf (Leipziger Historiker), Ferdinand von Werden (Eichstätter Kunsthistoriker), Paul Werkmeister (Dresdner Vermessungsingenieur), Otto Westphal (Historiker) (Hamburg), Wilhelm Weygandt (Hamburger Psychiater), Georg Wiarda (Dresdner Mathematiker), Paul Wichmann (Hamburger Dermatologe), Walter Wickop (Hannoveraner Architekt), Eilhard Wiedemann (Eberswalde), Kurt Wiedenfeld (Leipziger Nationalökonom), Gebhardt Wiedmann (Dresdner Physiker), Heinrich Wienhaus (Göttinger Chemiker), Friedrich Adolf Willers (Freiberger Mathematiker), Hans Winkler (Botaniker) (Hamburg), Hugo Wippler (Leipziger Kunstpgoge), Wilhelm Wirth (Leipziger Philosoph und Psychologe), Hans Adolf Wislicenus (Dresdner Forstwirt), Karl Wittmaack (Hamburger HNO-Mediziner), Michael Wittmann (Ethiker) (Eichstätt), Georg Wobbermin (Göttinger Theologe), Gerhard Wörner (Leipziger Jurist und Rektor der Handelshochschule), Georg Wohlmuth (Eichstätter Philosoph), Walther Wolf (Leipziger Ägyptologe), Ludwig Wolff (Germanist) (Göttingen), Max Wolff (Eberswalder Zoologe), Richard Woltereck (Leipziger Zoologe), Ferdinand Wrede (Marburger Linguist), Heinz-Georg Wünscher (Leipziger Student der Tiermedizin), Feodor Wünschmann (Steuerrechtler an der Handelshochschule Leipzig), Heinz Wulf (Hamburger Mediziner, 1908�), Wunniger, Franz Wutz (Eichstํter Theologe), Johann Wysogorski (Hamburger Geologe)

Eduard Zarncke (Leipziger Altphilologe), Rudolph Zaunick (Dresdner Bibliothekar), Oskar Zdralek (Dresdner Maschinenbauer), Egmont Zechlin (Marburger Historiker), Paul Zenetti (Dillinger Geologe), Peter Zepp (Bonner Geograph), Erich Ziebarth (Hamburger Althistoriker), Hans-Willi Ziegler (Rostocker Psychologe), Ludwig Zimmermann (Marburger Historiker, später Erlangen), Waldemar Zimmermann (Hamburger Volkswirt), Friedrich Zoepfl (Dillinger Kirchenhistoriker), Ernst Zyhlarz (Hamburger Afrikanist)


Champion of the Injured

U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson hands Washington State Insurance Commissioner Karl Herrmann the pen used to sign a pro-consumer law advocated by Herrmann. Washington Senator Warren Magnuson stands beside Herrmann.

Our founder, Karl Herrmann, was first elected to the Washington State Senate in 1956. He was soon appointed chairman of the Senate Standing Committee on Banks, Financial Institutions and Insurance.

He later chaired a Special Joint Interim Committee on Insurance that catapulted him to election as the Washington State Insurance Commissioner in 1968. As Insurance Commissioner, he took a tough pro-consumer stance against insurance companies. He was was re-elected in 1972. He set the record as the first candidate in Washington to receive more than one million votes.

Among his many accomplishments, he developed Personal Injury Protection (PIP), which is vital to people who have been injured in auto accidents. He also led Washington to become the first state in the nation to create a guaranty fund that pays policy holders when an insurance company goes bankrupt.

He gained national recognition for his effort when President Lyndon B. Johnson awarded him the first pen he used to sign national consumer legislation based on Herrmann’s model in Washington State.

Herrmann was also a leader in ending the insurance practice of “redlining.” As the Spokesman Review wrote in an article after his death, “Insurance companies had previously refused to write policies in what they considered ethnic ghettos. That, in turn, prevented people in those neighborhoods from getting home loans. The term came from the red lines drawn on maps to define the neighborhoods.”

Karl Herrmann’s commitment to equal justice was passed on to his son Charles Herrmann, Chairman of Herrmann Law Group, a renowned aviation and injury attorney. Lara Herrmann, CEO of HLG, continues the proud tradition of her father and grandfather, fighting for the rights of victims against insurance companies and other large corporations.

Karl’s values survive at HLG where our entire team of attorneys, community representatives, and support staff are proud to carry on his commitment to championing the rights of injured people.


Karl Hermann Brunck - History

Biographies for Dr. Francis Charles Brunck, Mr. and Mrs. Francis Charles Fischer, Theodor Kleinschmit, Franz Anton Kuhn, Maria Katharina Kuhn, Joseph Anton Kuhn, Frank Kuhn, Karl Kuhn, Heinrich Kuhn, Wilhelm Kuhn, Josephine Kuhn, and Carl Andreas Peters

In casual fashion, dictated by the design constraints of the book and by the desire to produce the greatest aesthetic appeal, we present this series of sketches and open with one about
Dr. Francis Chas. Brunck

Few of the old settlers of Erie County managed to leave as forceful, prolonged and lasting an influence on the German inhabitants as Dr. Francis Chas. Brunck. We are justified in starting these biographies with one of the most solid, diligent and forward thinking immigrants of Western New York.
He as born on January 11, 1810 in the Rhineland near Winterturn. In the Spring of 1834 Dr. Brunck came to America after he received his medical degree, following education at the Universities of Würzburg, Munich and Heidelberg. Dr. Brunck settled in Lyons, New York.
After a brief time he travelled to Lafayette, Indiana and then settled in the environs of Logansport, Indiana. In 1839 he came to Buffalo, where he began his medical practice. During this time he lived on Mohawk Street near Ellicott and later on West Chippewa near Main.
In 1841 he procured a private residence at 319 Niagara Street, which remained the family home for 50 years. Dr. Brunck died on March 10, 1887.
He was significantly involved in politics and was considered a fine orator. His political party, the Democrats, made good use of his talent. Brunck was at one time Treasurer of the County. He held an especially important place in the German community as owner and chief editor of the weekly paper, the Weltbürger (The World Citizen), and then a year later as owner and editor of the daily and weekly editions of the Täglicher Buffalo Demokrat und Weltbürger (The Daily Buffalo Democrat and World Citizen), a paper of the Democratic Party. Thus Dr. Brunck secured his future until recent times.
Through his multifaceted and persistent activity Dr. Brunck also became one of the Trustees of the Buffalo Savings Bank. He helped establish the German Fire Insurance Company and was a charter member of the German Bank. On February 18, 1835 Dr. Brunck married Miss Catherine Hecox of Lyons, New York. Six children came from the union, of which three survive. The present family residence is at 38 Hodge St.

Caption under pictures read "Mrs. Francis Charles Fischer" and "Francis Charles Fischer"

Mr.Fischer, a highly esteemed businessman, also took part in politics and represented the old 4th Ward from 1862 to 1863 in the Erie County Legislature. On October 9, 1856 he married Miss Josephine Walkam. The union produced 7 children, 4 of which are still living. The family lives at 224 Connecticut Street.

Josephine Fischer, nee Walkam

was born on September 27, 1837 in Germersheim in the Rhineland Palatinate. She came in September 1846 with her parents, John and Barbara Walkam, to Buffalo. She attended Public School 15 and after her schooling diligently assisted her mother with housekeeping until her marriage to Francis Charles Fischer on October 6, 1859. From this happy marriage there came seven children, of which 4 still live. Mrs. Fischer lives at 224 Connecticut Street.

was born on July 27, 1828 in Sachsenhausen in the Principality of Waldeck. He attended the area school and later went to a private church school. After his school years he studied economics and the brewing business. In 1857 he immigrated to America and settled in one of the several German residences in Hamilton, Ontario where he opened a grocery store and brewery. He gave up this business in 1860 and came to Buffalo in Fall of the same year.
For the next eleven years he was employed at various breweries and malt houses. Mr. Kleinschmit lived first in a building on Main Street at Paul Place, in which he founded Buffalo's first brewery. That brewery is described in the other part of this book in words and pictures.
Through diligence and thrift he succeeded in building, in partnership with William Klepe in 1871, a malt house. This firm lasted 4 years and Kleinschmit took over sole operation when his partner left. Thanks to his tireless energy, his prudence and his business sense as well as his practical ability, he succeeded in bringing his firm to a flourishing state and he found further markets for the products of his malthouse.
By the time he retired in 1892 he had brought his business so far that he could be counted among the most distinguished of Germans in the city.
One year after his arrival in America Mr. Kleinschmit married Miss Sarah Schall of Hamilton, Ontario. She was born in Württemberg and died in Buffalo on May of 1876. The next year Mr. Kleinschmit married the Widow Barbara Happ, nee Rosa. She was born in Karlstadt in Baden. Both marriages remained childless. Mr. Kleinschmit, who belongs to many German societies, lives at 183 Pratt Street.

is one of many Germans, who either by themselves or through their progeny, have managed to affect the development of the German community and have imprinted themselves upon the character of Buffalo.
He was born on September 2, 1823 in Schneeberg, Unterfranken in the Kingdom of Bavaria. He attended the regional school and then learned the tailoring trade. As was usual back then, after this training he travelled the world as a journeyman. He worked for a while in Munich and Bamberg. In 1847 he came to New York and subsequently took the steamer to Albany and the train to Buffalo. This was a two day journey from New York. He arrived, alive and well, at his final destination on June 26th.

On July 4th of the same year he married Maria Catharina Gramm. The newlyweds built their nest on Goodell Street, near Michigan. In the course of the years they had 9 children, of which 6 still live. After a short time Mr. Kuhn retired his needle and pursued a career in restaurant management. He struck pay dirt with the establishment of the first "Summer Garden" that Buffalo had ever seen. In his capacity as restaurant owner and manager he provided his guests with the best in food and drink. The place couldn't help but be a success. Kuhn plied his trade from 1849 to 1868. In the last year he relocated to a prime spot at the corner of Huron and Ellicott Streets and constructed a large and beautiful building, which he called the Apollo Hall. The Hall was much loved and frequented almost as soon as it opened. Kuhn, along with his childen, came upon the idea of presenting Sunday concerts. His children had received musical training. The concerts were extremely popular. Let is be mentioned here that the sons of Mr. Kuhn were the first musicians to come out of Buffalo and they performed their own concerts.

The old gentleman himself was reported to have considered about half of Buffalo to be among his friends and acquaintances. He's been retired for a long time and lives in the bosom of his family in the house he built at 353-355 Ellicott Street at the corner of Huron.

was born on December 25, 1824 in Amorback in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria. She came to America when she was 23 years old. Her maiden name was Maria Katharina Gramm. Immediately after she arrived in New York she continued on to Buffalo. In the same year she arrived in Buffalo, she married Mr. Franz A. Kuhn. That was July 4, 1847. The marriage produced 9 children, 6 of whom still live. They are Joseph, Frank, Karl, Heinrich, Wilhelm Kuhn and Mrs. Josephine Schultes.

After a long, productive and useful life Mrs. Kuhn died on July 31, 1895 at the age of 70 after a relatively short stay in the hospital for kidney disease.
We believe there is no better way to portray the pleasant, happy character of this fine woman and no better way to memorialize her existence than to refer to the heartfelt words of the late editor of the Buffalo Sunday Post, Mr. Hermann Hoffman. He was a treasured friend of Mrs. Kuhn and he wrote a lengthy necrolog at the time of her death - "Yes, indeed. The deceased was a good woman. Whoever knew her, respected her. Her friendly, open, and warm disposition was so approachable and winning that one had to love and honor her. She always had a kind word for everyone and she always displayed a genuine interest for all and true, undaunting friendship!"

The twin sister of Mrs. Kuhn, Mrs. Babetta Rudolph, survives her. She lives in this city.

the oldest living son of Mr. Franz A. Kuhn, first saw the light of the world on September 1, 1850. He received his schooling at the St. Louis Church School and later at Public School 15. The pursuit and love of Lady Music compelled him to spend his life in her service. He studied violin under Carl Gräfe, took theoretical instruction with Fr. Federlein and C.F. Baum. He became a competent clarinettist under the direction of A. Schwiedop. With only a short break due to the fire, from 1870 to 1895 he was the orchestra conductor of the Academy of Music on Main Street. In the 70s he was director of a 40 musician symphony orchestra. During the concert season they played at the St. James Hall. Since the opening of the Iroquois Hotel in 1890 he has conducted an orchestra, which plays at the hotel's dinners, banquets, etc. Mr. Kuhn has further enriched the musical life of the city of Buffalo by organizing the first string quartet. It's called the Beethoven Quartet and it has a very good reputation. In the 80s Mr. Kuhn was director of the band of the 74th Regiment for 6 years.

Mr Kuhn enjoys an excellent reputation among musicans and feels a sense of satisfaction with his profession and with his regular, income producing activities. His private residence is at 71 Prospect Avenue.

is the brother of Joseph Kuhn. He was born June 18, 1862 in Buffalo. He attended St Louis Church School for a time and then Public School 15. His early-blooming musical talent preconditioned him for a profession in music. He never missed an opportunity to study the fundamentals. To this end he studied violin with Carl Gräfe, flute with A. Schwiedop, theory with C.F. Baum, and piano with Theodor Moelling.

Photographs from left to right and top to bottom: Wilhelm Joseph, Mrs. Franz Anton Kuhn, Karl Frank, Franz Anton Kuhn, Heinrich Josephine

When Mr. A. Poppenberg took a long trip back to Germany, he took the young man with his company. The young man comported himself with prudence and insight.

In 1881 Mr. Kuhn married Miss Matilde A. Fuchs, a daughter of Mr. August Fuchs. As of now the couple have 4 children, 3 boys and one girl. The diligent and beloved musician is the director of the locally well-known Kuhn's Orchestra, which plays at balls, concerts, receptions, weddings, etc. Mr. Kuhn is a highly-esteemed teacher of violin, piano and flute. Besides his own work, since 1892 he has been an active member of the Symphony Orchestra and has been its business manager. He lives with his family at 582 Ellicott Street.

is a son of Mr. Franz A. and Mrs. Katharine Kuhn. He was born October 25, 1854 in Buffalo, New York. He attended Public School 15 after a short time at St. Louis Church School. The young man's love of music moved him to seek out the excellent Carl Gräfe as a teacher and to study violin. He was no slouch when it came to the study of harmony and counterpoint. For that he went to Mr. C.F. Baum.

During the 60s Mr. Kuhn further studied music at Canisius College and was an esteemed member of the Beethoven String Quartet, with which he enjoyed a happy career.

Mr. Kuhn is at this time a member of the Buffalo Symphony Orchestra. He is their librarian He is also the director of musical performances at the Star Theater in this city. Mr. Kuhn's principle instruments are the violoncello and the contrabass.

On July 26, 1877 he married Miss Caroline Riegelmann, who bore him 6 children, of which 2 still live. After the death of his wife on December 31, 1895 he remarried on November 24, 1897 Mrs. Louis Haller, nee Knell, of Berlin, Ontario.

was born in Buffalo on August 29, 1856 and is a member of the famous musical family of the same name. Like his brothers, he attended St. Louis School and after graduation studied cigar manufacture. At the same time he received musical training in violin under Carl Gräfe and clarinette under A. Schweidop. At the time he was so busy with his musical engagements that he had to give up cigar manufacturing. He's still employed in music. He is unmarried and lives at 355 Ellicott Street.

is another member of the beloved and famous musical family of the same name. He was born in Buffalo on July 14, 1860. He attended St. Michael's Parochial School. After he achieved a basic education he studied music, in which he has attained a high level of proficiency. He is currently a member of the Star Theater and an accomplished musician. He married Emma, nee Huber, on June 14,1889. He lives at 353 Ellicott Street.

is the daughter of Franz A. and Katharine Kuhn. She was born on July 24, 1864 in Buffalo and she attended St. Michael's School, where she excelled. Since July 8, 1889 she has been married to Louis Schultes. Their marriage has been blessed by 3 children. She lives with her family at 355 Ellicott Street.

was born on February 5, 1828 in Rostock, part of Mecklenburg, Germany. He attended the local school and received a fine education. After leaving school he learned the saddler's trade. He worked in various cities in the fatherland and came to America in 1853. He arrived in the month of May and proceeded immediately to Buffalo. Since he couldn't find any work in his profession he became involved in the upholstery and tapestry trade. In 1855 he became a soldier in the 10th Regular Infantry, with which he travelled to Utah. At the outbreak of the war he resigned due to illness and returned to Buffalo. Since that time he has been in the saddlery trade, which has served him well. His honest and simple manner has made him a highly esteemed and beloved individual by all who know him. Since 1851 he has been married to Sophie Peters. They were blessed with 11 children - 8 boys and 3 girls. Four of the boys and one girl have died. It's noteworthy to mention that in 1848 Peters served with the Tann Free Corps in Schleswig-Holstein and in 1849-50 he served on the warship "Lübeck". Mr. Peters lives at 678 Washington Street. While conducting business he can be found at 393 Ellicott Street.


Karl Otto Koch

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Karl Otto Koch, (born August 2, 1897, Darmstadt, Germany—died April 5, 1945, Weimar), German commandant of several Nazi concentration camps and husband of the infamous Ilse Koch.

Koch was a decorated veteran of World War I who had been wounded and captured by the British and held as a prisoner of war. He failed at several civilian jobs before joining the SS, the Nazi paramilitary corps, in March 1931. In September of that year he divorced his first wife, with whom he had had a son, Manfred. He worked at desk jobs and in the SS police apparatus before beginning a career as an administrator within the Nazi concentration-camp system, where he gained a reputation for ruthlessness and cruelty. After he ran a number of small camps, he was promoted in 1936 to become commandant of a large new camp, Sachsenhausen, built at Oranienburg, on the outskirts of Berlin.

In 1937, during his tenure at Sachsenhausen, he married Ilse Köhler, a woman nearly 10 years his junior whom he had met while he was stationed in Darmstadt. So well did he perform his duties at Sachsenhausen that he was rewarded with the command of another new camp, Buchenwald, being constructed on a hill near Weimar, Germany.

Under Koch’s reign at Buchenwald (1937–41), prisoners were mistreated to a degree that was unusually severe even by Nazi standards. A variety of punishments—dangerous work in the camp’s quarry, beatings, torture, starvation, whippings, death by hanging—were meted out by the SS guards. Living conditions were abominable: the camp was overcrowded prisoners barely existed on starvation rations sanitation was primitive disease was rampant and medical care was virtually nonexistent. (Under the next commandant, Hermann Pister, Buchenwald would be used as a laboratory where medical experiments were carried out on live prisoners.) Koch’s wife also allegedly engaged in abusing the prisoners. Inmates felt that she was as much responsible for their terrible situation as he was, and they referred to her as the “commandeuse,” or “lady commandant.”

The Kochs, who had three children (although one died in infancy), lived exceedingly well at Buchenwald and enriched themselves through various schemes. Even much of the gold extracted from the mouths of dead inmates before they were sent to the camp’s crematorium ended up in the Kochs’ possession. The couple was investigated and tried by the SS, but the charges went unproved.

At the end of 1941, Karl received orders to report to Lublin, Poland, to take charge of the Majdanek camp, which, had it been finished, would have been the largest concentration, slave-labour, and extermination camp in the Nazi system. Leaving his wife and their children behind at Buchenwald, Koch ran Majdanek for only a few months before more evidence of his corruption surfaced. He was relieved of his command and eventually jailed in the SS prison at Weimar. On April 5, 1945, with the Allies coming ever closer to Weimar, Koch was taken from his cell, driven up to Buchenwald, and executed by an SS firing squad. His body was disposed of in the camp crematorium.


Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by lohengrin » 16 Nov 2019, 11:53

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Andrey » 16 Nov 2019, 12:41

SS-Ostubaf. on your photo is future SS-Staf. Dr. Robert Gies.

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Michal78 » 16 Nov 2019, 21:36

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by LadyHerta » 18 Nov 2019, 05:37

The Ordnungspolizei gentleman in the first photograph is Frank's adjutant Hans. I am yet to find a surname for him.

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Georges JEROME » 19 Nov 2019, 01:34

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by LadyHerta » 24 Nov 2019, 08:03

I have consulted a friend of mine who studies Karl Hermann Frank. They identified the gentleman in the photographs to be the following:

Ordnungspolizei adjutant of Frank’s: Major der Schutzpolizei Hans Hoffman

NSDAP gentleman: Konstantin Hoß - Gauleiter of Prague

SD officer: Robert Giles - Frank’s SD associate

Other NSDAP gentleman could be Hitler Jugend. Also, the female BDM Commander for Prague was married to Horst Böhme - SD chief for Prague.

The Prague Gauleiter is in this picture behind Heydrich and Frank.

Also too, this was Frank’s Adjutant Hans Hoffman (from the photograph they gave me)

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by von thoma » 24 Nov 2019, 08:27

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by smetanin albert » 24 Nov 2019, 09:42

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Michal78 » 24 Nov 2019, 11:56

Right behind Heydrich and Frank stood from right Konstantin Hoß (actually he was a Kreisleiter in Prague), police officer who I thought might be Kurt Pomme. Curt von Burgsdorff (hidden behind Heydrich), Hans Schwedler (behind Frank), Horst Böhme, Paul Riege and OKW general.

Robert Gies, adjutant of Frank was in the second row and is not in this photo.
Michal

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Michal78 » 24 Nov 2019, 12:47

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Max Williams » 24 Nov 2019, 20:32

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by von thoma » 25 Nov 2019, 08:48

Re: Karl-Hermann Frank

Post by Linny » 25 Nov 2019, 22:24

While there may be no known photos of Kurt Pomme, there is a relatively detailed description of what he looked like in a book by Hanjürgen Koehler called "Inside the Gestapo":

Captain Pomme is about forty, a tall, broad-shouldered man with close-cropped dark hair, parted on the side. His face is round, his eyes dark, his bearing is the typical stiff one of an old-fashioned Prussian officer. He has a hard, commanding manner of speech, he behaves very politely, even amiably, to strangers. He is married and lives very simply, almost modestly. I knew him as a humane, honest man, very moderate.

So, you need to look for someone who's close to height in Heydrich and who has dark hair.


Watch the video: Historie cs - K. H. Frank