The interior of the Tower of the Winds (Athens)

The interior of the Tower of the Winds (Athens)

All clocks must have two basic components: They must have a regular, constant or repetitive process or action by which to mark off equal increments of time. Early examples of such processes include the movement of the sun across the sky, candles marked in increments, oil lamps with marked reservoirs, sandglasses or "hourglasses,” and, in the Orient, small stone or metal mazes filled with incense that would burn at a certain pace.

Clocks must also have a means of keeping track of the increments of time and be able to display the result.

The history of timekeeping is the story of the search for ever more consistent actions or processes to regulate the rate of a clock.

Bryn Athyn Cathedral: The Building of a Church

STONE IS THE VERY FOUNDATION of the earth, associated with steadfastness and permanence. Frequently it is also thought of as cold and unyielding. Yet as manifested in the walls and cut stone of the Cathedral, it combines the sense of permanence with a grace of line, hand-worked texture, and variegation.

The causes of this united strength and grace are many. But before we examine the stone work more closely, the underlying spiritual principle of its quality may be stated.

This principle is set forth in the doctrine elucidated through Swedenborg by which the natural world is seen to be related to the spiritual as effect to its cause. The nature of this relationship is called "correspondence" in the Heavenly Doctrine of the New Church and the doctrine of correspondence pervades the new revelation both in explanation of the Divine laws of creation, and in its exposition of the spiritual meaning of events and objects in the Old and New Testaments, all of them representative of doctrinal truths for the rational mind now opened by means of the sciences.

Stone, or rock, finds frequent and signal mention in the Word. The Ten Commandments, given on Sinai and kept in the Ark of the Tabernacle, were engraved on tables of stone. Altars and pillars of stone were raised to commemorate the Divine judgment and mercy. Indeed, the Lord calls Himself "the Rock of Israel" and, prophetically, "the Stone which the builders rejected" but which was to become "the head of the corner." And in exhorting men to found their lives upon His truth, He told the disciples, "Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man who built his house upon a rock: and the rain descended and the floods came and the winds blew upon that house, and it fell not, for it was founded on a rock."

The foundations of man's life are the truths by which his mind grows to be truly human and which he puts to use in life's relationships. These truths begin as knowledges in the memory, loose and unproductive as the sand. But as the mind matures, these knowledges are compacted and given form and order by the heat and pressure of purpose, the mysterious chemistry of love, and are thus made a foundation for use.

So also were the rocky strata that underlie the continents formed out of the flowing minerals of the earth and in time established as strong stones igneous granite, sedimentary sandstone and limestone, metamorphic gneiss. Of these and related stones, carefully sought out, lovingly shaped and placed, the Bryn Athyn Cathedral was built, as the Church of God is erected from the truths of revelation searched out and placed together for the purposes of life.

The varieties of stone set into the Cathedral as it grew may be seen at close hand in the last wall built. This is the west wall of the north wing, at the end of the arcade which extends from the transept. Temporarily set in plaster in 1928 with the thought of westward extension of the arcade to form a quadrangle, it was finished in stone after the Second World War.

Viewed on a sunlit afternoon, this wall displays the variety of texture and color provided out of the earth. It also suggests the care taken by the builders to find stone that would be worthy of its destined place. Here are found luminous pink and buff stones, often striated, from the Schawangunk Range east of the Catskills other New York stone, the cooler, black-streaked pieces from near West Point a few stones from near Zionsville, Pennsylvania, marked with large jet spots of feldspar. In other places around the Cathedral we shall find other stone from afar—granite from Plymouth, Massachusetts, as seen in the Ezekiel Tower to the south, and from Westerly, Rhode Island Mohegan granite from Peekskill, New York, standing in fine-grained strength in the interior tower piers at the crossing and in some of the exterior steps warmly patterned sandstone from near Cleveland, Ohio, for the interior walls and columns and Kentucky limestone, whitening with the years, in pinnacles and cornices, weatherings and window tracery. We shall observe some of these more closely but first, in the wall before us, one more type of stone stands out in the peculiar beauty of its tones.

This stone is a warm gray, at times iridescent, mixed with deep pink and striated with a soft green, as if lichen had become part of the rock through ages. A builder would go far to find stone with grain and variegation like this. Yet this stone was quarried out of a hillside above the Pennypack Creek less than a mile down the valley from the Cathedral site. The quarry was opened for the church's building, and closed before the edifice was completed. From it came the entire exterior masonry of the main structure, and much of the cut stone, as well as many pieces for the later additions to south and north, as in the wall at which we have looked.

Such a signal stroke of good fortune, like that called a miracle by Abbot Suger at St. Denis in the twelfth century, was not mere accident. The architects and builders had spent the spring of 1913 scouring nearby cities for examples in use of fine stone from which to erect the Cathedral but as a youth Raymond Pitcairn had also roamed the countryside around the newly settled community of Bryn Athyn. His own recollection of the discovery and opening of the Bryn Athyn Quarry is worth quoting for the event it records and the sphere it evokes:

An echo, this, of more quietly-paced days in the lovely valley on which the Cathedral still looks down. But to the event:

And so the road that leads down to the Pennypack below the church is the Quarry Road today. Up its winding length toiled teams of horses with ton after ton of rough-hewn stone—metamorphic granite, or gneiss—to be worked and placed, each stone with individual care, by the men gathering in increasing numbers to build the church. By July 15, 1914, Edwin Asplundh reported to Pitcairn that there were seventy-four masons on the job, with more coming.

The month before, on June 19,3 1914, the cornerstone of the Cathedral had been laid with fitting ceremonies. It too is Bryn Athyn granite, taken from the slope above the Quarry Road just before it emerges from the woods, where the stone had lain for centuries a rain-washed boulder above the ground. Uncut by the hand of man, it fills the southeast corner of the sanctuary, a foundation for wall and buttresses. On it are the Hebrew characters signifying "the Head of the Corner," carved the day before the ceremony by Edward Kessel, who had been placed in charge of the quarry and was one of those whose work at the Cathedral led him to the faith of the New Church.

Noting the beauty of the Bryn Athyn stone, Pitcairn also wanted to use it for mouldings, capitals, bases, and other cut stone purposes. The architect in Boston foresaw difficulties because of the stone's hardness and grain but Pitcairn, viewing these qualities as strengths rather than limitations, went ahead. The rightness of his prevision and the skill of the stone cutters are given testimony by the use of the local stone in the south porch, the north transept stair turret, and especially in the central tower.

Also remarkable in design and execution is the intricate stone cutting in many parts of the church's interior. Two examples may be noted. The first is the stair hallway near the chapel sanctuary, of which several stones include a complete step and part of a molded arch. The other is in the joining of the arches at the head of the south chancel aisle where it opens to the chancel, the curved lines of the two arches interlacing to their base. Nor do these represent merely intellectual problems of stereotomy the concern they exemplify was care for strength and beauty in the structure, and in the mind's response. And this in harmony with the principle that to build worthily, beautiful materials must be selected out of nature's Divinely ordained abundance, and allowed to express their beauty naturally by the manner of their fashioning.

In 1914 another major decision was made, that the interior walls of the Cathedral should not be plastered, as originally specified, but should instead be lined with stone. For this purpose, an Ohio sand stone was selected from a quarry near Cleveland, after several trips to the area by the builders. Called by those who quarried it Variegated Amherst Buff, its tones are warm and rich, with an interesting and varied grain. It is seen at its best in the hand-cut window jambs of the nave aisles and the slender columns which support the clerestory. Its beauty in the ashlar-coursed walls is not quite of equal character, due to the fact that it was machine-planed at the quarry and given only a hand-tooled finish at the site. This is the only instance in the church of stone not worked down by hand.

A further illustration of far-sighted care in the selection of materials is the stone used for the exterior trim of the main building. Limestone was the traditional and natural choice but the builders had seen too many examples of limestone buildings grown dark with time to be sanguine about coupling this stone with the light, warm Bryn Athyn granite. After consultation with experts and visits to quarries in the midwest, a time-tested oolitic limestone was chosen from Bowling Green, Kentucky. This finely grained stone contains a natural oil which bleaches as it weathers and its growing whiteness through the years is a striking element in the Cathedral's beauty, whether viewed in the sunlight falling on a balustrade, outlined in string course and coping when the Cathedral is lit on a clear June night, or when the pinnacles stand out against the dark mass of a thunderhead.

Click on image for a larger version.

Click on image for a larger version.

Click on image for a larger version.

Inside, the floor of the nave and chancel is paved chiefly with seam-face granite quarried in Plymouth, Massachusetts. With surfaces made even by nature, its strong browns and grays are laid in an interesting variety of patterns one of the most striking is to be seen in the outer chancel, three steps up from the nave. Throughout the Cathedral these larger stones are set among clusters of small quartz and flint like pieces, many of which were gathered for use in the church from the fields of the nearby Academy farm by the Bryn Athyn school children.

These, then, are the stones used for the central building of the Cathedral: Bryn Athyn granite for the exterior walls and much of the cut stone Ohio sandstone for interior walls and trim Mohegan granite from New York in the great piers and steps Kentucky limestone for exterior trim and Plymouth granite in the floors.

Of the principal organizations of masons and stone cutters, clustered about the rising walls or working on rough blocks in the long reaches of the dusty stone shed, the previous chapter took note. A brief word must be said of the carvers who wrought pinnacle and tracery, leaf and flower and symbolic figure out of these stones.

Names like Menghi and Marchiori out of southern Europe, Tweedale from the Scottish north, brought with them a tradition reaching back into the Middle Ages. No mere executors of another's designs, they took pride in contributing individual talents to the carving. Robust and open-hearted, they delighted in a spirit of joyous competition, the true rivalry of companionship. One memory will serve as instance: of Attilio Marchiori, a strong, brown-bodied Italian, high on the tower scaffolding, carving on one of the eagles at the corners, with each foot in a bucket of water to keep cool, and singing while his fellows below laughed to watch and hear.

The work is done now, the ring of the hammer on chisel and the slow swinging of stones into place. But that which remains speaks eloquently of what was done here, and these stones will stand for coming generations.

1 Raymond Pitcairn, "Bryn Athyn Church: The Manner of the Building and a Defence Thereof" (book draft, Glencairn Museum Archives), 17 (draft two).

2 Raymond Pitcairn, "Bryn Athyn Church: The Manner of the Building and a Defence Thereof" (book draft, Glencairn Museum Archives), 17 (draft two).

3 A significant date in the history of the New Church. On June 19, 1770, Swedenborg records that the Lord called together His disciples who had followed Him in the world, and sent them throughout the spiritual world to proclaim that "the Lord God Jesus Christ reigns, whose kingdom shall be for ages of ages." This spiritual event, which also marked the finishing of Swedenborg's climactic work of revelation, The True Christian Religion, is celebrated as the Church's distinctive holiday.

Bed Chambers

The room in the castle called the Lords and Ladies Chamber, or the Great Chamber, was intended for use as a bedroom and used by the lord and lady of the castle - it also afforded some privacy for the noble family of the castle. This type of chamber was originally a partitioned room which was added to the end of the Great Hall. The Lords and Ladies chamber were subsequently situated on an upper floor when it was called the solar.

The lord and lady's personal attendants were fortunate to stay with their master or mistress in their separate sleeping quarters. However, they slept on the floor wrapped in a blanket, but, at least on the floor, they could absorb some of the warmth of the fireplace. Even during the warmest months of the year, the castle retained a cool dampness and all residents spent as much time as possible enjoying the outdoors. Oftentimes, members wrapped blankets around themselves to keep warm while at work (from which we derive the term bedclothes).

The lord, his family and guests had the added comfort of heavy blankets, feather mattresses, fur covers, and tapestries hanging on the walls to block the damp and breezes, while residents of lesser status usually slept in the towers and made due with lighter bedclothes and the human body for warmth.

Preserving the Best of the Old

AN exceptional brownstone presides over a block just off Marcus Garvey Park in Harlem. While most of the houses on the street have things to recommend them, this particular house — designed by Cleverdon & Putzel — has the most panache and much of its original detail.

It is also the one that has the For Sale sign in front.

The street has landmark status, which means the sinuous staircase and the window trim and the massive front doors of this turn-of-the-century house, at 15 West 122nd Street, will probably remain the way they were built — or at least one hopes so.

But the interior, and the back, might eventually tell a different story.

For Geoff Lynch, an architect at H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture, the challenge was how to make this house — owned most recently by a neighborly grandmother, now deceased, and currently for sale for $2.5 million — livable for an imaginary family.

His Sketch Pad mission was to change the whole plan without messing with the marvelous front facade or the most superb of the interior features. After he spent 10 minutes ranging through the high-ceilinged rooms and inspecting the backyard, one thing became clear: when he finished drafting his designs, this brownstone would not resemble a grandmother’s house anymore.

“The challenge is to keep a lot of it — no one is against preserving it — but to preserve it the way it is and restart,” he said, “without ripping out all the history. Opening it up a bit would be good.”

Out in the backyard, Mr. Lynch called for light.

“The garden already slopes down a bit,” he said. “We could dig it down and bring in the light, creating a broadly stepped garden. We could have the kitchen down in the basement — the way the Victorians did — and keep more of the history upstairs.” He paused.

“It’s all just money,” he said, to no one in particular.

Mr. Lynch’s specialty is theaters, and he knows the ins and outs of preservation. He speaks about working with craftsmen to recarve both wood and plaster at the New Amsterdam Theater, and he is the project manager for the Theater for a New Audience, which is planned for a site near the Brooklyn Academy of Music.

Looking at the rather tired-looking brown wood mantel in the front parlor in Harlem, he saw white.

“A clear, high-gloss white,” he said. “I like the idea of whitewashing the place.”

Strolling through the front hall, Mr. Lynch said, “they always had wallpaper in these old houses — we’ll have wallpaper, too.”

Maybe an Arts and Crafts pattern by William Morris? “I think we’ll have to create something new,” he replied. “We want it bold, but not garish, and to make it feel new behind all the history.”

One week later, in H3’s large office in the Flatiron district, Mr. Lynch had tacked huge renderings to the wall, images deeply imprinted with an almost eerily purple sky and with gray skeletal outlines showing a totally new rear facade divided up into many, many window partitions.

These window mullions are 18 inches deep, he explained, which will stop any glare and will keep the neighbors — with the exception of those directly across — from seeing inside. “If you’re in it, you don’t want to feel like you’re in a fishbowl,” he said, “and you don’t want to have the blinds down all the time, either.”

Digging down a full story to bring light to the basement is another way of gaining privacy, he said. It’s harder to see people when they’re below street level, sitting on a new terrace outside the recreated kitchen, camouflaged by the stepped garden and eventually by new trees and shrubs, carefully chosen for four-season interest.

Inside the house, the architect proposed retaining the most valuable details — moldings and the mantels for the seven fireplaces — and painting them a glossy white. Then he drilled a four-story 60-foot-high tower through the middle of the house, flooding all the floors with light.

One entire wall, from the top to the bottom, has been covered with a very jazzy wallpaper he designed, using a passage in English as a starting point. “The text was something about real estate in New York City,” he said with a laugh. “We converted it into Dutch — the power of the Internet — then we blurred it,” he said.

At the top of the interior tower, on the roof, he has placed three wind turbines. “On its own, a town house is not very sustainable,” he said, “so we decided to add as many bells and whistles as we could. Wind turbines are a lot less expensive than solar power.”

Part of any Sketch Pad project is envisioning who might live in a house or apartment if it is renovated the way the architect envisions it.

“It seems to me they would be the people who have lived here for the last 10 years,” said Mr. Lynch, 37. “The obvious thing would be to make them young. So let’s not make them young!

“These were urban pioneers, sort of, in their 50’s — no designer dogs, though — and now they are finally well enough off to make a big statement, while still looking back at the beautiful place they’ve been living in.”

While much of what is proposed for inside the house might not bother the neighbors — or they might not notice it — Mr. Lynch said that the wind turbines on the roof might be controversial. “They’re not very tall,” he added. “And maybe they could become like the city’s water towers — kind of lovable.”

Martin Van Buren National Historic Site

Stopped in late afternoon while on vacation up the Hudson River Valley. We often include a president's home visit while on vacation. It is a great way to get historical perspective on the president, the times they lived in, and makes it more personal.

The home is well preserved, with beautiful grounds. Our tour guide was very good, informative, friendly, and made for a very enjoyable tour.

Not knowing much about our eighth President of the United States, it seemed advantageous to visit his home called Lindenwald, and fill in the blanks on this historical personage. Located along New York’s Route 9H on Old Post Road in the village of Kinderhook, the Martin Van Buren home is set back from the road, partially hidden by trees. One first approaches the site from the parking lot via the visitor center, where a short but informative overview of Van Buren’s life is given, and one signs up for a free tour, given at 11:00, 1:00, and 3:00. We were fortunate to arrive on November 26, the last day open before it closes for the winter season, aside from a special open house on December 1 & 2. Our guide was a young and enthusiastic advocate for this admirable national figure.

Aside from being one of the founders of the Democratic Party, Martin Van Buren was a sly and skilled politician, who was born and retired in the same village of Kinderhook. Educated as a lawyer, he became a Senator, New York’s Attorney General, the Governor, the Secretary of State, and briefly as the minister to Great Britain. He was then made Vice President to Andrew Jackson, and finally elected President in 1836. His presidency was wrought with an economic crises, political turmoil, indigenous peoples’ clashes, and conflict over the Texas state annexation, but he negotiated his way through it all. However, it was not enough to keep him in that prestigious post and he lost the next election. He attempted to run for the office two more times, but never succeeded. Instead, he became a gentleman farmer, and lived out his remaining twenty-one years of his life at Lindenwald.

The house was originally built in 1797, but when he purchased it in 1839, he had the red-bricked Georgian home transformed. In 1849, one of his sons and his family came to live there, and the house was added on to with the latest advances of running water, a bathroom, a kitchen range, attic dormers, and one of the first homes in the Hudson Valley to have central heating. A four-story tower was added and this amazing feature can be seen standing at the base of the interior tower to see above each of the floors rise and wind about it. With impressive preservation of the French wallpaper showing countryside vistas and village life in the dining hall, and enlarged rooms for banquets, the home turned into an Italian-esqe villa.

It was a drizzly day that we were there and because the house does not appear to have any electricity, the house was somewhat dark and a bit under-highlighted, but its history is strong and it lends a more appreciative understanding for this often underestimated giant of a man.

‘Disrespectful and shocking’

Bob Flanagan, a London University academic, said the state of the graveyard was “disrespectful and shocking”.

“It’s also a health and safety hazard for people walking around the cemetery,” he said.

“In some instances, coffins are exposed and there might be accidents with people falling into decayed vaults.”

However, help to restore the cemetery to its original grandeur might be on the way soon.

A West Norwood cemetary was broken into and vandalised in March, leaving a limb sticking out of a grave. Credit: Getty

Work to improve the state of the decrepit site will be aided by an $A3.86 million donation from Lambeth Council and the Friends of West Norwood Cemetery, part of a bigger grant from the National Lottery Heritage Fund.

While the financial commitment was announced in January 2019, the Hellenic Necropolis is still waiting for restoration work to begin.

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‘In some instances, coffins are exposed and there might be accidents with people falling into decayed vaults.’

Campaigners say they are shocked historic graves have been left to the vandals.

“Lambeth Council does not seem to have the means to take action,” Flanagan said.

“They have removed the security guard from weekends, without consultation, to save money.

Key Ideas & Accomplishments

  • Art Deco, similar to Art Nouveau, is a modern art style that attempts to infuse functional objects with artistic touches. This movement is different from the fine arts (painting and sculpture) where the art object has no practical purpose or use beyond providing interesting viewing.
  • With the advent of large-scale manufacturing, artists and designers wished to enhance the appearance of mass-produced functional objects - everything from clocks and ashtrays to cars and buildings. Art Deco's pursuit of beauty in all aspects of life was directly reflective of the relative newness and mass usage of machine-age technology rather than traditional crafting methods to produce many objects. The Bauhaus school was also interested in industrial production, but in a sense The Bauhaus is the polar opposite as it refrained from artistic embellishments - preferring clean and simple geometric forms.
  • The Art Deco ethos diverged from the Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts styles, which emphasized the uniqueness and originality of handmade objects and featured stylized, organic forms. That crafted quality was emblematic of a kind of elitism in opposition to Art Deco's more egalitarian aim: to make aesthetically appealing, machine-made objects that were available to everyone.
  • Streamline Moderne, the American version of the Art Deco style was a stripped-down and sleek version of the more elaborate and often bespoke European Art Deco style. In many ways, the American style grew and evolved to have a much bigger following and use in the U.S. than in Europe.

The interior of the Tower of the Winds (Athens) - History

The massive Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), standing 525 feet high, has supported human spaceflight activities for more than 50 years and provides capability to support a versatile array of operations well into the future. It is the largest vehicle integration facility in the space industry, with connectivity to KSC&rsquos launch control centers and access to vertical launch pads. The building contains multiple work cells and high bays for potential use by commercial, non-profit, and Government entities with a diverse array of needs and requirements.

KSC has released an Announcement for Proposals (AFP) for private companies interested in using the VAB High Bay 2 (VAB HB2) for assembly, integration, and testing of launch vehicles. In addition to VAB HB2, the Center has three Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs) available for reuse in commercial space operations. This announcement supports Kennedy&rsquos transformation to a multi-user spaceport based on effectively utilizing assets identified in the Center&rsquos 20-year Master Plan.

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Ready to explore a partnership, or simply need more information? Please submit your inquiry to our KSC Facilitator.

The Pool of Bethesda - First Century Jerusalem

The Pool of Bethesda in the Second Temple Model at Jerusalem

The Pool of the Sheepmarket was just below the Fortress of Antonia.

BETHES'DA (beth-ez'da Gk. from Aram. Beth hesda, "house of grace"). A spring-fed pool with five porches where invalids waited their turn to step into the mysteriously troubled waters that were supposed to possess healing virtue (John 5:2-4). The last part of v. 3 and all of v. 4, which mention a periodic disturbance of the water by an angel, are placed in brackets in the NASB because there is not sufficient attestation by early texts. Here Jesus healed the man who was lame for thirty-eight years (5:5-9). The place is now thought to be the pool found during the repairs in 1888 near St. Anne's Church in the Bezetha quarter of Jerusalem not far from the Sheep's Gate and Tower of Antonia. It is below the crypt of the ruined fourth-century church and has a five-arch portico with faded frescoes of the miracle of Christ's healing.

BETHES'DA Heb. "beth Chesda" (house of mercy) Gk. from Aram. Beth hesda, "house of grace"). A spring-fed pool with five porches where invalids waited their turn to step into the mysteriously troubled waters that were supposed to possess healing virtue (Jn 5:2-4). The disturbance of the water by an angel, are placed in brackets in the NASB because there is not sufficient attestation by early texts. Here Jesus healed the man who was lame for thirty-eight years. The historicity of this site was once in question. Scholars like Dr. Alfred Loisy, claimed the detail of the five porticoes was invented. They said John made it up to represent the five books of Moses, which Jesus came to fulfill. But recent archaeological discoveries have once again confirmed the Biblical account. In 1956, digging at the ancient Biblical site of Bethesda, archaeologists unearthed a rectangular pool with a portico on each side and a fifth one dividing the pool into 2 separate compartments.

The place is now thought to be the pool found during the repairs in 1888 near St. Anne's Church in the Bezetha quarter of Jerusalem not far from the Sheep's Gate and Tower of Antonia. It is below the crypt of the ruined fourth-century church and has a five-arch portico with faded frescoes of the miracle of Christ's healing.

This model is a Scholar's conception showing how the site may have looked in Jesus' day.

Watch the video: MED BEDS:Η εξωγήινη τεχνολογία που δόθηκε στην ανθρωπότητα και που η Cabal την αποκρύβει!!